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[evaluation of antimicrobial activity of indol alkaloids].in pursuing the study of the antimicrobial properties of alkaloids prepared from cuban plants the activity of 10 indol alkaloids and 4 semisynthetic variables obtained from three plants--catharanthus roseus g. don., vallesia antillana wood and ervatamia coronaria staph, of the family apocynaceae--growing in cuba was assessed in vitro. the alkaloids and the variables used were catharantine, vindoline, vindolinine, perivine, reserpine, tabernaemontanine, tetrahydroalstonine, aparicine, vindolinic ...1979399043
[microbiological analysis of vindolinina (an alkaloid isolated from catharanthus roseus) and some of its structural changes].bacteriostatic properties of vindolinina (an alkaloid isolated from catharanthus roseus that has an ester group within its molecule) as well as of its alkaline-hydrolysis product (vindolininic acid) crystallized as chlorhydrate, and of the product of its reduction with lithium and aluminum hydrides (vindolininol) are compared. several strains of bacteria pathogenic to man (proteus, escherichia, shigella, staphylococcus, and pseudomonas) cultured in nutritive-agar dishes containing disks and incu ...1976802793
purification of an indole alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme, strictosidine synthase, from a recombinant strain of escherichia coli.the gene for the indole alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme, strictosidine synthase, of catharanthus roseus has been cloned into an inducible escherichia coli expression vector using an expression cassette polymerase chain reaction technique. induction of the gene resulted in overexpression of the enzyme which accumulated mainly as insoluble inclusion bodies. denaturation and refolding of the insoluble protein resulted in the ability to purify up to 6 mg of active enzyme from a single liter of cell cul ...19921330135
the pharmacology of extinction.it is impossible to predict what compounds of pharmacological interest may be present in an unexamined species. the extinction of such species may result, therefore, in the loss of therapeutically significant compounds. the fact that science will never know what has been lost does not lessen the significance of the loss. a number of species are discussed to exemplify the potential loss. ginkgo biloba is an ancient plant, apparently saved from a natural extinction by human intervention. from this ...19921453701
molecular cloning and analysis of cdna encoding a plant tryptophan decarboxylase: comparison with animal dopa decarboxylases.the sequence of a cdna clone that includes the complete coding region of tryptophan decarboxylase (ec 4.1.1.28, formerly ec 4.1.1.27) from periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) is reported. the cdna clone (1747 base pairs) was isolated by antibody screening of a cdna expression library produced from poly(a)+ rna found in developing seedlings of c. roseus. the clone hybridized to a 1.8-kilobase mrna from developing seedlings and from young leaves of mature plants. the identity of the clone was confirm ...19892704736
antifertility efficacy of catharanthus roseus linn: a biochemical and histological study.oral administration of catharanthus roseus linn, leaf extract caused widespread testicular necrosis, hyalinization of tubules and sertoli cell-only-syndrome. biochemical studies revealing notable reduction in glycogen and fructose levels in reproductive tissues support the histological observations and confirm the antifertility properties of c. roseus extract.19854036518
cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from catharanthus roseus, and a strategy for the functional expression of plant cytochrome p450 proteins as translational fusions with p450 reductase in escherichia coli.a pcr-based approach was used to isolate cdnas for cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (c4h) from catharanthus roseus cell cultures. the protein shared 75.9% identity with c4h from other plants, and the transcription was induced under various stress conditions. the cloned protein was used to investigate the functional expression of plant p450/p450-reductase fusions in e. coli. fusions containing a modified n-terminal membrane anchor were located in the membrane and possessed c4h activity without solubilizat ...19957589568
vitamin-b12-independent methionine synthase from a higher plant (catharanthus roseus). molecular characterization, regulation, heterologous expression, and enzyme properties.methionine synthases catalyze the formation of methionine by the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. this reaction is the last step in l-methionine biosynthesis, and it also serves to regenerate the methyl group of s-adenosylmethionine, a cofactor required for biological methylation reactions. we describe the cloning, expression and characterization of a methionine synthase from the higher plant catharanthus roseus. cdnas were identified that encoded a prote ...19957601135
introduction of oxygenated functional groups into 3-carene and 2-pinene by cultured cells.the biotransformation of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 3-carene and 2-pinene by cell suspension cultures of nicotiana tabacum and catharanthus roseus was investigated. the cultures have the ability to regio- and enantioselectively introduce the oxygenated functional groups into the c = c double bond and the allylic positions of the substrates.19947765622
cdnas for s-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase from catharanthus roseus, heterologous expression, identification of the proenzyme-processing site, evidence for the presence of both subunits in the active enzyme, and a conserved region in the 5' mrna leader.s-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylases (adometdc) are pyruvoyl-dependent enzymes producing the aminopropyl group for spermidine biosynthesis, and this reaction is the rate-limiting step in polyamine biosynthesis. we characterized cdnas from catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle) and investigated the enzyme after heterologous expression. the largest cdna (1842 bp) had an 5' leader of 469 bp and encoded a protein of 357 residues and 30-35% identity with mammalian adometdc. the proenzyme expre ...19957883014
hsp90 homologue from madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus): cdna sequence, regulation of protein expression and location in the endoplasmic reticulum.we describe cdnas for a hsp90 homologue from catharanthus roseus and studies on the regulation of expression. the largest cdna (2670 bp) coded for a protein of 817 amino acids with a calculated size of 93,491 da and a pi of 4.61. it contained a eucaryotic secretory signal, the endoplasmic reticulum (er) targeting and retention signal (lys-asp-glu-leu), and the hsp90 protein family signature with one conservative exchange (asn-lys-asp-ile-phe-leu instead of asn-lys-glu-ile-phe-leu). rna blots rev ...19938106014
isolation and characterization of a cdna clone from catharanthus roseus encoding nadph:cytochrome p-450 reductase, an enzyme essential for reactions catalysed by cytochrome p-450 mono-oxygenases in plants.the membrane-bound flavoprotein nadph:cytochrome p-450 (cytochrome c) reductase, that functions in electron transfer to cytochrome p-450 monooxygenases, was purified from a cell suspension culture of the higher plant catharanthus roseus. anti-serum raised against the purified protein was found to inhibit nadph:cytochrome c reductase activity as well as the activities of the cytochrome p-450 enzymes geraniol 10-hydroxylase and trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, which are involved in alkaloid biosynth ...19938220474
