inhibition of anthocyanin formation in seedlings and flowers by the enantiomers of α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid and their n-benzyloxycarbonyl derivatives.both enantiomers of α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (aopp), potent inhibitors of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and their n-benzyloxycarbonyl (n-boc) derivatives inhibit anthocyanin formation in developing flowers of ipomoea tricolor cav. and catharanthus roseus don. as well as in seedlings of brassica oleracea var. caulo-rapa dc (kohlrabi) and b. oleracea var. capitata l. (red cabbage) with little interference with their normal development. kohlrabi seedlings tolerate up to 0.3 mm l-aopp and ...197924407328
characterization of a cdna encoding a proline-rich 14 kda protein in developing cortical cells of the roots of bean (phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings.a cdna clone, corresponding to mrnas preferentially expressed in the roots of bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) seedlings, was isolated. this clone contains a 381 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 13.5 kda, designated pvr5 (phaseolus vulgaris root 5). the amino acid sequence of this clone is rich in proline (13.5%) and leucine (12.7%) and shares significant amino acid sequence homology with root-specific and proline-rich proteins from monocots (maize and rice), and proline-rich proteins ...19968639755
differential induction of meristematic stem cells of catharanthus roseus and their characterization.plant cell culture technology has been introduced for the mass production of the many useful components. a variety of plant-derived compounds is being used in various fields, such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. plant cell cultures are believed to be derived from the dedifferentiation process. in the present study, an undifferentiated cambial meristematic cell (cmcs) of catharanthus is isolated using histological and genetic methods, and compared with dedifferentiation-derived callus ( ...201526298518
characterization of a second secologanin synthase isoform producing both secologanin and secoxyloganin allows enhanced de novo assembly of a catharanthus roseus transcriptome.transcriptome sequencing offers a great resource for the study of non-model plants such as catharanthus roseus, which produces valuable monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mias) via a complex biosynthetic pathway whose characterization is still undergoing. transcriptome databases dedicated to this plant were recently developed by several consortia to uncover new biosynthetic genes. however, the identification of missing steps in mia biosynthesis based on these large datasets may be limited by the er ...201526285573
binary stress induces an increase in indole alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus.catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant, which produces a variety of indole alkaloids of significant pharmaceutical relevance. in the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential stress-induced increase of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in c. roseus using proteomic technique. the contents of the detectable alkaloids ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, and strictosidine in c. roseus were significantly increased under binary stress. proteomic analysis revealed that the abundanc ...201526284098
the bhlh transcription factor bis1 controls the iridoid branch of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in catharanthus roseus.plants make specialized bioactive metabolites to defend themselves against attackers. the conserved control mechanisms are based on transcriptional activation of the respective plant species-specific biosynthetic pathways by the phytohormone jasmonate. knowledge of the transcription factors involved, particularly in terpenoid biosynthesis, remains fragmentary. by transcriptome analysis and functional screens in the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle), the unique source of ...201526080427
isolation of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don nuclei and measurement of rate of tryptophan decarboxylase gene transcription using nuclear run-on transcription accurate assessment of transcription 'rate' is often desired to describe the promoter activity. in plants, isolation of transcriptionally active nuclei and their subsequent use in nuclear run-on assays has been challenging and therefore limit an accurate measurement of gene transcription 'rate'. catharanthus roseus has emerged as a model medicinal plant as it exhibits an unsurpassed spectrum of chemodiversity, producing over 130 alkaloids through the terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) pathway an ...201526024519
biosynthesis and regulation of terpenoid indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus.catharanthus roseus produces a wide range of terpenoid indole alkaloids (tia). many of them, such as vinblastine and vincristine, have significant bioactivity. they are valuable chemotherapy drugs used in combination with other drugs to treat lymphoma and leukemia. the tia biosynthetic pathway has been investigated for many years, for scientific interest and for their potential in manufacturing applications, to fulfill the market demand. in this review, the progress and perspective of c. roseus ...201726009689
effects of β-cyclodextrin and methyl jasmonate on the production of vindoline, catharanthine, and ajmalicine in catharanthus roseus cambial meristematic cell cultures.long-term stable cell growth and production of vindoline, catharanthine, and ajmalicine of cambial meristematic cells (cmcs) from catharanthus roseus were observed after 2 years of culture. c. roseus cmcs were treated with β-cyclodextrin (β-cd) and methyl jasmonate (meja) individually or in combination and were cultured both in conventional erlenmeyer flasks (100, 250, and 500 ml) and in a 5-l stirred hybrid airlift bioreactor. cmcs of c. roseus cultured in the bioreactor showed higher yields of ...201525981997
ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers of north tripura district, tripura, north east india.information about ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in tripura, india is very much limited. as there is rapid erosion of traditional knowledge in the state, needs has arisen to document the diversity of medicinal plants, their preparation and associated diseases.201525794807
unlocking the diversity of alkaloids in catharanthus roseus: nuclear localization suggests metabolic channeling in secondary metabolism.the extraordinary chemical diversity of the plant-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids, which include vinblastine, quinine, and strychnine, originates from a single biosynthetic intermediate, strictosidine aglycone. here we report for the first time the cloning of a biosynthetic gene and characterization of the corresponding enzyme that acts at this crucial branchpoint. this enzyme, an alcohol dehydrogenase homolog, converts strictosidine aglycone to the heteroyohimbine-type alkaloid tetrahydroa ...201525772467
