dodder transmission of phytoplasmas.transmission of phytoplasmas from naturally infected plant host species using the parasitic plant cuscuta spp. (dodder) to catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle) is an effective way to maintain a wide range of phytoplasmas for further research. here, we describe transmission via dodder from an infected medicinal plant rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea and from a symptomatic redcurrant plant (ribes spp.) to c. roseus indicator plants using a "stable bridges" method. in both cases, typical sy ...201322987404
micropropagation and maintenance of phytoplasmas in tissue culture.maintenance of phytoplasma strains in tissue culture is achievable for all strains transmitted to periwinkle (catharanthus roseus), and also for other naturally infected plant host species. shoots of 1-3 cm length are grown in a solid medium containing murashige and skoog (ms) micro- and macroelements and 0.12 mg/l benzylaminopurine. the continued presence of phytoplasmas in infected shoots of periwinkle that have been maintained in micropropagation for up to 20 years can be shown by diagnostic ...201322987403
techniques for the maintenance and propagation of phytoplasmas in glasshouse collections of catharanthus roseus.phytoplasma collections are a vital resource for researchers and diagnosticians studying phytoplasma diseases. they provide material as a point of reference and a research tool to increase our understanding of phytoplasmas and the diseases they cause. this chapter describes the techniques required to create and maintain collections of phytoplasma-infected catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle).201322987402
triple subcellular targeting of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases encoded by a single gene.isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (idi) is a key enzyme of the isoprenoid pathway, catalyzing the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, the universal precursors of all isoprenoids. in plants, several subcellular compartments, including cytosol/er, peroxisomes, mitochondria and plastids, are involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis. here, we report on the unique triple targeting of two catharanthus roseus idi isoforms encoded by a single gene (cridi1). the triple lo ...201222951398
overexpression of orca3 and g10h in catharanthus roseus plants regulated alkaloid biosynthesis and metabolism revealed by order to improve the production of the anticancer dimeric indole alkaloids in catharanthuse roseus, much research has been dedicated to culturing cell lines, hairy roots, and efforts to elucidate the regulation of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (mia) biosynthesis. in this study, the orca3 (octadecanoid-derivative responsive catharanthus ap2-domain) gene alone or integrated with the g10h (geraniol 10-hydroxylase) gene were first introduced into c. roseus plants. transgenic c. roseus plants ...201222916202
crrlk1l receptor-like kinases: not just another brick in the plants, receptor-like kinases regulate many processes during reproductive and vegetative development. the arabidopsis subfamily of catharanthus roseus rlk1-like kinases (crrlk1ls) comprises 17 members with a putative extracellular carbohydrate-binding malectin-like domain. only little is known about the functions of these proteins, although mutant analyses revealed a role during cell elongation, polarized growth, and fertilization. however, the molecular nature of the underlying signal transd ...201222884521
glycosylation of trans-resveratrol by plant-cultured cells.plant-cultured cells of catharanthus roseus converted trans-resveratrol into its 3-o-β-d-glucopyranoside, 4'-o-β-d-glucopyranoside, 3-o-(6-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside, and 3-o-(6-o-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside. the 3-o-(6-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside and 3-o-(6-o-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside compounds of trans-resveratrol are both new. incubation of plant-cultured cells of ipomoea batatas and strophanthus gratus with trans-resveratrol gave trans ...201222878209
crmpk3, a mitogen activated protein kinase from catharanthus roseus and its possible role in stress induced biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids.mitogen activated protein kinase (mapk) cascade is an important signaling cascade that operates in stress signal transduction in plants. the biologically active monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mia) produced in catharanthus roseus are known to be induced under several abiotic stress conditions such as wounding, uv-b etc. however involvement of any signaling component in the accumulation of mias remains poorly investigated so far. here we report isolation of a novel abiotic stress inducible cathar ...201222871174
[effects of water stress and nitrogen nutrition on regulation of catharanthus roseus alkaloids metabolism].under various drought conditions and nitrogen application, the content of vindoline, catharanthine, vincristine and vinblastine in the leaf of catharanthus roseus were illustrated to improve the content of alkaloid theoretically.201222860440
negative-pressure cavitation extraction of four main vinca alkaloids from catharanthus roseus the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (npce) followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (vdl), catharanthine (ctr), vincristine (vcr) and vinblastine (vlb) from catharanthus roseus leaves. the optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of -0.075 mpa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of extraction and three ext ...201222832876
increased availability of tryptophan in 5-methyltryptophan-tolerant shoots of catharanthus roseus and their postharvest in vivo elicitation induces enhanced vindoline production.ten 5-methyltryprophan (5-mt)-resistant multiple shoot culture lines in three genotypes of catharanthus roseus were selected in vitro. the variant shoot lines displayed a differential threshold tolerance limit against the analogue stress, ranged from 20 to 70 mg/l 5-mt in the medium. the lines tolerant to 40 mg/l 5-mt stress were most stable and fast proliferating. all the selected lines in the presence of 5-mt stress recorded increased level of tryptophan in their free amino acid pool. highest ...201222798187
biotransformation of hydroxycoumarin derivatives by cultured suspension cells of catharanthus roseus.using 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (1), 7-hydroxy-4-phenylcoumarin (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (3), 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin (4) as substrates, three new compounds, 4-methylcoumarin-7-o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 6) beta-d-glucopyranoside (1b), 4-phenylcoumarin-7-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6) beta-d-glucopyranoside (2b), 4-methylcoumarin-5,7-o-beta-d-diglucoside (3b), along with four known compounds (1a, 2a, 3a and 4a) were biosynthesized by the cell suspension cultures of catharanthus r ...201222764584
cdna-aflp-based numerical comparison of leaf and root organ cdnas in catharanthus roseus.comparative transcriptome study of the leaf and root tissues of catharanthus roseus is a prerequisite for causing any favorable tissue-specific change in the secondary metabolism of this species. this study was aimed at comparative analysis of the leaf and root cdnas in c. roseus, using a cdna-aflp approach. using 64 primer combinations (ecori and msei), a total of 784 distinct transcriptionally-defined fragments (tdfs) could be detected in the root and leaf tissue transcript populations. the le ...201222734886