exploration of the frontiers of tradomedical practices: basis for development of alternative medical healthcare services in developing countries.the study is a brief exploration of the functions and roles of the traditional healers in the total health care delivery system as a basis for tapping the salient features of this age old art: for the purpose of refining, and establishing it as an alternative medical health-care service. the investigation is considered relevant particularly in the developing countries where, in addition to the dearth of orthodox medical services, institutions and personnel, it is relatively cheaper, socio-cultur ...19938410912
purification and characterization of anthranilate synthase from catharanthus roseus.anthranilate synthase (ec 4.1.3.27) has been purified from cell cultures of catharanthus roseus by poly(ethylene glycol) precipitation/fractionation and subsequent separation by anion exchange on q-sepharose, orange a dye chromatography, mono q anion-exchange chromatography and superose 6 gel filtration. by analogy to anthranilate synthases from other sources it does look like the enzyme is a tetramer composed of two large and two small subunits, with molecular mass 67 and 25.5 +/- 0.5 kda, resp ...19938444181
overexpression of a tryptophan decarboxylase cdna in catharanthus roseus crown gall calluses results in increased tryptamine levels but not in increased terpenoid indole alkaloid production.the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) (ec 4.1.1.28) catalyses a key step in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids in c. roseus by converting tryptophan into tryptamine. hardly any tdc mrna could be detected in hormone-independent callus and cell suspension cultures transformed by the oncogenic t-dna of agrobacterium tumefaciens. supply of tryptamine may therefore represent a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of alkaloids by such cultures. to investigate this possibility, chimaeric ...19958589734
novel type of receptor-like protein kinase from a higher plant (catharanthus roseus). cdna, gene, intramolecular autophosphorylation, and identification of a threonine important for auto- and substrate phosphorylation.we characterize crrlk1, a novel type of receptor-like kinase (rlk), from the plant catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle). the protein (90.2 kda) deduced from the complete genomic and cdna sequences is a rlk by predicting a n-terminal signal peptide, a large extracytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning hydrophobic region followed by a transfer-stop signal, and a c-terminal cytoplasmic protein kinase with all 11 conserved subdomains. it is a novel rlk type because the predicted extracytoplas ...19968900145
three differentially expressed s-adenosylmethionine synthetases from catharanthus roseus: molecular and functional characterization.we describe the molecular and functional characterization of three closely related s-adenosyl-l-methionine synthetase (sams) isoenzymes from catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle). the genes are differentially expressed in cell cultures during growth of the culture and after application of various stresses (elicitor, nutritional down-shift, increased nacl). seedlings revealed organ-specific expression and differential gene regulation after salt stress. a relationship analysis indicated that ...19979037140
comparison of the activities of camv 35s and fmv 34s promoter derivatives in catharanthus roseus cells transiently and stably transformed by particle bombardment.activities of several camv 35s and fmv 34s promoter derivatives fused to the gusa reporter gene were compared in suspension-cultured catharanthus roseus cells that were transiently and stably transformed using particle bombardment. our data demonstrate that the 35s and a deletion derivative of the 34s promoter combined with particle bombardment form useful tools for genetic engineering of c. roseus cells. our results disagree on several points with activities of 35s and 34s promoter derivatives ...19979106518
molecular cloning and characterization of desacetoxyvindoline-4-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate dependent-dioxygenase involved in the biosynthesis of vindoline in catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don.a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (ec 1.14.11.11) which catalyzes the 4-hydroxylation of desacetoxyvindoline was purified to homogeneity. three oligopeptides isolated from a tryptic digest of the purified protein were microsequenced and one oligopeptide showed significant homology to hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase from hyoscyamus niger. a 36-mer degenerate oligonucleotide based on this peptide sequence was used to screen a catharanthus roseus cdna library and three clones, cd4h-1 to -3, wer ...19979290645
sensitive detection and identification of mycoplasma-like organisms in plants by polymerase chain reactions.dna amplification by polymerase chain reactions (pcr) was employed to detect host plant infection by several mycoplasmalike organisms (mlos), including the aster yellows (ay), dwarf aster yellows (day), and periwinkle little leaf (0-1) mlos. for pcr, two pairs of oligonucleotide primers, designated ay18pm and ay19pm, respectively, were synthesized on the basis of partial sequences of cloned ay mlo dna fragments ay18 and ay19. reaction mixtures containing primer pair ay18pm yielded a dna product ...19921510676
theophylline metabolism in higher plants.metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline was investigated in leaf segments from camellia sinensis (tea), camellia irrawadiensis, ilex paraguariensis (maté) and avena sativa, root segments of vigna mungo seedlings and cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus. there was extensive uptake and metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline by leaves of tea and camellia irrawadiensis and, to a lesser extent, maté. these purine alkaloid-containing species converted [8-(14)c]theophylline into 3-methylxanthine, x ...19979305805
evidence of protein-tyrosine kinase activity in catharanthus roseus roots transformed by agrobacterium rhizogenes.homogenate fractions (soluble and particulate) from transformed roots of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don showed several phosphorylated proteins when incubated with gamma-[32p]atp. the phosphorylation in the proteins of 55, 40, 25, 18 and 10 kda in the particulate fraction and 63 kda in the soluble fraction was resistant to alkali treatment. several proteins in both fractions gave a positive signal with monoclonal antiphosphotyrosine antibodies. in-situ phosphorylation in both fractions showed se ...19989443385
an important developmental role for oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish.derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides have been shown to play a role in plant organogenesis at nanomolar concentrations. here we present data which indicate that chitin oligosaccharides are important for embryogenesis in vertebrates. we characterize chitin oligosaccharides synthesized in vitro by zebrafish and carp embryos in the late gastrulation stage by incorporation of radiolabeled n-acetyl-d-[u14c]glucosamine and by hplc in combination with enzymatic conversion using the bradyrhizobium nod ...19979223299