arabidopsis cap1-mediated ammonium sensing required reactive oxygen species in plant cell growth.[ca(2+)]cyt-associated protein kinase (cap) gene 1 is a receptor-like kinase that belongs to crrlk1l (catharanthus roseus receptor like kinase) subfamily. cap1 has been identified as a novel modulator of nh4(+) in the tonoplast, which regulates root hair growth by maintaining the cytoplasmic ca(2+) gradients. different expression pattern of tonoplast intrinsic protein (tip2;3) in the cap1 knock out mutant and wild type on murashige and skoog (ms) medium suggested that cap1 influences transport a ...201425763633
genome-guided investigation of plant natural product biosynthesis.the medicinal plant madagascar periwinkle, catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don, produces hundreds of biologically active monoterpene-derived indole alkaloid (mia) metabolites and is the sole source of the potent, expensive anti-cancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. access to a genome sequence would enable insights into the biochemistry, control, and evolution of genes responsible for mia biosynthesis. however, generation of a near-complete, scaffolded genome is prohibitive to small research ...201525759247
indole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus: bioproduction and their effect on human health.catharanthus roseus is a medicinal plant belonging to the family apocynaceae which produces terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) of high medicinal importance. indeed, a number of activities like antidiabetic, bactericide and antihypertensive are linked to c. roseus. nevertheless, the high added value of this plant is based on its enormous pharmaceutical interest, producing more than 130 tias, some of which exhibit strong pharmacological activities. the most striking biological activity investigated ...201525685907
"self" and "non-self" in the control of phytoalexin biosynthesis: plant phospholipases a2 with alkaloid-specific molecular fingerprints.the overproduction of specialized metabolites requires plants to manage the inherent burdens, including the risk of self-intoxication. we present a control mechanism that stops the expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes by blocking the antecedent signal transduction cascade. cultured cells of eschscholzia californica (papaveraceae) and catharanthus roseus (apocynaceae) overproduce benzophenanthridine alkaloids and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, respectively, in response to microbial eli ...201525670767
vindogentianine, a hypoglycemic alkaloid from catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (apocynaceae).vindogentianine, a new indole alkaloid together with six known alkaloids, vindoline, vindolidine, vindolicine, vindolinine, perivine and serpentine were isolated from leaf extract (da) of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods; nmr, ms, uv and ir. vindogentianine is a dimer containing a vindoline moiety coupled to a gentianine moiety. after 24h incubation, vindogentianine exhibited no cytotoxic effect in c2c12 mouse myoblast and β-tc6 mouse pan ...201525665941
relative mass defect filtering of mass spectra: a path to discovery of plant specialized metabolites.the rapid identification of novel plant metabolites and assignments of newly discovered substances to natural product classes present the main bottlenecks to defining plant specialized phenotypes. although mass spectrometry provides powerful support for metabolite discovery by measuring molecular masses, ambiguities in elemental formulas often fail to reveal the biosynthetic origins of specialized metabolites detected using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. a promising approach for mining ...201525659383
characterization of 10-hydroxygeraniol dehydrogenase from catharanthus roseus reveals cascaded enzymatic activity in iridoid biosynthesis.catharanthus roseus [l.] is a major source of the monoterpene indole alkaloids (mias), which are of significant interest due to their therapeutic value. these molecules are formed through an intermediate, cis-trans-nepetalactol, a cyclized product of 10-oxogeranial. one of the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of mias is an nad(p)(+) dependent oxidoreductase system, 10-hydroxygeraniol dehydrogenase (cr10hgo), which catalyses the formation of 10-oxogeranial from 10-hydroxygeraniol via 10-o ...201525651761
iridoid synthase activity is common among the plant progesterone 5β-reductase family.catharanthus roseus, the madagascar periwinkle, synthesizes bioactive monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. the monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway leads to the secoiridoid secologanin and involves the enzyme iridoid synthase (is), a member of the progesterone 5β-reductase (p5βr) family. is reduces 8-oxogeranial to iridodial. through transcriptome mining, we show that is belongs to a family of six c. roseus p5βr genes. characterizat ...201525578278
functional analysis of related crrlk1l receptor-like kinases in pollen tube reception.the catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like (crrlk1l) family of 17 receptor-like kinases (rlks) has been implicated in a variety of signaling pathways in arabidopsis, ranging from pollen tube (pt) reception and tip growth to hormonal responses. the extracellular domains of these rlks have malectin-like domains predicted to bind carbohydrate moieties. domain swap analysis showed that the extracellular domains of the three members analyzed (fer, anx1, herk1) are not interchangeable, sugges ...201525490905
identification of conserved and novel micrornas in catharanthus roseus by deep sequencing and computational prediction of their potential targets.micrornas are small endogenous non-coding rnas of ~19-24 nucleotides and perform regulatory roles in many plant processes. to identify mirnas involved in regulatory networks controlling diverse biological processes including secondary metabolism in catharanthus roseus, an important medicinal plant, we employed deep sequencing of small rna from leaf tissue. a total of 88 potential mirnas comprising of 81 conserved mirnas belonging to 35 families and seven novel mirnas were identified. precursors ...201525445288
simultaneous quantitative determination of five alkaloids in catharanthus roseus by hplc-esi-ms/ establish a method to simultaneously determine the main five alkaloids of catharanthus roseus for trace samples, a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (hplc-esi-ms/ms) analysis method was developed.201425443373
effect of gloriosa superba and catharanthus roseus extracts on ifn-γ-induced keratin 17 expression in hacat human keratinocytes.gloriosa superba and catharanthus roseus are useful in traditional medicine for treatment of various skin diseases and cancer. however, their molecular effect on psoriasis has not been investigated. in this study, the effect of ethanol extracts derived from g. superba leaves and c. roseus stems on the expression of psoriatic marker, keratin 17 (k17), was investigated in human keratinocytes using biochemical and molecular experimental approaches. both extracts could reduce the expression of k17 i ...201425435888
genome-wide identification and analysis of catharanthus roseus rlk1-like kinases in rice.a genome-wide survey of catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase1-like kinases (crrlk1ls) in rice revealed that the pattern of expression by some crrlk1ls is controlled by drought or circadian rhythms. this is probably accomplished through the functioning of gigantea ( osgi ). such findings provide a novel angle for using crrlk1ls to study the drought-stress response and circadian regulation. the 17 crrlk1l members of a novel rlk family have been identified in arabidopsis. each carries a putativ ...201525399351
