changes in the expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes during three phases of bud dormancy in leafy spurge.underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (euphorbia esula) undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy. in this study, relationships among genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined after paradormancy release (growth induction) by decapitation and in response to seasonal signals. real-time pcr was used to determine the expression levels of carbohydrate metabolism genes at different phases of bud dormancy. among differentially-re ...201019924545
molluscicides from some common medicinal plants of eastern uttar pradesh, india.many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the larvae of trematodes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, which cause the diseases fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. the who has tested several thousands of synthetic compounds for the control of the snail host. although effective, these molluscicides have so far not proved themselves to be entirely satisfactory. with a growing awareness of environmental pollution, efforts are being made to discover molluscicidal products of plant origi ...201019943357
exposure to euphorbia lathyris latex resulting in alkaline chemical injury: a case report.we report the case of a patient with extreme pain following accidental exposure to the latex of euphorbia lathyris.200919946593
isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for euphorbia palustris (euphorbiaceae).swamp spurge (euphorbia palustris, euphorbiaceae) is a large perennial species of wet grassland and swamps. its natural habitats are fragmented and isolated both naturally and owing to habitat destruction by human activity. thus the species is endangered and legally protected in germany. this report describes seven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci that will be helpful to characterize genetic variation and to analyze the population genetic structure and levels of gene flow within and among p ...200919953131
two new cytotoxic acetophenone derivatives from euphorbia ebracteolata hayata.two new acetophenone derivatives were isolated from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata hayata, their structures were elucidated as 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyl-methylene-3-methyl-acetophenone (1) and 2-dihydroxy-6-methoxyl-methylene-3-methyl-acetophenone-4-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2) on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods including (1)d- and (2)d-nmr techniques, and their cytotoxic activities were investigated by using the mtt method.201019958822
euphorbiasteroid reverses p-glycoprotein-mediated multi-drug resistance in human sarcoma cell line mes-sa/ this study, we evaluated whether euphorbiasteroid isolated from euphorbia lathyris has the potential to reverse p-glycoprotein (p-gp)-mediated multi-drug resistance (mdr) by using the drug-sensitive human sarcoma cell line mes-sa and its mdr counterpart mes-sa/dx5. interestingly, even at low concentrations of euphorbiasteroid (1-3 microm), it efficiently restored the toxicities of anticancer drugs including vinblastine, taxol and doxorubicin in mes-sa/dx5 cells. additionally, the computationa ...201019960428
schistosomiasis suppressing deoxyphorbol esters from euphorbia cauducifolia l. latex.the molluscicidal activity of e. cauducifolia l. latex, extracted in various organic solvents, was tested against biomphalaria glabrata snails, using bayluscide as a control. the ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most active and in bioassay guided hplc fractionation yielded eight ( 1- 8) compounds. the structure and relative configuration of the isolates were established through spectroscopic (uv, ir, (1)h, (13)c nmr, 2d nmr, hsqc, hmqc, hmbc, cosy-45 degrees , tocsy, hohaha, hoesy, roes ...201020013638
multidrug resistance modulation and apoptosis induction of cancer cells by terpenic compounds isolated from euphorbia of the most promising strategies to overcome multidrug resistance (mdr) is to use compounds that can modulate p-glycoprotein and restore the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. furthermore, the search for compounds that regulate and overcome apoptosis deficiency of cancer cells is also of great therapeutic importance.200920032393
[studies on the chemical constituents from euphorbia chrysocoma].to study the chemical constituents from the aerial part of euphorbia chrysocoma.200920034213
free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of euphorbia petiolata.reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of euphorbia petiolata banks & soland, an endemic iranian medicinal plant, yielded ten free radical scavengers including eight flavonoid glycosides myricetin 3-o-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3-o-(2-o-galloyl)-glucoside (2), myricetin 3-o-rhamnoside (3), quercetin 3-o-glucoside (4), kaempferol 3-o-glucoside (5), quercetin 3-o-rhamnoside (6), kaempferol 3-o-rhamnoside (7), and querceti ...201020037800