a novel cis-acting element in promoters of plant b-type cyclin genes activates m phase-specific transcription.plant b-type cyclin genes are expressed late in the g2 and m phases of the cell cycle. previously, we showed that the promoter of a catharanthus roseus b-type cyclin, cym, could direct m phase-specific transcription of a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in synchronously dividing by2 tobacco cells. in this study, we determined the regulatory elements contained within the cym promoter by using a luciferase reporter gene. mutational analysis showed that a 9-bp element is essential for m phase-speci ...19989501108
glyphosate is an inhibitor of plant cytochrome p450: functional expression of thlaspi arvensae cytochrome p45071b1/reductase fusion protein in escherichia coli.glyphosate (roundup) is an herbicide used extensively worldwide which acts as an inhibitor of 5'enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and for which transgenic herbicide resistant plants have been developed. here we report for the first time that glyphosate is an inhibitor of cytochrome p450 using a functional expression system for thlaspi arvensae cyp71b1 in escherichia coli. cyp71b1 was fused to the soluble domain of a plant cytochrome p450 reductase (cpr) from catharanthus roseus. cyp71b1 ...19989514851
cell-cycle-regulated transcription of a- and b-type plant cyclin genes in synchronous cultures.synchronously dividing cell cultures of catharanthus roseus were used to isolate cdnas for two mitotic cyclins, named cys and cym. the deduced protein sequence of cys is similar to that of a-type cyclins, and cym belongs to the group of b-type cyclins. in a fashion similar to the pattern of expression seen for a-type and b-type cyclins in mammalian cells, cys is expressed before cym in c. roseus cells during the cell cycle. cys mrna accumulated at the onset of s phase and disappeared early in th ...19979193070
a chimaeric tryptophan decarboxylase gene as a novel selectable marker in plant cells.a novel selection system for plant genetic transformation was developed based on the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc; ec 4.1.1.28) from catharanthus roseus. this enzyme converts the toxic tryptophan analogue 4-methyl tryptophan (4-mt) into the non-toxic compound 4-methyl tryptamine. expression of tdc in transgenic plants that have no endogenous tdc-activity allows selection on 4-mt. a vector was constructed containing a tdc cdna clone under control of the constitutively expressed cauliflowe ...19938358036
in vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against pestalotiopsis mangiferae.a serious leaf-spot disease of mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in satpura plateau of india. on the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from satpura plateau of india. screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., argemone mexicana, caesalpinia bonducella, and casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathoge ...19969676046
expression of two consecutive genes of a secondary metabolic pathway in transgenic tobacco: molecular diversity influences levels of expression and product accumulation.we have created a population of transgenic tobacco plants carrying cdnas encoding two consecutive enzymes from early stages in monoterpenoid alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus. the cdnas, encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) and strictosidine synthase (str1) together with a selectable marker gene, were introduced on a single transforming plasmid into tobacco leaves by particle bombardment. analysis of 150 independent transgenic plants at the dna and rna levels demonstrated a range o ...19989862494
isolation and characterization of a cdna clone for plant nuclear antigen 21d7 associated with cell division.a cdna clone was isolated from a carrot (daucus carota l.) cdna expression library using monoclonal antibody 21d7, which recognizes a nuclear antigen associated with cell division in plant cells. to show that the isolated cdna encodes the 21d7 antigen, a polyclonal antiserum was raised against a recombinant fusion protein specified by the cdna. both the polyclonal antiserum and the monoclonal antibody 21d7 recognized the same plant protein on immunoblots, in immunoprecipitation experiments, and ...19938310059
nucleotide sequence of the tryptophan decarboxylase gene of catharanthus roseus and expression of tdc-gusa gene fusions in nicotiana tabacum.the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc; ec 4.1.1.28) converts tryptophan into tryptamine. in catharanthus roseus and other plants capable of producing terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) tdc links primary metabolism to the secondary metabolic pathway involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds. the accumulation of tdc mrna in c. roseus cells is developmentally regulated and transcriptionally influenced by elicitors (induction) and auxins (repression). here we report that tdc is encoded by a ...19948159173
isolation and characterization of a rice cdna similar to the s-phase-specific cyc07 gene.we isolated a rice cdna clone (t151) which encodes an open reading frame of 262 amino acids. this clone is similar to the s-phase-specific cyc07 gene of catharanthus roseus. expression of this gene is much higher in callus than in seedlings and regulated by external stresses such as high osmotic pressure, salinity, low temperature and submergence.19947510136
catharanthus alkaloids. xxxiv. catharanthamine, a new antitumor bisindole alkaloid from catharanthus roseus. 19817264679
polycationic polypeptides: a possible model for the penetration-enhancing factor in the invasion of host cells by toxoplasma gondii.the effect of polycationic polypeptides (polylysine, polyarginine and polyhistidine) on the invasion of mammalian cells and plant protoplasts by toxoplasma gondii was studied. in jm cells, a human lymphoblastoid cell line with t cell characteristics, all polycationic polypeptides used increased the invasion rate in a concentration-dependent manner. this effect and the morphological changes revealed by electron microscopy resembled the action of the penetration-enhancing factor previously describ ...19846736923
[the antitumour action and toxicity of the alkaloidal fraction ac-875 from catharanthus roseus]. 19655898964
a novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible ap2-domain transcription factor, orca2.jasmonate (ja) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. the induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene strictosidine synthase (str) in catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires ja as a second messenger. a 42 bp region in the str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for ja- and elicitor-responsive expression. this region is unlike other previously identifie ...199910449411
flavonoid hydroxylase from catharanthus roseus: cdna, heterologous expression, enzyme properties and cell-type specific expression in plants.we investigated the p450 dependent flavonoid hydroxylase from the ornamental plant catharanthus roseus. cdnas were obtained by heterologous screening with the cyp75 hf1 cdna from petunia hybrida. the c. roseus protein shared 68-78% identity with other cyp75s, and genomic blots suggested one or two genes. the protein was expressed in escherichia coli as translational fusion with the p450 reductase from c. roseus. enzyme assays showed that it was a flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, but 3'-hydroxylated ...199910476065
light-induced cytochrome p450-dependent enzyme in indole alkaloid biosynthesis: tabersonine 16-hydroxylase.vinblastine and vincristine are two medically important bisindole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle). attempts at production in cell cultures failed because a part of the complex pathway was not active, i.e. from tabersonine to vindoline. it starts with tabersonine 16-hydroxylase (t16h), a cytochrome p450-dependent enzyme. we now show that t16h is induced in the suspension culture by light and we report the cloning of the cdna. the enzyme was expressed in escherichia coli ...199910481044