salicylic acid alters antioxidant and phenolics metabolism in catharanthus roseus grown under salinity stress.salicylic acid (sa) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. the effects of salicylic acid (sa; 0.05 mm) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid accumulation in salt stressed catharanthus roseus were investigated.201425395715
gene transcript profiles of the tia biosynthetic pathway in response to ethylene and copper reveal their interactive role in modulating tia biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus.research on transcriptional regulation of terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) biosynthesis of the medicinal plant, catharanthus roseus, has largely been focused on gene function and not clustering analysis of multiple genes at the transcript level. here, more than ten key genes encoding key enzyme of alkaloid synthesis in tia biosynthetic pathways were chosen to investigate the integrative responses to exogenous elicitor ethylene and copper (cu) at both transcriptional and metabolic levels. the ethy ...201525344654
antagonism of ca2+ influx via l-type ca2+ channels mediates the vasorelaxant effect of catharanthus roseus-derived vindorosine in rat renal artery.catharanthus roseus is a traditional herbal medicine used in asian and african countries for the treatment of various diseases including hypertension. the present study examined possible cellular mechanisms for the relaxation of rat renal arteries induced by vindorosine extracted from c. roseus. intrarenal arteries were isolated from 200-300 g male sprague-dawley rats and treated with different pharmacological blockers and inhibitors for the measurement of vascular reactivity on a multi myograph ...201425340466
somatic embryo mediated mass production of catharanthus roseus in culture vessel (bioreactor) - a comparative study.the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the use of liquid and solid murashige and skoog (ms) medium in different culture vessels for mass production of catharanthus roseus, an important source of anticancerous compounds, vincristine and vinblastine. three media conditions i.e. agar-solidified medium (s), liquid medium in agitated conical flask (l) and growtek bioreactor (b) were used. rapid propagation was achieved through in vitro somatic embryogenesis pathway. the process of embr ...201425313279
an abundant 'candidatus phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and hyalesthes obsoletus.bois noir (bn) associated with 'candidatus phytoplasma solani' (stolbur) is regularly found in austrian vine growing regions. investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. infections of nettles were rare. in contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of h. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. the high population densities of h. obsoletus on urtica ...201425309042
effects of ambient and elevated co2 on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants, and secondary metabolites of catharanthus roseus (l.) g don. grown under three different soil n levels.catharanthus roseus l. plants were grown under ambient (375 ± 30 ppm) and elevated (560 ± 25 ppm) concentrations of atmospheric co2 at different rates of n supply (without supplemental n, 0 kg n ha(-1); recommended n, 50 kg n ha(-1); and double recommended n, 100 kg n ha(-1)) in open top chambers under field condition. elevated co2 significantly increased photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic efficiency, and organic carbon content in leaves at recommended (rn) and double recommended n (drn), w ...201525304238
iridoid synthase activity is common among the plant progesterone 5β-reductase family.catharanthus roseus, the madagascar periwinkle, synthesizes bioactive monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, among which the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. the monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway leads to the secoiridoid secologanin and involves the enzyme iridoid synthase (is), a member of the progesterone 5β-reductase (p5βr) family. is reduces 8-oxogeranial to iridodial. through transcriptome mining, we show that is belongs to a family of six c. roseus p5βr genes. characteris ...201425239067
biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus.catharanthus roseus is one of the most extensively investigated medicinal plants, which can produce more than 130 alkaloids, including the powerful antitumor drugs vinblastine and vincristine. here we review the recent advances in the biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) in c. roseus, and the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes involved in this pathway. strictosidine is the central intermediate in the biosynthesis of different tias, which is form ...201425159992
phytochemical genomics of the madagascar periwinkle: unravelling the last twists of the alkaloid engine.the madagascar periwinkle produces a large palette of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mias), a class of complex alkaloids including some of the most valuable plant natural products with precious therapeutical values. evolutionary pressure on one of the hotspots of biodiversity has obviously turned this endemic malagasy plant into an innovative alkaloid engine. catharanthus is a unique taxon producing vinblastine and vincristine, heterodimeric mias with complex stereochemistry, and also manufactu ...201525146650
investigation of a substrate-specifying residue within papaver somniferum and catharanthus roseus aromatic amino acid decarboxylases.plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (aaads) catalyze the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids with either benzene or indole rings. because the substrate selectivity of aaads is intimately related to their physiological functions, primary sequence data and their differentiation could provide significant physiological insights. however, due to general high sequence identity, plant aaad substrate specificities have been difficult to identify through primary sequence comparison. in this stud ...201425107664
four botanical extracts are toxic to the hispine beetle, brontispa longissima, in laboratory and semi-field trials.the potential of botanical extracts such as celosia argenea l. (caryophyllales: amaranthaceae), ricinus communis l. (malpighiales: euphorbiaceae), mikania micrantha humboldt, bonpland & kunth (astrales: asteraceae), and catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (gentianales: apocynaceae) for the control of brontispa longissima gestro was evaluated in a bioassay and semi-field trial. dose-response bioassay showed no significant difference in oral-toxicity among the extracts of c. argenea, m. micrantha, and ...201222962939
a pilot study of antioxidant potential of endophytic fungi from some sudanese medicinal evaluate the total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of ethyl acetate extracts of 21 endophytic fungi isolated from five sudanese medicinal plants: calotropis procera, catharanthus roseus, euphorbia prostrate, vernonia amygdalina and trigonella foenum-graecum.201526433653
