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identification of genes encoding for the cocksfoot mottle virus proteins.cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus (cfmv) has a monopartite single-stranded positive-sense rna genome. in wheat germ extract, in vitro translation of cfmv virion rna resulted in the production of four major proteins of 100, 71, 34 and 12 kda. in this paper we show the individual genes from which these polypeptides are synthesised. polyclonal antisera against the proteins encoded by all open reading frames (orfs) of cfmv were produced. antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate the in vitro translation ...199910486110
effects of elevated soil copper on phenology, growth and reproduction of five ruderal plant species.the repeated use of copper (cu) fungicides to control vine downy mildew, caused by plasmopara viticola, has been responsible for the heavy increase of cu concentration in the upper layers of vineyard soils. to determine the effects of elevated soil cu on plant development, we created an artificial soil gradient with cu enrichments ranging from 0 to 400 mg kg-1. on this gradient, and for five ruderal plant species commonly found in vineyards in southern france (poa annua l., dactylis glomerata l. ...200312547525
[effects of grazing on architecture and small-scale pattern of grasses on artificial grassland in subtropical zone].this study was conducted on a 5-year artificial grassland in subtropical zone of south china. the main types of established artificial grassland there were dactylis glomerata-lolium prenne-trifolium repens and d. glomerata-t. repens pastures. four grazing intensities were designed, i.e., ck (no grazing), g1 (6 adult sheep x hm(-2)), g2 (7.5 adult sheep x hm(-2)) and g3 (10 adult sheep x hm(-2)), and all the grazing plots were rotationally grazed. the architecture and small-scale pattern of grass ...200415825439
ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of dry matter and fiber in growing steers for common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern arkansas.southern crabgrass (digitaria ciliaris [retz.] koel.) is often viewed as an undesirable weed, largely because it encroaches upon field and forage crops, gardens, and lawns. however, visual observations of livestock grazing mixed-species pastures suggest that cattle seem to prefer crabgrass to many other summer forages. the objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between july 11, and august 22, 2001, and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearan ...200515827259
the complete sequence of the genome of cocksfoot streak virus (csv), a grass infecting potyvirus.the complete nucleotide sequence of cocksfoot streak virus (csv) has been determined. the viral genome comprises 9663 nucleotides, excluding a 3'-terminal poly(a) sequence. the genome of csv has a 133 nt 5'-non coding and a 260 nt 3'-non coding region. the rna of csv encodes a single polyprotein of 3089 amino acid residues and has a deduced genome organization typical for a member of the family potyviridae. csv is transmissible by aphids and has a narrow host range in the gramineae. it was compa ...200212181676
transpiration rates and canopy conductance of pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.we measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in pinus radiata d. don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in canterbury, new zealand. at the more fertile lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. at the less fertile eyrewell forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. tree xylem sap flux (f(d)') ...199812651344
[the frequency of pollen allergy at the population of sarajevo region during the 2002 year].the frequency of pollen alergy in the sample of population of sarajevo region during the 2002 year has been investigated. the age and gender population has been different. for determination of allergy has been use of standard test carryed out in the respective laboratories of clinical center of university of sarajevo. the testing has been on the pollen of weed plant species and grass (graminejae) pollen. in the mixture of pollen weed plant species have been following plants: plantago lanceolata ...200516018386
ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of nitrogen and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen from common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern arkansas.southern crabgrass (digitaria ciliaris [retz.] koel.) is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. the objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between july 11 and august 22, 2001 and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of n and neutral detergent insoluble n (ndin) for these forages. a secondary objective was to compare these kin ...200616478959
bioaccumulation of heavy metals in dactylis glomerata l. growing in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge.the total and dtpa-extractable concentrations of pb, ni, zn, cu, cr and cd were measured in a calcareous soil amended with different doses of sewage sludge under field conditions. the same metals were also measured in the roots and leaves of dactylis glomerata at the end of the first vegetative period after the sludge was added. the root concentrations of all the metals were unrelated to their concentrations in the soil. leaf concentrations of zn and cr correlated with total (zn) and dtpa-extrac ...200615953718
surveys of new and rare microfungi in the düsseltal (north rhine-westphalia)--germany.in the years 2003 and 2004 we have observed an about 70 hectare large area in the düsseltal, the eastern part of the neandertal in north rhine-westphalia. there we collected on trees, bushes and herbs and found about 150 microfungi of which some are new for germany or the entire world. e.g.: pseudocercospora populigena n. ale-agha, u. braun & g.b. feige on populus berolinensis; vialaea insculpta (fr.) sacc. on ilex aquifolium l.; passalora amelopsidis (peck.) u. braun on parthenocissus quinquefo ...200516637187
chloroplast dna variation in dactylis glomerata l. taxa endemic to the macaronesian islandsin the dactylis glomerata infraspecific polyploid grass complex, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps) of chloroplast dna (cpdna) were studied in diploid and tetraploid populations of several taxa endemic to macaronesia (madeira and the canary islands) and in populations from the african and european continental areas closest to macaronesia. two chlorotypes, which differed by a single 290-bp length mutation, were observed in the macaronesian and the continental populations. chlorotyp ...199910620224
[sensitization to castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern extremadura (spain)].castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. in our geographical area (plasencia, cáceres, spain) castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen.200515946627
