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leaching and ponding of viral contaminants following land application of biosolids on sandy-loam soil.much of the land available for application of biosolids is cropland near urban areas. biosolids are often applied on hay or grassland during the growing season or on corn ground before planting or after harvest in the fall. in this study, mesophilic anaerobic digested (mad) biosolids were applied at 56,000 l/ha on a sandy-loam soil over large containment lysimeters seeded to perennial covers of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.), switchgrass (panicum virgatum), or planted annually to maize (ze ...201222885066
the major grass pollen group 5 allergen from dactylis glomerata and its c-terminal split product both behave as dimers: implications for allergen standardization.on sds-page grass pollen group-5 allergens migrate as a doublet with an apparent molecular mass (m(r)) of 25 kda. immunoblot analysis revealed additional group 5 reactivity at double and half this m(r). the aim of this study was to investigate these group 5 molecular entities and to compare their allergenicity and behavior in quantitative immunoassays.200515650308
extraction, structural characterisation and evaluation of hydroxycinnamate esters of orchard grass (dactylis glomerata) as substrates for polyphenol oxidase.polyphenol oxidase (ppo) activity has been reported in orchard grass (dactylis glomerata); however, to date, no endogenous substrates have been identified. in the present study, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of ppo substrates in this species. the free phenol fraction was extracted, separated by reverse-phase chromatography and six potential substrates, including two hydroxycinnamate esters, were identified by uv spectrometry, electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry ...200818929376
effect of manure application timing, crop, and soil type on phosphorus leaching.phosphorus (p) leaching losses from manure applications may be of concern when artificial drainage systems allow for hydrologic short-cuts to surface waters. this study quantified p leaching losses from liquid manure applications on two soil textural extremes, a clay loam and loamy sand soil, as affected by cropping system and timing of application. for each soil type, manure was applied at an annual rate of 93 800 l ha(-1) on replicated drained plots under maize (zea mays l.) in early fall, lat ...201315224946
[effects of grazing, cutting and decapitating on grass populations on the artificial grassland in subtropical zone of china].studies on the effects of grazing, cutting and decapitating on grass populations on the artificial grassland in the subtropical zone of china showed that moderate grazing and cutting could increase the adaptability of dactylis glomerata and lolium prenn due to decapitating. decapitating could rescind the apical dominance and reproduction growth of grass, and hence, the ecological effects of grazing and cutting on grass could be realized by decapitating, and the population density, caloric value ...200314655369
double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of grass pollen specific immunotherapy with oral drops administered sublingually or supralingually.forty-one patients suffering from grass pollen allergy underwent specific immunotherapy with standardized allergen extract consisting of six grass pollens (h-al per os) administered either sublingually or supralingually for one year. in order to investigate clinical and immunological changes induced by the administration of allergens via the oral mucosa, the double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design of the trial with 30 other patients enrolled in placebo groups was applied. specific im ...200818585908
oxygen deficiency affects carbohydrate reserves in overwintering forage crops.anaerobic conditions developing under an ice cover affect winter survival and spring regrowth of economically important perennial crops. the objective was to compare, during a prolonged period of low (<2%) o2 at low temperature, the concentration of carbohydrates of four plant species contrasting in their resistance to oxygen deficiency. four perennial forage species, lucerne (medicago sativa l.), red clover (trifolium pratense l.), timothy (phleum pratense l.), and cocksfoot (dactylis glomerata ...200312754268
cluster immunotherapy with a glutaraldehyde-modified mixture of grasses results in an improvement in specific nasal provocation tests in less than 2.5 months of treatment.cluster immunotherapy is becoming increasingly used. it allows for a rapid build up phase and the administration of higher doses of allergen in a shorter period of time.200818445082
effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in central-western spain.the effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on germination was tested on 10 species of the cistaceae, poaceae, fabaceae, and asteraceae, from fire-prone, shrubby woodlands in central-western spain. dry seeds were exposed to smoke, by watering with distilled water-charred wood suspensions, or nano2, kno3, nh4cl, and nh4no3. smoke enhanced germination in 9 of 10 of the species. in species of poaceae, germination was stimulated by 20 min of smoke exposure. in asteraceae and fabacea ...200312647865
evidence for gc preference by monocot dicer-like proteins.dicot dicer-like (dcl) enzymes operate preferably on gc rich regions when producing small interfering (si)rna and micro (mi)rna. this gc bias, however, is not generic in monocot mirna productions. from wild dactylis glomerata naturally infected by cocksfoot streak potyvirus (csv), csv-sirnas had a greater gc% than the virus genome, indicating that gc rich regions were also preferred by the grass dcls. this supports the notion that gc preference is an ancient feature for plant dcls, and suggests ...200818243131
drought survival, summer dormancy and dehydrin accumulation in contrasting cultivars of dactylis glomerata.to study survival under prolonged and severe drought in the perennial grass dactylis glomerata we compared dormant, resistant and sensitive cultivars (cvs.) in both field and glasshouse experiments. water status, membrane stability and expression of dehydrins were assessed in the immature leaf bases, which are the last surviving organs. analysis of leaf elongation and senescence of aerial tissues showed that dormancy was exhibited by the potentially dormant cultivar (cv.) only in the field. this ...200212207661
unraveling the effects of management regime and plant species on soil organic carbon and microbial phospholipid fatty acid profiles in grassland soils.in a field experiment we have examined the effect of long-term grassland management regimes (viz., intensive versus extensive) and dominant plant species (viz., arrhenatherum elatius, holcus lanatus and dactylis glomerata) on soil organic carbon (soc) build up, soil microbial communities using biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (plfa), and the relationship between soc and plfas of major groups of microorganisms (viz., bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes). the results have revealed that changes in ...200817826981