apocynaceae species with antiproliferative and/or antiplasmodial properties: a review of ten genera.apocynaceae is a large family of tropical trees, shrubs and vines with most species producing white latex. major metabolites of species are triterpenoids, iridoids, alkaloids and cardenolides, which are known for a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimalarial properties. prompted by their anticancer and antimalarial properties, the current knowledge on ten genera (allamanda, als ...201627417173
over-expression of catharanthus roseus tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase in rol gene integrated transgenic cell suspensions of vinca minor.tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) and strictosidine synthase (str) genes from catharanthus roseus have been successfully over-expressed in the rol gene integrated cell suspensions of v. minor. thirty seconds saat (sonication-assisted agrobacterium transformation) treatment of plant cell suspension with lba1119 having construct (<hpt-<tdc2-<str-gus>) generated three stable tdc + str over-expressing cell lines--pvg1, pvg2, and pvg3. the transgenes were confirmed by β-glucuronidase gus histochemical a ...201525106473
transcriptome analysis of catharanthus roseus for gene discovery and expression profiling.the medicinal plant, catharanthus roseus, accumulates wide range of terpenoid indole alkaloids, which are well documented therapeutic agents. in this study, deep transcriptome sequencing of c. roseus was carried out to identify the pathways and enzymes (genes) involved in biosynthesis of these compounds. about 343 million reads were generated from different tissues (leaf, flower and root) of c. roseus using illumina platform. optimization of de novo assembly involving a two-step process resulted ...201425072156
synthesis and characterization of palladium nanoparticles using catharanthus roseus leaf extract and its application in the photo-catalytic degradation.the potential effect of catharanthus roseus leaf extract for the formation of palladium nanoparticles and its application on dye degradation was discussed. the efficiency of c.roseus leaves are used as a bio-material for the first time as reducing agent. synthesized palladium nanoparticles were supported by uv-vis spectrometry, xrd, ft-ir and tem analysis. the secondary metabolites which are responsible for the formation of nanoparticles were identified by gc-ms. the results showed that effect o ...201525062057
jasmonic acid effect on the fatty acid and terpenoid indole alkaloid accumulation in cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus.the stress response after jasmonic acid (ja) treatment was studied in cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus. the effect of ja on the primary and secondary metabolism was based on changes in profiles of fatty acids (fa) and terpenoid indole alkaloids (tia). according to multivariate data analyses (mvda), three major time events were observed and characterized according to the variations of specific fa and tia: after 0-30 min of induction fa such as c18:1, c20:0, c22:0 and c24:0 were hig ...201425029072
arabidopsis cap1-mediated ammonium sensing required reactive oxygen species in plant cell growth.[ca (2+)]cyt-associated protein kinase (cap) gene 1 is a receptor-like kinase that belongs to crrlk1l (catharanthus roseus receptor like kinase) subfamily. cap1 has been identified as a novel modulator of nh 4(+) in the tonoplast, which regulates root hair growth by maintaining the cytoplasmic ca (2+) gradients. different expression pattern of tonoplast intrinsic protein (tip2;3) in the cap1 knock out mutant and wild type on murashige and skoog (ms) medium suggested that cap1 influences transpor ...201424940875
study of the effect of nickel heavy metals on some physiological parameters of catharanthus roseus.plants, in their life cycle, are usually exposed to various kinds of non-biological stresses including heavy metals. one of these heavy metals is nickel which affects many physiological processes of plants. studies have shown that the changes in planting conditions can affect the qualitative and quantitative features of catharanthus roseus; therefore, creating stressful conditions (e.g. nicl2) can be an effective way to investigate the changes. in this research, we investigated the effect of 0, ...201424870880
identification of a human abcc10 orthologue in catharanthus roseus reveals a u12-type intron determinant for the n-terminal domain (atp-binding cassette) transporters are members of a large superfamily of proteins that utilize atp hydrolysis to translocate a wide range of substrates across biological membranes. in general, members of c subfamily (abcc) are structurally characterized by an additional (n-terminal) transmembrane domain (tmd0). phylogenetic analysis of plant abccs separates their protein sequences into three distinct clusters: i and ii are plant specific whereas cluster iii contains both human and plant abc ...201424840820
evaluation of the nutritive and organoleptic values of food products developed by incorporated catharanthus roseus (sadabahar) fresh leaves explore their hypoglycemic potential.diabetes becomes a real problem of public health in developing countries, where its prevalence is increasing steadily. diabetes mellitus can be found in almost every population in the world. since the ayurvedic practice started in india, plants are being used in the cure of diseases. although the catharanthus roseus have been used for their alleged health benefits and avail their hypoglycemic effect, used as medicine by diabetics. medicinal plants have rarely been incorporated in food preparatio ...201424790561
a look inside an alkaloid multisite plant: the catharanthus logistics.environmental pressures forced plants to diversify specialized metabolisms to accumulate noxious molecules such as alkaloids constituting one of the largest classes of defense metabolites. catharanthus roseus produces monoterpene indole alkaloids via a highly elaborated biosynthetic pathway whose characterization greatly progressed with the recent expansion of transcriptomic resources. the complex architecture of this pathway, sequentially distributed in at least four cell types and further comp ...201424727073
suppression of aggressive strains of 'candidatus phytoplasma mali' by mild strains in catharanthus roseus and nicotiana occidentalis and indication of similar action in apple study antagonistic interactions of 'candidatus phytoplasma mali' strains, graft inoculation of catharanthus roseus and nicotiana occidentalis was performed with mild strains 1/93vin and 1/93tab as suppressors and three aggressive strains as challengers. inoculation of the suppressors was carried out in either the cross-protection modus prior to grafting of the challengers or by co-inoculating suppressors and challengers. monitoring using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays re ...201424724815
the seco-iridoid pathway from catharanthus roseus.the (seco)iridoids and their derivatives, the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mias), form two large families of plant-derived bioactive compounds with a wide spectrum of high-value pharmacological and insect-repellent activities. vinblastine and vincristine, mias used as anticancer drugs, are produced by catharanthus roseus in extremely low levels, leading to high market prices and poor availability. their biotechnological production is hampered by the fragmentary knowledge of their biosynthesis ...201424710322