down-regulation of the crhpt1 histidine phosphotransfer protein prevents cytokinin-mediated up-regulation of crdxr, and crg10h transcript levels in periwinkle cell catharanthus roseus cell cultures, cytokinins (ck) improve monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mias) accumulation. this metabolite production is correlated with an increase of transcripts corresponding to genes encoding both elements of the ck-signaling pathway and enzymes implicated in mias biosynthesis. however, it has not been demonstrated that the ck signal, leading to mias accumulation, comes through components identified as belonging to the ck-signaling pathway. in this work, we addressed t ...201222714908
tryptophan over-producing cell suspensions of catharanthus roseus (l) g. don and their up-scaling in stirred tank bioreactor: detection of a phenolic compound with antioxidant potential.five cell suspension lines of catharanthus roseus resistant to 5-methyl tryptophan (5-mt; an analogue of tryptophan) were selected and characterized for growth, free tryptophan content and terpenoid indole alkaloid accumulation. these lines showed differential tolerance to analogue-induced growth inhibition by 30 to 70 mg/l 5-mt supplementation (ld(50) = 7-15 mg/l). lines p40, d40, n30, d50 and p70 recorded growth indices (i.e. percent increment over the initial inoculum weight) of 840.9, 765.0, ...201322678752
alternariol 9-o-methyl ether.the title compound (ame; systematic name: 3,7-dihy-droxy-9-meth-oxy-1-methyl-6h-benzo[c]chromen-6-one), c(15)h(12)o(5), was isolated from an endophytic fungi alternaria sp., from catharanthus roseus (common name: madagascar periwinkle). there is an intramolecular o-h⋯o hydrogen bond in the essentially planar mol-ecule (r.m.s. deviation 0.02 å). in the crystal, the molecule forms an o-h⋯o hydrogen bond with its centrosymmetric counterpart with four bridging inter-actions (two o-h⋯o and two c-h⋯o) ...201222590344
formation of tetrahydrocurcumin by reduction of curcumin with cultured plant cells of marchantia polymorpha.cultured plant cells of marchantia polymorpha, nicotiana tabacum, phytolacca americana, catharanthus roseus, and gossypium hirsutum were examined for their ability to reduce curcumin. only m. polymorpha cells converted curcumin into tetrahydrocurcumin in 90% yield in one day. time-course experiment revealed a two-step formation of tetrahydrocurcumin via dihydrocurcumin.201222574459
characterization of variation and quantitative trait loci related to terpenoid indole alkaloid yield in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of catharanthus roseus.improved catharanthus roseus cultivars are required for high yields of vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine and/or serpentine and ajmalicine, the pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloids. an approach to derive them is to map qtl for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields, identify dna markers tightly linked to the qtl and apply marker assisted selection. towards the end, 197 recombinant inbred lines from a cross were grown over two seasons to characterize variability for seven biomass and 23 ter ...201222546825
'candidatus phytoplasma malaysianum', a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus).this study addressed the taxonomic position and group classification of a phytoplasma responsible for virescence and phyllody symptoms in naturally diseased madagascar periwinkle plants in western malaysia. unique regions in the 16s rrna gene from the malaysian periwinkle virescence (mapv) phytoplasma distinguished the phytoplasma from all previously described 'candidatus phytoplasma' species. pairwise sequence similarity scores, calculated through alignment of full-length 16s rrna gene sequence ...201322523165
cytogenetic characterization and genome size of the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don.catharanthus roseus is a highly valuable medicinal plant producing several terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) with pharmaceutical applications, including the anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine. due to the interest in its tias, c. roseus is one of the most extensively studied medicinal plants and has become a model species for the study of plant secondary metabolism. however, very little is known about the cytogenetics and genome size of this species, in spite of their importance for br ...201222479673
cycloheximide as a tool to investigate protein import in peroxisomes: a case study of the subcellular localization of isoprenoid biosynthetic enzymes.cytosolic background fluorescence is often observed when native low-abundance peroxisomal proteins carrying a weak peroxisomal targeting sequence are expressed as fluorescent fusion protein using a strong constitutive promoter in transiently transformed plant cells. this cytosolic fluorescence usually comes from the strong expression of the low-abundance proteins exceeding the peroxisome import efficiency. this often results in a misinterpretation of the protein subcellular localization, as ther ...201222459325
cytotoxic dimeric indole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus.three new dimeric indole alkaloids (1-3), together with five known ones (4-8), were isolated from the whole plants of catharanthus roseus. the structures and absolute configurations of new compounds were elucidated by means of nmr and cd analyses. all these compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human breast cancer cell line mda-mb-231.201222445552
anticancer drugs from traditional toxic chinese medicines.many anticancer drugs are obtained from natural sources. nature produces a variety of toxic compounds, which are often used as anticancer drugs. up to now, there are at least 120 species of poisonous botanicals, animals and minerals, of which more than half have been found to possess significant anticancer properties. in spite of their clinical toxicity, they exhibit pharmacological effects and have been used as important traditional chinese medicines for the different stages of cancer. the arti ...201222389143
three new monomeric indole alkaloids from the roots of catharanthus roseus.two new alkaloid glycosides (1 and 2) and a new monomeric indole alkaloid (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16), were isolated from the roots of catharanthus roseus. the structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic methods. the absolute configuration of compound 3 was established by the modified mosher's method.201222332772
the cadin-2-en-1β-ol-1β-d-glucuronopyranoside suppresses tpa-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through the erk signaling pathway in mcf-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells.a sesquiterpene glycoside, cadin-2-en-1β-ol-1β-d-glucuronopyranoside (known as cr4-1), was isolated from catharanthus roseus (apocynaceae) hairy root cultures. c. roseus is widely used as an ornamental and medicinal plant and is cultivated mainly for its alkaloids. c. roseus has been reported to have pharmacologic properties such as anti-cancer, enzymatic anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic effects. in this study, we demonstrated that cr4-1 significantly inhibited the in vitro invasion of mcf-7 huma ...201222293298
phytomedicine versus gonorrhoea: the bapedi experience.records regarding the phytomedicine employed by the bapedi are almost non-existent. this is the first study of herbal remedies used by bapedi traditional healers to treat gonorrhoea, of concern as it is a danger to reproductive health. a semi-structured questionnaire, centred on sexual health, was administered to 30 traditional healers in 15 local municipalities across the three districts of limpopo province during 2009/10. the questionnaire focussed on the use of plants for medicine as well the ...201223983396
medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the marakh sect of the garo tribe living in mymensingh district, bangladesh.diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. this results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. it is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. the disease can ...201223983370
enhancement of vindoline production in suspension culture of the catharanthus roseus cell line c20hi by light and methyl jasmonate elicitation.the effects of light and methyl jasmonate (mj) on the transcription of biosynthetic genes as well as the accumulation of vindoline and catharanthine in catharanthus roseus c20hi cell suspensions were studied. t16h (the gene encoding tabersonine 16-hydroxylase) could be induced by light and mj, whereas d4h (the gene encoding deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase) could only be induced by light. quantification by uplc-ms showed that light significantly increased vindoline production in c20hi cells by a ...201122156254
basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis.transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bhlh) family play a central role in cell proliferation, determination, and differentiation. in plants, the regulatory functions of bhlhs in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis have been well established with regard to other interacting-proteins; i.e., myb and wd40 repeat proteins. on the other hand, those in alkaloid biosynthesis are greatly limited due to the limited distribution of alkaloids in plant species. recently, several groups have reported ...201122067108
reengineering a tryptophan halogenase to preferentially chlorinate a direct alkaloid precursor.installing halogens onto natural products can generate compounds with novel or improved properties. notably, enzymatic halogenation is now possible as a result of the discovery of several classes of halogenases; however, applications are limited because of the narrow substrate specificity of these enzymes. here we demonstrate that the flavin-dependent halogenase rebh can be engineered to install chlorine preferentially onto tryptamine rather than the native substrate tryptophan. tryptamine is a ...201122050348
tubulin-based structure-affinity relationships for antimitotic vinca alkaloids.the vinca alkaloids are a group of widely used anticancer drugs, originally extracted from the madagascar periwinkle, that disrupt microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells by interfering with proper assembly of α,β-tubulin heterodimers. they favor curved tubulin assemblies that destabilize microtubules and induce formation of spiral aggregates. their binding energy profiles have been characterized by means of sedimentation velocity assays and the binding site of vinblastine at the interface betwe ...201222044006
influence of some heavy metals on growth, alkaloid content and composition in catharanthus roseus l.shoot biomass production, alkaloid content and composition as influence by cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead at uniform dose of 5 mm were investigated in catharanthus roseus plants grown in sand culture. treatment with mn, ni, and pb significantly enhanced total root alkaloid accumulation. cd and ni treatment resulted in two-fold where as pb treatment resulted in three fold increase in serpentine content of roots. the non-significant affect on biomass suggests that plants can withstand metal s ...201021969751
catharanthus roseus: a natural source for the synthesis of silver develop a simple rapid procedure for bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (agnps) using aqueous leaves extracts of catharanthus roseus (c. roseus).201123569773
development of ssr and gene-targeted markers for construction of a framework linkage map of catharanthus roseus.catharanthus roseus is a plant of great medicinal importance, yet inadequate knowledge of its genome structure and the unavailability of genomic resources have been major impediments in the development of improved varieties. the aims of this study were to develop co-dominant sequence-tagged microsatellite sites (stms) and gene-targeted markers (gtms) and utilize them for the construction of a framework intraspecific linkage map of c. roseus.201121788377
simultaneous determination of vinblastine and its monomeric precursors vindoline and catharanthine in catharanthus roseus by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.catharanthus roseus is an important dicotyledonous medicinal plant that contains various anticancer components, such as vinblastine (vlb) and its monomeric precursors (vindoline and catharanthine). a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (ce-ms) approach for the simultaneous determination of three components was developed in this work. baseline separation for three components was achieved by using a running buffer consisting of 20 mm ammonium acetate and 1.5% acetic acid in <20 min. quanti ...201121735550
methyl jasmonate induces atp biosynthesis deficiency and accumulation of proteins related to secondary metabolism in catharanthus roseus (l.) g. hairy roots.jasmonates are specific signal molecules in plants that are involved in a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. however, methyl jasmonate (meja) has been shown to have a negative effect on root growth and, so far, the biochemical mechanism for this is unknown. using catharanthus roseus hairy roots, we were able to observe the effect of meja on growth inhibition, cell disorganization and cell death of the root cap. hairy roots treated with meja induced the perturbation of mito ...201121727181
screening 64 cultivars catharanthus roseus for the production of vindoline, catharanthine, and serpentine.the leaves of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don. are a valuable source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) anticancer drugs, vinblastine and vincristine. in particular, the precursor molecules vindoline and catharanthine are harvested from leaves and used for the semisynthetic production of vinblastine and vincristine. because of this application, catharanthine and vindoline can be used to screen for high-yielding tia cultivars. in this study, we compared the tia concentrations in the leaves of ...201121674816
induction and flow cytometry identification of tetraploids from seed-derived explants through colchicine treatments in catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don.the tetraploid plants of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don was obtained by colchicine induction from seeds explants, and the ploidy of the plants was identified by flow cytometry. the optimal treatment is 0.2% colchicine solution treated for 24 hours, and the induction rate reaches up to 30%. comparing with morphological characteristics and growth habits between tetraploids and the control, we found that tetraploids of c. roseus had larger stoma and more branches and leaves. hplc analysis showed t ...201121660143
slowly developing drought stress increases photosynthetic acclimation of catharanthus roseus.our understanding of plant responses to drought has improved over the decades. however, the importance of the rate of drought imposition on the response is still poorly understood. to test the importance of the rate at which drought stress develops, whole-plant photosynthesis (p(net) ), respiration (r(dark) ), daily carbon gain (dcg), daily evapotranspiration (det) and water use efficiency (wue) of vinca (catharanthus roseus), subjected to different drought imposition rates, were investigated. w ...201121645003