inferring the evolutionary history of rice yellow mottle virus from genomic, phylogenetic, and phylogeographic studies.fourteen isolates of rice yellow mottle virus (rymv) were selected as representative of the genetic variability of the virus in africa from a total set of 320 isolates serologically typed or partially sequenced. the 14 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed together with two previously reported sequences. rymv had a genomic organization similar to that of cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus. the average nucleotide diversity among the 16 isolates of rymv was 7%, and the maximum diversity between any ...200415016846
analysis of liquid extracts from tree and grass pollens by capillary electromigration methods.capillary electromigration methods, zone electrophoresis (cze), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (cmekc) and isotachophoresis (citp), have been used for analysis of water and water-buffer extracts from tree-common birch (betula verrucosa) and grass-orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata) pollen samples. water extracts were analyzed by cze using acetic acid as background electrolyte (bge), by cmekc in tris-phosphate bge with anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) micellar pseudophase (tp- ...200415236695
factors affecting translation at the programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting site of cocksfoot mottle virus rna in vivo.the ratio between proteins p27 and replicase of cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv) is regulated via a -1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (-1 prf). a minimal frameshift signal with a slippery u uua aac heptamer and a downstream stem-loop structure was inserted into a dual reporter vector and directed -1 prf with an efficiency of 14.4 +/- 1.9% in yeast and 2.4 +/- 0.7% in bacteria. p27-encoding cfmv sequence flanking the minimal frameshift signal caused approximately 2-fold increase in the -1 prf effic ...200515843686
retrospective study of specific immunotherapy - what should be done in the future.in this retrospective study, data on 241 atopic patients treated with specific cutaneous immunotherapy during the 1985-2006 period at allergy clinic, university department of dermatology and venereology, were reviewed. the following diagnoses were recorded: atopic dermatitis, pure or in combination with allergic rhinitis or allergic bronchitis, or allergic bronchitis and asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria, and quincke's edema. the aim was to retrospectively analyze cli ...200718093449
effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.the objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (nirs) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. degradability of dry matter (dm), crude protein (cp) and neutral detergent fibre (ndf) of 61 samples of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.) and orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) was tested by using the in situ technique. the grass samples were harvested at three different stages, e ...200717988354
specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.patients throughout europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct pooideae species. given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. furthermore, neither serum ige reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% ...200818362477
antigenic similarity among group 1 allergens from grasses and quantitation elisa using monoclonal antibodies to phl p 1.group 1 allergens elicit a specific ige response in about 90% of grass pollen-allergic patients. the aim of this work was to study the antigenic similarity among group 1 allergens from different grasses and to develop a monoclonal antibody (mab)-based quantitation elisa.200818004069
aerating grassland before manure application reduces runoff nutrient loads in a high rainfall environment.the effect of mechanically aerating grassland before liquid manure application in the fall on surface runoff and transport of nutrients and solids was studied in a high rainfall area. the two treatments were control and aeration, the latter receiving one pass with an aerator perpendicular to the slope before fall application of liquid manure (dairy in years 1-3 and swine in year 4). treatments were randomly assigned on 3 to 5% sloping land with a silt loam surface soil (aquic dystroxerept) plant ...200616641328
changes in terpene content in milk from pasture-fed cows.changes of terpene content in milk from cows grazing natural diversified upland pasture were examined in this observational trial. a homogeneous plot divided into 2 subplots was used from may 31 to july 1, 2003 (first growth) and again from october 1 to october 7, 2003 (vegetative regrowth). each subplot was grazed by 6 dairy cows in 2 ways: strip grazing (sg), with new allocations of pasture strips at 2-d intervals, and paddock grazing (pg). the pg subplot was divided into 3 paddocks and the co ...200616702298
surfactant protein d decreases pollen-induced ige-dependent mast cell degranulation.mast cells play a key role in allergy and asthma. they reside at the host-environment interface and are among the first cells to make contact with inhaled microorganisms and particulate antigens. pulmonary surfactant proteins a and d (sp-a and sp-d) function in lung host defense by enhancing microbe phagocytosis and mediating other immune cell functions, but little is known about their effects on mast cells. we hypothesized that sp-a and/or sp-d modulate ige-dependent mast cell functions. pollen ...200515980037
limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants.habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. the role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts ...200516024367
the ryegrass mottle virus genome codes for a sobemovirus 3c-like serine protease and rna-dependent rna polymerase translated via -1 ribosomal frameshifting.in the course of sobemovirus gene cloning the complete genome of ryegrass mottle virus (rgmov) was sequenced. sequence analysis revealed differences including missing and extraneous nucleotides in comparison to the previously published sequence (zhang, toriyama, takanashi, j. gen. plant pathol. 67, 63 (2001)). a gene coding for a typical sobemovirus 3c-like serine protease was identified in orf2a after multiple sequence alignment analysis. the newly identified 57-amino-acid stretch in orf2a show ...200717356908
sobemoviruses possess a common cfmv-like genomic organization.based on structural differences in the orf2 region, the sobemoviruses have been subdivided into southern cowpea mosaic virus (scpmv)-like and cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv)-like types of genome organization. however, nearly identical amino acid sequences are encoded by these subgroups in different reading frames of orf2, suggesting that insertion or deletion of appropriate nucleotides could restore similar genomic organizations for these viruses. we resequenced the regions of inconsistency for is ...200717115301
a comparative analysis of extraction methods for the recovery of anguina sp. from grass seed samples.four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. the procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of oregon and california, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. eleven seed lots of agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of anguina we ...199919270928
