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effect of calotropis gigantea on dog e.c.g. 19761010540
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme of a filarial worm setaria digitata: some properties and effects of drugs and herbal extracts.mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mmdh) and malic enzyme (mme) of a filarial worm setaria digitata were studied. mmdh exhibited the highest activities in the oxidation and reduction reactions at ph 9.5 and ph 6.2, respectively, while mme did so in the malate decarboxylation reaction at ph 6.8. mme showed no detectable activity on the pyruvate carboxylation direction. the km values for malate (1.7 mm) and oxaloacetate (0.17 mm) and the ratio of vmax oxidation: vmax reduction (2.73) tend to favo ...19921291764
antifertility screening of plants. 3. effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.the effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. the aqueous extract of ocimum sanctum linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of polygonum hydropiper linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of abroma augusta linn. r ...19695820437
effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, ceratocystis paradoxa.antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by allium sativum. the effectiveness of various extracts against c. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of meriandra bengalensis, mentha piperita, curcuma longa, phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, toona ciliata, vitex negundo, azadirachta indica, eupatorium birmanicum, ocimum sanctum and leucas aspera. extracts of cassia ...19969022263
cytotoxic principles of a bangladeshi crude drug, akond mul (roots of calotropis gigantea l.).three cardenolide glycosides, calotropin (1), frugoside (2), and 4'-o-beta-d-glucopyranosylfrugoside (3), were obtained as the cytotoxic principles of "akond mul" (roots of calotropis gigantea l.). the cytotoxicity of these compounds against various cell lines of human and mouse origin was tested. they showed similar cell line selectivity to those of cardiac glycosides such as digoxin and ouabain: they are toxic to cell lines of human origin, but not to those from mouse at 2 micrograms/ml.19989549894
development-inhibiting activity of some tropical plants against sitophilus zeamais motschulsky (coleoptera: curculionidae).thirteen tropical plants were evaluated for development-inhibiting activity against sitophilus zeamais. the bioassays were carried out by incorporating seeds or leaves at various dose levels into an artificial diet for the test insect. it was found that seeds of basella alba and leaves of operculina turpethum and calotropis gigantea were potent in delaying development and in reducing adult emergence, and hence the capacity for population increase. at 0.5% concentration, adult emergence in tests ...200010758266
asaia siamensis sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-proteobacteria.five bacterial strains were isolated from tropical flowers collected in thailand and indonesia by the enrichment culture approach for acetic acid bacteria. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences showed that the isolates were located within the cluster of the genus asaia. the isolates constituted a group separate from asaia bogorensis on the basis of dna relatedness values. their dna g+c contents were 58.6-59.7 mol%, with a range of 1.1 mol%, which were slightly lower than that of ...200111321102
[cardiotonic action and biological potency of a substance derived from calotropis gigantea l. dryan]. 196214075922
studies on anti-diarrhoeal activity of calotropis gigantea r.br. in experimental animals.calotropis gigantea r. br. (asclepiadaceae) a wildly growing plant has been reported to possess number of medicinal properties and other purposes. the purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the anti-diarrheal effects of c. gigantea used traditionally in indian system of medicine using castor oil-induced diarrhoea model.200415144737
19-nor- and 18,20-epoxy-cardenolides from the leaves of calotropis gigantea.two new cardenolides (1 and 2) along with 12 known compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the leaves of calotropis gigantea. the structural elucidation was accomplished by spectroscopic methods. some of the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against kb, bc, and nci-h187 cancer cell lines, and all cardenolides tested were found to possess strong inhibitory effects. the presence of a deoxysugar at c-3, a formyl group at c-10, and an alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lac ...200616933890
analgesic activity of calotropis gigantea flower.the alcoholic extract of the flowers of calotropis gigantea was administered orally and explored for its analgesic activity in chemical and thermal models in mice. in acetic acid induced writhing test, an inhibition of 20.97% and 43.0% in the number of writhes was observed at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. in the hot plate method the paw licking time was delayed. the analgesic effect was observed after 30 min of dose administration which reached its maximum after 90 min.200717113726
evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of calotropis gigantea (akanda) in various biological system.to evaluate the effect of calotropis g in various experimental animal models. the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenin-induced kaolin -induced rat paw oedema for acute and cotton-pellet granuloma, adjuvant-induced arthritis model for chronic inflammation. antipyretic activity was carried out using yeast induced pyresis method. phenylquinone--induced writhing method in mice was used for analgesic activity. test compounds exhibited variable anti-inflammatory activity and peak ...200617203820
pregnancy interceptive activity of the roots of calotropis gigantea linn. in rats.we conducted this study to evaluate the pregnancy interceptive activity of the roots of calotropis gigantea linn. in colony-bred adult sprague-dawley rats when administered during the preimplantation and/or peri-implantation periods.200717362713