application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp)-based technology for authentication of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp)-based molecular marker was developed for authentication of catharanthus roseus, a medicinal plant. samples of this plant were collected from different geographical locations in india. random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) analysis of collected samples was carried out with 25 random primers. a 610-bp dna fragment, common to all accessions, was eluted, cloned, and sequenced. four lamp primers were designed on the basis ...201221644004
emerging trends in research on spatial and temporal organization of terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in catharanthus roseus: a literature update.catharanthus roseus (the madagaskar periwinkle) plant is commercially valued for harbouring more than 130 bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias). amongst these, two of the leaf-derived bisindole alkaloids-vinblastine and vincristine-are widely used in several anticancer chemotherapies. the great pharmacological values, low in planta occurrence, unavailability of synthetic substitutes and exorbitant market cost of these alkaloids have prompted scientists to understand the basic architecture ...201221630129
effect of sodium nitroprusside on growth and terpenoid indole alkaloid production in catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures.nitric oxide (no) is known as a signaling molecule involved in elicitor-induced defense responses of plants. sodium nitroprusside (snp), a donor of no, stimulates catharanthine formation in catharanthus roseus cells.1 two important terpenoid indole alkaloids produced in small quantities within c. roseus are vinblastine and vincristine which are being used clinically as anticancer drugs. we are interested in engineering c. roseus hairy roots to increase the production of the tias. the present wor ...201321567990
two pairs of epimeric indole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus.two pairs of epimeric indole alkaloids (1- 4) with a chlorine atom were isolated from the aerial part of catharanthus roseus. their structures were established on the basis of the spectroscopic data including uv, ir, hresims, nmr, and x-ray diffraction analyses. the cytotoxic activities of 1-4 against the hepg2 cell line were evaluated.201121544775
simultaneous quantification of four indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus cell line c20hi by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify vindoline, catharanthine, serpentine and ajmalicine in catharanthus roseus cell line c20hi is reported. samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid, basified to ph 10 with ammonia, then extracted with ethyl acetate, dried, reconstituted with methanol-1% acetic acid water solution (1:1, v/v) and analyzed using an acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid gradient as the mobile phase. detection was carried out by ele ...201121478621
the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor crmyc2 controls the jasmonate-responsive expression of the orca genes that regulate alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus.jasmonates are plant signalling molecules that play key roles in defence against insects and certain pathogens, among others by controlling the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. in catharanthus roseus, the ap2/erf-domain transcription factor orca3 controls the jasmonate-responsive expression of several genes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis. orca3 gene expression is itself induced by jasmonate. the orca3 promoter contains an autonomous jasmonate ...201121401746
exploiting est databases for the mining and characterization of short sequence repeat (ssr) markers in catharanthus roseus l.periwinkle (catharanthus roseus l.) (family: apocyanaceae) is a ornamental plants with great medicinal properties. although it is represented by seven species, little work has been carried out on its genetic characterization due to non-availability of reliable molecular markers. simple sequence repeats (ssrs) have been widely applied as molecular markers in genetic studies. with the rapid increase in the deposition of nucleotide sequences in the public databases and advent of bioinformatics tool ...201121383904
identification of phenolic compounds in isolated vacuoles of the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus and their interaction with vacuolar class iii peroxidase: an h₂o₂ affair?class iii peroxidases (prxs) are plant enzymes capable of using h(2)o(2) to oxidize a range of plant secondary metabolites, notably phenolic compounds. these enzymes are localized in the cell wall or in the vacuole, which is a target for secondary metabolite accumulation, but very little is known about the function of vacuolar prxs. here, the physiological role of the main leaf vacuolar prx of the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus, crprx1, was further investigated namely by studying its capaci ...201121357771
[distribution and accumulation of vindoline, catharanthine and vinblastine in catharanthus roseus cultivated in china].the content of vindoline, catharanthine and vinblastine in the root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of catharanthus roseus at various developmental stages were determined, and the biomass allocation was also determined to find the best harvest time.201021355225
[monomeric indole alkaloids from the aerial parts of catharanthus roseus].catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don is a plant of the catharanthus genus of apocynaceae which has been reported to have therapeutic effects of detoxication and anticancer. in order to further study the alkaloid constituents of c. roseus, the aerial parts of the plant were extracted with 95% etoh, and then treated with 2% h2so4 and nh3h2o to obtain total alkaloids. the total alkaloids were separated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel and prepared by high performance liquid chromato ...201021355212
cloning and characterization of two new class iii peroxidase genes from catharanthus roseus.we report here the cloning and characterization of two new class iii peroxidase genes, crprx3 and crprx4 from catharanthus roseus. the full length cdna of crprx3 is 1233 bp long encoding 330 amino acid residues. the crprx4 cdna contains an orf of 1055 bp, and encodes for 318 amino acids. hypothetical 3-d structure model of crprx3 and crprx4 detected the presence of two ca(2+) ion binding sites at proximal and distal end, and a heme group coordinate at central position. crprx3 and crprx4 are pres ...201121320785
overexpression of an apoplastic peroxidase gene crprx in transgenic hairy root lines of catharanthus roseus.peroxidases are a family of isoenzymes found in all higher plants and are known to be involved in a broad range of physiological processes. however, very little information is available concerning their role in catharanthus roseus. the present study describes the impact of both overexpression and suppression of a peroxidase gene, crprx in c. roseus transgenic hairy root lines. real-time pcr analysis in 35s-crprx and crprx-rnai transgenic lines indicated differential transcript profile for peroxi ...201121318361