surfactant protein d increases phagocytosis and aggregation of pollen-allergen starch granules.recent studies have shown that surfactant components, in particular the collectins surfactant protein (sp)-a and -d, modulate the phagocytosis of various pathogens by alveolar macrophages. this interaction might be important not only for the elimination of pathogens but also for the elimination of inhaled allergens and might explain anti-inflammatory effects of sp-a and sp-d in allergic airway inflammation. we investigated the effect of surfactant components on the phagocytosis of allergen-conta ...200415591410
responses of plasma acetate metabolism to hop (humulus lupulus l.) in sheep.an isotope dilution method using [1-(13)c]sodium (na) acetate was conducted to determine the effect of feeding hop (humulus lupulus l.) residues on plasma acetate metabolism in six adult crossbred sheep. the sheep were fed 63 g/kg bw(0.75)/d of either mixed hay (mh-diet) of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) and reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) at a 60:40 ratio or mh-diet and hop-residues (hop-diet) at 85:15 ratio with a crossover design for each of 3 week period. the isotope dilutio ...200919365576
sensitization to common allergens, especially pollens, among children with respiratory allergy in the trakya region of turkey.asthma and allergic rhinitis are common problems in children and the causative pollen allergens vary according to the geographical area. the aim of this study was to investigate patterns of sensitization to common inhalant allergens, especially pollens, in turkish children living in the trakya region and to determine differences between rural and urban areas. allergen skin testing was prospectively performed on 539 children aged between 4 and 17 years with respiratory allergy. the reaction was c ...200415783130
phenotypes and functional effects caused by various viral rna silencing suppressors in transgenic nicotiana benthamiana and n. tabacum.rna silencing suppressor genes derived from six virus genera were transformed into nicotiana benthamiana and n. tabacum plants. these suppressors were p1 of rice yellow mottle virus (rymv), p1 of cocksfoot mottle virus, p19 of tomato bushy stunt virus, p25 of potato virus x, hcpro of potato virus y (strain n), 2b of cucumber mosaic virus (strain kin), and ac2 of african cassava mosaic virus (acmv). hcpro caused the most severe phenotypes in both nicotiana spp. ac2 also produced severe effects in ...200818184062
p1 protein of cocksfoot mottle virus is indispensable for the systemic spread of the virus.cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus (cfmv) encodes a non-conserved protein p1 from the 5' orf1 of genomic rna. the functions of cfmv p1 are unknown. in the current study we show that p1-deficient cfmv can replicate both in oat leaves and barley suspension culture cells but can not infect oat plants systemically. however, the absence of p1 reduces the efficiency of virus accumulation considerably. the infectivity of the mutant virus restores as a result of the spontaneous transversion. cfmv p1:egfp show ...200616732485
effects of bale moisture and bale diameter on spontaneous heating, dry matter recovery, in vitro true digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hays.alfalfa (medicago sativa l.)-orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) hay was made in 96 large-round bales over 3 harvests during 2006 and 2007 to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on dry matter (dm) recovery, in vitro true digestibility (ivtd), and in situ disappearance kinetics of dm. throughout these harvests, bales were made at preset diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5 m and at moisture concentrations ranging from 9.3 to 46.6%. internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor ...200919448019
effects of spontaneous heating on fiber composition, fiber digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of neutral detergent fiber for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays.during 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h neutral detergent fiber (ndf) digestibility (ndfd), and in situ disappearance kinetics of ndf for large-round bales of mixed alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) and orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.). over the 3 harvests, 96 large-round bales were made at preset bale diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5 m, and at moisture concentrations ranging f ...200919448020
forage systems for cow-calf production in the appalachian region.small cow-calf operations are common in the appalachian region. tall fescue [lolium arundinaceum (schreb.) s. j. darbyshire] is the dominant forage in these systems for direct grazing as well as for stockpiling. the present study was conducted from 2001 to 2005. a total of 108 angus and angus crossbred cows were allotted randomly to 6 forage systems and then to 3 replicates within each system. in brief, system 1 had a stocking rate of 0.91 ha/cow in a middleburg 3-paddock (a, b, and c) system. s ...200818407993
a leachate a day keeps the seedlings away: mowing and the inhibitory effects of festuca paniculata in subalpine grasslands.is the release of allelochemicals by the dominant tussock grass festuca paniculata responsible for its dominance by inhibiting growth of neighbour grasses in subalpine grasslands? as such a community is also structured by mowing practices, what could be the impact of mowing on allelopathy?200919324898
the complete nucleotide sequence of subterranean clover mottle virus.the complete nucleotide sequence of subterranean clover mottle virus (scmov) genomic rna has been determined. the scmov genome is 4,258 nucleotides in length. it shares most nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the genome of lucerne transient streak virus (ltsv). scmov rna encodes four overlapping open reading frames and has a genome organisation similar to that of cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv). orf1 and orf4 are predicted to encode single proteins. orf2 is predicted to encode two pr ...200314579180
effects of rumen fill on short-term ingestive behavior and circulating concentrations of ghrelin, insulin, and glucose of dairy cows foraging vegetative micro-swards.the objective of this study was to investigate changes in foraging behavior, hunger-related hormones, and metabolites of dairy cows in response to short-term variations in rumen fill (rf). the effect of rf on intake rate, jaw movements, bite rate and dimensions, and concentrations of plasma ghrelin, and serum insulin and glucose were measured in 4 rumen-cannulated lactating dairy cows (612 +/- 68 kg, empty live weight; 237 +/- 29 d in milk) foraging micro-swards of vegetative orchardgrass (dacty ...200919389967
biogas production from boreal herbaceous grasses--specific methane yield and methane yield per hectare.the objective of this study was to determine the specific methane yields of four grass species (cocksfoot, tall fescue, reed canary grass and timothy) cultivated under boreal conditions as well as how harvesting time and year of cultivation affects the specific methane yields per ha. the specific methane yields of all grasses and all harvests varied from 253 to 394 nl ch4/kg volatile solids (vs) added. the average specific methane yield of the 1st harvest of all grasses was higher than the 2nd h ...200919261471