wound healing activity of calotropis gigantea root bark in rats.calotropis gigantea r.br. (asclepiadaceae) is a perennial undershrub found chiefly in wastelands throughout india. it has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of alignments. the plant calotropis gigantea is also used in some parts of india for wound healing in combination with other plants. however there are no scientific reports on wound healing activity of the plant calotropis gigantea r.br.200919539020
activity of extracts and procesterol from calotropis gigantea against entamoeba histolytica.extracts from the root bark of calotropis gigantea were subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation using growth inhibitory effects against entamoeba histolytica. the n-hexane soluble portion of the chloroform extract showed in vitro antiamoebic activity against the hk-9 strain of entamoeba histolytica. chromatographic separation of the chloroform extract afforded the known compound, procesterol, which showed activity against e. histolytica.201020614811
assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected apocynaceae species.studies have shown that the barks and roots of some apocynaceae species have anticancer and antimalarial properties. in this study, leaf extracts of five selected species of apocynaceae used in traditional medicine (alstonia angustiloba, calotropis gigantea, dyera costulata, kopsia fruticosa and vallaris glabra) were assessed for antiproliferative (apf) and antiplasmodial (apm) activities, and analysed for total alkaloid content (tac), total phenolic content (tpc) and radical-scavenging activity ...201121232161
antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten apocynaceae species.the anticancer properties of apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves.201121772753
cytotoxic cardenolide and sterols from calotropis gigantea.the dichloromethane extract from the leaves of calotropis gigantea linn. was strongly cytotoxic against non-small cell lung carcinoma (a549), colon carcinoma (hct 116) and hepatocellular carcinoma (hep g2), and non toxic to chinese hamster ovary (aa8). the extract afforded uscharin (1), 3,5,8-trihydroxy-24-methylcholest-6,22-diene (2), a mixture of (24r)-3beta-hydroxy-24-ethylcholest-5-en-7-one (3a) and 6beta-hydroxy-24-ethylcholest-4,22-dien-3-one (3b), and another mixture of (24r)-24-ethylchol ...201121815415
improved cardenolide production in calotropis gigantea hairy roots using mechanical wounding and elicitation.a hairy root culture system of calotropis gigantea was established and effects of mechanical wounding (mw) and elicitors [methyl jasmonate (mj), yeast extract (ye) and chitosan (cs)] on cardenolide production were investigated. all treatments stimulated the production of cardenolide in hairy root cultures of c. gigantea. cs was the most effective elicitor, followed by mj. ye and mw also improved cardenolide yield in individual treatments. the highest cardenolide yield (1,050 ± 55 mg/l) was obtai ...201122109935
antitumour evaluation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dehp) isolated from calotropis gigantea l. flower / evaluacija antitumorskog djelovanja di-(2-etilheksil)-ftalata (dehp) izoliranog iz cvjetova calotropis gigantea l.the objective of the study is to explore the anticancer activity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dehp) isolated from calotropis gigantea flower against ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (eac) in swiss albino mice. the activity of dehp was evaluated at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 body mass applied intraperitoneally. dehp showed a significant decrease in viable cell count (p < 0.05), mass gain (due to tumour burden) and elevated the life span of eac cell bearing mice. altered hematological profil ...201223333892
screening of herbal-based bioactive extract against carbapenem-resistant strain of acinetobacter baumannii.acinetobacter baumannii is grouped in the eskape pathogens by infectious disease society of america, which is linked to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and increased costs. the high level of acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms of these bacteria makes it an urgent requirement to find a suitable alternative to carbapenem, a commonly prescribed drug for acinetobacter infection. in this study, methanolic extracts of six medicinal plants were subjected to phytochemical screening and the ...201626910023
antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using latex of calotropis gigantea l.the present study aimed to synthesis silver nanoparticles (agnps) in a greener route using aqueous latex extract of calotropis gigantea l. toward biomedical applications. initially, synthesis of agnps was confirmed through uv-vis spectroscopy which shows the surface plasmonic resonance peak (spr) at 420 nm. fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir) analysis provides clear evidence that protein fractions present in the latex extract act as reducing and stabilizing bio agents. energy dispersi ...201525459618
mosquitocidal properties of calotropis gigantea (family: asclepiadaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, bacillus thuringiensis, against the mosquito vectors.calotropis gigantea leaf extract and bacillus thuringiensis were tested first to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti, and culex quinquefasciatus. the medicinal plants were collected from the area around bharathiar university, coimbatore, india. calotropis gigantea leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. an electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). the powder 500 g of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic so ...201222382205
chemometric profile & antimicrobial activities of leaf extract of calotropis procera and calotropis gigantea.calotropis procera and calotropis gigantea are medicinal plant having therapeutic value. the leaf extracts of c. procera have been investigated, its pharmacological actions in detail and leaf extracts of c. gigantea were not studied till date. the objective of present work was to find the bioactive constituents present in the ethanolic leaf extract of c. procera and c. gigantea to evaluate their antibacterial and anifungal activities. the major phytochemical groups in c. procera ethanolic leaf e ...201627936921