synthesis and study of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the specific extraction of indole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus extracts.two molecularly imprinted polymers (mip) for catharanthine and vindoline have been synthesized in order to specifically extract these natural indole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus by solid-phase extraction (spe). each mip was prepared by thermal polymerisation using catharanthine (or vindoline) as template, methacrylic acid (or itaconic acid) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (edma) as cross-linking agent and acetonitrile (or acetone) as porogenic solvent. for catharanthi ...201121167971
the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose synthase and geraniol-10-hydroxylase or anthranilate synthase increases terpenoid indole alkaloid accumulation in catharanthus roseus hairy roots.the terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) pathway in catharanthus roseus produces two important anticancer drugs, vinblastine and vincristine, in very low yields. this study focuses on overexpressing several key genes in the upper part of the tia pathway in order to increase flux toward downstream metabolites within hairy root cultures. specifically, we constructed hairy root lines with inducible overexpression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose synthase (dxs) or geraniol-10-hydroxylase (g10h). we also constructed ...201121144909
molecular cloning and characterisation of two calmodulin isoforms of the madagascar periwinkle catharanthus roseus.involvement of ca(2+) signalling in regulation of the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (mia) in catharanthus roseus has been extensively studied in recent years, albeit no protein of this signalling pathway has been isolated. using a pcr strategy, two c. roseus cdnas encoding distinct calmodulin (cam) isoforms were cloned and named cam1 and cam2. the deduced 149 amino acid sequences possess four ca(2+) binding domains and exhibit a close identity with arabidopsis cam isoforms (>91%). ...201121143723
catharanthus roseus aqueous extract is cytotoxic to jurkat leukaemic t-cells but induces the proliferation of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells.research on natural products has been widely used as a strategy to discover new drugs with potential for applications in complementary medicines because they have fewer side effects than conventional drugs. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of crude aqueous catharanthus roseus extract on jurkat cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs). the aqueous extract was standardised to vinblastine by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) ...201024575203
three new terpenoid indole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus.three new terpenoid indole alkaloids, vidolicine (1), normacusine b n-oxide (2), and lochnerine n-oxide (3), together with seven known ones (4-10), were isolated from whole plants of catharanthus roseus. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (nmr, ms, uv, and ir). cytotoxic activities of these isolates (1-10) were evaluated, but only compound 8 was active against hl-60, smmc-7721, and a549 cell lines.201121104604
three non-autonomous signals collaborate for nuclear targeting of crmyc2, a catharanthus roseus bhlh transcription factor.crmyc2 is an early jasmonate-responsive bhlh transcription factor involved in the regulation of the expression of the genes of the terpenic indole alkaloid biosynthesis pathway in catharanthus roseus. in this paper, we identified the amino acid domains necessary for the nuclear targeting of crmyc2.201021073696
new method to enhance ajmalicine production in catharanthus roseus cell cultures based on the use of cyclodextrins.the joint use of cyclodextrins and methyljasmonate, when accompanied by a short exposure to uv, enhanced extracellular ajmalicine accumulation to 1040 ± 26.6 mg/l in suspension cultured cells of catharanthus roseus. the success of this strategy is due to the use of cyclodextrins, which not only induce ajmalicine biosynthesis but also promote adduct formation. this removes ajmalicine from the medium, reduces feedback inhibition and ajmalicine degradation, and allows its accumulation in the cultur ...201120953668
effect of glomus species on physiology and biochemistry of catharanthus roseus.the present study on efficacy of different glomus species, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus (g. aggregatum, g. fasciculatum, g. mosseae, g. intraradices) on various growth parameters such as biomass, macro and micronutrients, chlorophyll, protein, cytokinin and alkaloid content and phosphatase activity of pink flowered catharanthus roseus plants showed that all glomus species except g. intraradices enhanced the chlorophyll, protein, crude alkaloid, phosphorus, sulphur, manganese and copper ...201023100853
strictosidine activation in apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?the first two enzymatic steps of monoterpene indole alkaloid (mia) biosynthetic pathway are catalysed by strictosidine synthase (str) that condensates tryptamine and secologanin to form strictosidine and by strictosidine beta-d-glucosidase (sgd) that subsequently hydrolyses the glucose moiety of strictosidine. the resulting unstable aglycon is rapidly converted into a highly reactive dialdehyde, from which more than 2,000 mias are derived. many studies were conducted to elucidate the biosynthesi ...201020723215
transcriptional response of the catharanthine biosynthesis pathway to methyl jasmonate/nitric oxide elicitation in catharanthus roseus hairy root culture.jasmonates and nitric oxide (no) play important roles in the regulation of the signaling network leading to the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. in this work, we explore the effect of constitutive overexpression of crorca3 (octadecanoid-responsive catharanthus ap2/erf domain), methyl jasmonate (meja), and sodium nitroprusside (snp) on the differentiated tissue of catharanthus roseus hairy roots. the changes in catharanthine concentration and in the levels of mrna transcripts of pathw ...201020714717
uv-b induced transcript accumulation of dahp synthase in suspension-cultured catharanthus roseus cells.the enzyme 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (dahp) synthase (ec catalyzes the first committed step in the shikimate pathway of tryptophan synthesis, an important precursor for the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias). a full-length cdna encoding nuclear coded chloroplast-specific dahp synthase transcript was isolated from a catharanthus roseus cdna library. this had high sequence similarity with other members of plant dahp synthase family. this transcript accumula ...201020704760
cytotoxicity of vinca minor.vinca minor l. (apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat cerebral and memory disorders in european folk medicine. furthermore, it contains more than 50 alkaloids, some of them having bisindole structure such as the antineoplastic alkaloids present in catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (apocynaceae). in this study, the plant's alkaloid extract was divided into three fractions and the cytotoxic effects on cell proliferation of ht-29, caco-2, t47d, and nih/3t3 cell lines were ...201020645762
medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in northern maputaland, kwazulu-natal province, south document the ethnobotanical knowledge on antidiarrhoeal plant use by lay people in a rural community in northern maputaland.201020452415