lactation performance of holstein cows fed fescue, orchardgrass, or alfalfa silage.perennial grasses are increasingly being used as an integral part of nutrient management plans, but fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.) is often overlooked because of perceived intake problems. a 30-d study was conducted to evaluate the lactation performance of cows fed a fescue silage-based total mixed ration (tmr) compared with orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) and alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) silage-based tmr, when forages are harvested at recommended neutral detergent fiber (ndf) levels. ...200415328241
safety and tolerability of seasonal ultra-rush, high-dose sublingual-swallow immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis to grass and tree pollens: an observational study in 193 children and adolescents.we conducted a large observational study in 193 children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis due to grass or tree pollens to evaluate the safety and tolerability of an ultrarush high-dose sublingual immunotherapy (slit) regimen reaching a maintenance dose of 300 index of reactivity within 90 minutes.200919476016
identification of seed gall nematodes of agronomic and regulatory concern with pcr-rflp of its1.a molecular analysis of eight described species of seed gall nematode, along with six undescribed isolates from different hosts, has revealed a strong association between nucleotide sequence polymorphism and host status. each anguinid nematode associated with a unique host produced a unique pcr-rflp pattern for the its1 region. anguina species that had been synonymized in the past, anguina agrostis, a. funesta, and a. wevelli (afrina wevelli), were readily discriminated. two undescribed species ...200119265880
cocksfoot mottle virus p1 suppresses rna silencing in nicotiana benthamiana and nicotiana tabacum.the sobemovirus genome consists of positive sense, single-stranded polycistronic rna. the 5'-terminal orf, encoding the protein p1, is its most variable region. sobemoviral p1 has been described as dispensable for replication but indispensable for systemic infection. the p1 of rice yellow mottle virus-nigerian isolate (rymv-n) is the only rna silencing suppressor reported for sobemoviruses until now. using an agrobacterium-mediated transient assay, we demonstrate here that p1 of cocksfoot mottle ...200716971015
biological and molecular characterization of a putative new sobemovirus infecting imperata cylindrica and maize in africa.a new virus was isolated from both the grass imperata cylindrica and maize plants that had yellow mottle symptoms in burkina faso, west africa. the virus has isometric particles ca. 32 nm in diameter. the experimental host range was restricted to rottboellia exaltata. virions were isolated from leaves of systemically infected maize plants. koch's postulates were completed by mechanically inoculating uninfected imperata or maize with either purified virus or sap from infected imperata plants. vir ...200818777157
water deficit and induction of summer dormancy in perennial mediterranean grasses.summer dormancy is a trait conferring superior drought survival in mediterranean perennial grasses. as the respective roles of environmental factors and water deficit on induction of summer dormancy are unclear, the effect of intense drought were tested under contrasting day lengths in a range of forage and native grasses.200919369219
effect of intake level and alfalfa substitution for grass hay on ruminal kinetics of fiber digestion and particle passage in beef cattle.two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestion kinetics of alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) substitution for grass hay in beef cattle. in exp. 1, forage combinations evaluated in situ consisted of 0% alfalfa-100% big bluestem (andropogon gerardi vitman), 25% alfalfa-75% big bluestem, 50% alfalfa-50% big bluestem, and 100% alfalfa-0% big bluestem. nonlinear regression was used to determine the immediately soluble fraction a, the potentially degradable fraction b, the undegraded fraction c, and ...200817940159
[the occurrence of the cocksfoot streak virus]. 20164912699
an attempt to identify recombinants between two sobemoviruses in doubly infected oat plants.recombination in rna viruses is considered to play a major role as a driving force in virus variability to counterbalance loss in fitness that can be due to the accumulation of detrimental mutations. studies on mixed infections are pertinent for understanding the role of recombination in virus evolution. they also provide important baseline information for studying the biosafety of plants expressing viral sequences. to investigate the possibility of rna recombination occurrence between two sobem ...200616978574
[physiological bases of herbages shade-tolerance in eucalyptus grandis and herbage inter-cultivated system].the study on the physiological bases of the shade-tolerance of dactylis glomerata, lolium perenne, and hemarthria compressa inter-cultivated in eucalyptus grandis forests with different canopy densities showed that with increasing canopy density, the light saturation point (lsp), light compensation point (lcp), chlorophyll a/b (chla/chlb), and the contents of proline (pro), soluble sugar (ss) and soluble protein (sp) of the three herbages decreased gradually, but the apparent quantum yield (aqy) ...200819102302
[ecological strategies of soil microbial communities under plants of meadow ecosystems].dominant growth strategies of soil microbial communities of mown and unmown meadows were assessed with respect to the constants of saturation and maximal specific growth rate of microorganisms. the microbial community of mown-meadow soil was characterized by a greater biomass and activity due to prevalence of microorganisms with the r strategy, compared to the microbial community of unmown-meadow soil. in contrast to nonrhizosphere soil, rhizosphere soil was dominated by rapidly growing microorg ...200415615453
which allergen extract for grass pollen immunotherapy? an in vitro study.grass pollen is a major cause of allergy throughout the world. the only treatment targeting the causes and not only the symptoms of allergy is specific immunotherapy (it). a number of controlled trials demonstrated the efficacy of it in grass pollen allergic subjects, most using extracts of multiple grasses but some using extracts of a single grass. the optimal grass extract for it has not yet been established.201020653430
[examination about positive ratio of pollen antigens by scratch test].japanese cedars and grass are famous for causing pollen allergy with antigen. but recently, many other antigens causing pollen allergy are coming to the front. we investigated positive ratios of pollen antigens of the consultation patients.200920220303
the crystallographic structure of panicum mosaic virus (pmv).the structure of panicum mosaic virus (pmv) was determined by x-ray diffraction analysis to 2.9å resolution. the crystals were of pseudo symmetry f23; the true crystallographic unit cell was of space group p2(1) with a=411.7å, b=403.9å and c=412.5å, with β=89.7°. the asymmetric unit was two entire t=3 virus particles, or 360 protein subunits. the structure was solved by conventional molecular replacement from two distant homologues, cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv) and tobacco necrosis virus (tnv), ...201323123270