a model of lamina digestibility of orchardgrass as influenced by nitrogen and defoliation.the morphogenesis of grass-sward regrowth drives the relationship between sward management effects and herbage digestibility. our objective was to create a model of herbage digestibility for a range of n fertilizer levels and defoliation practices on the basis of changes in vegetative grass tiller structure rather than on dates of cutting or grazing. an experiment was conducted for two spring and two summer regrowths to examine the digestibility of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) whole lami ...200211756277
poaceae in the natural diet of the snail helix aspersa müller (gastropoda, pulmonata).the natural diet of helix aspersa was studied in two populations by analysing faeces. picris echioides, carduus tenuifloris, urtica dioica, galium molugo (dicotyledons) and poaceae (monocotyledons) were the principal resources of the studied populations. the species of poaceae ingested by helix aspersa in july were determined by analysing the phytoliths present in the faeces. festuca rubra, dactylis glomerata and bromus hordeaceus seemed to be attractive for the snails whereas elytrigia repens w ...200111725705
growth in elevated co(2) can both increase and decrease photochemistry and photoinhibition of photosynthesis in a predictable manner. dactylis glomerata grown in two levels of nitrogen nutrition.biochemically based models of c(3) photosynthesis can be used to predict that when photosynthesis is limited by the amount of rubisco, increasing atmospheric co(2) partial pressure (pco(2)) will increase light-saturated linear electron flow through photosystem ii (j(t)). this is because the stimulation of electron flow to the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (j(c)) will be greater than the competitive suppression of electron flow to the photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle (j(o)). where ...200111706199
ultrastructural analyses of somatic embryo initiation, development and polarity establishment from mesophyll cells of dactylis glomerata.somatic embryos initiate and develop directly from single mesophyll cells in in vitro-cultured leaf segments of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.). embryogenic cells establish themselves in the predivision stage by formation of thicker cell walls and dense cytoplasm. electron microscopy observations for embryos ranging from the pre-cell-division stage to 20-cell proembryos confirm previous light microscopy studies showing a single cell origin. they also confirm that the first division is predo ...200811681324
uptake, transport, re-translocation and chelation of ni in one tolerant and one susceptible graminaceous species.from flora of northwest iran, two graminaceous species including secale montanum and dactylis glomerata with different distribution and coverage on ni-rich soils were selected for study of tolerance mechanisms to ni concentrations up to 100 microm in hydroponic culture medium. shoot and root growth of d. glomerata was inhibited up to 42 and 69% in response to 100 microm ni, respectively, while growth reduction of s. montanum was as low as 20% in shoot and no growth inhibition of root was observe ...200719070044
fitting a regression model for genotype-by-environment data on heading dates in grasses by methods for nonlinear mixed models.the analysis of agricultural crop variety trials is usually complicated by the presence of genotype-by-environment interaction. a number of methods and models have been proposed to tackle this problem. one of the most common methods is the regression approach due to yates and cochran (1938, journal of agricultural science 28, 556-580), in which performances of genotypes in the environments are regressed onto environmental means. the underlying regression model contains a multiplicative term with ...199911315057
nitrogen- vs. phosphorus-based dairy manure applications to field crops: nitrate and phosphorus leaching and soil phosphorus accumulation.management of animal manures to provide nutrients for crop growth has generally been based on crop n needs. however, because manures have a lower n/p ratio than most harvested crops, n-based manure management often oversupplies the crop-soil system with p, which can be lost into the environment and contribute to eutrophication of water bodies. we examined the effects of n- vs. p-based manure applications on n and p uptake by alfalfa (medicago sativa l.), corn (zea mays l.) for silage, and orchar ...201317071901
[skin reactivity in the histamine-equivalent skin test in hypersensitivity to grass pollen].skin prick-test has been accepted as one of diagnostic criteria for atopic diseases. in accordance with the recommendations of the eaaci (european academy of allergy and clinical immunology), the subcommittee for skin testing, allergen specific skin prick-test should be estimated in relation to positive control (histamine hydrochloride in the hep system/histamine equivalent prick/) [1-4]. the purpose of this study was to establish a recording system of skin sensitivity to allergen by using hep m ...201311089421
differential effects of light quality, provided by different grass neighbours, on the growth and morphology of trifolium repens l. (white clover).the ability to respond in a specific manner to different light conditions imposed by different species of grass is a major factor contributing to white clover persistence in pastures. gaps in a pasture provide light with a higher red:far-red ratio (r:fr) and higher photosynthetic photon flux density (ppfd) than the light filtered through neighbours. white clover (trifolium repens l.) was grown under different light conditions in ways that tried to simulate as closely as possible some of the ligh ...200024595840
respiratory costs and rate of protein turnover in the roots of a fast-growing (dactylis glomerata l.) and a slow-growing (festuca ovina l.) grass species.protein turnover is generally regarded as one of the most important maintenance processes in plants in terms of energy requirements. in this study, the contribution of protein turnover to the respiratory costs for maintenance in the roots of two grass species, the fast-growing d. actylis glomerata l. and the slow-growing f. estuca ovina l., is evaluated. plants were grown under controlled-environment conditions in a nutrient solution to which no(3)- was added at a relative addition rate of 0.2 a ...200010948236
[genetic diversity of dactylis glomerata germplasm resources detected by inter-simple sequence repeats (issrs) molecular markers].inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) molecular markers were used to detect the genetic diversity among 50 materials of dactylis glomerata collected from china and other countries. twelve primers produced 101 polymorphic bands, averaged 8.41 bands each primer pair. the average percentage of polymorpgic bands was 86.3.8%, and the range of gs (define) was 0.6116-0.9290, indicating a rich genetic diversity of d. glomerata. based on the cluster and principal component analyses on the genetic character ...200616963418
[detection and characteristics of defective interfering rna associated with cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus]. 200810779963