management of root-knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita) in bottle gourd using different botanicals in pots.a pot experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of different botanicals in varying doses for management of root-knot nematode, m. incognita in bottle gourd. the results exhibited that madar (calotropis procera) and neem (azadirachta indica) leaves application proved to be more effective in improving plant growth characters and reducing root-knot index and final nematode population. among the doses tested, higher dose of 1.5 % (w/w) was more effective than lower ones.201526345048
[liposoluble constituents from the flowers of calotropis gigantea and their antimicrobial activities].to study the liposoluble constituents from the flowers of calotropis gigantea and their antimicrobial activities.201324010322
land-use and socioeconomic change, medicinal plant selection and biodiversity resilience in far western nepal.indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. in the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-struct ...201627936247
screening of venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.there are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. in this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine b assay. extracts from clavija lancifolia, hamelia pate ...201322648665
assembling of multifunctional latex-based hybrid nanocarriers from calotropis gigantea for sustained (doxorubicin) dox releases.natural rubber latex (lax) is a colloidal dispersion of polymer particles in liquid and shows good biodegradable, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. natural polymers are the most important materials used in food packaging, micro/nano-drug delivery, tissue engineering, agriculture, and coating. in the present study, natural compounds extracted from plant lax were designed to function as drug carriers using various surfactants via emulation and solvent evaporation method. calotropis gigantea belo ...201728068637
natural cellulose fiber derived hollow-tubular-oriented polydopamine: in-situ formation of ag nanoparticles for reduction of 4-nitrophenol.a facile method was reported to achieve hollow-tubular-oriented polydopamine (hto-pda) layer using natural kapok fiber (kf) as the bio-template without any pretreatments by altering hydrophobic fiber into hydrophilic one. subsequently, the hto-pda can be utilized for direct in-situ deposition of ag nanoparticles (nps). the structures of pristine fiber and hto-pda, as well as the resulting ag nps attached hto-pda (ag@hto-pda) were well characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (sem) ...201728024541
oriented growth of poly(m-phenylenediamine) on calotropis gigantea fiber for rapid adsorption of ciprofloxacin.a facile polymerization of m-phenylenediamine (mpd) in methanol/water (50:50, v/v) was performed via conventional chemical oxidative method by using calotropis gigantea fiber (cgf) as the natural biotemplate. the as-prepared cgf oriented poly(m-phenylenediamine) (pmpd), i.e. cgf-o-pmpd, exhibits a well defined fiber-oriented morphology. the presence of pmpd layer enables cgf-o-pmpd to present roughen surface with n-rich functional groups that can show high performance for the adsorption of cipro ...201728024207
cardenolides from calotropis gigantea as potent inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional activity.calotropis gigantea (l.) dryand (apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant native to southern china, india and southeast asia. it has been traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases including cancers in these countries.201627793783
apocynaceae species with antiproliferative and/or antiplasmodial properties: a review of ten genera.apocynaceae is a large family of tropical trees, shrubs and vines with most species producing white latex. major metabolites of species are triterpenoids, iridoids, alkaloids and cardenolides, which are known for a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimalarial properties. prompted by their anticancer and antimalarial properties, the current knowledge on ten genera (allamanda, als ...201627417173
calotropis gigantea. 201627040649
inhibition of ikk-β by epidioxysterols from the flowers of calotropis gigantea (niu jiao gua).calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae) (niu jiao gua) has been used as a poultice in chinese medicine for treating inflammatory skin diseases, e.g., neurodermatitis. this study aims to isolate the epidioxysterols from the flowers of c. gigantea, elucidate their structures and evaluate their possible inhibitory effects on the nf-κb pathway.201626937251
evaluation of antipyretic activity of calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae) in experimental animals.the roots of calotropis gigantea have been used in leprosy, eczema, syphilis, elephantiasis, ulceration and cough in the indian system of traditional medicine. the present communication evaluated its antipyretic activity by using yeast-induced and tab (typhoid) vaccine-induced pyrexia in rats and rabbits. in both yeast-induced and tab vaccine-induced fever, the fever was significantly reduced and the body temperature was normalized by administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg dose intraperitoneally. b ...200516106390
the interaction of factor xia with activated platelets but not endothelial cells promotes the activation of factor ix in the consolidation phase of blood coagulation.we have previously shown that the zymogen factor xi (fxi) binds to activated platelets but not to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvec), a conclusion that is in conflict with previous reports stating that fxi binds to 2.7-13 x 10(6) high affinity sites per huvec (berrettini, m., schleef, r. r., heeb, m. j., hopmeier, p., and griffin, j. h. (1992) j. biol. chem. 267, 19833-19839; shariat-madar, z., mahdi, f., and schmaier, a. h. (2001) thromb. haemostasis 85, 544-551). it has also been r ...200212167623
cardenolides from the bark of calotropis gigantea.three new cardenolides (1-3) were isolated from the 90% ethanolic extract of the bark of a wild-type calotropis gigantea. their structures were determined by using nmr spectra and lc-ms analysis. their inhibitory activities were evaluated against non-small cell lung carcinoma (a549) and human cervix epithelial adenocarcinoma (hela) cell lines. compounds 1 and 3 exhibited strong inhibitory effect on two cancer cell lines.201424735475