gene disruption through homologous recombination in spiroplasma citri: an scm1-disrupted motility mutant is pathogenic.to determine whether homologous recombination could be used to inactivate selected genes in spiroplasma citri, plasmid constructs were designed to disrupt the motility gene scm1. an internal scm1 gene fragment was inserted into plasmid pkt1, which replicates in escherichia coli but not in s. citri, and into the s. citri oric plasmid pbot1, which replicates in spiroplasma cells as well as in e. coli. electrotransformation of s. citri with the nonreplicative, recombinant plasmid pktm1 yielded no t ...199910601200
medicinal plants--old and new.the historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. in recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold ...19685644801
[antitumor and toxic effects of amotin].an indole alkaloid isolated from catharanthus roseus in the soviet union and named amotin differs in terpenoid moiety structure of the indole part of the molecule from the foreign preparation vinblastine and its soviet analog rosevine. in experimental study amotin has exhibited a high antileukemic activity which was more expressed than that of vinblastine. tolerant doses of amotin cause moderate reversible morphological alterations in hematopoietic organs, gastrointestinal mucosa, liver, kidney, ...19873691399
increased synthesis of ajmalicine and catharanthine by cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus in response to fungal culture-filtrates.the ammonium sulfate-precipitated fraction from mycelia and culture-filtrates and the crude, cell-free culture filtrates from the growth medium of the fungi chrysosporium palmorum, eurotium rubrum, micromucor isabellina, and pythium aphanidermatum when aseptically added to cell suspensions of cantharanthus roseus caused a rapid and dramatic increase in indole alkaloid biosynthesis. up to 400 micrograms/l ajmalicine and 600 micrograms/l catharanthine were detected in c. roseus cell suspension gro ...19873619437
elicitor-mediated induction of tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase activities in cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus.treatment of one cell line (no. 615) of catharanthus roseus c.v. little delicata with an elicitor preparation of autoclaved and homogenized pythium aphanidermatum culture resulted in rapid accumulation of indole alkaloids. alkaloid formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase. the induction of these two enzyme activities occurred when cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium or tre ...19873579315
glycaemic effects of traditional european plant treatments for diabetes. studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. the plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (arctium lappa), cashew (anacardium occidentale), dandelion (taraxacum officinal ...19892743711
plant methionine synthase: new insights into properties and expression.we investigated the enzyme methionine synthase (msy) in catharanthus roseus. the properties were characterized with purified protein isolated either from plant cell cultures or after heterologous expression in escherichia coli. the protein was a monomer and accepted both the triglutamate (ch3-h4pteglu3, apparent km = 80 microm) and the monoglutamate (ch3-h4pteglu1, apparent km = 350 microm) of methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteroate as methyl donor, with a ratio of approximately 90:1 in favor of the t ...200011030427
the ternary transformation system: constitutive virg on a compatible plasmid dramatically increases agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.this paper describes a so-called ternary transformation system for plant cells. we demonstrate that agrobacterium tumefaciens strain lba4404 supplemented with a constitutive virg mutant gene (virgn54d) on a compatible plasmid is capable of very efficient t-dna transfer to a diverse range of plant species. for the plant species catharanthus roseus it is shown that increased t-dna transfer results in increased stable transformation frequencies. analysis of stably transformed c. roseus cell lines s ...200011052201
deduced amino acid sequence of bovine aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase: homology to other decarboxylases.nucleotide sequence of cdna for bovine aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (aadc) was analyzed. the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine aadc shows 57% identity to drosophila aadc and 37% to plant catharanthus roseus aadc. the 7-amino acid sequence of the pyridoxal phosphate binding site is completely conserved among drosophila, pig and bovine aadc. aadc primary structure also shows high homology to that of feline glutamic acid decarboxylase.19902166204
cloning and expression of cdnas encoding two enzymes of the mep pathway in catharanthus roseus.two periwinkle cdnas (crdxr and crmecs) encoding enzymes of the non-mevalonate terpenoid pathway were characterized using reverse transcription-pcr strategy based on the design of degenerated oligonucleotides. the deduced amino acid sequence of crdxr is homologue to 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerases. crmecs represents the first plant cdna encoding a protein similar to the 2c-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase from escherichia coli. expression of crdxr and crmecs gen ...200011118631
indole alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus: new enzyme activities and identification of cytochrome p450 cyp72a1 as secologanin synthase.the molecular characterization of cyp72a1 from catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle) was described nearly a decade ago, but the enzyme function remained unknown. we now show by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry that the expression in immature leaves is epidermis-specific. it thus follows the pattern previously established for early enzymes in the pathway to indole alkaloids, suggesting that cyp72a1 may be involved in their biosynthesis. the early reactions in that pathway, i.e ...200011135113
molecular and biochemical analysis of a madagascar periwinkle root-specific minovincinine-19-hydroxy-o-acetyltransferase.the terminal steps in the biosynthesis of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids vindoline and minovincinine are catalyzed by separate acetyl coenzyme a-dependent o-acetyltransferases in madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus g. don). two genes were isolated that had 63% nucleic acid identity and whose deduced amino acid sequences were 78% identical. active enzymes that were expressed as recombinant his-tagged proteins in escherichia coli were named minovincinine-19-o-acetyltransferase (mat) and ...200111154328
the discovery of the vinca alkaloids--chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.in folklore medicine, extracts of the leaves of the subtropical plant catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (sometimes known as madagascar periwinkle) were reputed to be useful in the treatment of diabetes. this review describes how attempts to verify the antidiabetic properties of the extracts led instead to the discovery and isolation of two complex indole alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine, which are used in the clinical treatment of a variety of cancers. the two alkaloids, although structurall ...19902085431