consequences of phenotypic plasticity vs. interspecific differences in leaf and root traits for acquisition of aboveground and belowground resources.trade-offs between acquisition capacities for aboveground and belowground resources were investigated by studying the phenotypic plasticity of leaf and root traits in response to different irradiance levels at low nutrient supply. two congeneric grasses with contrasting light requirements, dactylis glomerata and d. polygama, were used. the aim was to analyze phenotypic covariation in components of leaf area and root length in response to above- and belowground resource limitation and the consequ ...200010719001
[aflp analysis on genetic diversity of wild dactylis glomerata l. germplasm resources].thirty-seven accessions of wild dactylis glomerata l. were used in assessment of genetic diversity by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp). nine primer pairs were selected from 64 preparations and then used to analyze the plant materials. a total of 400 dna fragments were amplified, among which 336 (84.0%) were polymorphic. genetic distance, from 0.0692-0.4214 among accessions, was calculated by the ntsys-pc software. a dendrogram was constructed using upgma based on genetic di ...200616825173
[investigations on the fermentation quality of silage from low-nitrate green forage].in 3-year-experiments green forage from dactylis glomerata and festuca species, produced by differentiated cutting frequencies, was ensiled under laboratory conditions. the forage was almost without nitrate. because of the higher content of water-soluble carbohydrates the fermentability coefficients of festuca species were above of dactylis glomerata. the fermentability coefficients of both plant species were inferior in the second and third cut, even if the first cut was delayed until july. des ...199910548978
[in process citation]the phyllochron of cocksfoot (dactylis glomerata l.) was studied over a 6-week period with two levels of nitrogen supply (0 and 150 kg ha-1) and three cutting regimes which mimic lenient (p), severe (s) and continuous (c) grazing. the phyllochron was highest for treatment with n supply and it decreased from the p to the c defoliation regimes. during the study period, the phyllochron and the sheath length throughout the successive leaves appeared to increase, except for the c treatments. these pa ...199910505244
inhibition of the seasonal ige increase to dactylis glomerata by daily sodium chloride nasal-sinus irrigation during the grass pollen season. 199910482855
substitution of mainly lysyl groups of the proteins in an extract of dactylis glomerata by succinic and maleic anhydrides. 199910442536
[specific skin reactions induced by individual pollen preparations in hypersensitivity persons].skin tests are the most useful single modality for demonstrating an ige-mediated mechanism underlying clinical symptoms. skin reactivity to an allergen depends on person's exposure and genetic factors influencing the ige response. however, the reproducibility of allergy skin tests has been shown to be variable depending, among other things, on the allergen extract employed and the kind of technique used. these variations have led to controversy regarding clinical relevancy of allergy skin testin ...20099863408
long-term responsiveness to free air co2 enrichment of functional types, species and genotypes of plants from fertile permanent grassland.to test inter- and intraspecific variability in the responsiveness to elevated co2, 9-14 different genotypes of each of 12 perennial species from fertile permanent grassland were grown in lolium perenne swards under ambient (35 pa) and elevated (60 pa) atmospheric partial pressure of co2 (pco2) for 3 years in a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (face) experiment. the plant species were grouped according to their functional types: grasses (l. perenne, l. multiflorum, arrhenatherum elatius, dacty ...199728307292
fractional and structural characterization of hemicelluloses from perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) and cocksfoot grass (dactylis glomerata).sequential three-stage treatments with 80% etoh containing 0.2% naoh, 2.5% h2o2-0.2% edta containing 1.5% naoh and 2.5% h2o2-0.2% taed containing 1.0% naoh at 75 degrees c for 3h released 8.0% and 10.4%, 79.1% and 77.0% and 12.9% and 12.5% of the original hemicelluloses from perennial grass and cocksfoot grass, respectively. it was found that the four alkaline peroxide-soluble hemicellulosic fractions contained higher amounts of xylose (33.4-38.2%), uronic acids (9.3-15.3%) and rhamnose (3.0-3.9 ...200616750181
cross-reactivity to olive tree pollen and orchard grass pollen in patients with pollinosis.we studied 92 patients with allergic rhinitis in syodoshima, japan, during the pollen season between april and june to evaluate the cross-reactivity to different antigens, including pollen from the olive tree (olea europaea) and orchard grass (dactylis glomerata). olive tree pollen was present in the atmosphere for 23 days, from may 19 to june 12, 1994. specific ige antibodies for olive tree pollen antigen were present in 21 (26.9%) of the 78 patients with allergic rhinitis. nine (24.3%) of the ...19979227797
effects of management regime and plant species on the enzyme activity and genetic structure of n-fixing, denitrifying and nitrifying bacterial communities in grassland soils.management by combined grazing and mowing events is commonly used in grasslands, which influences the activity and composition of soil bacterial communities. whether observed effects are mediated by management-induced disturbances, or indirectly by changes in the identity of major plant species, is still unknown. to address this issue, we quantified substrate-induced respiration (sir), and the nitrification, denitrification and free-living n(2)-fixation enzyme activities below grass tufts of thr ...200616689721
efficacy of intranasally applied dimethindene maleate solution as spray in adult volunteers with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in the vienna challenge chamber.twelve asymptomatic subjects (4 female, 8 male), being allergic to grass pollen proved by positive anamnesis, positive prick-test and positive nasal provocation test, were challenged under controlled conditions with purified airborne grass pollen of dactylis glomerata in the vienna challenge chamber (vcc), located at the universitätsklinik für hals-nasen-ohrenheilkunde, allgemeines krankenhaus (akh), der stadt wien, vienna (austria) by means of a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design, with ...19969125281
effect of manure application timing, crop, and soil type on nitrate leaching.timing of manure application affects n leaching. this 3-yr study quantified n losses from liquid manure application on two soils, a muskellunge clay loam and a stafford loamy sand, as affected by cropping system and timing of application. dairy manure was applied at an annual rate of 93 800 l ha(-1) on replicated drained plots under continuous maize (zea mays l.) in early fall, late fall, early spring, and as a split application in early and late spring. variable rates of supplemental sidedress ...200616510712