time lapse microscopy observation of cellular structural changes and image analysis of drug treated cancer cells to characterize the cellular heterogeneity.the effect of calotropis gigantea latex (cglx) on human mammary carcinoma cells is not well established. we present the results of this drug activity at total population and single cell level. cglx inhibited the growth of mcf7 cancer cells at lower ic50 concentration (17 µl/ml). microscopy of ic50 drug treated cells at 24 hr confirming the appearance of morphological characteristics of apoptotic and necrotic cells, associated with 70% of dna damage. facs analysis confirmed that, 10 and 20% of th ...201524446218
effect of anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate of calotropis gigantea (linn.) flower as antitumoric agent against ehrlich's ascites carcinoma in mice.over 60% of currently used anti-cancer agents are derived in one-way or another from natural sources, including plants, marine organisms and microorganisms. calotropis gigantea (linn.) (family: asclepiadaceae) is a perennial shrub and it is used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various health complications. but there is no report on isolation of anticancerous chemicals from the flower of calotropis gigantea. the objective of the present study is to explore the antitumor effect ...201323950602
hepatoprotective activity of calotropis gigantea flowers against carbon-tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.ethanol extract of calotropis gigantea flowers (cgfe) was evaluated for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity to validate its use in traditional therapeutic indications. this cgfe exhibited significant antioxidant activity (at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg/ml in vitro) as evidenced by its hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide anion radical scavenging activities. this in vitro antioxidant activity was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection (at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose) by decreasin ...201323893692
cytotoxic cardenolides from the root bark of calotropis gigantea.six new cardenolides (1, 2 and 11-14), along with ten known ones, were isolated from the root bark of calotropis gigantea. the structural determination was accomplished by the 1d- and 2d-nmr spectrum as well as esims analysis. the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro growth inhibitory activity against human a549 and hela cell lines. the results suggested that some of these cardenolides (compounds 1, 6, and 8) displayed potent cytotoxicities.201323851141
acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using calotropis gigantea against rhipicephalus microplus and haemaphysalis bispinosa.to assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tio2 nps) synthesized from flower aqueous extract of calotropis gigantea(c. gigantea) against the larvae of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus [r. (b.) microplus] and the adult of haemaphysalis bispinosa (h. bispinosa).201323827143
[the "dress" makes the neuron -- different forms of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system of vertebrates].extracellular matrix is a key component of most connective tissues. for decades, the presence of this chemically heterogeneous interface has been largely ignored or even denied in the central nervous system. it was not until the end of the last century that scientists turned their attention to this enigmatic substance and unravelled its versatile roles in the developing as well as the adult nervous system.201323816895
2'-epi-uscharin from the latex of calotropis gigantea with hif-1 inhibitory activity.two stereoisomeric cardenolides, uscharin (1) and a new compound, 2'-epi-uscharin (2), were isolated from the latex of calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae). their structures were fully elucidated based on their spectroscopic data, x-ray crystallographic data and chemical evidences. both epimers (1 and 2) exhibited strong inhibitory effects on hif-1 activity with different magnitudes. compound 1 showed much more potent activity than 2 and digoxin, a well-known hif-1 inhibitor. discrepancy in pote ...201424756103
endometrial adenocarcinoma: clinicopathologic and survival characteristics in yazd, iran.endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common gynecological cancer in the western world and its incidence appears to be rising. however, population-based studies on endometrial cancer providing survival estimates by age, histology, and stage in asia have been sparse. the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological data and survival for patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma treated at three institutions in yazd, iran.201424761903
hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of cysteine proteases from calotropis gigantea (l.) r. br. latex.plant latex is a natural source of biologically active compounds and several hydrolytic enzymes responsible for their diverse health benefits. recent past has witnessed substantial progress in understanding their supplementary industrial and pharmaceutical utility. calotropis gigantea is one of the important latex producing plants belonging to asclepediaceae family with wide ethnopharmacological applications and is rich in proteolytic enzymes. present study investigates hemostatic, milk clotting ...201424991114
outcome of assisted reproductive technology in women aged 40 years and older.human fertility has been declined all over the world. advanced women's age is one of the most important factors in determining the success of reproduction and ageing has negative impact on art outcome and advanced female age decreases the chance of live birth rates achieved using art, especially after 40 years of age.201126396576
water relations and photosynthetic capacity of two species of calotropis in a tropical semi-arid ecosystem.calotropis procera and calotropis gigantea, originally from warm parts of africa and asia, are now pan-tropical and in ecological terms considered an indicator of overgrazed, disturbed lands; they grow successfully in dry areas. variations in water relations, morphology and photosynthesis of the two species growing in the same habitat were studied to assess possible mechanisms of tolerance to drought and how these relate to their ecophysiological success. also the hypothesis that their photosynt ...201121149276