correspondence between flowers and leaves in terpenoid indole alkaloid metabolism of the phytoplasma-infected catharanthus roseus plants.several plants of catharanthus roseus cv 'leafless inflorescence (lli)' showing phenotype of phytoplasma infection were observed for symptoms of early flowering, virescence, phyllody, and apical clustering of branches. symptomatic plants were studied for the presence/absence and identity of phytoplasma in flowers. transcription levels of several genes involved in plants' metabolism and development, accumulation of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids in flowers and leaves and va ...201424658891
the improved resistance to high salinity induced by trehalose is associated with ionic regulation and osmotic adjustment in catharanthus roseus.the effects of exogenous trehalose (tre) on salt tolerance of pharmaceutical plant catharanthus roseus and the physiological mechanisms were both investigated in this study. the results showed that the supplement of tre in saline condition (250 mm nacl) largely alleviated the inhibitory effects of salinity on plant growth, namely biomass accumulation and total leaf area per plant. in this saline condition, the decreased level of relative water content (rwc) and photosynthetic rate were also grea ...201424589477
high-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.peanut witches'-broom (pnwb) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in catharanthus roseus. the pnwb-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the c. roseus genome. in this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (hfs) and stage 4 (s4) pnwb-infected leafy flowers of c. roseus were investigated usin ...201424492256
large scale in-silico identification and characterization of simple sequence repeats (ssrs) from de novo assembled transcriptome of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don.transcriptomic data of c. roseus offering ample sequence resources for providing better insights into gene diversity: large resource of genic ssr markers to accelerate genomic studies and breeding in catharanthus . next-generation sequencing is an efficient system for generating high-throughput complete transcripts/genes and developing molecular markers. we present here the transcriptome sequencing of a 26-day-old catharanthus roseus seedling tissue using illumina gaiix platform that resulted in ...201424482265
vinca alkaloids.vinca alkaloids are a subset of drugs obtained from the madagascar periwinkle plant. they are naturally extracted from the pink periwinkle plant, catharanthus roseus g. don and have a hypoglycemic as well as cytotoxic effects. they have been used to treat diabetes, high blood pressure and have been used as disinfectants. the vinca alkaloids are also important for being cancer fighters. there are four major vinca alkaloids in clinical use: vinblastine (vbl), vinorelbine (vrl), vincristine (vcr) a ...201324404355
biochemical and ultrastructural changes in sida cordifolia l. and catharanthus roseus l. to auto pollution is the by-product of our mechanized mobility, which adversely affects both plant and human life. however, plants growing in the urban locations provide a great respite to us from the brunt of auto pollution by absorbing the pollutants at their foliar surface. foliar surface configuration and biochemical changes in plant species, namely, sida cordifolia l. and catharanthus roseus l. grown at roadside (polluted site 1, talkatora; polluted site 2, charbagh) in lucknow city and in the ...201427355010
cytosine hypomethylation at chg and chh sites in the pleiotropic mutants of mendelian inheritance in catharanthus roseus.the 5s and 18s rdna sequences of catharanthus roseus cv 'nirmal' (wild type) and its leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill) single mutants and lli egd, lli ill and egd ill double mutants were characterized. the lli, egd and ill mutants of mendelian inheritance bore the names after their most conspicuous morphological feature(s). they had been chemically induced and isolated for their salt tolerance. the double mutants were isolated as morphological se ...201324371171
pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of catharanthus roseus possessing mendelian catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at dna repeats, expression of 119 protein coding and seven mirna-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. the mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). the southern-blot analysis of mspi ...201324371160
medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in kakamega county, kenya.traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic debilitating and life threatening conditions and diseases. cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. increasingly industrialised societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. plant biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine their use by local communitie ...201424362078
computational identification of micrornas and their targets in catharanthus roseus expressed sequence study has been performed on identifying micrornas (mirnas) and their targets in the medicinal plant, catharanthus roseus. in the present study, using the comparative genomics approach, we have predicted two potential c. roseus mirnas. furthermore, twelve potential mrna targets were identified in c. roseus genome based on the characteristics that mirnas exhibit perfect or nearly perfect complementarity with their targeted mrna sequences. among them many of the targets were predicted to encode ...201326484050
engineering the mep pathway enhanced ajmalicine biosynthesis.the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (mep) pathway genes encoding dxr and mecs from taxus species and str from catharanthus roseus were used to genetically modify the ajmalicine biosynthetic pathway in hairy root cultures of c. roseus. as expected, the str-overexpressed root cultures showed twofold higher accumulation of ajmalicine than the control. it was important to discover that overexpression of the single dxr or mecs gene from the mep pathway also remarkably enhanced ajmalicine biosynth ...201424237015
investigation of the chemomarkers correlated with flower colour in different organs of catharanthus roseus using nmr-based metabolomics.flower colour is a complex phenomenon that involves a wide range of secondary metabolites of flowers, for example phenolics and carotenoids as well as co-pigments. biosynthesis of these metabolites, though, occurs through complicated pathways in many other plant organs. the analysis of the metabolic profile of leaves, stems and roots, for example, therefore may allow the identification of chemomarkers related to the final expression of flower colour.201524151112
a pair of tabersonine 16-hydroxylases initiates the synthesis of vindoline in an organ-dependent manner in catharanthus roseus.hydroxylation of tabersonine at the c-16 position, catalyzed by tabersonine 16-hydroxylase (t16h), initiates the synthesis of vindoline that constitutes the main alkaloid accumulated in leaves of catharanthus roseus. over the last decade, this reaction has been associated with cyp71d12 cloned from undifferentiated c. roseus cells. in this study, we isolated a second cytochrome p450 (cyp71d351) displaying t16h activity. biochemical characterization demonstrated that cyp71d12 and cyp71d351 both ex ...201324108213