[terpenoids from euphorbia antiquorum l.].to study the chemical constituents of euphorbia antiquorum l., the constituents were isolated with normal-phase and reverse-phase silica gel column chromatography and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. seven terpenoids were obtained from etoac extract of e. antiquoru l. they were identified as antiquorine a (1), antiquorine b (2), ent-13s-hydroxy-16-atisene-3,14-dione (3), taraxerol (4), 3beta-hydroxy-25,26,27-trisnorcycloart-24-oic acid (5), 9beta,19-cyclolanos ...200920055134
micropropagation of poinsettia by organogenesis.poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima) is one of the most popular ornamental pot plants. conventional propagation is by cuttings, generally focused on a period prior to the most intensive time of sales. rapid multiplication of elite clones, the production of pathogen-free plants and more rapid introduction of novel cultivars (cvs.) with desirable traits, represent important driving forces in the poinsettia industry. in recent years, different strategies have been adopted to micropropagate poinsettia ...201020099091
dgat1, dgat2 and pdat expression in seeds and other tissues of epoxy and hydroxy fatty acid accumulating plants.triacylglycerol (tag) is the main storage lipid in plants. acyl-coa: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat1 and dgat2) and phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (pdat) can catalyze tag synthesis. it is unclear how these three independent genes are regulated in developing seeds, and particularly if they have specific functions in the high accumulation of unusual fatty acids in seed oil. the expression patterns of dgat1, dgat2 and a pdat in relation to the accumulation of oil and epoxy and h ...201020101470
phenolic compounds as selective antineoplasic agents against multidrug-resistant human cancer cells.twelve phenolic compounds, including three stilbenes, two flavonoids, two coumarins, one neolignan, and four lignans, isolated from euphorbia and pycnanthus species or obtained by derivatization, were assayed for their potential antineoplastic efficacy in three human cancer cell lines: gastric (epg85-257), pancreatic (epp85-181), and colon (ht-29) carcinomas as well as derived multidrug-resistant sublines. in each case, two different multidrug-resistant variants, i.e., cell lines with classical ...201020157880
effect of cycloart-24-en-3beta-ol from euphorbia royleana latex on neuroenzyme ache and oxidative metabolism of freshwater fish, channa punctatus.cycloart-24-en-3beta-ol isolated from euphorbia royleana latex possesses potent piscicidal activity against freshwater predatory fish channa punctatus. their short as well as long-term exposure causes significant (p<0.05) time and dose-dependent reversible alteration in the oxidative metabolism of the fish channa punctatus cycloart-24-en-3beta-ol also shifts fish respiratory pathway, inhibits energy production and ache activity reversibly may be advantageous for their use as environmentally safe ...200820161954
analysis of inhibition of topoisomerase iialpha and cancer cell proliferation by ingenolez.we previously reported that many ingenol compounds derived from euphorbia kansui exhibit topoisomerase inhibitory activity and/or inhibitory activity of cell proliferation. the inhibitory effects of 20-o-(2'e,4'z-decadienoyl) ingenol and 3-o-(2'e,4'z-decadienoyl)-ingenol among these compounds on topoisomerase ii activity and on the cell proliferative activity and arrest phase of the cell cycle were studied using a mouse breast cancer (mmt) cell line. although 20-o-ingenolez exerted inhibitory ef ...201020175785
a new alkaloid and flavonoids from the aerial parts of euphorbia novel alkaloid, 1,5-diphenyl-3-styryl-2-pyrazoline 1, in addition with six known flavonoids namely, kaempferol, kaempferol 3-o-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, quercetin, quercetin 3-o-glucoside, and rutin, were isolated from the aerial parts of euphorbia guyoniana. their structures were established on the basis of physical and spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with the literature data.201020184016
effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on escherichia coli.escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. multidrug-resistant e. coli that produce extended-spectrum beta lactamases (esbls), such as the ctx-m enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (utis) and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. this is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying acti ...201020187978
purification and biochemical characterization of eumiliin from euphorbia milii var. hislopii latex.a protease, which we designate eumiliin, was isolated from the latex of euphorbia milii var. hislopii by a combination of ion-exchange chromatographic steps using deae-sephacel and gel-filtration with sephadex g-75. eumiliin is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kda by sds-page under reducing conditions and gave one main peak at 29,814 kda in maldi-tof/tof mass spectrometry. eumiliin has caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities, but no hemorrhagic or defibrinating acti ...201020206951