sedative and anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extract of calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae) leaves.to evaluate possible anxiogenic activity, sedative property and anxiolytic potential of crude ethanolic extract of calotropis gigantea leaves.201425183117
modifying eating behavior: novel approaches for reducing body weight, preventing weight regain, and reducing chronic disease risk.this article is a summary of the symposium "modifying eating behavior: novel approaches for reducing body weight, preventing weight regain, and reducing chronic disease risk" held 29 april 2014 at the asn scientific sessions and annual meeting at experimental biology 2014 in san diego, ca. in this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating ...201425398742
hexa-kis-(thio-urea-κs)nickel(ii) nitrate: a redetermination.a preliminary x-ray study of the title mol-ecular salt, [ni(ch(4)n(2)s)(6)](no(3))(2), has been reported twice previously, by maďar [acta cryst. (1961), 14, 894] and rodriguez, cubero, vega, morente & vazquez [acta cryst. (1961), 14, 1101], using film methods. we confirm the previous studies, but to modern standards of precision and with all h atoms located. the central ni atom (site symmetry ) of the dication is octa-hedrally coordinated by six s-bound thio-urea mol-ecules. the crystal structur ...201021588080
antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate isolated from calotropis gigantea (linn.) flower.a phytochemical study on the flowe r of calotropis gigantea (linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). the structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (ir, hrtofms and nmr). the antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diff ...200923983504
de novo sequencing and assembly analysis of transcriptome in the sodom apple (calotropis gigantea).the sodom apple (calotropis gigantea), a member of the asclepiadaceae family, is a large evergreen shrub native to continental asia and northern africa. as an important medicinal shrub and a fiber resource plant, there is an urgent need for developing molecular markers to facilitate breeding and genetic improvement of varieties.201526395839
first dinosaur tracks from the arabian peninsula.the evolutionary history of mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the arabian peninsula is virtually unknown. despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near madar village, 47 km north of sana'a, republic of yemen. this represents the first dinosaur tracksite from the arabian peninsula, and the only multi-taxon dinosaur ichnosite in the middle east.200818493306
assessment of atmospheric pahs profile through calotropis gigantea r.br. leaves in the vicinity of an indian coal-fired power plant.biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in the leaves of calotropis gigantea r.br. were performed at seven sites in the surrounding areas of a thermal power plant (tpp), using the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry technique. the primary objective of the study was to monitor the degree of pahs load in the nearby sites around tpp compared to distant sites. total pah (sigmapah) concentrations in the leaves ranged from 372.18 (at control site 7) to 4362.35 ng g(-1) d.w. (at h ...200918274868
new claims in folk veterinary medicines from uttar pradesh, india.in remote areas, folk medicines play a significant role in livestock health care management. the aims of this study were to document folk veterinary medicines of the uttar pradesh region and identify promising species for pharmacological studies.201323376281
phytoremediation of radiostrontium ((90)sr) and radiocesium ((137)cs) using giant milky weed (calotropis gigantea r.br.) plants.potential of plants to remove radionuclides/toxic elements from soils and solutions can be successfully applied for removal of important radionuclides such as strontium-90 ((90)sr) and cesium-137 ((137)cs). when uptake of (137)cs and (90)sr by calotropis gigantea plants incubated in distilled water spiked with the radionuclides either alone or in combination was studied, it was found to have a high efficiency for the removal of (90)sr, with 90% being removed from solutions (5 x 10(3)kbql(-1)) wi ...200616876232
standardization of kantha chendooram.siddha is a traditional medical system of india. according to siddha system of medicine, chendooram is a red colour powder generally made of metallic compounds. mercury is used in the form of rasa chendooram (red oxide of mercury). this paper deals with the standardization of kantha chendooram. it is a siddha preparation of 8 ingredients, viz. 1. purified lode stone, 2. purified sulphur, 3. lead wort root powder, 4. eclipta juice, 5. lime juice, 6. milk, 7. egg albumin, 8. madar latex. in this s ...200622557232
food selection and utilization in a danid butterfly.larvae of the danid butterfly danaus chrysippus, fed on the milkweeds calotropis gigantea and asclepias curassavica grew successfully during the 9-day feeding period and pupated. in the presence of these milkweeds, the larvae preferred to feed on c. gigantea. their preference was more pronounced during the final 2 instars than during the initial 3 instars. they consumed 605 mg, defecated 308 mg, and converted 115 mg of c. gigantea; those receiving a. curassavica consumed 563 mg, defecated 287 mg ...197528308815
cysteine proteases from the asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.in the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants asclepias curassavica l., calotropis gigantea r.br., pergularia extensa r.br. and cynanchum puciflorum r.br. belongs to the family asclepiadaceae. cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex en ...200918979066
in vitro anti-influenza virus activities of a new lignan glycoside from the latex of calotropis gigantea.a new lignan glycoside, (+)-pinoresinol 4-o-[6″-o-vanilloyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and two known phenolic compounds, 6'-o-vanilloyltachioside (2) and 6'-o-vanilloylisotachioside (3) were isolated from the latex of calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae). the structure of the new compound was elucidated by using spectroscopic and chemical methods. three isolates (1-3) and one authentic compound, (+)-pinoresinol 4-o-β-d-glucopyranoside, were screened for a/pr/8/34 (h1n1) inhibitory activity by cyto ...201425102000