bridging allergologic and botanical knowledge in seasonal allergy: a role for phenology.grass pollen is a worldwide cause of respiratory allergy. identifying the causative species is essential, for example for choosing the appropriate immunotherapy, because not all grass allergens are totally cross-reacting, and the pollen calendars provide only a gross estimate. phenologic analyses allow identification of the pollen release for each individual grass.201020800789
do sheep (ovis aries) categorize plant species according to botanical family?the ability of grazing herbivores to assign food types to categories by relying on certain relevant criteria could considerably reduce cognitive demand and increase their foraging efficiency when selecting among many different plant items. grasses and legumes differ functionally in vegetation communities as well as in nutritive value. we aimed to determine whether sheep can generalize an aversion they learnt for a grass or a legume species to another species of the same functional type and conse ...201121203791
protein-rna linkage and post-translational modifications of two sobemovirus vpgs.sobemoviruses possess a viral genome-linked protein (vpg) attached to the 5' end of viral rna. vpg is processed from the viral polyprotein. in the current study, cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv) and rice yellow mottle virus (rymv) vpgs were purified from virions and analysed by mass spectrometry. the cleavage sites in the polyprotein and thereof the termini of vpg were experimentally proven. the lengths of the mature vpgs were determined to be 78 and 79 aa residues, respectively. the amino acid res ...201021068217
nucleotide bias of dcl and ago in plant anti-virus gene silencing.plant dicer-like (dcl) and argonaute (ago) are the key enzymes involved in anti-virus post-transcriptional gene silencing (av-ptgs). here we show that av-ptgs exhibited nucleotide preference by calculating a relative av-ptgs efficiency on processing viral rna substrates. in comparison with genome sequences of dicot-infecting turnip mosaic virus (tumv) and monocot-infecting cocksfoot streak virus (csv), viral-derived small interfering rnas (vsirnas) displayed positive correlations between av-ptgs ...201021203927
ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in milk are related to forage polyphenols.the aim of this work was to characterize uv-absorbing compounds (uac) in milk in relation to diet. in winter, 4 groups of cows each received a different diet: concentrate rich containing 35% cocksfoot hay (cch), maize silage (ms), rye grass silage (rs), or rye grass hay (rh). in summer, 2 additional diets were given: mountain grassland hay (gh) and mountain grassland pasture (gp). polyphenols were analyzed by hplc and folin reaction on forages and uac were extracted from milks and analyzed by hp ...201020630201
ammonia volatilization from surface-banded and broadcast application of liquid dairy manure on grass forage.manure can provide valuable nutrients, especially n, for grass forage, but high nh, volatilization losses from standard surface-broadcast application limits n availability and raises environmental concerns. eight field trials were conducted to evaluate the emission of nh, from liquid dairy manure, either surface broadcast or applied in narrow surface bands with a trailing-foot implement. manure was applied using both techniques at rates of approximately 25 and 50 m3 ha(-1) on either orchardgrass ...201121520744
effect of ensiled hop (humulus lupulus l.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in sheep.an isotope dilution method using [1-(13) c]sodium acetate was applied to determine the effect of feeding ensiled hop (humulus lupulus l.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in six adult crossbred sheep. the sheep were fed 63 g/kg body weight (bw)(0.75) /day of either mixed hay of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) and reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) and round bale silage at 3:1 ratio (hay-diet), or another where round bale silage was replaced by ensiled hop residues (hop-diet) ...201121615839
enhanced nitrogen deposition exacerbates the negative effect of increasing background ozone in dactylis glomerata, but not ranunculus acris.the combined impacts of simulated increased nitrogen (n) deposition (75kgnha(-1)yr(-1)) and increasing background ozone (o(3)) were studied using two mesotrophic grassland species (dactylis glomerata and ranunculus acris) in solardomes, by means of eight o(3) treatments ranging from 15.5ppb to 92.7ppb (24h average mean). a-c(i) curves were constructed for each species to gauge effects on photosynthetic efficiency and capacity, and effects on biomass partitioning were determined after 14 weeks. i ...201121741736
meat quality of cryptorchid lambs grazing either dryland or irrigated perennial pasture with some silage supplementation.the meat quality of lambs grazed on perennial pasture (ryegrass lolium perenne, cocksfoot, dactylis glomerata and white clover trifolium repens) was examined in three treatments; group 1 (s) lambs were grazed on dryland pasture for 30 days and then offered a supplement of pasture silage ad libitum until slaughter, 30 days later (n = 21). lambs in group 2 (p) were grazed on dryland pasture throughout (n = 28) and those in group 3 (ip) on irrigated pasture (n = 28). lambs in group ip had a signifi ...199822060577
pollen proteases compromise the airway epithelial barrier through degradation of transmembrane adhesion proteins and lung bioactive peptides.to cite this article: vinhas r, cortes l, cardoso i, mendes vm, manadas b, todo-bom a, pires e, veríssimo p. pollen proteases compromise the airway epithelial barrier through degradation of transmembrane adhesion proteins and lung bioactive peptides. allergy 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02598.x. abstract: background:  allergic disorders, such as seasonal rhinitis and asthma, are increasing causes of morbidity worldwide and often result from exposure to airborne pollen. pollen allergy has ...201121480927
occurrence of associative effects between grasses and legumes in binary mixtures on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.when animals are fed a grass and legume mixture, digestive interactions can occur in the rumen between the substrates contained in the different plants, and the response of the animal to the combination of forages can differ from the balanced median values of their components considered individually. our objective was to assess the associative effects between temperate forages in 8 grass-legume binary combinations on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics to highlight synergies or antagonis ...201121415423
fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture- and feedlot-finished cattle.an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus feedlot finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in angus crossbred steers (n = 24). ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. pasture forages and diet ingredient samples were obtained at 14-d intervals to determine nutritive value and fatty acid composition. the feedlot diet consisted of corn silage, cracked corn grain, soybean meal, and a vitamin and mineral supp ...200919617512
identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from mixed pasture of timothy and orchardgrass, and its badly preserved silage.in order to understand the relationship between lactic acid bacteria (lab) species and silage fermentation, a total of 65 lab strains isolated from mixed pasture of timothy (phleum pratense l.) and orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.), and its badly preserved silages were subjected to phenotypic and genetic analysis. according to these analyses, the isolates were divided into 13 groups, including enterococcus gallinarum, lactobacillus acidipiscis, l. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis, l. corynifo ...201122515692
effect of supplementation of grazing dairy ewes with a cereal concentrate on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile.this work was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing grazing ewes on pasture with a cereal concentrate on the milk fatty acid (fa) profile. ninety assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 9 lots of 10 animals each and allocated to 3 feeding regimens: 1) pasture--ewes were only allowed to graze pasture (an irrigated sward of lolium perenne, trifolium pratense, and dactylis glomerata); 2) ps--grazing ewes were supplemented with oat grain (700 g/animal and day); and 3) tmr--ewe ...200919620680
stem-loop structure of cocksfoot mottle virus rna is indispensable for programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting.the -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (-1 prf) mechanism utilized by many viruses is dependent on a heptanucleotide slippery sequence and a downstream secondary structure element. in the current study, the rna structure downstream from the slippery site of cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus (cfmv) was proven to be a 12bp stem-loop with a single bulge and a tetranucleotide loop. several deletion and insertion mutants with altered stem-loop structures were tested in wheat germ extract (wge) for fram ...200919748532
rhizosphere microbial densities and trace metal tolerance of the nickel hyperaccumulator alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum.in this study we determine culturable microbial densities (total heterotrophs, ammonifiers, amylolytics and cellulolytics) and bacterial resistance to co, cr, and ni in bulk and rhizosphere soils of three populations of the ni-hyperaccumulator alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum and the excluder dactylis glomerata from ultramafic sites (two populations in northeast (ne) portugal (samil (s), morais (m)) and one population in northwest (nw) spain (melide (l)). the relationship between bioava ...200919810353
cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus coat protein contains two nuclear localization signals.cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv) coat protein (cp) localization was studied in plant and mammalian cells. fusion of the full-length cp with enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) localized to the cell nucleus whereas similar constructs lacking the first 33 n-terminal amino acids of cp localized to the cytoplasm. cp and egfp fusions containing mutations in the arginine-rich motif of cp localized to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus in plant cells indicating the involvement of the motif in nuclear ...201020155311
relationship between water soluble carbohydrate content, aphid endosymbionts and clonal performance of sitobion avenae on cocksfoot cultivars.aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. however, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. they also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfs), some of which have a positiv ...201323342134
p1-independent replication and local movement of rice yellow mottle virus in host and non-host plant species.sobemovirus p1 protein, characterized previously as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing, is required for systemic virus spread and infection in plants. mutations in the orf1 initiation codon do not affect viral replication indicating p1 is not necessary for this process. wild type, recombinant and p1 deletion mutants of cocksfoot mottle virus and rice yellow mottle virus were used to infect oat, rice, wheat, barley, arabidopsis thaliana and nicotiana benthamiana plants. wild type ...201727960111
cocksfoot mottle virus coat protein is dispensable for the systemic infection.the sobemovirus genome consists of polycistronic single-stranded positive-sense rna. the first orf encodes p1, a suppressor of rna silencing required for virus movement. the coat protein (cp) is expressed from the 3' proximal orf3 via subgenomic rna. in addition to its structural role, the cp of some sobemoviruses has been reported to be required for systemic movement and to interact with p1. the aim of this study was to analyse the role of cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv) cp in the suppression of ...201424495467
cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus establishes infection through the phloem.cocksfoot mottle virus (cfmv) localization in oat plants was analyzed during three weeks post infection by immunohistochemical staining to follow its spread through different tissues. in early stages of infection, the virus was first detectable in phloem parenchyma and bundle sheath cells of inoculated leaves. bundle sheath and phloem parenchyma were also the cell types where the virus was first detected in stems and systemic leaves of infected plants. in later stages of infection, cfmv spread a ...201222425583
skin prick testing to aeroallergen extracts: what is the optimal panel in children and adolescents in turkey?background/objective: the skin prick test (spt) is the standard tool for the diagnosis of ige-mediated allergic diseases. the number and spectrum of allergen extracts to be applied for the diagnosis of sensitized patients in order to achieve the most cost-effective and informative results are critical from both economic and scientific viewpoints. methods: in order to determine the minimum test battery panel necessary to cover at least 95% of the cases of spt sensitization in children and adolesc ...201122123205
Glycoproteins are species-specific markers and major IgE reactants in grass pollens.Grass pollen allergic patients are concomitantly exposed and sensitized to pollens from multiple Pooideae (i.e. common grass) species. As such, they are currently desensitized by allergen-specific immunotherapy using extracts made from mixes of pollens from Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis. Herein, we demonstrate that species-specific glycoprotein patterns are documented by 1D and 2D electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis, which ...201121951299
