integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism.halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. however, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant produc ...201021048708
zoospore interspecific signaling promotes plant infection by phytophthora.oomycetes attack a huge variety of economically and ecologically important plants. these pathogens release, detect and respond to signal molecules to coordinate their communal behaviors including the infection process. when signal molecules are present at or above threshold level, single zoospores can infect plants. however, at the beginning of a growing season population densities of individual species are likely below those required to reach a quorum and produce threshold levels of signal mole ...201021138563
interactions between 'candidatus phytoplasma mali' and the apple endophyte epicoccum nigrum in catharanthus roseus plants.we investigated the ultrastructural and molecular interactions between 'candidatus phytoplasma mali' and the apple endophyte epicoccum nigrum in the experimental host catharanthus roseus to determine whether inoculation of endophyte could trigger defence reactions in the host.201121205105
the subcellular organization of strictosidine biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus epidermis highlights several trans-tonoplast translocations of intermediate metabolites.catharanthus roseus synthesizes a wide range of valuable monoterpene indole alkaloids, some of which have recently been recognized as functioning in plant defence mechanisms. more specifically, in aerial organ epidermal cells, vacuole-accumulated strictosidine displays a dual fate, being either the precursor of all monoterpene indole alkaloids after export from the vacuole, or the substrate for a defence mechanism based on the massive protein cross-linking, which occurs subsequent to organelle m ...201121205206
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plant production via direct shoot bud organogenesis from pre-plasmolyzed leaf explants of catharanthus roseus.production of agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plants, via direct shoot bud organogenesis from leaves of catharanthus roseus, is reported. a. tumefaciens harbouring the plasmid pbi121 with gus gene uida and kanamycin resistance gene nptii was used. highest transformation efficiency of 1.4 transgenic shoots/responded explant was obtained when pre-plasmolysed leaves, pre-incubated on shoot bud induction medium for 10 days, were subjected to sonication for 30 s prior to transformation. ...201121207108
molecular docking and pharmacogenomics of vinca alkaloids and their monomeric precursors, vindoline and catharanthine.vinblastine and vincristine are dimeric indole alkaloids derived from catharanthus roseus (formerly: vinca rosea). their monomeric precursor molecules are vindoline and catharanthine. while vinblastine and vincristine are well-known mitotic spindle poisons, not much is known about vindoline and catharanthine. vindoline and catharanthine showed weak cytotoxicity, while vinblastine, vincristine, and the semisynthetic vindesine and vinorelbine revealed high cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. this m ...201121219884
potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of indian ayurvedic medicinal plants.indian medicinal plants used in the ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. in this study, seventeen indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory po ...201121251279
functional analysis of the dat gene promoter using transient catharanthus roseus and stable nicotiana tabacum transformation systems.the catharanthus roseus dat gene encodes the enzyme acetyl-coa:deacetylvindoline-4-o-acetyltransferase involved in the last step of the indole alkaloid pathway leading to vindoline. this gene is characterized by specific cell type expression in idioblasts and laticifers. to understand the specific transcriptional regulation mechanism(s) of dat, several dat promoter gus constructs were cloned into pcambia1305.1. agroinfiltration of different explant types of c. roseus resulted in organ-specific a ...201121308469
apetala2/ethylene response factor and basic helix-loop-helix tobacco transcription factors cooperatively mediate jasmonate-elicited nicotine biosynthesis.transcription factors of the plant-specific apetala2/ethylene response factor (ap2/erf) family control plant secondary metabolism, often as part of signalling cascades induced by jasmonate (ja) or other elicitors. here, we functionally characterized the ja-inducible tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) ap2/erf factor orc1, one of the members of the nic2-locus erfs that control nicotine biosynthesis and a close homologue of orca3, a transcriptional activator of alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus ...201121418355
a stereoselective hydroxylation step of alkaloid biosynthesis by a unique cytochrome p450 in catharanthus roseus.plant cytochrome p450s are involved in the production of over a hundred thousand metabolites such as alkaloids, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoids. although cytochrome p450 genes constitute one of the largest superfamilies in plants, many of the catalytic functions of the enzymes they encode remain unknown. here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a cytochrome p450 gene in a new subfamily of cyp71, cyp71bj1, involved in alkaloid biosynthesis. co-expression analysis of ...201121454651
functional expression of geraniol 10-hydroxylase reveals its dual function in the biosynthesis of terpenoid and phenylpropanoid.geraniol 10-hydroxylase (g10h), a cytochrome p450 monooxygenase, has been reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. the gene for catharanthus roseus g10h (crg10h) was cloned and heterologously expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. a number of substrates were subjected to assay the enzyme activity of crg10h. as reported in a previous study, crg10h hydroxylated the monoterpenoid geraniol at the c-10 position to generate 10-hydroxygeraniol. interestingly, ...201121504162
natural products genomics: a novel approach for the discovery of anti-cancer therapeutics.plants continue to retain some advantages over combinatorial chemistry as sources of novel compounds, for example, they can generate metabolites with a complexity beyond synthetic chemistry. however, this comes with its own problems in production and synthetic modification of these compounds. natural products genomics (npg) aims to access the plants own genomic capacity to increase yields, and modify complex bioactive metabolites, to alleviate these limitations. npg uses a combination of gain of ...201121539926
building a model: developing genomic resources for common milkweed (asclepias syriaca) with low coverage genome sequencing.abstract: background: milkweeds (asclepias l.) have been extensively investigated in diverse areas of evolutionary biology and ecology; however, there are few genetic resources available to facilitate and compliment these studies. this study explored how low coverage genome sequencing of the common milkweed (asclepias syriaca l.) could be useful in characterizing the genome of a plant without prior genomic information and for development of genomic resources as a step toward further developing a ...201121542930