studies on proteinases from calotropis gigantea latex. i. purification and some properties of two proteinases containing carbohydrate.two proteinase containing carbohydrate, called calotropain-fi and calotropain-fii, were purified from calotropis gigantea latex by cm-sephadex c-50 chromatography. both calotropain-fi and fii were found to be homogeneous by rechromatography on cm-sephadex c-50, gel filtration on sephadex g-100, electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by n-terminal amino acid analysis. some properties of these enzymes are reported.1973444537
[chemical study of indonesian medicinal plants].a series of scientific expeditions in indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. this article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. pongamia pinnata (papilionaceae), fagara rhetza (rutaceae), calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae), beilschmiedia madang (lauraceae), caesalpinia major (fabaceae), peronema canescens (verbenaceae ...19968993230
use of the milky sap from calotropis gigantea as a proteolytic enzyme in blood group serology. 20048259603
studies on the method - ethnobotany of calotropis gigantea and c.procera.the paper reviews the economic and traditional medicinal uses of the plants, calotropis gigantean and c. procera from the published literature from various of india. the ethno-medicinal uses of the former species in orissa are also incorporated. their distribution in india, botany, physical and chemical properties of the plant parts are provided. uses of the traditional medicines and their authentication as evidence by the available clinical trials are discussed. besides, uses and standardizatio ...199322556631
indonesian medicinal plants. i. chemical structures of calotroposides a and b, two new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides from the root of calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae).two new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides named calotroposides a (1) and b (2) have been isolated from the root of calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae), an indonesian medicinal plant, and their chemical structures have been elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods as 12-o-benzoyllineolon 3-o-beta-d-cymaropyranosyl(1----4)-beta-d-oleandropyranosyl( 1----4)- beta-d-oleandropyranosyl(1----4)-beta-d-cymaropyranosyl(1--- -4)-beta-d- cymaropyranoside and 12-o-benzoyldeacetylmetaplexigenin 3-o-beta-d ...19921423756
hypoglycemic effect of calotropis gigantea linn. leaves and flowers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.to evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activity of chloroform extract of calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers in normal rats and streptozotocin induced diabetes.201122043394
comparative studies on calotropins di and dii from the latex of calotropis gigantea.autodigestion of two cysteine proteinases, calotropins di and dii isolated from the latex of calotropis gigantea, has been studied at ph 7.5 and 37 degrees c in the presence of an activating agent. calotropin di is more susceptible to autodigestion than calotropin dii. during autodigestion no interconversion of one calotropin to another has occurred, as verified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. immunologically, both calotropins are clos ...19846430236
crystal and molecular structure of the sulfhydryl protease calotropin di at 3.2 a resolution.the three-dimensional structure of the sulfhydryl protease calotropin di from the madar plant, calotropis gigantea, has been determined at 3.2 a resolution using the multiple isomorphous replacement method with five heavy atom derivatives. a fourier synthesis based on protein phases with a mean figure of merit of 0.857 was used for model building. the polypeptide backbone of calotropin di is folded to form two distinct lobes, one of which is comprised mainly of alpha-helices, while the other is ...19826759664
isolation, crystallization, and properties of calotropins di and dii from calotropis gigantea. 19807006507
evaluation of antitumour activity of calotropis gigantea l. root bark against ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice.to investigate experimentally the possible antitumor effect of methanol extract (me) of calotropis gigantea l. (c. gigantean) root bark and its petroleum ether (pef) and chloroform (cf) soluble fractions against ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) in swiss albino mice.201122014733
lupeol, a triterpenoid isolated from calotropis gigantea latex ameliorates the primary and secondary complications of fca induced adjuvant disease in experimental rats.rheumatoid arthritis (ra) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects 1% of the adult population worldwide. calotropis gigantea is a xerophytic, latex producing medicinal plant widely distributed in nature. different parts of the plant have been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments including arthritis. in the present study, we have isolated and characterized lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene from the dialyzable fraction of the latex and evaluated the anti-arthri ...201122002338
comparative evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptotic potential of poecilocerus pictus and calotropis gigantea.calotropis gigantea, the giant milkweed, is used traditionally for treatment against cancer and in ayurveda as an antihelminthic, anti-pyretic and an anti-malarial agent. poecilocerus pictus, an orthopteran insect feeds on calotropis gigantea and both are known to possess cardiac glycosides. the increasing reports on the specific cytotoxicity of cardiac glycosides on human tumor cell lines led us to attempt characterization and comparative evaluation of cardenolides in both the insect and plant ...201121609318
histamine action of the latex of calotropis gigantea ait. 196313976071
purification and properties of the protease of latex of madar plants (calotropis gigantea). 195813537873
haemorrhagic septicaemia or madar poisoning? 194521065774
calosterol, a sterol present in the milky juice of calotropis gigantea. 193416745547