a 7-deoxyloganetic acid glucosyltransferase contributes a key step in secologanin biosynthesis in madagascar periwinkle.iridoids form a broad and versatile class of biologically active molecules found in thousands of plant species. in addition to the many hundreds of iridoids occurring in plants, some iridoids, such as secologanin, serve as key building blocks in the biosynthesis of thousands of monoterpene indole alkaloids (mias) and many quinoline alkaloids. this study describes the molecular cloning and functional characterization of three iridoid glucosyltransfeases (udp-sugar glycosyltransferase6 [ugt6], ugt ...201324104568
the orca2 transcription factor plays a key role in regulation of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway.the terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) pathway leads to the production of pharmaceutically important drugs, such as the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. unfortunately, these drugs are produced in trace amounts, causing them to be very costly. to increase production of these drugs, an improved understanding of the tia regulatory pathway is needed. towards this end, transgenic catharanthus roseus hairy roots that overexpress the orca2 tia transcriptional activator were generated and ...201324099172
optimizing the transient fast agro-mediated seedling transformation (fast) method in catharanthus roseus agro-mediated transformation method has been adapted in catharanthus roseus seedlings for transient overexpression. our results suggest that agro-mediated methods may induce defense-related genes, which should be considered in its application. the fast agro-mediated seedling transformation (fast) method, which involves the co-cultivation and transient transformation of young seedlings with agrobacterium, was adapted and optimized in catharanthus roseus. we investigated the optimal conditions ...201424085309
7-o-methylpelargonidin glycosides from the pale red flowers of catharanthus roseus.two new anthocyanidin glycosides were isolated from the pale red flowers of catharanthus roseus 'equator apricot with red eye', and identified as 7-o-methylpelargonidin 3-o-[6-o-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-galactopyranoside] and 7-o-methylpelargonidin 3-o-(beta-galactopyranoside) by chemical and spectroscopic methods.201324079176
oxidative stress and production of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids: biotechnological implications.monoterpene indole alkaloids (mias) encompass plant natural products with important pharmacological relevance. they include the anti-tumoral mias found in catharanthus roseus and camptotheca acuminata. the often low yields of bioactive alkaloids in plants has prompted research to identify the factors regulating mia production. oxidative stress is a general response associated with biotic and abiotic stresses leading to several secondary responses, including elicitation of mia production. these c ...201424062135
atp-binding cassette transporter controls leaf surface secretion of anticancer drug components in catharanthus roseus.the madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mias), many of which have powerful biological activities. such mias include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. however, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these mias involves extensive movement of metabolites ...201324019465
natural product vindoline stimulates insulin secretion and efficiently ameliorates glucose homeostasis in diabetic murine models.catharanthus roseus (l). don (catharanthus roseus) is a traditional anti-diabetic herb widely used in many countries, and the alkaloids of catharanthus roseus are considered to possess hypoglycemic ability.201324012527
glucosylation of taxifolin with cultured plant cells.cultured plant cells of eucalyptus perriniana glucosylated taxifolin to its 3'- and 7-o-beta-d-glucosides and 3',7-o-beta-d-diglucoside. on the other hand, taxifolin was converted into 3'- and 7-o-beta-d-glucosides by cultured cells of nicotiana tabacum and catharanthus roseus.201323980419
promoter analysis reveals cis-regulatory motifs associated with the expression of the wrky transcription factor crwrky1 in catharanthus roseus.wrky transcription factors (tfs) are emerging as an important group of regulators of plant secondary metabolism. however, the cis-regulatory elements associated with their regulation have not been well characterized. we have previously demonstrated that crwrky1, a member of subgroup iii of the wrky tf family, regulates biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids in the ornamental and medicinal plant, catharanthus roseus. here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of the crwrky1 ...201323979312
jasmonate-dependent alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures is correlated with the relative expression of orca and zct transcription factors.the effects of methyl jasmonate (mj) dosage on terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus are correlated with the relative levels of specific mj-responsive transcription factors. in this study, the expression of transcription factors (orca, zct, gbf, myc2, at-hook, and wrky1), tia pathway genes (g10h, tdc, str, and sgd), and tia metabolites (secologanin, strictosidine, and tabersonine) were investigated in c. roseus hairy root cultures elicited with a range of mj dosages ...201323970483
antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of alkaloids from catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don.catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don is a herbal plant traditionally used by local populations in india, south africa, china and malaysia to treat diabetes. the present study reports the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the major alkaloids isolated from catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don leaves extract. four alkaloids--vindoline i, vindolidine ii, vindolicine iii and vindolinine iv--were isolated and identified from the dichloromethane extract (de) of this plant's leaves. de and compo ...201323955322
enhancement of vindoline and vinblastine production in suspension-cultured cells of catharanthus roseus by artemisinic acid elicitation.elicitation is an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites in vitro. artemisinic acid was studied as a novel elicitor to enhance the yield of terpenoid indole alkaloids in the present paper. our results demonstrated that the concentrations of vindoline and vinblastine were increased by sixfold and twofold, respectively, compared to those of the control group after treatment with artemisinic acid. to elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the gene expression ...201423864440
understanding the molecular signatures in leaves and flowers by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (desi ms) imaging.the difference in size, shape, and chemical cues of leaves and flowers display the underlying genetic makeup and their interactions with the environment. the need to understand the molecular signatures of these fragile plant surfaces is illustrated with a model plant, madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don). flat, thin layer chromatographic imprints of leaves/petals were imaged using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (desi ms), and the results were compared wit ...201323848451