inhibition of tumor cells growth and stimulation of lymphocytes by euphorbia species.plants have been shown to possess a number of beneficial anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. in this study the possible in vitro antitumor activity and immunomodulatory effects of five species of euphorbia, an important genus of euphorbiaceae, including e. petiolata, e. hebecarpa, e. osyridea, e. microciadia, and e. heteradenia were investigated using cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays. among different tumor cell lines, the most sensitive cell line to methanolic extracts of the p ...201120331330
low temperatures impact dormancy status, flowering competence, and transcript profiles in crown buds of leafy spurge.leafy spurge (euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial weed that produces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. in this study, we report the effects of different environmental conditions on vegetative production and flowering competence, and determine molecular mechanisms associated with dormancy transitions under controlled conditions. reduction in temperature (27-10 degrees c) and photoperiod (16-8 h) over a 3-month period induced a para- to endo-dormant transitio ...201020340040
the complete nucleotide sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus from brazil infecting abutilon.the complete nucleotide sequence of abutilon mosaic brazil virus (abmbv), a new bipartite begomovirus from bahia, brazil, is described and analyzed phylogenetically. its dna a is most closely related to those of sida-infecting begomoviruses from brazil and forms a phylogenetic cluster with pepper- and euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from central america. the dna b component forms a cluster with different sida- and okra-infecting begomoviruses from brazil. both components are distinct from thos ...201020349251
kansuinine a and kansuinine b from euphorbia kansui l. inhibit il-6-induced stat3 activation.the current study was performed to examine the mechanisms underlying the potential effects of e. kansui on il-6-induced cellular signaling in human hepatoma cells. we found that two diterpenoids, kansuinine a and b, from e. kansui have an inhibitory effect on il-6-induced stat3 activation by activating erk1/2. inhibition of mek significantly blocked the effects of kansuinine a and b on il-6-induced stat3 activation and tyrosine phosphorylation. these results suggest that blocking of il-6-induced ...201020379953
hawaiian angiosperm radiations of north american origin.putative phytogeographical links between america (especially north america) and the hawaiian islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance.201020382966
proteolytic activity in latex of the genus euphorbia--a chemotaxonomic marker?eighteen species of the genus euphorbia are known to have proteolytic enzymes in their latices, 9 of them are characterized by the type of endopeptidases (cysteine-, serine-, metallo- or aspartatic-endopeptidase) which are responsible for the activity, and all nine are serine endopeptidases. in our study we examined the latices of 64 different species of the genus euphorbia concerning proteolytic activity and serine protease activity, five of them are mentioned in the literature to be proteolyti ...201020383946
a molecular pharmacology study into the anti-inflammatory actions of euphorbia hirta l. on the lps-induced raw 264.7 cells through selective inos protein inhibition.euphorbia hirta l. has been widely used in india and chinese society. the molecular pharmacology basis of its anti-inflammatory effect is revealed in this work. the ethanol extract of euphorbia hirta l. (eh) and its active component were studied in lipopolysaccharide (lps)-activated macrophage cells (raw 264.7) as an established inflammation model. after activation, nitric oxide (no) production and expression of inos protein and inos mrna were measured by using a colorimetric assay (griess reage ...201020390370
inundative release of aphthona spp. flea beetles (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) as a biological "herbicide" on leafy spurge in riparian areas.inundative releases of beneficial insects are frequently used to suppress pest insects but not commonly attempted as a method of weed biological control because of the difficulty in obtaining the required large numbers of insects. the successful establishment of a flea beetle complex, mixed aphthona lacertosa (rosenhauer) and aphthona nigriscutus foundras (87 and 13%, respectively), for the control of leafy spurge, euphorbia esula l., provided an easily collectable source of these natural enemie ...201020429434
agrobacterium-mediated transformation of euphorbia tirucalli order to establish a basis for transformation technology in the petroleum plant euphorbia tirucalli, the callus of the plant was infected with agrobacterium, washed with distilled water, sterilized with distilled water containing 100 mg/l of carbenicillin, selected on solidified b5 medium containing 13 mg/l of g418 and 100 mg/l of carbenicillin, and then on solidified b5 medium containing 25 mg/l of g418 and 100 mg/l of carbenicillin for the transgenic calli, and then the callus lines were su ...201020445322