molecular cloning of the gene for plant proliferating-cell nuclear antigen and expression of this gene during the cell cycle in synchronized cultures of catharanthus roseus cells.a cdna library was screened for plant proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (pcna) from catharanthus roseus (periwinkle). a lambda gt11 cdna library was constructed using poly(a)-rich rna isolated from the cells in the s phase. a cdna clone for pcna was isolated by using a rice genomic clone, pcj-1, which contains pcna-related gene sequences. the cdna contains an open reading frame of 804 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 268 amino acids with a molecular mass of 29,765 da. when conservative substi ...19911902790
identification of a novel s-phase-specific gene during the cell cycle in synchronous cultures of catharanthus roseus cells.the cell-cycle specific cdnas were isolated from a cdna library prepared from cells in the s phase in the synchronous cultures of catharanthus roseus. one of the isolated genes, which we refer to as cyc07, was analyzed in detail. the full-length cdna of cyc07 contains an open reading frame of 735 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 245 amino acids with a molecular weight of 28,356 da. the protein predicted from the nucleotide sequence is highly basic, as are mammalian histones. cyc07 mrna was det ...19911844881
coordinated regulation of two indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes from catharanthus roseus by auxin and elicitors.catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) produces a wide range of terpenoid indole alkaloids, including several pharmaceutically important compounds, from the intermediate strictosidine. the complete mrna sequence for the enzyme strictosidine synthase (sss) was determined. comparison of the primary structure of the encoded protein with the amino-terminal sequence of purified sss indicated the presence of a signal peptide of 31 amino acids in the putative primary translation product. sss is encoded by a ...19921600148
selective interaction of triazole derivatives with dwf4, a cytochrome p450 monooxygenase of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway, correlates with brassinosteroid deficiency in planta.brassinazole, a synthetic chemical developed in our laboratory, is a triazole-type brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor that induces dwarfism in various plant species. the target sites of brassinazole were investigated by chemical analyses of endogenous brassinosteroids (brs) in brassinazole-treated catharanthus roseus cells. the levels of castasterone and brassinolide in brassinazole-treated plant cells were less than 6% of the levels in untreated cells. in contrast, campestanol and 6-oxocamp ...200111319239
auxin rapidly down-regulates transcription of the tryptophan decarboxylase gene from catharanthus roseus.the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) (ec 4.1.1.28) converts tryptophan into tryptamine, and thereby channels primary metabolites into indole alkaloid biosynthesis. the production of these secondary metabolites in suspension cells of catharanthus roseus depends on medium composition. of the possible variables, we investigated the effect of hormones on the expression of the tdc gene in cell cultures. omission of naa from the growth medium resulted in accumulation of tdc mrna. the addition of ...19921600147
a promoter region that controls basal and elicitor-inducible expression levels of the nadph:cytochrome p450 reductase gene (cpr) from catharanthus roseus binds nuclear factor gt-1.nadph:cytochrome p450 reductase (cpr) is essential for the activation of cytochrome p450 enzymes, which are involved in a wide variety of metabolic pathways in plants, including those related to defence responses. in the subtropical plant catharanthus roseus several cytochrome p450 enzymes operate in the biosynthesis of defence-related terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias). in agreement with the importance of cpr in defence, cpr mrna levels in c. roseus were found to be enhanced by fungal elicitor p ...19979435792
evaluation of antitumor activity of some medicinal plants of bangladesh by potato disk bioassay.the antitumor activity of the ethanolic extracts of 12 medicinal plants of bangladesh, including the vincristine-vinblastine producing catharanthus roseus was studied using the potato disk bioassay technique. among these, 10 plant extracts at 25.0-microgram/disc exhibited significant inhibition of crown gall tumors caused by agrobacterium tumefaciens.200011449504
biotransformation of tryptamine and secologanin into plant terpenoid indole alkaloids by transgenic yeast.a transgenic saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed containing the cdnas coding for strictosidine synthase (str) and strictosidine beta-glucosidase (sgd) from the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus. both enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. the yeast culture was found to express high levels of both enzymes. str activity was found both inside the cells (13.2 nkatal/g fresh weight) and in the medium (up to 25 nkatal/l medium), whereas sgd activity was present ...200111549013
a gene family homologous to the s-phase specific gene in higher plants is essential for cell proliferation in saccharomyces cerevisiae.previously we reported the isolation and characterization of the gene, cyc07, which was specifically expressed in the s phase during the cell cycle in synchronous cell division cultures of the higher plant, catharanthus roseus. we found that the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two closely related genes which show a high degree of similarity (about 64% at the amino acid level) to cyc07 of c. roseus. site-directed disruption mutations demonstrated that the two yeast genes, homologous to cy ...19921451783
geraniol 10-hydroxylase, a cytochrome p450 enzyme involved in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis.geraniol 10-hydroxylase (g10h) is a cytochrome p450 monooxygenase involved in the biosynthesis of iridoid monoterpenoids and several classes of monoterpenoid alkaloids found in a diverse range of plant species. catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle) contains monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, several of which are pharmaceutically important. vinblastine and vincristine, for example, find widespread use as anti-cancer drugs. g10h is thought to play a key regulatory role in terpenoid indole alkal ...200111718718
[fungal activity of various alkaloids isolated from catharanthus roseus g. don].evaluation is made of the fungal activity of ajmalicine, aparacine, catarantine, reserpine, tetrahydroalstonine, vincubine, vindoline and vindolinina--alkaloids isolated from c. roseus growing in cuba--on new fungi strains and yeasts which include some of human clinical interest. the method employed was the diffusion in an agar mean with sections or cylinders containing solutions of the alkaloids at 2% and 3% concentrations. the best results are obtained with an aparicine base, while tetrahydroa ...197798170
influence of fungal elicitors on production of ajmalicine by cell cultures of catharanthus roseus.suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus (c. roseus) were elicited with fungal cell wall fragments of aspergillus niger (a. niger), fusarium moniliforme (f. moniliforme), and trichoderma viride (t. viride). the effects of elicitor dosage, exposures time, and age of subculture on ajmalicine accumulation were studied. a higher concentration of elicitor extract responded positively to c. roseus suspension cultures. ajmalicine accumulation increased by about 3-fold when cells were treated with a. ...200211822914