size-exclusion liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis of pollen allergens.allergens from the pollen of phleum pratense, dactylis glomerata. arrhenatherum elatius, secale cereale, lolium perrene and festuca sp. were analysed by size-exclusion chromatography (sec) and capillary electrophoresis (ce). sec was used for the determination of the molecular masses of main allergens. a ce method, using either 150 mmol/l phosphoric acid (ph 1.8) or a micellar system consisting of 50 mmol/l sodium dodecyl sulphate-20 mmol/l borate (ph 9.35), was developed as a rapid and efficient ...19968798911
[sobemovirus genome from dactylis glomerata has a luteovirus-like organization of the replicase and protease gene modules]. 20088754004
effects of organic solvent extracts from herbage on feeding behavior in goats.the effects of organic solvent extracts from perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l. cv. friend), orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l. cv. akimidori) andlolium ×festuca hybrid on the hay consumption of goats were measured by simple two-choice feeding assays. orchardgrass hay treated with methanol extracts (resuspended in water) of perennial ryegrass showed an increased intake by goats compared to untreated hay (p < 0.01). the palatability of hay tended to be slightly decreased by spraying it with p ...199624227483
determination of sensitivity of inhalant allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in west athens.in this study we have determined the sensitivity to inhalant (pollen and non-pollen) allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis from west athens, greece. the frequency of spt positivity was highest for dactylis glomerata, parietaria, olea europea, dermatophagoides and several moulds.19958919218
monoclonal antibody against a cell wall marker protein for embryogenic potential of dactylis glomerata l. suspension cultures.we identified and isolated a monoclonal antibody (mab 3g2) raised against extracellular proteins from microcluster cells of orchard grass (dactylis glomerata l.) embryogenic suspension culture. mab 3g2 recognized with high specificity an antigen ionically bound within the primary cell wall and in the culture medium of microcluster cells. two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis and blotting of proteins on pvdf membrane showed that mab 3g2 detected a single polypeptide of apparent molecular ma ...200516025341
[olive pollinosis in japan].olive (olea europaes) is the most important allergic tree in the mediterranean area. that is widely distributed at syodoshima in japan. i observed olive pollination period and studied the patients with pollinosis. the patients were examined by skin test, measuring of specific ige antibody and nasal provocation test with olive pollen extract. allergic responses to olive pollen were found to be present in 16.3% of pollinosis patients. and cross-reactivity between olive and grass pollen (dactylis g ...19958857110
[the monitoring of natural populations of dactylis glomerata l. in the area of the accident at the chernobyl atomic electric power station].results of five years monitoring (1986-1991) of seed quality (sq) and chlorophyll mutation frequency (mf) of dactylis glomerata l., growing within 30-km zone of chernobyl npp are presented. it was shown that during initial postaccident period (1986, 1987) the criteria depend of the gamma-phone on the sampling plots. it was not found the correlation between sq, mf and duration of plant growing under condition chronic irradiation.20167489103
orchard grass or cock's foot, dactylis glomerata. 200515945550
grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive igg antibodies to group v allergen from different grass species.sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on igg reactivity with group v allergen from six different grass species. one group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. only lolium perenne, dactylis glomerata, and phleum pratense were present in both mixtures. although anthoxanthum odoratum and secale cereale were absent from the mixture of five, igg responses to ant o v and sec c v were comparable in ...19957677246
growth, proline accumulation and water relations of nacl-selected and non-selected callus lines of dactylis glomerata l.sodium chloride-tolerant calli were selected from leaf-derived embryogenic calli of dactylis glomerata l. on agar solidified medium supplemented with 200 mm nacl, a concentration lethal to non-selected calli. growth characteristics, water relations and proline accumulation pattern were compared in selected and non-selected lines. the objective was to gain an understanding of the mechanism(s) of tolerance in the nacl-tolerant line. growth in the selected line, as expressed in terms of tolerance i ...199511538458
enzymatic activity of a mine soil varies according to vegetation cover and level of compost applied.we applied three doses of compost from mixed municipal solid waste (0, 15, and 30 g kg(-1) of soil) to a soil developed on pyrite mine wastes. part of the soil was planted with young erica australis l. collected at the mine; part was fertilized with n-p-k-mg and sown with dactylis glomerata l .bare soil without mineral fertilization was included in the experiment, as well. compost application to bare soil increased ph, provided plant nutrients, and enhanced the activity of the six soil enzymes t ...201020734914
dmisa (dissociated membrane immunosorbent assay), a new elisa technique performed with blotted samples.this study describes the use of electrophoretically purified antigens blotted onto nitrocellulose, as solid phase antigens for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. this procedure is called dmisa, for dissociated membrane immunosorbent assay. the method is illustrated using immunoblotted antigens of dactylis glomerata grass pollen extract. the band of interest was located on a print of nitrocellulose by light staining (india ink), then the corresponding strip of nitrocellulose was cut out. immedia ...19948308278
influence of low temperature preincubation on somatic embryogenesis and ethylene emanation from orchardgrass leaves.the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of low temperature (4 degrees c) preincubation on somatic embryogenesis from orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) leaf cultures and to relate these effects to ethylene emanation during the preincubation and incubation periods. experiments were also conducted with an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (aoa). segments from the innermost two leaves were cultured on sh medium with 30 micromoles dicamba at 4 degrees c for 1 t ...199411537966
plant resource-use strategies: the importance of phenotypic plasticity in response to a productivity gradient for two subalpine species.functional traits are indicators of plant interactions with their environment and the resource-use strategies of species can be defined through some key functional traits. the importance of genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity in trait variations in response to a common environmental change was investigated in two subalpine species.201020682576