synthesis of anti-tumor dimeric indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus was promoted by irradiation with near-ultraviolet light at low temperature.we have found that coupling between catharanthine and vindoline occurs non-enzymatically in the presence of flavin mononucleotide and manganese ions with near-ultraviolet light irradiation in vitro. the present study found that the concentrations of catharanthine and vindoline in catharanthus roseus decreased and those of dimeric indole alkaloids increased under near-ultraviolet light at 4 degrees c. it indicates that this coupling reaction at 4 degrees c occurs non-enzymatically.201020139608
aza-tryptamine substrates in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis.biosynthetic pathways can be hijacked to yield novel compounds by introduction of novel starting materials. here we have altered tryptamine, which serves as the starting substrate for a variety of alkaloid biosynthetic pathways, by replacing the indole with one of four aza-indole isomers. we show that two aza-tryptamine substrates can be successfully incorporated into the products of the monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway in catharanthus roseus. use of unnatural heterocycles in precursor-direct ...200920064432
isolation and functional analysis of the catharanthus roseus deacetylvindoline-4-o-acetyltransferase gene promoter.madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) produces many therapeutically valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias), such as vinblastine and vincristine derived from the monomers vindoline and catharanthine. deacetylvindoline-4-o-acetyltransferase (dat) is a key enzyme for the terminal step of vindoline biosynthesis. in this research, the dat gene promoter was cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. an approximately 1,773 bp genomic dna fragment of dat promoter was obtained. sequence analysis revealed ...201020035334
metabolic discrimination of catharanthus roseus calli according to their relative locations using (1)h-nmr and principal component analysis.creating a plant-cell suspension culture involves first transferring the callus into liquid media, but there are no objective criteria for selecting the location of the callus to be transferred. in this study, inner and outer cells of catharanthus roseus with various elicitors in solid-state cultures were differentiated by (1)h nmr (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectrometry and principal component analysis (pca). it was found that the samples of various elicitors and relative locations could be s ...200919734668
assessing the limitations to terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures through gene expression profiling and precursor feeding.the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) from catharanthus roseus is partly regulated at the transcriptional level. in this study, limitations in tia biosynthesis from c. roseus hairy root cultures were assessed through gene expression profiling and precursor feeding. the transcript levels of key tia pathway genes (g10h, tdc, str, and sgd) and metabolite levels associated with the tia pathway (tryptamine, loganin, secologanin, strictosidine, ajmalicine, serp ...201219722248
simple and reproducible hplc-dad-esi-ms/ms analysis of alkaloids in catharanthus roseus roots.catharanthus roseus is one of the most important medicinal plants worldwide. the leaves of this species are the only source of the indolomonoterpenic alkaloids vincristin (leurocristine) and vinblastin (vincaleucoblastine), whose anticancer activity represents powerful therapeutics to many diseases, such as hodgkin lymphoma. usually, the remaining plant parts go to waste. here we describe a phytochemical study on this species roots. alkaloids in aqueous extracts, the usual form of consumption of ...201019720492
a vacuolar class iii peroxidase and the metabolism of anticancer indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus: can peroxidases, secondary metabolites and arabinogalactan proteins be partners in microcompartmentation of cellular reactions?plants possess a unique metabolic diversity commonly designated as secondary metabolism, of which the anticancer alkaloids from catharanthus roseus are among the most studied. recently, in a classical function-to-protein-to-gene approach, we have characterized the main class iii peroxidase (prx) expressed in c. roseus leaves, crprx1, implicated in a key biosynthetic step of the anticancer alkaloids. we have shown the vacuolar sorting determination of crprx1 using gfp fusions and we have obtained ...200819704535
metabolic changes of salicylic acid-elicited catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures monitored by nmr-based metabolomics.the effect of salicylic acid (sa) on the metabolic profile of catharanthus roseus suspension cells throughout a time course (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment) was investigated using nmr spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. when compared to control cell lines, sa-treated cells showed a high level of sugars (glucose and sucrose) up to 48 h after treatment, followed by a dynamic change in amino acids, phenylpropanoids, and tryptamine. additionally, one compound--2,5-dihydroxybenzoi ...200919701606
growth inhibitory activity of fatty acid methyl esters in the whole seed oil of madagascar periwinkle (apocyanaceae) against helicoverpa armigera (lepidoptera: noctuidae).crude hexane and water extracts of catharanthus roseus linn. (syn: vinca rosea) (apocyanaceae) stem, leaf, and seed exhibited pesticidal activity against helicoverpa armigera (hübner) (lepidoptera noctuidae). the extracts differed significantly in their efficacy, with the crude hexane extract of whole seed being the most effective in curtailing pupal survivorship to 18% followed by the hexane extracts of leaf (21%) and stem (24%). average pupal weight (68.2 mg) and length (1.5 cm) in the whole s ...200919610438
functional and structural characterization of a flavonoid glucoside 1,6-glucosyltransferase from catharanthus roseus.sugar-sugar glycosyltransferases play an important role in structural diversity of small molecule glycosides in higher plants. we isolated a cdna clone encoding a sugar-sugar glucosyltransferase (caugt3) catalyzing 1,6-glucosylation of flavonol and flavone glucosides for the first time from catharanthus roseus. caugt3 exhibited a unique glucosyl chain elongation activity forming not only gentiobioside but also gentiotrioside and gentiotetroside in a sequential manner. we investigated the functio ...200919561332
isolation of microsatellites from catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don using enriched libraries.catharanthus roseus is an indispensable source of the anticancerous alkaloids-vincristine and vinblastine, even though they are produced in trace amounts in vivo. in order to increase the yield of alkaloids, in vitro tissue culture studies are carried out which result in a large number of lines/cultures. for identification and characterization of the in vitro cultures, microsatellites in the form of stms (sequenced tagged microsatellite sites) markers are used for identification of genetic polym ...200919521853
optimization of the transient transformation of catharanthus roseus cells by particle bombardment and its application to the subcellular localization of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase and geraniol 10-hydroxylase.the monoterpene indole alkaloids (mia) synthesized in catharanthus roseus are highly valuable metabolites due to their pharmacological properties. in planta, the mia biosynthetic pathway exhibits a complex compartmentation at the cellular level, whereas subcellular data are sparse. to gain insight into this level of organization, we have developed a high efficiency green fluorescent protein (gfp) imaging approach to systematically localize mia biosynthetic enzymes within c. roseus cells followin ...200919504099