profile of aldose reductase inhibition, anti-cataract and free radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants: an attempt to standardize the botanicals for amelioration of diabetes complications.phytotherapy has played an important role in the management of diabetes and related complications. in the present study different fractions of catharanthus roseus l. (apocynaceae), ocimum sanctum l. (labiatae), tinospora cordifolia willd. (menispermaceae), aegle marmelos l. (rutaceae), ficus golmerata l. (moraceae), psoralea corlifolia l. (fabaceae), tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae), and morinda cetrifolia l. (rubiaceae) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of aldose reductase (ar: a key ...201121570444
soybean transcription factor gmmybz2 represses catharanthine biosynthesis in hairy roots of catharanthus roseus.catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don is a plant species known for its production of a variety of terpenoid indole alkaloids, many of which have pharmacological activities. production of catharanthine in cell cultures or in hairy roots established by transformation with agrobacterium rhizogenes is of interest because catharanthine can be chemically coupled to the abundant leaf alkaloid vindoline to form the valuable anticancer drug vinblastine. here, we observed a high amount of catharanthine in hairy ...201121590290
a comparative study of morphology, reactivity and stability of synthesized silver nanoparticles using bacillus subtilis and catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don.large number of papers has been published recently on the eleventh group metallic elements such as ag, au and cu. our study was focused on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, their morphology, reactivity and stability. we were interested to check these properties in two different samples, s1 and s2, respectively. the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by reacting the samples with 1mm concentration of silver nitrate, one involves bacteria (s1) and the other involves the plant ext ...201121592749
antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from malaiyur and javadhu hills of south india.the emergence and spread of plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (cq), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. the present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the malaiyur and javadhu hills of south india against blood stage cq-sensiti ...201121643655
ectopic overexpression of vacuolar and apoplastic catharanthus roseus peroxidases confers differential tolerance to salt and dehydration stress in transgenic tobacco.crprx and crprx1 are class iii peroxidases previously cloned and characterized from catharanthus roseus. crprx is known to be apoplastic in nature, while crprx1 is targeted to vacuoles. in order to study their role in planta, these two peroxidases were expressed in nicotiana tabacum. the transformed plants exhibited increased peroxidase activity. increased oxidative stress tolerance was also observed in transgenics when treated with h(2)o(2) under strong light conditions. however, differential t ...201121643888
peroxisomal localisation of the final steps of the mevalonic acid pathway in plants, the mevalonic acid (mva) pathway provides precursors for the formation of triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phytosterols and primary metabolites important for cell integrity. here, we have cloned the cdna encoding enzymes catalysing the final three steps of the mva pathway from madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus), mevalonate kinase (mvk), 5-phosphomevalonate kinase (pmk) and mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase (mvd). these cdna were shown to functionally complement mva pathway d ...201121655959
a virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in catharanthus roseus.the anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine are bisindole alkaloids derived from coupling vindoline and catharanthine, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids produced exclusively by the madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus). industrial production of vinblastine and vincristine currently relies on isolation from c. roseus leaves, a process that affords these compounds in 0.0003-0.01% yields. metabolic engineering efforts to either improve alkaloid content or provide alternative sources of the ...201121802100
antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten apocynaceae species.the anticancer properties of apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves.201121772753
effects of co-administration of methanol leaf extract of catharanthus roseus on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin and glibenclamide in investigate the interacting effects of co-administration of methanol leaf extract of catharanthus roseus (c. roseus) on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin as well as glibenclamide using experimental rats.201121771702
antihyperglycemic activity of catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.catharanthus roseus linn (apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. in this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of c. roseus (catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (stz, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male wistar rats. the animals were divided into four groups: control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. diabe ...201021808566
induced dwarf mutant in catharanthus roseus with enhanced antibacterial activity.evaluation of an ethyl methane sulphonate-induced dwarf mutant of catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don revealed that the mutant exhibited marked variation in morphometric parameters. the in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of the mutant and control plants was investigated against medically important bacteria. the mutant leaf extracts showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria except bacillus subtilis.201021695004
characterization and subcellular localization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from catharanthus roseus.the enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (ggps: ec, ec, ec catalyses the formation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (ggpp) from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via three successive condensation reactions. a full-length nucleotide sequence of ggps (named crggps) was cloned from the medicinal plant catharanthus roseus. the deduced polypeptide has 383 amino acids with a calculated mass of 41.6-ákda and possesses prenyltransferase signatures charac ...201121706164
phytoplasma-induced floral abnormalities in catharanthus roseus are associated with phytoplasma accumulation and transcript repression of floral organ identity genes.floral symptoms caused by phytoplasma largely resemble floral reversion in other plants. periwinkle leaf yellowing (ply) phytoplasma and peanut witches'-broom (pnwb) phytoplasma caused different degrees of floral abnormalities on infected periwinkle plants. the ply phytoplasma-infected plants exhibited floral discoloration, virescence, small flowers, and only occasionally full floral reversion. in contrast, pnwb phytoplasma frequently induced complete floral reversion and resulted in a witches'- ...201121864044