iranian johnsongrass mosaic virus: the complete genome sequence, molecular and biological characterization, and comparison of coat protein gene sequences.iranian johnsongrass mosaic virus (ijmv) is one of the most prevalent viruses causing maize mosaic disease in iran. an ijmv isolate, maz-bah, was obtained from the maize showing mosaic symptoms in mazandaran, north of iran. the complete genomic sequence of maz-bah is 9544 nucleotides, excluding the poly(a) tail. it contains one single open reading frame of 9165 nucleotides and encodes a large polyprotein of 3054 amino acids, flanked by a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 143 nucleotides and a 3'-u ...201727632283
additional hosts for the ring nematode, criconemella xenoplax.some common legumes and weeds indigenous to peach orchards in south carolina were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability for criconemella xenoplax. legumes that were hosts for the nematode were dwarf english trefoil (lotus corniculatus var. arvensis), big trefoil (l. uliginosis), birdsfoot trefoil (l. corniculatus), narrowleaf birdsfoot trefoil (l. tenuis), ball clover (trifolium nigrescens), rose clover (t. hirtum), subterranean clover (t. subterraneum), striate le ...199019287692
effects of spontaneous heating on forage protein fractions and in situ disappearance kinetics of crude protein for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays packaged in large round bales.during 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were used to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of crude protein (cp), neutral detergent insoluble cp (ndicp), acid detergent insoluble cp (adicp), and in situ disappearance kinetics of cp and ndicp for large round bales of mixed alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) and orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.). over the 3 harvests, 96 large round bales were made at preset bale diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5m and at moisture ...201020172236
kinetics of cell-wall digestion of orchardgrass and alfalfa silages treated with cellulase and formic acid.the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of cellulase (from trichoderma longibrachiatum) combined with formic acid, applied before ensiling, on the subsequent concentration and composition of the cell wall and on the extent and rate of in situ cell-wall digestion of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) and alfalfa (medicago sativa l.). treated and control forages of both plant species were ensiled for at least 60 d before being ruminally digested by two fistulated cows. analyse ...19969029359
optimization of culture conditions of arnica montana l.: effects of mycorrhizal fungi and competing plants.arnica montana is a rare plant that needs special protection because of its intensive harvesting for medicinal purposes. the present work was aimed at finding optimal culture conditions for arnica plants in order to enable their successful reintroduction into their natural stands. plants were cultivated under controlled greenhouse conditions on substrata with different nitrogen (n) concentration. as arnica is always colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in nature, a fact that has been ...201019838743
generation of recombinant antibodies against orchardgrass acidic nsltp-like proteins.embryogenic and non-embryogenic suspension cultures of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) secreted into the culture medium a set of proteins, among which low molecular mass (11/12 kda) proteins were found. however, only the 11/12 kda proteins from the embryogenic suspension cultures reacted specifically with an antiserum raised against the carrot ep2 non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsltp). two-dimensional (2-d) electrophoretic analysis revealed that the extracellular nsltp-like proteins f ...200918669026
rast inhibition: a collaborative study on its suitability and reproducibility for the assay of cocksfoot pollen extracts.the suitability and reproducibility of the inhibition mode of the radioallergosorbent test (rast) as a method for the assay of allergen extracts was examined in a collaborative study involving seven laboratories. participants assayed five coded extracts of cocksfoot grass (dactylis glomerata) pollen, including three batches from one manufacturer, both by a common method and by their local methods of rast inhibition. for the versions of rast inhibition employed in this study the estimates of rela ...20133719934
antigenic activity of nonpollen parts (leaves and stems) of allergenic plants (parietaria judaica and dactylis glomerata).in patients with respiratory allergy to pollen it is common to correlate the onset, duration and intensity of clinical symptoms with the count of atmospheric allergenic pollen grains. pollen counts, however, may not reflect the total airborne allergen exposure since previous data suggest that pollen allergens may also be carried in microaerosol suspensions. these microdroplets may penetrate deeply into the airways, where pollen grains are too large to penetrate, eventually inducing asthma. the o ...20051952298
detection of kestoses and kestose-related oligosaccharides in extracts of festuca arundinacea, dactylis glomerata l., and asparagus officinalis l. root cultures and invertase by c and h nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.a previous study (kl forsythe, ms feather [1989] carbohydr res 185: 315-319) showed that (13)c nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. in this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). a nu ...199016667365
fibre digestibility, abundance of faecal bacteria and plasma acetate concentrations in overweight adult mares.the purpose of the present study was to compare digestibility of grass hay, faecal and plasma volatile fatty acid (vfa) concentrations, and faecal bacterial abundance in overweight and moderate-condition mares. five overweight adult mixed-breed mares and five adult mixed-breed mares in moderate condition were housed individually and limit-fed orchard grass (dactylis glomerata) hay at 20 g/kg body weight (as fed) daily for 14 d. forage dm and fibre digestibility were determined using aoac methods ...201425191602
bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination.the bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that achillea millefolium, solidago canadensis, trifolium aureum, and dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. a total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. the i ...201627252685
the distribution of hla alleles among children with atopic asthma in croatia.allergic asthma is a multifactorial disease involving well known environmental factors and less identified genetic components. in several studies the hla genes have been implicated in the development of asthma and atopy, but the importance of these associations remains unclear. the aim of the present study was to analyse the distribution of specificities at hla class i loci (-a and -b) and hla class ii locus (-drb1) in a group of 143 croatian children with atopic asthma, regarding total serum ig ...201122397267
inhibition of sucrose:sucrose fructosyl transferase by cations and ionic strength.fructans are storage carbohydrates found in many temperate grasses. the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of most fructans is sucrose:sucrose fructosyl transferase (sst). in this report, we demonstrate that k+ and ionic strength noncompetitively inhibit the activity of sst from wheat (triticum aestivum l.) stems. the ki for this inhibition is high, 122 mm, but in the range of concentrations of k+ found in the tissue (205-314 mm). addition of kcl to the assay system had no effect on the ph ...199312231714