[conditions required for chemical binding of dactylis glomerata grass pollen to inert stable carriers].the results of the direct rast (radio-allergo-sorbent-test) procedure used to standardise own-prepared pollen extract of the dactylis glomerata grass are presented. based on the performed standardisation, a system was set up for binding allergens to the stable inert carriers. the results of examination of the quality of d. glomerata allergen, bound covalently to paper disc, are presented also. evaluation was made in inep laboratories by comparing the d. glomerata allergen-bound discs and the cor ...20151481465
variability of crossreactivity of ige antibodies to group i and v allergens in eight grass pollen species.crossreactivity to dactylis glomerata, festuca rubra, phleum pratense, anthoxanthum odoratum, secale cereale, zea mays, and phragmites communis of ige antibodies against lol p i or lol p v was investigated by means of rast-inhibition. within a group of sera the degree of crossreactivity was demonstrated to be highly variable. individual sera were not always equally crossreactive to all pollen species. a high degree of crossreactivity for group i allergens did not necessarily implicate the same f ...19921382820
n-terminal amino acid sequence homologies of group v grass pollen allergens.in an earlier study, we presented data regarding the immunoaffinity purification and n-terminal sequencing of a major pollen allergen from orchard/cocks-foot grass (dactylis glomerata), now identified as the group v allergen dac g v. in this paper, we have extended our investigations to include group v allergens from other grass species. our data confirm the presence of group v-restricted characteristic n-terminal amino acid sequences containing a high alanine and hydroxyproline (p') rather than ...19921643443
uptake and transformation of soil [14c]-trinitrotoluene by cool-season grasses.this study investigated the fate and uptake of [(14)c]-tnt from soil into orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata), perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne), and tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) over a one year period in a greenhouse-controlled environment. pots (n = 4 for each grass, containing 10 mg cold tnt/kg soil + 1.2 mg [(14)c]-tnt/kg soil and controls with no tnt) were exposed to light and temperature conditions typical of june at 45 degrees n for 369 days. three plant harvests were made (63, 181, ...201020666491
genetic variation and covariation in a population of tetraploid dactylis l. accessions.efficient utilization of divergent germ plasm sources in breeding cultivated dactylis glomerata l. ssp. glomerata domin depends on knowledge of quantitative variation within and among accessions. this study was undertaken to quantify variation and covariation for forage yield, maturity, disease reaction, and ground cover within a population of tetraploid dactylis accessions. variation was observed among families within the population for each variable. most genetic variation (73%-93% of the fami ...199124221211
immunotherapy with alginate-conjugated two grass pollen extract in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and immunological effects of specific immunotherapy with alginate-conjugated two grass pollen extract in patients with rhinoconjunctivitis. a total of 52 patients were admitted to the study. before and after 3 years of immunotherapy quantitative skin test (qst) to dactylis glomerata (dg) and to phleum pratense (php), variation of grass specific ige and igg4 and nasal challenge with the aqueous extract of the two grasses were compared. eac ...20152382596
effects of spontaneous heating on estimates of total digestible nutrients for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays packaged in large round bales.large round or large square hay packages are more likely to heat spontaneously during storage than hay packaged in conventional (45 kg) bales, and the effects of this phenomenon on the associated energy estimates for these hays can be severe. our objectives for this project were to assess the relationship between estimates of total digestible nutrients (tdn) and spontaneous heating and to describe any important differences in energy estimates that may result specifically from 2 methods of estima ...201020630254
autopolyploidy in dactylis glomerata l.: further evidence from studies of chloroplast dna variation.chloroplast dna variation has been used to examine some of the maternal lineages involved in the evolution of the intraspecific polyploid complex, dactylis glomerata l. diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) individuals were collected from natural populations of the subspecies glomerata (4x), marina (4x) and lusitanica (2x), as well as from sympatric 2x/4x populations of the galician type. digestion of their ctdna with 11 restriction endonucleases revealed enough variation to characterise three ctdna ...198924227247
characterization of grass pollen-specific ige, iga, igm classes and igg subclasses in allergic patients.water-soluble grass pollen extracts (dactylis glomerata) were separated by isoelectric focusing in a wide ph range (2-11) in agarose gel. after focusing, two successive gel prints were taken. the first one, on an ordinary nitrocellulose filter during 10 s, enabled the visualization of separated components of the pollen, after india ink staining. the second one, on a cyanogen bromide-activated nitrocellulose filter obtained after a 10-min transfer and saturation step, was incubated overnight with ...19892759718
detection of cereal yellow dwarf virus using small interfering rnas and enhanced infection rate with cocksfoot streak virus in wild cocksfoot grass (dactylis glomerata).small rna sequences were obtained from leaf extracts of wild dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot grass) using deep sequencing (454 life sciences, roche diagnostics), and were screened against virus sequences in genbank using a local blastn search program (bioedit). putative small interfering (si)rnas complementary in sequence to cereal yellow dwarf virus (cydv, genus luteovirus) genomes were identified. primer sequences were made against the "high scoring" sirna sequences and rt-pcr was used to amplif ...201020558208
inhibition of somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass by endogenous cytokinins.endogenous indoleacetic acid (iaa) and cytokinin concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in leaf sections of an orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) genotype which exhibited a high capacity for somatic embryogenesis in vitro and in two genotypes that did not exhibit this capacity. the nonembryogenic genotypes contained 3- to 4-fold higher concentrations of zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, and total cytokinins than the embryogenic geno ...198816666493
plant regeneration from protoplasts of embryogenic suspension cultures of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.).an embryogenic suspension culture of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) consisting of small, embryogenic cell clusters was obtained from callus formed on basal sections of young leaves through a process of selective enrichment. these suspensions were used as a source of protoplasts. the isolated protoplasts divided at a frequency of 0.5-10% when plated in an agarose solidified culture medium. conditioned medium, in which embryogenic dactylis suspension cultures had been grown, was found to inc ...198824240247