the effects of uv-b stress on the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus hairy nature, plants generate protective secondary metabolites in response to environmental stresses. such metabolites include terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias), which absorb uv-b light and serve putatively to protect the plant from harmful radiation. catharanthus roseus plants, multiple shoot cultures, and cell suspension cultures exposed to uv-b light show significant increases in the production of tias, including precursors to vinblastine and vincristine, which have proven effective in the treat ...200919479674
the role of the octadecanoid pathway in the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids in catharanthus roseus hairy roots under normal and uv-b stress conditions.the octadecanoid pathway is responsible for producing jasmonic acid an important signaling molecule in plants, which controls the production of a variety of secondary metabolites. previously the exogenous addition of jasmonic acid to catharanthus roseus hairy roots caused an increase in terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) accumulation. the role of the endogenous production of jasmonic acid by the octadecanoid pathway in the production of tias in c. roseus hairy roots is examined. feeding of octadeca ...200919437555
[analysis of catharanthine content and agronomic traits in catharanthus roseus].catharanthine content and agronomic traits in major catharanthus roseus varieties were analyzed. it was found that there existed great difference in catharanthine content and agronomic traits among the varieties. catharanthine content was the highest in variety pacifica polka dot (ppd), reaching 3.79 mg g(-1) dry leaf weight, and the lowest in variety cooler pink (cp) with only 0.9 mg g(-1) dry leaf weight. correlation existed in certain extent between catharanthine content and agronomic traits ...200919385168
targeted metabolite analysis of catharanthus roseus and its biological potential.catharanthus roseus is nowadays one of the most studied medicinal plants. in this work, further knowledge on different parts of this species (leaves, stems, seeds and petals) was achieved, namely phenolics by hplc-dad and organic acids and amino acids by hplc-uv. also, the biological potential, expressed as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was accessed and, in some parts, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity higher than 85% was found (ic(50) at 422, 442 and 2683 microg/ml in leave ...200919298840
production and metabolic engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloids in cell cultures of the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (madagascar periwinkle).the madagascar periwinkle [catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don] is a plant species known for its production of tias (terpenoid indole alkaloids), many of which are pharmaceutically important. ajmalicine and serpentine are prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, whereas the bisindoles vinblastine, vincristine and 3',4'-anhydrovinblastine are used for their antineoplastic activity in the treatment of many cancers. however, tias are produced in small yields in c. roseus, which make them expensive ...200919281450
flavonoid glucosides from the hairy roots of catharanthus roseus.four new flavonoid glucosides, 3',4'-di-o-methylquercetin-7-o-[(4''-->13''')-2''',6''',10''',14'''-tetramethylhexadec-13'''-ol-14'''-enyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 4'-o-methylkaempferol-3-o-[(4''-->13''')- 2''',6''',10''',14'''-tetramethylhexadecan-13'''-olyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3',4'-di-o-methylbutin-7-o-[(6''-->1''')-3''',11'''-dimethyl-7'''-methylenedodeca-3''',10'''-dienyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 4'-o-methylbutin-7-o-[(6''-->1''')-3''',11'''-dimethyl-7'''-hydroxymethylen ...200919271765
two distinct intracellular ca2+-release components act in opposite ways in the regulation of the auxin-dependent mia biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus cells.calcium-mediated signalling is ubiquitous in both animals and plants. changes in cytoplasmic free ca(2+) concentration couple diverse arrays of stimuli to their specific responses, the specificity of the stimulus being determined by integrated actions between multiple ca(2+) mobilization pathways. in this work, a pharmacological approach is reported, aimed at deciphering the role of calcium as a second messenger in the transduction pathway leading to the inhibitory effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxya ...200919218316
volatile composition of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.a total of 88 volatile and semi-volatile components were formally or tentatively identified in flowers, leaves and stems of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (cv. little bright eye), by headspace solid-phase microextraction (hs-spme) and by dichloromethane extraction, combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). these include some diterpenic compounds (manool and manoyl oxides), a sesquiterpen (alpha-bisabolol), and some pyridine, pyrazine, indol and carotenoid derivatives. applying ...200919186019
[effects of nacl on the growth and alkaloid content of catharanthus roseus seedlings].catharanthus roseus seedlings were grown in 1/2 hoagland solution containing 0-250 mmol x l(-1) of nacl, and their fresh and dry mass, malondialdehyde (mda) and chlorophyll contents, tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) and peroxidase (pod) activities, and vindoline, catharanthine, vincristine and vinblastine contents were measured after 7 days. the results showed that nacl markedly decreased the fresh and dry mass but increased the mda content. the chlorophyll content had no difference with the contr ...200819123347
isolation and characterization of antineoplastic alkaloids from catharanthus roseus l. don. cultivated in egypt.vinblastine and vincristine (the antileukemic agents) were isolated, in a pure form, from catharanthus roseus l. don., cultivated in egypt, by several chromatographic techniques. five modified methods for the preparation of total alkaloids were carried out. all the isolated mixtures were evaluated by hplc and hptlc analyses. the antineoplastic alkaloids; vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated by the use of vacuum liquid chromatographic column on silica gel : aluminium oxide (1:1) mixed bed v ...200920209002
low levels of gibberellic acid control the biosynthesis of ajmalicine in catharanthus roseus cell suspension periwinkle cell suspensions, amounts of gibberellic acid ranging from 10 ( - 10) m to 10 ( - 7) m significantly antagonized, in a dose-dependant manner, the stimulation of ajmalicine biosynthesis by cytokinins (cks). this inhibitory effect was strictly correlated with the abolition of the expression of two genes encoding enzymes of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (mia) biosynthetic pathway and was normally upregulated after ck treatments. moreover, low concentrations of the gibberellin bios ...200919096998
five year maintenance of the inducible expression of anthranilate synthase in catharanthus roseus hairy roots.transgenic hairy root cultures have the potential to be an industrial production platform for a variety of chemicals. this report demonstrates the long-term stability of a transgenic catharanthus roseus hairy root line containing the inducible expression of a feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase (as). after 5 years in liquid culture, the presence of the inserted as gene was confirmed by genomic pcr. the inducible expression of as was confirmed by enzyme assay and by changes in terpenoid in ...200919031426