synthesis of xylooligosaccharides of daidzein and their anti-oxidant and anti-allergic activities.the biocatalytic synthesis of xylooligosaccharides of daidzein was investigated using cultured cells of catharanthus roseus and aspergillus sp. β-xylosidase. the cultured cells of c. roseus converted daidzein into its 4'-o-β-glucoside, 7-o-β-glucoside, and 7-o-β-primeveroside, which was a new compound. the 7-o-β-primeveroside of daidzein was further xylosylated by aspergillus sp. β-xylosidase to daidzein trisaccharide, i.e., 7-o-[6-o-(4-o-(β-d-xylopyranosyl))-β-d-xylopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranosi ...201122016613
the transcription factor crwrky1 positively regulates the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus.catharanthus roseus produces a large array of terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias) that are an important source of natural or semisynthetic anticancer drugs. the biosynthesis of tias is tissue specific and induced by certain phytohormones and fungal elicitors, indicating the involvement of a complex transcriptional control network. however, the transcriptional regulation of the tia pathway is poorly understood. here, we describe a c. roseus wrky transcription factor, crwrky1, that is preferentially ...201121988879
differential patterns of dehydroabietic acid biotransformation by nicotiana tabacum and catharanthus roseus cells.the aim of this study was to use whole cell catalysts as tools for modification of selected resin acids in order to obtain value-added functional derivatives. the enzymatic bioconversion capacities of two plant species were tested towards dehydroabietic acid. dehydroabietic acid (dha) is an abundant resin acid in conifers, representing a natural wood protectant. it is also one of the constituents found in by-products of the kraft chemical pulping industry. dha was fed to tobacco (nicotiana tabac ...201122178236
evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of catharanthus roseus (linn.) g. donn. in guinea pigs.our aim of the study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of catharanthus roseus (linn.) g. donn. in guinea pigs. adult guinea pigs of either sex were divided into seven groups: group 1 - normal diet; group 2 - high fat diet; group 3 and 4 - normal diet plus leaf juice of catharanthus roseus (linn.) g. donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 ml/kg, respectively; group 5 and 6- high fat diet with leaf juice of catharanthus roseus (linn.) g. donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 ml/kg, respect ...201122125959
evaluation of catharanthus roseus leaf extract-mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles against hippobosca maculata and bovicola ovis.the purpose of the present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tio(2) nps) utilizing leaf aqueous extract of catharanthus roseus against the adults of hematophagous fly, hippobosca maculata leach (diptera: hippoboscidae), and sheep-biting louse, bovicola ovis schrank (phthiraptera: trichodectidae). the synthesized tio(2) nps were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (xrd), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir), scanning ...201121987105
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of Catharanthus roseus hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase gene promoter from the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway.The Madagascar periwinkle produces monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) of high interest due to their therapeutical values. The terpenoid moiety of MIA is derived from the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) and seco-iridoid pathways. These pathways are regarded as the limiting branch for MIA biosynthesis in C. roseus cell and tissue cultures. In previous studies, we demonstrated a coordinated regulation at the transcriptional and spatial levels of genes from both pathways. We report here on the i ...201122160472
Toxicological properties of several medicinal plants from the Himalayas (India) against vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue.The leaves of five plants namely Nyctanthes arbortistis (Oleaceae), Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Boenininghusenia albiflora (Rutaceae), Valeriana hardwickii (Valerianaceae) and Eupatorium odoratum (Asteraceae) were selected for the first time from the Garhwal region of north west Himalaya to investigation its toxicological properties against mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue. In a laboratory study, using different polarity solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform an ...201122041755
the subcellular localization of periwinkle farnesyl diphosphate synthase provides insight into the role of peroxisome in isoprenoid biosynthesis.farnesyl diphosphate (fpp) synthase (fps: ec., ec. catalyzes the formation of fpp from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via two successive condensation reactions. a cdna designated crfps, encoding a protein showing high similarities with trans-type short fps isoforms, was isolated from the madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus). this cdna was shown to functionally complement the lethal fps deletion mutant in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae. at the sub ...201121872968
Fluorescence in situ hybridization for phytoplasma and endophytic bacteria localization in plant tissues.In the present study, we developed a rapid and efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization assay (FISH) in non-embedded tissues of the model plant Catharanthus roseus for co-localizing phytoplasmas and endophytic bacteria, opening new perspectives for studying the interaction between these microorganisms.201121851838
endophytic methylobacterium extorquens expresses a heterologous β-1,4-endoglucanase a (egla) in catharanthus roseus seedlings, a model host plant for xylella fastidiosa.based on the premise of symbiotic control, we genetically modified the citrus endophytic bacterium methylobacterium extorquens, strain ar1.6/2, and evaluated its capacity to colonize a model plant and its interaction with xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (cvc). ar1.6/2 was genetically transformed to express heterologous gfp (green fluorescent protein) and an endoglucanase a (egla), generating the strains argfp and aregla, respectively. by fluorescence micros ...201122805929
development of transcriptomic resources for interrogating the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in medicinal plant species.the natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. one group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (mias), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin), hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine), malaria (quinine), and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine). our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due ...201223300689
synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of catharanthus roseus linn. g. don and their antiplasmodial develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of catharanthus roseus (c. roseus) linn. g. don which has been proven active against malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum (p. falciparum).201223569974