asymmetric small-scale distribution and allelopathy: interaction betweenrumex obtusifolius l. and meadow species.analysis of small-scale distribution may allow allelopathic interaction among plant species to be distinguished from competitive interaction. if all environmental factors except slope are uniform, allelopathy produces spatial asymmetry in the association with a hypothetical receptor species and the corresponding hypothetical emitter species in the neighborhood of the latter. the interaction betweenrumex obtusifolius and the meadow specieslolium perenne, poa pratensis, dactylis glomerata, andtrif ...198824276533
[identification of orchard grass (dactylis glomerata) pollen allergens by immunoblotting]. 19883228359
proof of concept pilot study: prevalence of grass virus infection and the potential for effects on the allergenic potency of pollen.wild plants harbour a variety of viruses and these have the potential to alter the composition of pollen. the potential consequences of virus infection of grasses on pollen-induced allergic disease are not known.200920102577
characterization of allergenic epitopes of ory s1 protein from oryza sativa and its homologs.vaccination is the most effective technique suggested now days for allergy treatment. recombinant-based approaches are mostly focused on genetic modification of allergens to produce molecules with reduced allergenic activity and conserved antigenicity. the molecules developed for vaccination in allergy possess significantly reduced allergenicity in terms of ige binding, and therefore will not lead to anaphylactic reactions upon injection. this approach is probably feasible with every peptide all ...200920011147
chloroplast dna variation in the grass tribe festuceae.six grasses, hordeum sativum, dactylis glomerata, festuca arundinacea, f. pratensis, f. rubra and lolium multiflorum were subjected to chloroplast dna analysis based on restriction endonuclease digestion fragments and end labeling with (35)s nucleotides. this method is compared with others in general use. the results indicate that lolium multiflorum is closely affiliated with festuca pratensis and f. arundinacea; in fact much closer than f. rubra is to any of them.198724241665
a comparison of two grass pollen extracts in the treatment of hay fever.this trial of hyposensitisation compares the efficacy and safety of an alum absorbed 2-grass extract (phleum pratense and dactylis glomerata) with a traditional pyridine extracted alum precipitated 5-grass preparation whose efficacy has been demonstrated previously. 33 patients, (20 alpare, 13 allpyral), were entered into the trial which continued for 3 years; in the second year there were 17 alpare and 11 allpyral patients, and 13 alpare and 10 allpyral in the third year. patients on alpare req ...20063618442
immunotherapy with depigmented glutaraldehyde-polymerized extracts: changes in quality of life.immunotherapy (it) with modified allergens reduces allergic rhinitis (ar) symptoms and medications requirements. improvement of quality of life (qol) is a key point in the treatment of ar. the aim of this study was to provide evidence of changes related to the patient's qol (well-being) induced by a modified (depigmented glutaraldehyde-polymerized) therapeutic vaccine and of its safety.200515898977
partial purification and properties of phleinase induced in stem base of orchardgrass after defoliation.phleinase induced in stem base of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) after defoliation was partially purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation, deae-sephadex chromatography, gel filtration, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the molecular weight of phleinase was 57,000 as determined by gel chromatography. the enzyme showed normal michaelis-menten kinetics and its k(m) value was 91 millimolar for phlein of mean degree of polymerization 60 as substrate. reaction velocity of t ...198516664288
critical evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for igg antibodies to dactylis glomerata.experiments are reported for the evaluation of an indirect elisa using peroxidase conjugate for the detection of igg antibodies to dactylis glomerata (dg), a grass pollen antigen frequently responsible for allergic rhinitis and asthma. when optimized, the test proved to be useful in clinical practice for a semiquantitative, cheap and simply-performed determination of igg antibodies to dg. the advantages and disadvantages of this method, compared with those of elaborate antigen-binding assays, ar ...20074081522
aerobic stability of wheat and orchardgrass round-bale silages during winter.using recently developed technology, balage is often stored in large (1.2 x 1.2 m) round bales that are wrapped in plastic film with an in-line wrapper. the aerobic stability of this fermented forage is important, particularly during winter months when it is fed to livestock or sold as a cash crop. two types of forage, orchardgrass [dactylis glomerata l.; 54.4% dry matter (dm)] and wheat (triticum aestivum l.; 62.4% dm), were packaged in large round bales and wrapped with an in-line wrapper duri ...200515829675
comparison of the stability of a mite and a pollen extract stored in normal conditions of use.pollen extracts are stable in solutions containing 50% glycerol. the stability of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) extracts have not been determined. two lyophilised extracts (dp and cocksfoot pollen) were reconstituted in 50% glycerol and stored for up to 6 months at +4 degrees c. every day the extracts were placed at room temperature for 1 hr to mimic the natural use of allergen extracts by allergists. every 2 months the extracts initially prepared were compared to freshly reconstituted ext ...19853978775
wide hybridization experiments in cereals.wide hybridization is a useful tool in plant breeding, but little is known about its possible range. for the cereals, wheat, barley and rye, this was tested with 15 different species of the poaceae and panicoideae. embryo formation could be obtained with agropyron repens, alopecurus agrestis, dactylis glomerata, festuca glauca, hordeum bulbosum, lolium perenne, pennisetum americanum, and zea mays. as well, haploid as diploid embryos occurred. new embryo culture techniques should enable these emb ...198424257639
seasonal patterns of growth, dehydrins and water-soluble carbohydrates in genotypes of dactylis glomerata varying in summer dormancy.summer dormancy in perennial grasses has been studied inadequately, despite its potential to enhance plant survival and persistence in mediterranean areas. the aim of the present work was to characterize summer dormancy and dehydration tolerance in two cultivars of dactylis glomerata (dormant 'kasbah', non-dormant 'oasis') and their hybrid using physiological indicators associated with these traits.200515760915