[characterization of a protein related to bet v 1, the major birch pollen antigen, from cells of the madagascar periwinkle. universal presence of proteins of this type among higher plants].in this work we present the characterisation of a gene that codes for a protein of 17 kda, in in vitro cultures of a plant with ornamental and pharmaceutical properties, the madagascan periwinkle, (catharanthus roseus [l] g. don). this protein is very close to the principal allergen of birch and also to allergens isolated from or demonstrated in some foods such as celery, parsley, apple tree, peas, asparagus and potato, but it has no allergenic characteristics.19979453736
effects of over-expression of strictosidine synthase and tryptophan decarboxylase on alkaloid production by cell cultures of catharanthus roseus.cells of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don were genetically engineered to over-express the enzymes strictosidine synthase (str; ec 4.3.3.2) and tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc; ec 4.1.1.28), which catalyze key steps in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias). the cultures established after agrobacterium-mediated transformation showed wide phenotypic diversity, reflecting the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway. cultures transgenic for str consistently showed tenfold higher str activ ...19989640666
heterologous expression of a rauvolfia cdna encoding strictosidine glucosidase, a biosynthetic key to over 2000 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids.strictosidine glucosidase (sg) is an enzyme that catalyses the second step in the biosynthesis of various classes of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. based on the comparison of cdna sequences of sg from catharanthus roseus and raucaffricine glucosidase (rg) from rauvolfia serpentina, primers for rt-pcr were designed and the cdna encoding sg was cloned from r. serpentina cell suspension cultures. the active enzyme was expressed in escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. analysis of its deduc ...200211985599
effect of different inhibitors on phospholipase c activity in catharanthus roseus transformed roots.we have previously reported that catharanthus roseus transformed roots contain at least two phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-phospholipase c (plc) activities, one soluble and one membrane associated. in this paper, the effect of neomycin and several divalent cations was analyzed, both in the soluble and the membrane-associated plc activity in c. roseus transformed roots. in this system, neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, inhibited plc in a concentration-dependent fashion. the neomycin ...19989674018
biosynthesis of cholestanol in higher plants.to understand the early steps of c(27) brassinosteroid biosynthesis, metabolic experiments were performed with arabidopsis thaliana and nicotiana tabacum seedlings, and with cultured catharanthus roseus cells. [26, 28-2h(6)]campestanol, [26-2h(3)]cholesterol, and [26-2h(3)]cholestanol were administered to each plant, and the resulting metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. in all the species examined, [2h(3)]cholestanol was identified as a metabolite of [2h(6)]campest ...200212031446
elicitor-responsive promoter regions in the tryptophan decarboxylase gene from catharanthus roseus.the tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) gene from catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle) encodes a key enzyme in biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. the expression of the tdc gene is transcriptionally induced by fungal elicitors. tdc upstream sequences from -1818 to +198 relative to the transcriptional start site were functionally analysed to identify cis-acting elements that determine basal expression or respond to elicitor. in a loss-of-function analysis promoter derivatives with 5' or ...199910080715
trichosetin, a novel tetramic acid antibiotic produced in dual culture of trichoderma harzianum and catharanthus roseus callus.the dual culture of trichoderma harzianum and catharanthus roseus callus produced an antimicrobial compound with a remarkable activity against the gram-positive bacteria staphylococcus aureus and bacillus subtilis. structural elucidation revealed that this compound, which we have named trichosetin, is a novel tetramic acid (2,4-pyrrolidinedione) antibiotic and a homolog of the fungal metabolite equisetin. this compound however, was not produced in the individual culture of t. harzianum or c. ros ...200212132686
structural and kinetic properties of adenylyl sulfate reductase from catharanthus roseus cell cultures.a cdna encoding a plant-type aps reductase was isolated from an axenic cell suspension culture of catharanthus roseus (genbank/embl-databank accession number u63784). the open reading frame of 1392 bp (termed par) encoded for a protein (mr=51394) consisting of a n-terminal transit peptide, a paps reductase-like core and a c-terminal extension with homology to the thioredoxin-like domain of protein disulfide isomerase. the aps reductase precursor was imported into pea chloroplasts in vitro and pr ...199910082930
a flavonol o-methyltransferase from catharanthus roseus performing two sequential methylations.protein extracts from dark-grown cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle) contained several o-methyltransferase (omt) activities, including the 16-hydroxytabersonine o-methyltransferase (16ht-omt) in indole alkaloid biosynthesis. this enzyme was enriched through several purification steps, including affinity chromatography on adenosine agarose. sds-page of the purified protein preparation revealed a protein band at the size expected for plant omts (38-43 kda). mass ...200312482447
involvement of the octadecanoid pathway and protein phosphorylation in fungal elicitor-induced expression of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes in catharanthus roseustwo key genes in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis, tdc and str, encoding tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase, respectively, are coordinately induced by fungal elicitors in suspension-cultured catharanthus roseus cells. we have studied the roles of the jasmonate biosynthetic pathway and of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction initiated by a partially purified elicitor from yeast extract. in addition to activating tdc and str gene expression, the elicitor also induc ...199910198087
molecular characterization of recombinant t1, a non-allergenic periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) protein, with sequence similarity to the bet v 1 plant allergen family.more than 25% of the population suffer from type i allergy, an ige-mediated hypersensitivity disease. allergens with homology to the major birch ( betula verrucosa ) pollen allergen, bet v 1, belong to the most potent elicitors of ige-mediated allergies. t1, a cytokinin-inducible cytoplasmic periwinkle ( catharanthus roseus ) protein, with significant sequence similarity to members of the bet v 1 plant allergen family, was expressed in escherichia coli. recombinant t1 (rt1) did not react with ig ...200312656672
suspension culture of catharanthus roseus crown gall cell induced by agrobacterium c58.in comparison with calli from leaf or stem, catharanthus roseus crown gall cell cultured on ms basic medium was superior in growth, total indole alkaloids and ajmalicine contents. the effects of illumination, cultural temperature, sucrose level of the medium and exogenous l-trp on the growth, total indole alkaloids and ajmalicine contents of c. roseus crown gall cell cultures were studied. the results will provide a theoretical basis for the attempt of using suspension cultures of c. roseus crow ...19947893941