evidence of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols in the growth cycle of suspension cultured plant cells.suspension cultured cells of catharanthus roseus rapidly consume the inorganic phosphate of the medium and incorporate about 25% of it into their phospholipids. by three different methods of analysis it was shown that from these plant cells phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol species can be extracted; the mono- and diphosphorylated species were detected in amounts of about 7 and 1%, respectively, of the phosphatidylinositol fraction. autoradiography of 32p-labeled phospholipids showed that espec ...20143947362
purification and partial characterization of microsomal cytochrome b555 from the higher plant catharanthus roseus.microsomal b-type hemoprotein designated, cytochrome b555 of c.roseus seedlings was solubilized using detergents and purified by a combination of ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration to a specific content of 18.5 nmol per mg of protein. the purified cytochrome b555 was homogeneous and estimated to have an apparent molecular weight of 16500 on sds-page. the absorption spectrum of the reduced form has major peaks at 424, 525 and 555 nm. the alpha-band of the reduced form is asymmetric wi ...20133754748
purification and properties of strictosidine synthetase (an enzyme condensing tryptamine and secologanin) from catharanthus roseus cultured cells.strictosidine synthetase, which catalyzes the condensation of tryptamine with secologanin to form strictosidine (isovincoside), was purified 740-fold to homogeneity from cultured cells of catharanthus roseus in 10% yield. the specific activity is 5.85 nkat/mg. the molecular weight as estimated by gel filtration is 38,000. the isoelectric point is 4.6. apparent km values for tryptamine and secologanin are 0.83 and 0.46 mm, respectively. the enzyme shows a broad ph optimum between 5.0 and 7.5. the ...1976476085
adhesion of suspension-cultured catharanthus roseus cells to surfaces: effect of ph, ionic strength, and cation valency.the correlation between the effects of ph, ionic strength and cation valency on the electrophoretic mobility and the extent of adhesion of suspension-cultured catharanthus roseus cells to various polymer substrates is presented. the electrophoretic mobility of cells was unaltered in the ph range of 6-8, but decreased from approximately -2.2 x 10(-8) m v-1 s-1 and approached zero as the ph of the suspending liquid was decreased from 6 to 2. similarly, the value of electrophoretic mobility decreas ...20072765628
detergent-solubilized nadph-cytochrome c(p-450) reductase from the higher plant, catharanthus roseus. purification and characterization. 1998107158
assay of tryptophan decarboxylase from catharanthus roseus plant cell cultures by high-performance liquid assay is described for the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase from plant cell suspension cultures. it is based on the fluorometric detection of tryptamine by hplc on a lichrosorb rp-8 select b column. tryptophan decarboxylase from catharanthus roseus was induced by transferring 14-day-old cells into an induction medium. optimum activity was found 2 days after transfer, the increase being 5- to 10-fold. when kept at -15 degrees c the crude enzyme lost half its activity in about 7 days. the rate o ...20133688427
purification and cdna cloning of isochorismate synthase from elicited cell cultures of catharanthus roseus.isochorismate is an important metabolite formed at the end of the shikimate pathway, which is involved in the synthesis of both primary and secondary metabolites. it is synthesized from chorismate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme isochorismate synthase (ics; ec we have purified ics to homogeneity from elicited catharanthus roseus cell cultures. two isoforms with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kd were purified and characterized. the km values for chorismate were 558 and 319 micr ...19999952467
ornamental exterior versus therapeutic interior of madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus): the two faces of a versatile herb.catharanthus roseus (l.) known as madagascar periwinkle (mp) is a legendary medicinal plant mostly because of possessing two invaluable antitumor terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias), vincristine and vinblastine. the plant has also high aesthetic value as an evergreen ornamental that yields prolific blooms of splendid colors. the plant possesses yet another unique characteristic as an amiable experimental host for the maintenance of the smallest bacteria found on earth, the phytoplasmas and spiropl ...201525667940
receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity.receptor-like kinases (rlks) are surface localized, transmembrane receptors comprising a large family of well-studied kinases. rlks signal through their transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains with the aid of various interacting partners and downstream components. the n-terminal extracellular domain defines ligand specificity, and rlk families are sub-classed according to this domain. the most studied of these subfamilies include those with (1) leucine-rich repeat (lrr) domains, (2) lysm domains ...201222936944
a reliable protocol for transformation of catharanthus roseus through agrobacterium tumefaciens.proliferation of axillary shoot buds and multiple shoot formation in catharanthus roseus was obtained in 96 % explants on ms medium (3 % sucrose) containing naa + ba. 2,4-d induced callusing in both, the nodal as well as in leaf segments. leaf-derived callus was used for transformation with agrobacterium tumefaciens lba4404/pbi-s1. bacterial cell concentration, duration of co-cultivation and acetosyringone concentration influenced transformation efficiency. under optimal co-cultivation condition ...200923572917
kinetic analysis of phospholipase c from catharanthus roseus transformed roots using different assaysthe properties of phospholipase c (plc) partially purified from catharanthus roseus transformed roots were analyzed using substrate lipids dispersed in phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid-detergent mixed micelles, and phospholipid monolayers spread at an air-water interface. using [(33)p]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (pip(2)) of high specific radioactivity, plc activity was monitored directly by measuring the loss of radioactivity from monolayers as a result of the release of inositol ph ...199910444091
development of a kinetic metabolic model: application to catharanthus roseus hairy root.a kinetic metabolic model describing catharanthus roseus hairy root growth and nutrition was developed. the metabolic network includes glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, tca cycle and the catabolic reactions leading to cell building blocks such as amino acids, organic acids, organic phosphates, lipids and structural hexoses. the central primary metabolic network was taken at pseudo-steady state and metabolic flux analysis technique allowed reducing from 31 metabolic fluxes to 20 independent ...200616453114