flock size and habitat-dependent food and energy intake of foraging goldfinches.during the breeding season goldfinches (carduelis carduelis l.) feed on milky ripe seeds of about 20 food plants. individual goldfinches joining a flock reduce the time spent vigilant with increasing flock size. therefore birds feeding in flocks get an increased intake of kernels per time unit. this was measured for five different food plants (dactylis glomerata (gramineae), knautia arvensis (dipsacaceae), senecio vulgaris, taraxacum officinale, tragopogon pratensis (compositae)). in large-sized ...198628312098
a report on the consumption, composition and nutritional adequacy of a mixture of lush green perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) and cocksfoot (dactylis glomerata) fed ad libitum to thoroughbred mares.non-pregnant thoroughbred mares were stabled and subjected to 2 trials, each 24 h in duration, to establish their total consumption of a mixture of freshly cut, lush green perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) and cocksfoot (dactylis glomerata) in approximately equal proportions; and to compare the total intake of crude protein, calcium, phosphorus and mass of the grass mixture on a dry matter basis with their daily nutritional requirements. the body mass of each mare was calculated at the commenc ...19836655653
simulation of germination of pioneer species along an experimental drought gradient.the germination of ten plant species from the iberian peninsula was assessed along a water deficit gradient between -0. 1652 (moist) and -0.4988 mpa (dry) of osmotic potential, created by addition of increasing concentrations of polyethylene glycol (peg 6000) to distilled water in which plants were grown hydroponically. the level and rate of germination of daucus carota and thapsia villosa significantly decreased with decreasing psi. seeds of dactylis glomerata and dittrichia viscosa had positiv ...200617405330
mitigation of ergot vasoconstriction by clover isoflavones in goats (capra hircus).ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (epichloë coenophiala; formerly neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. there is evidence that isoflavones produced by legumes can relax the vasculature, which suggests that they could relieve ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and mitigate the vulnerability to severe heat str ...201626973844
effect of starchy or fibrous carbohydrate supplementation of orchardgrass on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture.a 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effects of supplementing orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) with 2 levels [5 and 10% of total dry matter (dm) fed] of starchy (barley grain, bar) or fibrous (beet pulp, bp) carbohydrate sources on nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (vfa) production, bacterial protein synthesis, and ch4 output. treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4×4 latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement using ...201627060824
effect of incremental flaxseed supplementation of an herbage diet on methane output and ruminal fermentation in continuous culture.a 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of increasing flaxseed (linum usitatissimum) supplementation of an herbage-based diet on nutrient digestibility, microbial n synthesis, and methane (ch(4)) output. treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 latin square design, with 7d for diet adaptation and 3d for data and sample collection. treatments were 0, 5, 10, and 15% ground flaxseed supplementation of an orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata ...201222720950
meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.this experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (medicago sativa l; alf); red clover (trifolium pratense l.; rcg); or orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.; ogr) pastures. carcass conformation score was greater (p=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on alf compared to ogr with rcg intermediate. chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash ...201425089787
a cd14 gene polymorphism is associated with the ige level for dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.cd14/-159 plays a role in sensitization to dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in japanese patients with allergic rhinitis.200516109674
allelochemical stress inhibits growth, leaf water relations, psii photochemistry, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, and heat energy dissipation in three c3 perennial species.in this study, the effect of two allelochemicals, benzoxazolin-2(3h)-one (boa) and cinnamic acid (ca), on different physiological and morphological characteristics of 1-month-old c(3) plant species (dactylis glomerata, lolium perenne, and rumex acetosa) was analysed. boa inhibited the shoot length of d. glomerata, l. perenne, and r. acetosa by 49%, 19%, and 19% of the control. the root length of d. glomerata, l. perenne, and r. acetosa growing in the presence of 1.5 mm boa and ca was decreased c ...201121659663
traceability of grass feeding in beef: terpenes, 2,3-octanedione and skatole accumulation in adipose tissue of young bulls.the development of analytical methods to verify the production system of meat products requires the identification of biomarkers that can trace the product's origin, and secondly the factors that govern the deposition of these markers in animal tissue need to be defined. in this study, 2,3-octanedione, skatole and terpenes were selected as biomarkers, and their deposition was investigated in bull calves reared under three different strategies. all of the animals were reared indoors until approxi ...201122439961
construction of high-density genetic linkage map and identification of flowering-time qtls in orchardgrass using ssrs and slaf-seq.orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) is one of the most economically important perennial, cool-season forage species grown and pastured worldwide. high-density genetic linkage mapping is a valuable and effective method for exploring complex quantitative traits. in this study, we developed 447,177 markers based on slaf-seq and used them to perform a comparative genomics analysis. perennial ryegrass sequences were the most similar (5.02%) to orchardgrass sequences. a high-density linkage map of or ...201627389619
responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep-fed forage herb plantain and exposed to heat.the use of herbal plants as traditional medicines has a century long history. plantain (plantago lanceolata l.) is a perennial herb containing bioactive components with free radical scavenging activities. an isotope dilution technique using [u-13c]glucose was conducted to determine the effect of plantain on the responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep. six crossbred sheep (three wethers and three ewes; mean initial bw=40±2 kg) were fed either a mixed hay of o ...201728091361
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