the promoter of the strictosidine synthase gene from periwinkle confers elicitor-inducible expression in transgenic tobacco and binds nuclear factors gt-1 and gbf.strictosidine synthase (str) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. this class of secondary metabolites harbours several pharmaceutically important compounds used, among other applications, in cancer treatment. terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis and expression of biosynthetic genes including str1 is induced by fungal elicitors. to identify elicitor-responsive regulatory promoter elements and trans-acting factors, the single-copy str1 gene was isolated from the sub ...199910380815
nuclear factors gt-1 and 3af1 interact with multiple sequences within the promoter of the tdc gene from madagascar periwinkle: gt-1 is involved in uv light-induced expression.plant secondary metabolites of the terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) class comprise several compounds with pharmaceutical applications. a key step in the tia biosynthetic pathway is catalysed by the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc), which channels the primary metabolite tryptophan into tia metabolism. in catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle), the tdc gene is expressed throughout plant development. moreover, tdc gene expression is induced by external stress signals, such as fungal elicit ...199910394897
effect of colchicine and catharanthus roseus (vinca rosea) alkaloids on mitosis of syrian hamster bone marrow cells. 196514300954
a g-box element from the catharanthus roseus strictosidine synthase (str) gene promoter confers seed-specific expression in transgenic tobacco plants.the enzyme encoded by the strictosidine synthase (str) gene from catharanthus roseus catalyses a key step in the biosynthesis of the pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids. str cdna and genomic clones have already been isolated, allowing us to study the regulation of str gene expression. here we focus on the role of a putative cis-acting element, cacgtg, in the str promoter. this sequence is known as a g-box, and functions as a transcription-regulating sequence in a number of othe ...199910394900
identification of uv-b light-responsive regions in the promoter of the tryptophan decarboxylase gene from catharanthus roseus.the tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) gene encodes a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) in catharanthus roseus. tias absorb ultraviolet light (uv) and putative functions in plants include a role as uv protectants. in support of this possible function we demonstrate here that uv light induces accumulation of several tias as well as expression of the tdc gene in c. roseus. in addition, in tobacco a tdc-gusa construct was found to be specifically induced by uv-b light. ...199910608659
subcellular localization of the coat protein in tobacco cells infected by cucumber mosaic virus isolated from catharanthus roseus.electron microscopy and immunolabelling with antiserum specific to cucumber mosaic virus coat protein were used to examine tobacco leaf cells infected by cucumber mosaic virus isolated from catharanthus roseus (cmv-cr). crystalline and amorphous inclusions in the vacuoles were the most obvious cytological modifications seen. immunogold labelling indicated that the crystalline inclusion was made up of virus particles and amorphous inclusions contained coat protein. rows of cmv-cr particles were f ...199910643647
molecular cloning and analysis of strictosidine beta-d-glucosidase, an enzyme in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus.strictosidine beta-d-glucosidase (sgd) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) by converting strictosidine to cathenamine. the biosynthetic pathway toward strictosidine is thought to be similar in all tia-producing plants. somewhere downstream of strictosidine formation, however, the biosynthesis diverges to give rise to the different tias found. sgd may play a role in creating this biosynthetic diversity. we have studied sgd at both the molecular and enzym ...200010652285
sequential solubilization of proteins precipitated with trichloroacetic acid in acetone from cultured catharanthus roseus cells yields 52% more spots after two-dimensional electrophoresis.sample preparation is still the most critical step in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de), and needs to be optimized for each type of sample. to analyze the proteome of the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus, we developed and evaluated a sequential solubilization procedure for the solubilization of proteins after precipitation in trichloroacetic acid and acetone. the procedure includes solubilization with a conventional urea buffer followed by a stronger solubilizing buffer containing th ...200111922593
antiproliferative activity of vietnamese medicinal plants.methanol, methanol-water (1:1) and water extracts were prepared from seventy-seven vietnamese medicinal plants and tested for their antiproliferative activities against human ht-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. among them, fifteen extracts including seven methanol extracts of caesalpinia sappan, catharanthus roseus, coscinium fenestratum, eurycoma longifolia, hydnophytum formicarum and streptocaulon juventas (collected at two areas), six methanol-water (1:1) extracts of cae. sappan, cat. roseus, co. fen ...200212081142
molecular cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase catalyzing glucosylation of curcumin in cultured catharanthus roseus cells.catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures are capable of converting exogenously supplied curcumin to various glucosides. the glucosylation efficiency is enhanced by addition of methyl jasmonate (mj) to the cultures prior to curcumin administration. two cdnas encoding udp-glucosyltransferases (caugt1 and caugt2) were isolated from a cdna library of cultured c. roseus cells, using a pcr method directed at the conserved udp-binding domain of plant glycosyltransferases. the sequence identity betw ...200415178322
a comparative evaluation of some blood sugar lowering agents of plant origin.a comparison of blood sugar lowering activity of four important medicinal plants (azadirachta indica, gymnema sylvestre, catharanthus roseus and ocimum sanctum) were carried out against normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models. the plant extracts decreased the blood sugar level in varying degrees. blood sugar lowering unit (blu) of activity of each leaf extract and tolbutamide was calculated by ed50 values. statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) variation among the tre ...199910617074
metabolic discrimination of catharanthus roseus leaves infected by phytoplasma using 1h-nmr spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.a comprehensive metabolomic profiling of catharanthus roseus l. g. don infected by 10 types of phytoplasmas was carried out using one-dimensional and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy followed by principal component analysis (pca), an unsupervised clustering method requiring no knowledge of the data set and used to reduce the dimensionality of multivariate data while preserving most of the variance within it. with a combination of these techniques, we were able to identify those metabolites that ...200415286294