silencing of tryptamine biosynthesis for production of nonnatural alkaloids in plant culture.natural products have long served as both a source and inspiration for pharmaceuticals. modifying the structure of a natural product often improves the biological activity of the compound. metabolic engineering strategies to ferment "unnatural" products have been enormously successful in microbial organisms. however, despite the importance of plant derived natural products, metabolic engineering strategies to yield unnatural products from complex, lengthy plant pathways have not been widely expl ...200919666570
metabolic reprogramming of periwinkle plant culture.we transformed an alkaloid biosynthetic gene with reengineered substrate specificity into catharanthus roseus. the resulting transgenic plant cell culture produced a variety of unnatural alkaloid compounds when cocultured with simple, achiral, commercially available precursors that the reengineered enzyme was designed to accept. this work demonstrates the power of genetic engineering to retailor the structures of complex alkaloid natural products in plant culture.200919151732
development of efficient catharanthus roseus regeneration and transformation system using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hypocotyls as a valuable medicinal plant, madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias), such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. however, the yields of these tias are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. the recent development of ...201222748182
co-overexpression of geraniol-10-hydroxylase and strictosidine synthase improves anti-cancer drug camptothecin accumulation in ophiorrhiza pumila.camptothecin (cpt) belongs to a group of monoterpenoidindole alkaloids (tias) and its derivatives such as irinothecan and topothecan have been widely used worldwide for the treatment of cancer, giving rise to rapidly increasing market demands. genes from catharanthus roseus encoding strictosidine synthase (str) and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (g10h), were separately and simultaneously introduced into ophiorrhiza pumila hairy roots. overexpression of individual g10h (g lines) significantly improved c ...201525648209
function of ap2/erf transcription factors involved in the regulation of specialized metabolism in ophiorrhiza pumila revealed by transcriptomics and metabolomics.the hairy roots (hr) of ophiorrhiza pumila produce camptothecin (cpt), a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid used as a precursor in the synthesis of chemotherapeutic drugs. o. pumila hr culture is considered as a promising alternative source of cpt, however, the knowledge about the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism is still limited. in this study, five genes that encode ap2/erf transcription factors, namely operf1-operf5, were isolated from hr of o. pumila. phylogenetic analysis of ap2/erf ...201628018397
silencing the transcriptional repressor, zct1, illustrates the tight regulation of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus hairy roots.the catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (tias), including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. transcription factors (tfs) are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. to increase tia biosynthesis, we elicited the tia transcriptional activators (orcas and other unidentified tfs) with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (mj), while simultaneously silencing the expr ...201627467510
potent antioxidant properties of rolb-transformed catharanthus roseus (l.) g. radicals play an important role in pathological processes such as aging and developing cancer; hence, natural products inhibit free radical production, and can play an important role in preventing diseases. we aimed to evaluate the scavenging activity of free radicals, reducing power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (mda) formation, and the antioxidant composition of rolb-transformed hairy roots and leaf callus of catharanthus roseus. hairy roots of the catharanthus ros ...201627642325
uv-b-induced signaling events leading to enhanced-production of catharanthine in catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. in cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. however, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. exposure of catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of uv-b irradiation was found to increase th ...200717988378
antibacterial activity of six medicinal cameroonian plants against gram-positive and gram-negative multidrug resistant phenotypes.infectious diseases due to multidrug-resistant bacteria are one of the causes of treatment failures contributing to an increase in mortality and/or morbidity. in this study, we evaluated the antibacterial potential of different parts of six medicinal plants namely alstonia boonei, ageratum conyzoides, croton macrostachys, cassia obtusifolia, catharanthus roseus and paullinia pinnata against a panel of 36 multi-drug resistant (mdr) gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.201627724917
evaluation of the larvicidal efficacy of five indigenous weeds against an indian strain of dengue vector, aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae).background and objectives. aedes aegypti, dengue fever mosquito, is primarily associated with the transmission of dengue and chikungunya in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the present investigations were carried out to assess the larvicidal efficiency of five indigenous weeds against ae. aegypti. methods. the 1,000 ppm hexane and ethanol extracts prepared from the leaves and stem of five plants (achyranthes aspera, cassia occidentalis, catharanthus roseus, lantana camara, and xant ...201626941996
still stable after 11 years: a catharanthus roseus hairy root line maintains inducible expression of anthranilate synthase.hairy root cultures generated using agrobacterium rhizogenes are an extensively investigated system for the overproduction of various secondary metabolite based pharmaceuticals and chemicals. this study demonstrated a transgenic catharanthus roseus hairy root line carrying a feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase (as) maintained chemical and genetic stability for 11 years. the as gene was originally inserted in the hairy root genome under the control of a glucocorticoid inducible promoter. a ...201727813337
screening and kinetic studies of catharanthine and ajmalicine accumulation and their correlation with growth biomass in catharanthus roseus hairy roots.context catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don (apocynaceae) is still one of the most important sources of terpene indole alkaloids including anticancer and hypertensive drugs as vincristine and vinblastine. these final compounds have complex pathway and many enzymes are involved in their biosynthesis. indeed, ajmalicine and catharanthine are important precursors their increase can lead to enhance levels of molecules of interest. objective this study aims at selecting the highest yield of hairy root li ...201626983347
an protocol for genetic transformation of catharanthus roseus by agrobacterium rhizogenes a4.catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don is a plant species known for its production of a variety of terpenoid indole alkaloids, many of which have pharmacological activities. catharanthine can be chemically coupled to the abundant leaf alkaloid vindoline to form the valuable anticancer drug vinblastine. to study and extract catharanthine and other metabolites from c. roseus, a technique was developed for producing hairy root cultures. in this study, the agrobacterium rhizogenes a4 was induced in the hai ...201222328251