anti-hbv active flavone glucosides from euphorbia humifusa willd.thirteen flavone glucosides from the herb of euphorbia humifusa were isolated and elucidated. among them, five compounds including apigenin-7-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin-7-o-(6''-o-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), luteolin-7-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), luteolin-7-o-(6''-o-trans-feruloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (8) and luteolin-7-o-(6''-o-coumaroyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (9) showed anti-hbv activity in vitro. the structure-activity relationship showed that the parent structure was closely rele ...201020450964
the skin cancer chemotherapeutic agent ingenol-3-angelate (pep005) is a substrate for the epidermal multidrug transporter (abcb1) and targets tumor vasculature.ingenol-3-angelate (ing3a), extracted from euphorbia peplus, is currently in clinical trials for eradicating basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma (scc) in situ by topical application. although structurally related to phorbol esters and a protein kinase c activator, topical ing3a, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma), inhibited the growth of subcutaneous tumors derived from pam212 (mouse scc) and b16 (mouse melanoma). ing3a and pma both induced acute neutr ...201020460505
[phenols from euphorbia humifusa].the investigation on the herbal of euphorbia humifusa wild. was carried out to find its anti-hbv constituents. the isolation and purification were performed by chromatography such as macroporous resin, polyamide, sephadex lh-20, mci gel chp 20p and so on. based on the spectral analysis, seven phenols were identified as brevifolin (1), brevifolin carboxylic acid (2), methyl brevifolincarboxylate (3), phyllanthussin e methyl ester (4), sanguisorbic acid dilactone (5), 3,3'-2-di-o-methyl ellagic ac ...201020506823
beware the ornamental plant.a keen female gardener presented to the emergency department of the hospital with a large corneal abrasion, conjunctival injection, an anterior chamber reaction and a hypopyon. she put it down to trauma that day while gardening, as she had been pruning her patio plant. the euphorbia species of ornamental plants have been known to cause an intense reactive anterior uveitis and kerato-conjunctivitis caused by the milky sap it produces. emergency medicine doctors and ophthalmologists should be awar ...201020511641
the inhibitory effect of phytoclear-el1 on melanogenesis.phytoclear-el1, an extract from euphorbia lathyris seeds, has a whitening effect due to inhibition of tyrosinase activity.200920523826
the first dna 1-like alpha satellites in association with new world begomoviruses in natural infections.from brazilian weeds with typical symptoms of a geminivirus infection, the dnas of two new virus species, two new strains with two variants of already known bipartite begomoviruses were sequenced. moreover, the first two dna 1-like satellites (alpha satellites) occurring naturally in the new world were identified. they are related to nanoviral dna components and show a typical genome organization with one open reading frame coding potentially for a replication-associated protein (rep), a conserv ...201020553707
piceatannol induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in human mammary epithelial cells through activation of are-driven nrf2 signaling.piceatannol (3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene), derived from the seeds of euphorbia lagascae, has been reported to have anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. however, the mechanisms underlying its chemoprotective effects remain largely unresolved. in the present study, we found that piceatannol treatment (30 microm) significantly upregulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) and its mrna transcript at 6h and 3h, respectively in hum ...201020558128
diterpenoid (poly)esters and a ring a-seco-phorboid from the aerial parts of euphorbia macroclada boiss.euphorbia macroclada boiss., a spurge endemic to the iranian plateau, afforded four pre-myrsinane polyesters, three α-phorboids and one a-seco-phorboid, a type of compound so far unreported within natural products. all new compounds were structurally elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and especially 2d nmr measurements.201020566387
effect of inganen anticancer properties on microtobule organization.euphorbia tirucalli (euphorbiaceae family) an environmental risk factor for burkitt's lymphoma also has pharmacological activities. in the northeast of region in brazil its latex is used as an antimicrobial, antiparasitic in the treatment of coughs, rheumatism, cancer and other disease as folk treatment. the prevalent constituents of this plant latex are diterpenes from the inganen types (ingenol esters) as well as the tigliane (phorbol esters). scientifically, there is not any data till now abo ...201020566439