an exploration of the potential mechanisms and translational potential of five medicinal plants for applications in alzheimer's disease.alzheimer's disease (ad) is the most common type of dementia, and represents a vast worldwide socio-economic burden, and in the absence of a current cure, effective therapeutic strategies are still needed. cholinergic and cerebral blood flow deficits, excessive levels of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and glutamate excitatory mechanisms are all believed to contribute to the development and progression of the disease. scoparia dulcis, catharanthus roseus, sesamum indicum, erythrina senegalen ...201323844333
the complete plastid genome sequence of madagascar periwinkle catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don: plastid genome evolution, molecular marker identification, and phylogenetic implications in asterids.the madagascar periwinkle (catharanthusroseus in the family apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant and is the source of several widely marketed chemotherapeutic drugs. it is also commonly grown for its ornamental values and, due to ease of infection and distinctiveness of symptoms, is often used as the host for studies on phytoplasmas, an important group of uncultivated plant pathogens. to gain insights into the characteristics of apocynaceous plastid genomes (plastomes), we used a referen ...201323825699
in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites of living organisms by mass spectrometry.secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. in this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, whic ...201323811725
diversification of monoterpene indole alkaloid analogs through cross-coupling.catharanthus roseus monoterpene indole alkaloid analogs have been produced via a combination of biosynthetic and chemical strategies. specifically, introduction of a chemical handle-a chlorine or a bromine-into the target molecule by mutasynthesis, followed by postbiosynthetic chemical derivatization using pd-catalyzed suzuki-miyaura cross-coupling reactions robustly afforded aryl and heteroaryl analogs of these alkaloids.201323713451
vacuolar transport of the medicinal alkaloids from catharanthus roseus is mediated by a proton-driven antiport.catharanthus roseus is one of the most studied medicinal plants due to the interest in their dimeric terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) vinblastine and vincristine, which are used in cancer chemotherapy. these tias are produced in very low levels in the leaves of the plant from the monomeric precursors vindoline and catharanthine and, although tia biosynthesis is reasonably well understood, much less is known about tia membrane transport mechanisms. however, such knowledge is extremely important ...201323686419
enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (mep) pathway enzyme expression in catharanthus catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (mia) formation. monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (mep) pathway. here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. for the mep pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (dxs), a new (type i) dxs isoform, crdxs1, has been cloned, which ...201323650515
two new vinblastine-type n-oxide alkaloids from catharanthus roseus.two new vinblastine-type n-oxide alkaloids, 17-desacetoxyvinblastine n'b-oxide (1) and 20'-deoxyvinblastine n'b-oxide (2), were isolated from the leaves of catharanthus roseus. the structures of 1 and 2 were established by the analysis of their nuclear magnetic resonance and hr-esi-ms spectroscopic data. all alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the human hepatocellular carcinoma (hepg2) cell line, human colorectal carcinoma (lovo) cell line and human breast carcinoma ( ...201323621523
salicylic acid restrains nickel toxicity, improves antioxidant defence system and enhances the production of anticancer alkaloids in catharanthus roseus (l.).salicylic acid (sa) has been reported to ameliorate various stresses in plants. in order to explore the role of sa under nickel (ni) stress, thirty-days old plants of periwinkle (catharanthus roseus l.) were supplied with eight treatments comprising basal application of ni (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg kg(-1)) and foliar application of sa (0 and 10(-5)m) under net house conditions. ni application significantly reduced the growth attributes including plant height, leaf-area index and fresh and dry weigh ...201323597961
perspectives of the metabolic engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus hairy roots.this review looks back on how the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway and the regulatory factors in catharanthus roseus were identified and characterized, and how metabolic engineering, including genetic engineering and metabolic profiling, was conducted based on the gained knowledge. in addition, further examination of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway is proposed.201323576053
identification and quantification of active alkaloids in catharanthus roseus by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.catharanthus roseus is an important dicotyledonous medicinal plant that produces anticancer compounds. the active alkaloids vinblastine, vindoline, ajmalicine, catharanthine, and vinleurosine were identified by direct-injection ion trap-mass spectrometry (it-ms) for collecting ms(1-2) spectra. the determinations of five alkaloids were accomplished by liquid chromatography (lc) with uv and ms detections. the analytes provided good signals corresponding to the protonated molecular ions [m+h](+) an ...201323561180
interaction between abscisic acid and nitric oxide in pb90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.elicitations are considered to be an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites of plant cell cultures. however, mechanisms responsible for the elicitor-induced production of secondary metabolites of plant cells have not yet been fully elucidated. here, we report that treatment of catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures with pb90, a protein elicitor from phytophthora boehmeriae, induced rapid increases of abscisic acid (aba) and nitric oxide (no), subsequently followe ...201323554409
cathacyc, a metabolic pathway database built from catharanthus roseus rna-seq data.the medicinal plant madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) synthesizes numerous terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias), such as the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. the tia pathway operates in a complex metabolic network that steers plant growth and survival. pathway databases and metabolic networks reconstructed from 'omics' sequence data can help to discover missing enzymes, study metabolic pathway evolution and, ultimately, engineer metabolic pathways. to date, such databases hav ...201323493402
structures and biomimetic synthesis of novel α-pyrone polyketides of an endophytic penicillium sp. in catharanthus roseus.novel polyketides, citreoviripyrone a (1) and b (2), known citreomontanin (3), and (-)-citreoviridin (4) were isolated from the mycelium of the endophytic fungus. the endophytic fungus, which belongs to the genus penicillium, was separated from surface-sterilized healthy leaves of catharanthus roseus. the structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of nmr data, and 1 was characterized as an α-pyrone polyketide featuring bicyclo[4.2.0]octadiene. the biomimetic synthesis of 1 and 2 from 3 e ...201323405967