alkaloid production by transformed root cultures of catharanthus roseus.transformed roots of catharanthus roseus were obtained following infection of detached leaves with agrobacterium rhizogenes. roots would not grow in full strength gamborg's b5 medium but would grow satisfactorily if the medium was diluted to one half strength. little alkaloid appeared in the growth medium but root tissue contained a high level and wide variety of alkaloids. ajmalicine, serpentine, vindolinine and catharanthine were prominent components. vinblastine could also be detected by a co ...198824241871
morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained agrobacterium-mediated transgenic catharanthus roseus plants.transgenic catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic dhawal [dt] and transgenic nirmal [nt]) obtained from the agrobacterium tumefaciens and agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. dt plant gradually lost the gus gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth yea ...201525102992
phytohormones in the formation of crown gall gall tumors were initiated in a variety of plant species by infection with agrobacterium tumefaciens strain b6 and the concomitant changes in the tissue levels of phytohormones, mainly indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) and cytokinins, were analyzed. a comparison was made of these hormones with those produced by virulent and avirulent strains of the bacterium in liquid culture and with those of bacteria-free crown gall callus cultures. specific radioimmunoassays were employed for hormone determina ...198124276937
cholinesterase inhibitor (altenuene) from an endophytic fungus alternaria alternata: optimization, purification and characterization.the aim of this study was to screen endophytic fungi isolated from vinca rosea for their potential to produce acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibitors.201627248836
effect of fungal homogenate, enzyme inhibitors and osmotic stress on alkaloid content of catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.the addition of aspergillus niger homogenate to catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures produced an increment of more than 60% in the alkaloid content of two different cell lines. the use of an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, i. e. cinnamic acid, along with the homogenate, resulted in an appearance of 90% of the alkaloids in the medium. furthermore, even in the absence of fungal homogenate, there was a marked increase in the alkaloid content. the exposure of the cells to an osmoti ...199124221325
[endophytic bacterial community analysis of catharanthus roseus and its association with huanglongbing pathogen].to analyze the microbial diversity in healthy and hlb-affected catharanthus roseus under manual-grafting conditions and to find the association between the endophytic bacteria and the hlb pathogen.201222799214
effect of pseudomonas fluorescens rb4 and bacillus subtilis 189 on the phytoremediation potential of catharanthus roseus (l.) in cu and pb-contaminated soils.the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has become a critical issue due to toxic effects of these metals on living organisms. the current research was conducted to study the effect of pseudomonas fluorescens rb4 and bacillus subtilis 189 on the growth and phytoremediation potential of catharanthus roseus in cu- and pb-contaminated soils. the bacterial strains exhibited significantly higher level of water-extractable pb and cu in pb, cu, and cu+pb-contaminated. the p. fluorescens rb4 in ...201727819493
evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown vinca rosea l. (catharanthus roseus) against pathogens.the antimicrobial activity of vinca rosea was evaluated against pathogenic bacterial strains (bacillus subtilis, b. licheniformis and azotobacter sp.) and fungal strains (asprgillus niger, alternaria solani and rhizopus oryzae) using agar well diffusion method. methanolic extracts of in vivo leaf, in vitro leaf, in vitro calluses of leaf, nodal and fruit explants were used and exhibited antimicrobial activity as indicated by minimum inhibitory concentration (mic). in vitro extracts showed better ...201526004716
analysis toward innovative herbal antibacterial and antifungal drugs.the antimicrobial activities of four medicinal plants argemona mexicana, achyranthes aspera, catharanthus roseus, and syzygium cumini were evaluated against escherichia coli, vibrio cholerae, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, bacillus subtilis, salmonella typhi and three aspergillus species. extracts from achyranthes aspera and catharanthus roseus showed the highest antimicrobial potential (mic 0.375-0.750 mg/ml) while extract from argemona mexicana and syzygium cumini, showed less activi ...201223072646
larvicidal efficacy of catharanthus roseus linn. (family: apocynaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis against anopheles stephensi explore the larvicidal activity of catharanthus roseus (c. roseus) leaf extract and bacillus thuringiensis (b. thuringiensis) against the malarial vector anopheles stephensi (an. stephensi), when being used alone or together.201324083578
effects of solarization and ammonium amendments on plant-parasitic nematodes.the effects of soil solarization and ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate against plant-parasitic nematodes on yellow squash (cucurbita pepo) and on vinca (catharanthus roseus) were evaluated at two sites. solarization for 3 weeks in the spring suppressed population levels of belonolaimus longicaudatus, criconemella spp., and dolichodorus heterocephalus throughout the growing season on both crops at both sites. levels of meloidogyne incognita were suppressed initially, but population densiti ...200019271007
induction of triterpene biosynthesis by elicitors in suspension cultures of tabernaemontana species.treatment of suspension cultures of some tabernaemontana species (apocynaceae) with elicitors (e.g. cellulase, candida albicans) result in a rapid de novo production of antimicrobial active triterpenes. the triterpenes are identified as ursene carboxylic acid derivatives. these triterpenes are not produced by an elicited cell suspension culture of catharanthus roseus, another apocynaceae.198824241415
characterization of an endophytic whorl-forming streptomyces from catharanthus roseus stems producing polyene macrolide endophytic whorl-forming streptomyces sp. designated as ts3ro having antifungal activity against a large number of fungal pathogens, including sclerotinia sclerotiorum, rhizoctonia solani, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, cryphonectria parasitica, fusarium oxysporum, pyrenophora tritici-repentis, epidermophyton floccosum, and trichophyton rubrum, was isolated from surface-sterilized catharanthus roseus stems. preliminary identification showed that streptomyces cinnamoneus subsp. sparsus was it ...201222524528