protein and lipid compositions of isolated plasma membranes from orchard grass (dactylis glomerata l.) and changes during cold acclimation.the chemical composition of plasma membrane fractions isolated from orchard grass seedlings (dactylis glomerata l.) was analyzed and compared with endomembranes. the plasma membrane is characterized by an enrichment of sterols and a lower degree of unsaturation of phospholipids. steryl glycosides were found to be one of the lipid components of the plasma membrane, but steryl esters and galactolipids were barely detectable. diphosphatidyl glycerol was characteristically detected in the mitochondr ...198416663596
vertical leaf nitrogen distribution in relation to nitrogen status in grassland plants.vertical gradients of leaf nitrogen (n) per unit leaf area (nla) are viewed as plastic responses that optimize n utilization with respect to carbon assimilation. however, it has been shown that plant species, sowing density and n availability affect the steepness of the nla gradient relative to the photon flux density (pfd) gradient. this paper tests the hypothesis that such variation is related to the n status of the plant. the n status was analysed using the concept of the critical n concentra ...200312967909
a collaborative study on rast inhibition using a common method.a collaborative study was carried out to determine the reproducibility of the inhibition form of the radioallergosorbent test (rast). seven laboratories were provided with three coded extracts of cocksfoot (dactylis glomerata) pollen. all laboratories used a common method of rast inhibition and were supplied with all reagents required to carry out the assays. in addition, four laboratories used local methods of rast inhibition. potency estimates were in reasonable agreement between laboratories ...19846697468
direct embryogenesis from mesophyll cells of orchardgrass.segments taken from the basal 15 to 20 millimeters of the two innermost leaves of an orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) genotype produced somatic (nonzygotic) embryos directly from mesophyll cells without an intervening callus when cultured on an agar medium with 30 micromolar 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba). this demonstration of high-frequency embryogenesis from mesophyll cells in gramineae is strong evidence for totipotency of the cells.198317753478
silica accumulation in triticum aestivum l. and dactylis glomerata l.the silica accumulation in orchard grass (dactylis glomerata l.) and wheat (triticum aestivum l.) has been studied in plant samples grown under defined conditions in a pot trial. the plant habit and the quantity of biomineralised silica within the selected gramineae depend to a remarkable extent on the soil. the plants grew with different soil ph values and silica additives. by means of atomic absorption spectrometry, the silicon enrichment in different plant parts was determined. in dried plant ...200312698227
partition of membrane particles in aqueous two-polymer phase system and its practical use for purification of plasma membranes from plants.a simplified method for the isolation of a plasma membrane-enriched fraction from plants utilizing an aqueous two-polymer phase system is outlined. mainly, the plant used was orchard grass (dactylis glomerata l.). the two-phase system consisted of 5.6% (w/w) of dextran t500 and 5.6% (w/w) of polyethyleneglycol 4000 in 0.5 molar sorbitol-15 millimolar tris-maleate (ph 7.3), and 30 millimolar nacl. in this system, the plasma membranes and the other membranes were preferentially partitioned into th ...198316662942
embryoid and plantlet formation from leaf segments of dactylis glomerata l.the purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate callus induction and plantlet formation from cultured leaf segments of 12-15 week-old dactylis glomerata l. (orchardgrass) plants. flat half-leaf sections, approximately 2-3 mm square, from the three innermost (youngest) leaves were isolated and individually plated serially beginning at the leaf base on a solid sh medium containing 30 μm of 3,6-dichloro-oanisic acid (dicamba). callus formed on leaf sections from all 50 plants used in the study ...198224270764
a new attempt to study biomineralised silica bodies in dactylis glomerata l.the accumulation process of inorganic compounds in animals and plants by biomineralisation is not well understood nowadays, though it may be the key to an environmental-compatible production of modern materials in future. in this paper a new attempt will be made on the investigation of silica accumulation in grasses (especially dactylis glomerata l.). the silicic acid agglomerates in dactylis glomerata l. were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive ...200212397507
grass pollen hyposensitization versus placebo therapy. i. clinical effectiveness and methodological aspects of a pre-seasonal course of desensitization with a four-grass pollen extract.the present work reports the results of a double-blind clinical trial, comparing the effects of hyposensitization treatment versus placebo in 33 patients with allergic rhinitis, sensitive to a crude extract of the pollen of four different grasses (dactylis glomerata, lolium perenne, secale cereale, and phleum pratense). the distribution of these patients in the two groups was done randomly and gave two comparable groups, as far as clinical and biological features are concerned. the treatment cou ...19817032341
allergenic activity of fractions of cocksfoot (dactylis glomerata) pollen. definition of active components by skin testing, and inhibition rast.with the combined use of skin tests, rast and isoelectric focusing, a potency profile of a cocksfoot ((dactylis glomerata) pollen extract was prepared. it was found that two fractions with pi 4.5 and 6.0 were the most allergenic, had the highest protein concentration and were also the most easily extracted. the importance of converting mean weal sizes into potency units when comparing the allergenicity of pollen fractions is emphasized.19817249343
successful crosses between festuca arundinacea schreb. and dactylis glomerata l.five f1 plants have been obtained after extensive crossing between different ecotypes or varieties of festuca arundinacea schreb. and dactylis glomerata l. the success did not appear to depend on specific treatments (spraying with ε-aminocaproic acid or gibberellic acid or pre-pollination with killed pollen from the seed parent), but the crossability is limited to exceptional plants.f1 hybrids showed characteristics of both the parents. in four hybrids various developmental disturbances were obs ...198124276635
myeloperoxidase release after allergen-specific conjunctival challenge.allergen-specific conjunctival challenge is a fruitful and complete tool in evaluating pathophysiological phenomena of allergic inflammation. after challenge, a significant neutrophil infiltrate occurred in allergic subjects. the primary (azurophilic) granules of neutrophils contain a variety of enzymes that might potentiate inflammation, such as myeloperoxidase (mpo). it is not known whether allergen-specific conjunctival challenge (ascc) is able to elicit mpo release. we also investigated the ...200415584313