simple and rapid biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using dried leaves of catharanthus roseus. linn. g. donn and its anti microbial activity.nanoparticles have been used to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various types of drug molecules. the plant extracts are eco-friendly, economical and cost effective for synthesis of large scale of nanoparticles. in this paper we represent the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) from room dried leaves of vinca rosea. the agnps were characterized by uv-vis spectroscopy. the agnps are crystalline in nature, were determined from scanning electron microsco ...201323376746
abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in high-fructose dietfed insulin-resistant rats: amelioration by catharanthus roseus treatments.high intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in humans and experimental animals. the present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of catharanthus roseus (c. roseus) leaf powder treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. male wistar rats of body weight around 180 g were divided into four groups, two of these groups (groups c and c+cr) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two ...201323334857
in vitro plant propagation of catharanthus roseus and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants by rapd marker investigation was carried out to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol for catharanthus roseus. experiments were conducted to optimize suitable media for in vitro shoot multiplication and root induction. out of the different media compared for in vitro shoot multiplication, murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with 1 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.2 mg/l α-naphthaleneacetic acid showed better response in terms of the emergence of shoots from axillary buds as well as prolif ...201323292901
effect of chromium on antioxidant potential of catharanthus roseus varieties and production of their anticancer alkaloids: vincristine and vinblastine.catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don, a medicinal plant, has a very important place in the traditional as well as modern pharmaceutical industry. two common varieties of this plant rosea and alba are named so because of pink and white coloured flowers, respectively. this plant comprises of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids and two of them, vincristine and vinblastine, are common anticancer drugs. the effect of chromium (cr) on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components and on secondary met ...201424734252
analysis of the interface between primary and secondary metabolism in catharanthus roseus cell cultures using (13)c-stable isotope feeding and coupled mass spectrometry. 201323253601
the traditional medical uses and cytotoxic activities of sixty-one egyptian plants: discovery of an active cardiac glycoside from urginea maritima.medicinal plants from the sinai desert are widely used in traditional bedouin medicine to treat a range of conditions including, cancers, and may thus be useful sources of novel anti-tumor compounds. information on plants used in this way was obtained through collaboration with bedouin herbalists.201323228916
synergistic and cytotoxic action of indole alkaloids produced from elicited cell cultures of catharanthus roseus.catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that produces more than 130 alkaloids, with special attention given to the production of the anti-hypertensive monomeric indole alkaloids, serpentine and ajmalicine, and the antitumor dimeric alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine.201323137274
vincristine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in sh-sy5y human neuroblastoma cells.neuroblastoma is a common childhood tumor. vincristine (vcr), an alkaloid extracted from catharanthus roseus, is commonly used in combination chemotherapy. however, the mechanisms of vcr-induced neuroblastoma cell death are not clear. the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vcr on mitosis and apoptosis of sh-sy5y neuroblastoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. sh-sy5y cells were treated with increasing vcr doses for different time points. cell proliferation was detected using t ...201323129065
from herkogamy to cleistogamy--development of cleistogamy in periwinkle.periwinkle (catharanthus roseus [l.] g. don), an important medicinal plant, is an allogamous species in which the stigma is below the anthers. the receptive portion is at the base of the stigmatic head and thus automatic intra-flower self-pollination is excluded. the structure of the flower is of typical reverse herkogamy and pollination occurs through nectar-seeking insects. a few self-pollinating strains are also reported in which self-pollination is brought about by an increase in length of t ...201223077233
medicinal utilization of exotic plants by bapedi traditional healers to treat human ailments in limpopo province, south africa.most exotic plants are usually labelled as alien invasives and targeted for eradication. however, some of these exotic plants play an important role in the traditional primary healthcare sector of the bapedi culture in the limpopo province of south africa. the medicinal uses of most of these species have neither been documented nor their biological activity evaluated.201223069942
hypoglycemic activity of aqueous extracts from catharanthus roseus.introduction. catharanthus roseus (l.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. the aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. methods. roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. the blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administra ...201223056144
in-depth proteome mining of cultured catharanthus roseus cells identifies candidate proteins involved in the synthesis and transport of secondary metabolites.madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) is the major source of terpenoid indole alkaloids, such as vinblastine or vincristine, used as natural drugs against various cancers. in this study, we have extensively analyzed the proteome of cultured c. roseus cells. comparison of the proteomes of two independent cell lines with different terpenoid indole alkaloid metabolism by 2d-dige revealed 358 proteins that differed quantitatively by at least a twofold average ratio. of these, 172 were identifi ...201223044725
strategies for engineering plant natural products: the iridoid-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids of catharanthus roseus.the manipulation of pathways to make unnatural variants of natural compounds, a process often termed combinatorial biosynthesis, has been robustly successful in prokaryotic systems. the development of approaches to generate new-to-nature compounds from plant-based pathways is, in comparison, much less advanced. success will depend on the specific chemistry of the pathway, as well as on the suitability of the plant system for transformation and genetic manipulation. as plant pathways are elucidat ...201222999175
Displaying items 401 - 500 of 989