complete nucleotide sequences of two begomoviruses infecting madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) from pakistan.though catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle) is an ornamental plant, it is famous for its medicinal value. its alkaloids are known for anti-cancerous properties, and this plant is studied mainly for its alkaloids. here, this plant has been studied for its viral diseases. complete dna sequences of two begomoviruses infecting c. roseus originating from pakistan were determined. the sequence of one begomovirus (clone kn4) shows the highest level of nucleotide sequence identity (86.5 %) to an ...201323065111
colonization of madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus), by endophytes encoding gfp marker.this study reports the introduction of gfp marker in two endophytic bacterial strains (pantoea agglomerans c33.1, isolated from cocoa, and enterobacter cloacae pr2/7, isolated from citrus) to monitor the colonization in madagascar perinwinkle (catharanthus roseus). stability of the plasmid encoding gfp was confirmed in vitro for at least 72 h of bacterial growth and after the colonization of tissues, under non-selective conditions. the colonization was observed using fluorescence microscopy and ...201323695435
glucosylation of aroma chemicals and hydroxy fatty explore the utility of glycosyltransferases as novel biocatalysts, we isolated the glycosyltransferase genes caugt2 and sbugta1 from catharanthus roseus and starmerella bombicola, respectively and heterologously expressed them in escherichia coli. the purified recombinant proteins were assayed with a variety of small molecule substrates. carvacrol and its phenol isomer thymol are efficiently glucosylated by caugt2. the vmax/km ratios show that caugt2 exhibits the highest specificity towards c ...201526481830
antimicrobial potentials of catharanthus roseus by disc diffusion assay.the present research work investigates the in vitro antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracted samples from the aerial parts (stem, leaf, fruit and flower) of c. roseus against different microbial species using disc diffusion assay at two different concentrations of 1 and 2 mg disc-1. hexane extracted samples inhibited the growth of all tested microbial strains except s. typhi. similarly, ethyl acetate extracted samples was effective to control the activity of all the tested microbial ...201526004715
heteromeric and homomeric geranyl diphosphate synthases from catharanthus roseus and their role in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis.catharanthus roseus is the sole source of two most important monoterpene indole alkaloid (mia) anti-cancer agents: vinblastine and vincristine. mias possess a terpene and an indole moiety derived from terpenoid and shikimate pathways, respectively. geranyl diphosphate (gpp), the entry point to the formation of terpene moiety, is a product of the condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate (ipp) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (dmapp) by gpp synthase (gpps). here, we report three genes encoding protein ...201323543438
characterization of the plastidial geraniol synthase from madagascar periwinkle which initiates the monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway in internal phloem associated parenchyma.madagascar periwinkle (catharanthus roseus [l.] g. don, apocynaceae) produces monoterpene indole alkaloids (mias), secondary metabolites of high interest due to their therapeutic value. a key step in the biosynthesis is the generation of geraniol from geranyl diphosphate (gpp) in the monoterpenoid branch of the mia pathway. here we report on the cloning and functional characterization of c. roseus geraniol synthase (crges). the full-length crges was over-expressed in escherichia coli and the pur ...201323102596
incorporation of [2(14)c]malonyl coa into fatty acids by a cell-free extract of catharanthus roseus suspension culture cells.a cell-free extract containing the enzymes for de-novo synthesis, elongation and desaturation of fatty acids was prepared from cultured cells of catharanthus roseus g. don. (14)c-fatty acids synthesized by the extract from [2-(14)c]malonyl coa substrate were palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1). dialyzed extract was active and stable at room temperature and at 4° c, but was inactivated on boiling. there was an absolute requirement for nadph for incorporation of [2-(14)c]malonyl coa i ...198024306892
isolation, purification and characterization of vinblastine and vincristine from endophytic fungus fusarium oxysporum isolated from catharanthus roseus.endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. in order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we ...201324066024
endophytic filamentous fungi from a catharanthus roseus: identification and its hydrolytic enzymes.this paper reported on the various filamentous fungi strains that were isolated from a wild grown catharanthus roseus. based on the morphological characteristics and molecular technique through a polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing method using internal transcribed spacer (its), these fungi had been identified as a colletotrichum sp., macrophomina phaseolina, nigrospora sphaerica and fusarium solani. the ultrastructures of spores and hyphae were observed under a scanning electron micros ...201627275114
enhanced camptothecin production by ethanol addition in the suspension culture of the endophyte, fusarium solani.ethanolic extract of a non-camptothecin producing plant, catharanthus roseus when added in the suspension culture of the endophyte fusarium solani known to produce camptothecin, resulted in enhanced production of camptothecin by 10.6-fold in comparison to that in control (2.8 μg/l). interestingly, addition of pure ethanol (up to 5% v/v) in the suspension culture of f. solani resulted in maximum enhancement in camptothecin production (up to 15.5-fold) from that obtained in control. in the presenc ...201525603728
adaptation of lettuce mosaic virus to catharanthus roseus involves mutations in the central domain of the isolate of lettuce mosaic virus (lmv, a potyvirus) infecting madagascar periwinckle (catharanthus roseus) was identified and characterized by illumina deep sequencing. lmv-cr has no close affinities to previously sequenced lmv isolates and represents a novel, divergent lmv clade. inoculation experiments with other representative lmv isolates showed that they are unable to infect c. roseus, which was not known to be a host for lmv. however, three c. roseus variants of one of these isolates, lm ...201424400938
sensitivity of bedding plants to southern root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita race 3.thirty-two cultivars of 10 commonly-grown bedding plants, representing eight families, were evaluated for their response to infection by the root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita race 3, under greenhouse conditions. four ageratum cultivars, two marigold, and two salvia cultivars were rated resistant after exposure for 8 weeks. four begonia, four celosia, one dianthus, one verbena, one vinca, and three pansy cultivars were susceptible. three salvia, one begonia, one gerber, one verbena, and t ...199419279964