a differential response to chemical elicitors in catharanthus roseus in vitro cultures.the effects of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and ethylene on alkaloid accumulation in in vitro cell suspension, hairy roots and rootless shoot cultures of catharanthus roseus were analyzed. ajmalicine, but not catharanthine, accumulation was promoted by jasmonate and ethylene treatments in cell suspensions. in hairy roots, jasmonate induced the accumulation of both alkaloids, whereas ethylene only induced catharanthine accumulation. in shoot cultures, positive effects of jasmonate and ethylen ...200919030782
transcriptional response of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway to the overexpression of orca3 along with jasmonic acid elicitation of catharanthus roseus hairy roots over time.jasmonic acid (ja) activates the transcriptional regulator orca3, which has a role in regulating the terpenoid indole alkaloid (tia) pathway within catharanthus roseus. the tia pathway leads to the production of the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. this work explores the transient effects of overexpressing orca3 under the control of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter system in c. roseus hairy roots along with the simultaneous feeding of ja. the changes in tia metabolites and in mrn ...200918955153
endogenous hormonal and enzymatic responses of catharanthus roseus with triadimefon application under water deficits.the effect of triadimefon was investigated in a medicinal plant, catharanthus roseus subjected to water deficit stress. the abscisic acid (aba) level, dna and rna contents and activities of atpase and protease were found varying in different parts of the plants under treatment. drought treatment increased the aba level more than twofold in all parts of the plants. tdm treatment to the drought stressed plants showed highest contents. in roots, stem and leaves, drought stress caused a decrease in ...200818940699
new phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of catharanthus roseus.screening of the phenolic compounds from seeds, stems, leaves and petals of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (cv. little bright eye) was achieved by hplc-dad-esi-ms/ms. this is the first detailed study of noncolored phenolics in c. roseus, which allowed the characterization of three caffeoylquinic acids and fifteen flavonol glycosides (di- and trisaccharides of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin). fifteen compounds are reported for the first time in this species. the scavenging ability of the ...200818850714
differential secretion and accumulation of terpene indole alkaloids in hairy roots of catharanthus roseus treated with methyl jasmonate.the induction of several secondary metabolites in plants is one of the most commonly observed effects after the external addition of methyl jasmonate (meja). after the elicitation of catharanthus roseus hairy roots with different concentrations of meja, changes in the accumulation of alkaloids such as ajmalicine, serpentine, ajmaline and catharanthine were observed. in addition to the increased accumulation of alkaloids in the tissues, the root exudation of phytochemicals increased compared to t ...200918841500
proteins prenylated by type i protein geranylgeranyltransferase act positively on the jasmonate signalling pathway triggering the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in catharanthus catharanthus roseus, the first step of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mia) biosynthesis results from the condensation of the indole precursor tryptamine with the terpenoid precursor secologanin. secologanin biosynthesis requires two successive biosynthetic pathways, the plastidial methyl-d: -erythritol 4-phosphate (mep) pathway and the monoterpene secoiridoid pathway. in c. roseus cell culture, the expression of several genes encoding enzymes of these two pathways is dramatically down-regula ...200918813931
antidiabetic screening and scoring of 11 plants traditionally used in south investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of indigenous or naturalised south african plants using an optimised screening and scoring method.200818588966
vindoline formation in shoot cultures of catharanthus roseus is synchronously activated with morphogenesis through the last biosynthetic step.the madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) produces the monoterpenoid alkaloid vindoline, which requires a specialized cell organization present only in the aerial tissues. vindoline content can be affected by photoperiod and this effect seems to be associated with the morphogenetic capacity of branches; this association formed the basis of the study reported here.200818587132
opium poppy and madagascar periwinkle: model non-model systems to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis in plants.alkaloids represent a large and diverse group of compounds that are related by the occurrence of a nitrogen atom within a heterocyclic backbone. unlike other types of secondary metabolites, the various structural categories of alkaloids are unrelated in terms of biosynthesis and evolution. although the biology of each group is unique, common patterns have become apparent. opium poppy (papaver somniferum), which produces several benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, and madagascar periwinkle (catharanthu ...200818476877
enhanced catharanthine and vindoline production in suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus by ultraviolet-b light.suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus were used to evaluate ultraviolet-b (uv-b) treatment as an abiotic elicitor of secondary metabolites. a dispersed cell suspension culture from c. roseus leaves in late exponential phase and stationary phase were irradiated with uv-b for 5 min. the stationary phase cultures were more responsive to uv-b irradiation than late exponential phase cultures. catharanthine and vindoline increased 3-fold and 12-fold, respectively, on treatment with a 5-min uv-b i ...200818439256
quantitative analysis of anionic metabolites for catharanthus roseus by capillary electrophoresis using sulfonated capillary coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.this paper describes a practical method to quantify anionic metabolites using contemporary capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ce-esi-ms/ms). the use of sulfonated capillary permitted a simultaneous analysis of sugar phosphates, organic acids, nucleotides and coenzyme a compounds with only one ce condition. this capillary also improved the repeatability and sensitivity. ms/ms with multiple reaction monitoring (mrm) detection was utilized to achieve signifi ...200818397777
impact of cadmium and lead on catharanthus roseus--a phytoremediation study.the madagascar periwinkle, catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (a valued medicinal plant) was exposed to different concentrations ofheavymetals like, cdcl, and pbcl, with a view to observe their bioaccumulation efficiency. germination was inhibited by both the heavy metals in the seeds previously imbibed in ga, and kno, for 24 hr. ec50 (the effective concentration which inhibits root length by 50%) was recorded as 180 microm for cdcl2, and 50 microm for pbcl2. both alpha-amylase and protease activit ...200718380091
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