cytotoxic compounds from poecilocerus pictus feeding on calotropis gigantea.poecilocerus pictus, an aposematic insect, feeds on calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae) and sequesters cardiac glycosides which are used in chemical defense. the aim was to characterize the components of the methanolic extracts of p. pictus and c. gigantea and investigate preferential cytotoxicity of the insect extract, if any, on human cancer cell lines. comparative chemical characterization by hptlc, uv and ir studies revealed the presence of cardenolides in both the extracts and biotransform ...201020734917
free radical scavenging activity of calotropis gigantea on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.swarnabhasma, an ayurvedic preparation containing calotropis gigantea r. br. (asclepiadaceae) is extensively used by ayurvedic physicians for treatment of diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and nervous disorders. in the present study, we report the effect of chloroform extracts of calotropis gigantea leaf and flower on free radical scavenging activity, and lipid profile in streptozotozin-induced diabetic rats. the lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were ...200920376213
hepatoprotective effects of calotropis gigantea extract against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.ethanolic extract (50 %) of stems of calotropis gigantea r. br. (asclepiadaceae) at doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 were studied for hepatoprotective activity in male wistar rats with liver damage induced using carbon tetrachloride, 2 ml kg-1 twice a week. the protective effect of c. gigantea extract was compared with the standard drug silymarin. various biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino transferase (ast), alanine amino transferase (alt), glutathione (gsh), lipid peroxide (lpo), supero ...200919304561
a new cytotoxic pregnanone from calotropis gigantea.a new pregnanone, named calotropone (1), was isolated from the etoh extract of the roots of calotropis gigantea l. together with a known cardiac glycoside. the structures were elucidated by a study of their physical and spectral data. compounds 1 and 2 displayed inhibitory effects towards chronic myelogenous leukemia k562 and human gastric cancer sgc-7901 cell lines.200819052526
cns activity of calotropis gigantea roots.alcoholic extract of peeled roots of calotropis gigantea r.br. (asclepiadaceae) was tested orally in albino rats at the dose level of 250 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight for cns activity. prominent analgesic activity was observed in eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhings. the paw licking time was delayed and the numbers of writhings were greatly reduced. significant anticonvulsant activity was seen as there was a delay in the onset of pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions as well as ...200616446065
calotropin: a cardenolide from calotropis gigantea that inhibits wnt signaling by increasing casein kinase 1α in colon cancer cells.wnt signaling plays key roles in embryonic development and various human diseases. activity-guided testing to isolate wnt signaling inhibitors from the methanol extract of calotropis gigantea (asclepiadaceae) exudutes identified six wnt inhibitory cardenolides (1-6), of which 1, 3, 5, and 6 exhibited potent tcf/β-catenin inhibitory activities (ic50 0.7-3.6 nm). calotropin (1) inhibited wnt signaling by decreasing both nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin in a dose-dependent manner, and promoted degra ...201424644251
procoagulant activity of calotropis gigantea latex associated with fibrin(ogen)olytic activity.the latex of calotropis gigantea is a rich source of useful components that has medicinal properties and one of the main applications is in controlling bleeding. the crude latex extract contained many proteins, which are highly basic in nature and exhibited strong proteolytic activity. the crude extract hydrolyses casein, human fibrinogen and crude fibrin clot in a dose-dependent manner. the hydrolyzing activity was completely inhibited by iaa indicating they belong to the super family, cysteine ...200515922393
does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal pap smear?it is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations.201324639817
antioxidant potential and protection of pancreatic β- cells by calotropis gigantea in streptozocin induced diabetic rats.this study was designed to examine the antioxidant defense by chloroform extract of calotropis gigantea on streptozotocin-(40mg/kg, intraperitonial, single-injection) induced diabetes in wistar albino rats. the extract significantly (p < .05) decreased the pancreatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (tbars) levels and significantly (p < .05) increased the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione levels as compared to above levels in pancreatic tissue of pathogenic diabetic rats. th ...201222624184
antioxidant and cytotoxic flavonols from calotropis procera.phytochemical investigations of calotropis procera leaves have led to the isolation of two new compounds: quercetagetin-6-methyl ether 3-o-beta-d-4c1-galacturonopyranoside (3) and (e)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl-2-o-beta-d-4c1 -glucopyranoside)-methyl propenoate (4), along with eleven known metabolites: nine flavonol and two cinnamic acid derivatives. all metabolites were isolated for the first time from the genus calotropis, except for 1 isolated previously from calotropis gigantea. the structures were ...201222351979
tribal formulations for treatment of pain: a study of the bede community traditional medicinal practitioners of porabari village in dhaka district, bangladesh.the bedes form one of the largest tribal or indigenous communities in bangladesh and are popularly known as the boat people or water gypsies because of their preference for living in boats. they travel almost throughout the whole year by boats on the numerous waterways of bangladesh and earn their livelihood by selling sundry items, performing jugglery acts, catching snakes, and treating village people by the various riversides with their traditional medicinal formulations. life is hard for the ...201224082322