zinc finger proteins act as transcriptional repressors of alkaloid biosynthesis genes in catharanthus roseus.in catharanthus roseus cell suspensions, the expression of several terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes, including two genes encoding strictosidine synthase (str) and tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc), is coordinately induced by fungal elicitors such as yeast extract. to identify molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of these genes, a yeast one-hybrid screening was performed with an elicitor-responsive part of the tdc promoter. this screening identified three members of the cys(2)/ ...200415465826
elicitor-induced nitric oxide burst is essential for triggering catharanthine synthesis in catharanthus roseus suspension cells.elicitor prepared from the cell walls of penicillium citrinum induced multiple responses in catharanthus roseus suspension cells, including rapid generation of nitric oxide (no), sequentially followed by enhancement of catharanthine production by c. roseus cells. elicitor-induced catharanthine biosynthesis was blocked by no-specific scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and nitric oxide synthase (nos) inhibitor s,s'-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-ethanediyl)-bis-isothi ...200515480633
[studies on the biosynthesis of sterol side chain in higher plants].campesterol (3) and dihydrobrassicasterol (4), typical c28-sterols in higher plants, are biosynthesized from a steroidal 24-ene precursor (desmosterol 1) via 24-methylenecholesterol (2) and 24-methyldesmosterol (5). a typical plant c29-sterol, sitosterol (6), is produced from 24-methylenecholesterol via isofucosterol (7) and 24-ethyldesmosterol (8). the biosynthetic mechanism, focussing stereochemical features, of these side-chain transformations has been studied in detail by feeding regio- and ...200011082699
the jasmonate-inducible ap2/erf-domain transcription factor orca3 activates gene expression via interaction with a jasmonate-responsive promoter element.the ap2/erf-domain transcription factor orca3 is a master regulator of primary and secondary metabolism in catharanthus roseus (periwinkle). here we demonstrate that orca3 specifically binds to and activates gene expression via a previously characterized jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element (jere) in the promoter of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene strictosidine synthase (str). functional characterization of different domains in the orca3 protein in yeast and plant cells rev ...200111169181
a catharanthus roseus bpf-1 homologue interacts with an elicitor-responsive region of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene str and is induced by elicitor via a ja-independent signal transduction pathway.plants respond to pathogen attack by induction of various defence responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. in catharanthus roseus, the elicitor-induced expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene strictosidine synthase (str) is mediated via the plant stress hormonejasmonate. in the promoters of several defence-related genes, cis-acting elements have been identified that are important for transcriptional regulation upon stress signals. here we s ...200011198427
biotransformation of (+)- and (-)-camphorquinones by plant cultured cells.biotransformation of (+)- and (-)-camphorquinones with suspension plant cultured cells of nicotiana tabacum and catharanthus roseus was investigated. it was found that the plant cultured cells of n. tabacum and c. roseus reduce stereoselectively the carbonyl group of (+)- and (-)-camphorquinones to the corresponding alpha-keto alcohols.200111397432
effect of an antidiabetic extract of catharanthus roseus on enzymic activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.hypoglycemic activity was detected in dichloromethane:methanol extract (1:1) of leaves and twigs of catharanthus roseus (family apocynaceae), a traditionally used medicinal plant, using streptozotocin (stz) induced diabetic rat model. extract at dose 500 mg/kg given orally for 7 and 15 days showed 48.6 and 57.6% hypoglycemic activity, respectively. prior treatment at the same dose for 30 days provided complete protection against stz challenge (75 mg/kg/i.p.x1). enzymic activities of glycogen syn ...200111448549
antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.the antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, orac) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. the orac values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of trolox equivalents (te)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (gae)/g of fresh weight, respectively. origanum x majoricum, o. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and poliomintha longiflora have higher orac and p ...200111714298
overexpression in catharanthus roseus hairy roots of a truncated hamster 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase gene.catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don hairy roots harboring hamster 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase (hmgr) (ec 1.1.1.88) cdna without membrane-binding domain were evaluated by quantifying the levels of sterols and some indol-alkaloids. clone 236, with the highest hybridization signal, had the lowest soluble and microsomal hmgr activity and produced more ajmalicine and catharanthine than the control but had reduced campesterol concentration. clone 19, with low hybridization signal, had high so ...200211996224
tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine, and reproduction of the whitefly.tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) from catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) converts tryptophan to the indole-alkaloid tryptamine. when the tdc gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco, the 55-kd tdc enzyme and tryptamine accumulated. bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) reproduction on transgenic plants decreased up to 97% relative to controls. production of tryptamine, its derivatives, or other products resulting from tdc activity may discourage whitefly reproduction and provide a single-gene-based ...199512228625
nonradioactive screening method for isolation of disease-specific probes to diagnose plant diseases caused by mycoplasmalike organisms.dna fragments of tomato big bud (bb) mycoplasmalike organism (mlo) in diseased periwinkle plants (catharanthus roseus l.) were cloned to psp6 plasmid vectors and amplified in escherichia coli jm83. a nonradioactive method was developed and used to screen for mlo-specific recombinants. cloned dna probes were prepared by nick translation of the mlo recombinant plasmids by using biotinylated nucleotides. the probes all hybridized with nucleic acid from bb mlo-infected, but not healthy, plants. resu ...199016348195
[neurological syndromes linked with the intake of plants and fungi containing a toxic component (i). neurotoxic syndromes caused by the ingestion of plants, seeds and fruits].a wide range of plants, seeds and fruits used for nutritional and medicinal purposes can give rise to neurotoxic symptoms.200312717675
the juice of fresh leaves of catharanthus roseus linn. reduces blood glucose in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits.the leaf juice or water decoction of catharanthus roseus l. (apocyanaceae) is used as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes all over the world. in the present investigation, the leaf juice of c. roseus has been evaluated for its hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.200312950994
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