the contribution of roots and shoots to whole plant nitrate reduction in fast- and slow-growing grass species.the hypothesis was tested that slow-growing grass species perform a greater proportion of total plant no3- reduction in their roots than do fast-growing grasses. eight grass species were selected that differed in maximum relative growth rate (rgr) and net no3- uptake rate (nnur). plants were grown with free access to nutrients in hydroponics under controlled-environment conditions. the site of in vivo no3- reduction was assessed by combining in vivo no3- reductase activity (nra) assays with biom ...200212096102
spaceflight reduces somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass (poaceae).somatic embryos initiate and develop from single mesophyll cells in in vitro cultured leaf segments of orchard-grass (dactylis glomerata l.). segments were plated at time periods ranging from 21 to 0.9 d (21 h) prior to launch on an 11 d spaceflight (sts-64). using a paired t-test, there was no significant difference in embryogenesis from preplating periods of 14 d and 21 d. however, embryogenesis was reduced by 70% in segments plated 21 h before launch and this treatment was significant at p=0. ...199811541444
soil-soiln simulations of water drainage and nitrate nitrogen transport from soil core lysimeters.water resources protection from nitrate nitrogen (no3-n) contamination is an important public concern and a major national environmental issue. the abilities of the soil-soiln model to simulate water drainage and nitrate n fluxes from orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) were evaluated using data from a 3-yr field experiment. the soil is classified as a hagerstown silt loam soil (fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic typic hapludalf). nitrate losses below the 1-m depth from n-fertilized grazed orchardg ...201311285920
a simple method to determine leaf angles of grass species.there are several very accurate methods to determine leaf angles in closed canopies. however, these are generally very time-consuming or require special equipment. average canopy leaf angles were derived from simple height and blade length measurements. an exponential relationship between the height/length ratio and the average blade leaf angle was used. the method was tested for two grass species, dactylis glomerata and festuca arundinacea, grown under different uv-b levels. the results clearly ...200010944161
dry matter allocation and nitrogen productivity explain growth responses to photoperiod and temperature in forage grasses.the mechanisms responsible for fluctuations in species composition of semi-natural grassland are not well understood. to identify plant traits that determine the poor competitive ability of festuca pratensis compared to dactylis glomerata especially during summer, the growth of both grasses was monitored over time and at different temperatures and photoperiods. plants of both grasses were grown from seed with non-limiting nutrient supply at three day/night temperatures (11/6, 18/13 and 25/20°c) ...199928308353
gramineae pollen as trigger factors of atopic eczema: evaluation of diagnostic measures using the atopy patch test.after contact with grass pollen, seasonal exacerbations of eczematous skin lesions have been described in a subgroup of patients with atopic eczema (ae). epicutaneous patch testing with aeroallergens (atopy patch test. apt) has been used to investigate these patients. we performed comparative apt in 79 patients with ae and 20 control subjects (14 non-atopic volunteers and six patients with grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis). subjects were tested with grass pollen allergen extract in petr ...19979292067
an immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.it is known that most patients with type i allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. recently, an epidemiological and cap-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and plantago and grass pollens. the aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and dactylis glomerata and plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. s ...20139015782
cloning, sequencing and immunological characterization of dac g 3, a major allergen from dactylis glomerata pollen.preliminary work showed that a 14-kda allergen with a pi of 9 was recognized by more than 60% of sera from dactylis glomerata (dac g) pollen-allergic individuals. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of this dac g allergen was determined by edman degradation and compared with that of lol p 3, a major allergen of lolium perenne. a sequence identity of 65% was found, suggesting that the dac g allergen could be the homologue of lol p 3 and therefore named dac g 3. we report the cloning and sequence a ...19968811075
an investigation of the differential performance of clones of the aphid sitobion avenae on two host species.individuals of the grain aphid sitobion avenae were collected from wheat and cocksfoot stands around hampshire, uk, during march and april 1994. eight wheat and eight cocksfoot aphid clones were chosen on the basis of readily distinguishable rapd-pcr fingerprint profiles. the performances (weight, fecundity and survival) of successive generations of each of these clones were then carefully monitored in the laboratory as new generations of aphids were transferred either to winter wheat or to cock ...199528307595
enhancement of somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass leaf cultures by epinephrine.epinephrine at 10-100 μm stimulated somatic embryogenesis from orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) leaves cultured on sh medium with 30 μm of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa). ethylene emanation was increased at epinephrine concentrations greater than 10 μm. decarboxylation by the leaves of [1-(14)c]iaa included in the medium was decreased almost 3-fold by 10 μm epinephrine. epinephrine at 10 μm enhanced the number of regenerated plants on sh medium with 30 μm dicamba (sh-30). ethylene emanation was ...199524194312
comparison of three horizontal two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques to separate grass pollen allergens.the identification and characterization of allergenic components are important for improving both diagnosis and therapy of allergy. we have studied grass pollen crude extract for better characterization of the allergen repertoire recognized by allergic patient ige antibodies. two-dimensional electrophoresis are the methods of choice to define physico-chemical characteristics of the allergens as they give isoelectric points and molecular mass of the analyzed samples. we compared the advantages an ...19948003933
two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis with immobilized ph gradients of dactylis glomerata pollen allergens.we studied orchard grass pollen allergens (dactylis glomerata) by a new two-dimensional electrophoretic technique which is the combination of isoelectric focusing (ief) in immobilized ph gradient (ipg) and horizontal sds-page. the ipg-dalt (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized ph gradients in the first dimension) electrophoresis was made with four different but complementary ph gradients: 3-10.5, 4-9, 4-7, 6.3-10.5. we also compared the behavior of allergens in native and denatur ...19938400888
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