pharmacognostic standardization of leaves of calotropis procera (ait.) r. br. (asclepiadaceae).calotropis procera, belonging to the asclepidaceae family, is present more or less throughout india and in other warm, dry places such as, warizistan, afghanistan, egypt, and tropical africa. its common names are akra, akanal, and madar. the leaves of calotropis procera are said to be valuable as an antidote for snake bite, sinus fistula, rheumatism, mumps, burn injuries, and body pain. the leaves of calotropis procera are also used to treat jaundice. a study on calotropis procera leaf samples e ...201020532092
cytotoxic cardenolides from the leaves of calotropis gigantea.two 15beta-hydroxycardenolides (1,2) and a 16alpha-hydroxycalactinic acid methyl ester (3) along with eleven known compounds including 16alpha-hydroxycalotropagenin, coroglaucigenin, 16alpha-hydroxycalotropin, calactinic acid, calotoxin, 6'-o-(e-4-hydroxycinnamoyl)desglucouzarin, 12beta-hydroxycoroglaucigenin, frugoside, calotropagenin, 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadeca-10(e),15(z)-dienoic acid and r-(-)-mevalonolactone were isolated from the polar fraction of the ch(2)cl(2) extract, and n-buoh extract ...201020460804
isolation of stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol from methanolic extract of root bark of calotropis gigantea (linn).aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principles from the root bark of calotropis gigantea. it has wide folk medicinal use. for isolation of the compounds, the dried root bark's powder of calotropis gigantea were subjected to hot extraction and then the crude methanol (meoh) extract was fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. two compounds were isolated and purified from petroleum ether fraction of crude methanol extract and the structures were ...200719090304
comparative study on plant latex proteases and their involvement in hemostasis: a special emphasis on clot inducing and dissolving properties.in the present study we compared the clot inducing and dissolving properties of calotropis gigantea r. br. (asclepiadaceae), synadenium grantii hook. f. (euphorbiaceae) and wrightia tinctoria r. br. (apocynaceae) latex extracts. all the three latex extracts hydrolyzed casein, fibrinogen and crude fibrin dose-dependently. the proteolytic action on fibrinogen subunity was in the order of aalpha > bbeta > gamma. all extracts exhibited procoagulant activity as assayed by re-calcification time. howev ...200717691056
evaluation of chemical constituents and free-radical scavenging activity of swarnabhasma (gold ash), an ayurvedic drug.from ancient times, swarnabhasma (gold ash) has been used in several clinical manifestations including loss of memory, defective eyesight, infertility, overall body weakness and incidence of early aging. swarnabhasma has been used by ayurvedic physicians to treat different diseases like bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, etc. in the present investigation, swarnabhasma was prepared after proper purification and calcination as per ayurvedic pharmacy which ...200212007704
heavy metal and nutrient concentration in soil and plants growing on a metalliferous chromite minespoil.metal contamination in soil and plant samples from a chromite mine and its adjoining regions was determined. the metal concentration varied in stem, leaf and root of different tree species. in the case of shrubs, the highest concentration of iron (18.5 mg kg(-1) was detected in the stem of combretum roxburghii. the concentration of aluminium varied from 1.8 - 5.3 mg kg(-1) dry weight, whereas the nickel content was found to be the highest in the stem of calotropis gigantea. in the case of herbs, ...200111766037
influence of host plant on growth and reproduction of aphis nerii and feeding and prey utilization of its predator menochilus sexmaculatus.influence of different physiological stages (young, mature and senescent) of calotropis gigantea leaves on growth and reproductive ability of a. nerii and feeding, prey utilization, fecundity and lipid content of its predator m. sexmaculatus were investigated. increased reproductive period, total life span and reproduction of nymphs per female of a. nerii were observed when reared on mature leaves. this relative preference of a. nerii and maximum utilization of mature leaves as compared to other ...200011116532
moniliella byzovii sp. nov., a chlamydospore-forming black yeast isolated from flowers.yeasts of the genus moniliella were isolated from 651 flower samples collected in vietnam, using an enrichment medium containing 50 % glucose. species of the genus moniliella were found in 5 % of the samples and 54 strains were isolated. the strains were identified based on d1/d2 lsu rrna gene sequences as m. megachiliensis (15 strains), m. dehoogii (14 strains), and m. mellis (2 strains). the remaining 23 strains could not be reliably placed under any known species. among them, 12 strains isola ...201323355700
a novel insect antifeedant nonprotein amino acid from calotropis giganteagiganticine (1), a novel nonprotein amino acid, has been isolated from a methanol extract of the root bark of calotropis gigantea and its structure established by spectroscopic methods. it exhibited a significant antifeedant activity against nymphs of the desert locust schistocerca gregaria.19989548837
flavonol glycosides from calotropis gigantea.besides isolation and characterization of isorhamnetin-3-o-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-o-glucopyranoside and taraxasteryl acetate, a new flavonol trisaccharide was isolated from the aerial parts of calotropis gigantea, and its structure was established as isorhamnetin-3-o-[2-o-beta-d-galactopyranosyl-6-o-alpha-l-rhamnopy ranosyl]- beta-d-glucopyranoside by a combination of fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, 1h and 13c nmr spectra and some chemical degradations.19921368420
studies on proteinases from calotropis gigantea latex. ii. physico-chemichal properties of calotropain-fi and fii.the molecular weights of purified calotropain-fi and fii were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by filtration of sephadex g-100. activation of calotropain-fi and fii by different sulfhydryl activators was studied. the results obtained from inhibition studies by various enzyme-modifying reagents suggest the possible role of cysteine and histidine residues in the active site of both the enzymes. the free and total sulfhydryl contents of both the enzymes w ...1979444538
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