importance of producing economic compounds to combat cancer.the manuscript published by microb biotechnol, volume 10, highlights the relevance of the fungus nigrospora sphaerica, an endophyte isolated from catharanthus roseus, as an alternative source to obtain vinblastine, a compound used in chemotherapy schemes to treat several types of cancer. authors showed that purification of vinblastine from extracts of the fungus has higher activity and yield in comparison with that obtained from the plant catharanthus roseus. this work represents a biotechnologi ...201728127869
molecular interaction of selected phytochemicals under the charged environment of plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) model.phytochemicals of catharanthus roseus linn. and tylophora indica have been known for their inhibition of malarial parasite, plasmodium falciparum in cell culture. resistance to chloroquine (cq), a widely used antimalarial drug, is due to the cq resistance transporter (crt) system. the present study deals with computational modeling of plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) protein and development of charged environment to mimic a condition of resistance. the model of pf ...201625783783
antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants from chhotanagpur plateau, jharkhand, india.the alarmingly increasing problem of drug resistance in treatment of malaria has led to an urgent need for identifying new anti-malarial drugs for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy.201525721804
the co-4 locus on chromosome pv08 contains a unique cluster of 18 cok-4 genes and is regulated by immune response in common bean.the common bean locus co - 4, traditionally referred to as an anthracnose-resistant gene, contains a cluster of predicted receptor-like kinases (cok-4 and crrlk1-like), and at least two of these kinases are co-regulated with the plant's basal immunity. genetic resistance to anthracnose, caused by the fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum (sacc. and magnus) briosi and cavara, is conferred by major loci throughout the phaseolus vulgaris genome, named co. the complex co-4 locus was previously report ...201525805316
transient induction of tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) and strictosidine synthase (ss) genes in cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus.when cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus are treated with autoclaved elicitor from the fungus pythium aphanidermatum, they respond with the rapid transient induction of tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) and strictosidine synthase (ss) enzyme activities, followed by the accumulation of indole alkaloids (eilert et al., 1987). in this report, we demonstrate that expression of tdc and ss enzyme activities is preceeded by the transient appearance of mrnas for both enzymes, suggesting transcr ...199224213491
manipulation of ges and erg20 for geraniol overproduction in saccharomyces cerevisiae.manipulation of monoterpene synthases to maximize flux towards targeted products from gpp (geranyl diphosphate) is the main challenge for heterologous monoterpene overproduction, in addition to cell toxicity from compounds themselves. in our study, by manipulation of the key enzymes geraniol synthase (ges) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (erg20), geraniol (a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol) overproduction was achieved in saccharomyces cerevisiae with truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-c ...201728359705
prequels to synthetic biology: from candidate gene identification and validation to enzyme subcellular localization in plant and yeast cells.natural compounds extracted from microorganisms or plants constitute an inexhaustible source of valuable molecules whose supply can be potentially challenged by limitations in biological sourcing. the recent progress in synthetic biology combined to the increasing access to extensive transcriptomics and genomics data now provide new alternatives to produce these molecules by transferring their whole biosynthetic pathway in heterologous production platforms such as yeasts or bacteria. while the g ...201627480687
engineering of a nepetalactol-producing platform strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of plant seco-iridoids.the monoterpene indole alkaloids (mias) are a valuable family of chemicals that include the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. these compounds are of global significance-appearing on the world health organization's list of model essential medicines-but remain exorbitantly priced due to low in planta levels. chemical synthesis and genetic manipulation of mia producing plants such as catharanthus roseus have so far failed to find a solution to this problem. synthetic biology holds a pot ...201626981892
completion of the seven-step pathway from tabersonine to the anticancer drug precursor vindoline and its assembly in yeast.antitumor substances related to vinblastine and vincristine are exclusively found in the catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle), a member of the apocynaceae plant family, and continue to be extensively used in cancer chemotherapy. although in high demand, these valuable compounds only accumulate in trace amounts in c. roseus leaves. vinblastine and vincristine are condensed from the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (mia) precursors catharanthine and vindoline. although catharanthine biosynthes ...201525918424
de novo production of the plant-derived alkaloid strictosidine in yeast.the monoterpene indole alkaloids are a large group of plant-derived specialized metabolites, many of which have valuable pharmaceutical or biological activity. there are ∼3,000 monoterpene indole alkaloids produced by thousands of plant species in numerous families. the diverse chemical structures found in this metabolite class originate from strictosidine, which is the last common biosynthetic intermediate for all monoterpene indole alkaloid enzymatic pathways. reconstitution of biosynthetic pa ...201525675512
zct1 and zct2 transcription factors repress the activity of a gene promoter from the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway in madagascar periwinkle catharanthus roseus, accumulating data highlighted the existence of a coordinated transcriptional regulation of structural genes that takes place within the secoiridoid biosynthetic branch, including the methyl erythritol phosphate (mep) pathway and the following steps leading to secologanin. to identify transcription factors acting in these pathways, we performed a yeast one-hybrid screening using as bait a promoter region of the hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (hds) gene involve ...201425108262
7-deoxyloganetic acid synthase catalyzes a key 3 step oxidation to form 7-deoxyloganetic acid in catharanthus roseus iridoid biosynthesis.iridoids are key intermediates required for the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (mias), as well as quinoline alkaloids. although most iridoid biosynthetic genes have been identified, one remaining three step oxidation required to form the carboxyl group of 7-deoxyloganetic acid has yet to be characterized. here, it is reported that virus-induced gene silencing of 7-deoxyloganetic acid synthase (7dls, cyp76a26) in catharanthus roseus greatly decreased levels of secologanin and the ...201424594312
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