two new lathyrane type diterpenoids from euphorbia aellenii.euphorbia aellenii rech. f. (euphorbiaceae) afforded a cytotoxic chloroform fraction from which two new esters of 6(17)-epoxylathyrol were identified (1 and 2). the structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic methods.201020570610
comparative toxicity of euphorbia milii latex and synthetic molluscicides to biomphalaria glabrata embryos.plant molluscicides have been regarded as possible alternatives to the costly and environmentally hazardous molluscicides currently available. this study was undertaken to compare the developmental toxicity of a plant molluscicide (euphorbia milii latex, lat) with that of three synthetic molluscicidal compounds. biomphalaria glabrata egg masses (0-15 h after spawning) were exposed to molluscicides for 96 h and thereafter examined up to the 14th day after spawning. embryo deaths, abnormal embryo ...201020594574
identification of begomoviruses infecting crops and weeds in belize.plants including pepper, red kidney bean, squash, string bean and tomato, as well as weeds with viral symptoms were collected from five districts in belize over a three year period with the aim of determining the diversity of the begomoviruses present. sixty five percent of the samples screened via dna hybridization produced signals indicative of begomovirus infection. subsequent pcr amplifications and nucleotide sequence analyses revealed the presence of four begomoviruses in belize. pepper gol ...200820596296
inhibitory effects of lang-du extract on the in vitro and in vivo growth of melanoma cells and its molecular mechanisms of action.the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of lang-du extract (lde) from traditional chinese medicine (tcm) euphorbia fischeriana steud on the in vitro and in vivo growth of melanoma cells and its molecular mechanisms of action. our present results have shown that lde significantly suppressed the in vitro melanoma cell growth in dose- and time-dependent manners. lde also displayed the synergistic effect with γ-radiation on the reduction of the cell viability in melanoma cells. the a ...201020607395
bioactivity of latex from euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development of megaselia scalaris (phoridae).larvae of megaselia scalaris (loew, 1866) feed on a wide range of decomposing organic matter and present a great importance to public health. this study evaluated the effect of crude latex extract from euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development time of m. scalaris under laboratory conditions. the latex was used in its crude lyophilized form, dissolved in distilled water and tested in concentrations of 5 microg/ml, 10 microg/ml and 20 microg/ml. the latex was ...201020627417
irritant and co-carcinogenic diterpene esters from the latex of euphorbia cauducifolia l.ten (1-10) irritant and mild co-carcinogenic diterpene esters were isolated from the latex of euphorbia cauducifolia l. using bioassay-guided countercurrent distribution and other chromatographic techniques. the isolated compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic results and mass measurements. as an outcome, the ingenane-type esters were established with the following structures: 3-o-angeloyl-17-o-palmatoylingenol (1), 3-o-palmatoyl-5-o-angeloylingenol (2), 5-o-angeloyl-17-o-palm ...201020628940
restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity by euphorbia hirta in discrete brain regions of chronically stressed rats.several drugs of herbal origin are known to possess anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. in a recent study, we showed that extracts from euphorbia hirta l. (euphorbiaceae) (eh) demonstrated anxiolytic effects in rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress (cis) but not in rats that underwent forced swim stress (fss). acetylcholine and the cholinergic system are known to be involved in anxiety. however, whether the cholinergic system is involved in the anxiolytic actions of eh are not known ...201020645790
1,2,3,6-tetra-o-galloyl-beta-d-allopyranose gallotannin isolated, from euphorbia jolkini, attenuates lps-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages.nitric oxide (no) is a pleiotropic regulator, critical to numerous biological processes, including vasodilatation and macrophage-mediated immunity. macrophages express inducible no synthase (inos) and produce no after lipopolysaccharide (lps) stimulation. gallotannins are water-soluble polyphenols with wide-ranging biological activities. various chemical structures of gallotannins occurring in medicinal and food plants that are used worldwide showed several remarkable biological and pharmacologi ...201020665470
new promising euphorbiaceae extracts with activity in human lymphocytes from primary cell cultures.context: euphorbiaceae plants exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. methods: we evaluated the activity of 14 extracts from seven euphorbiaceae plants on primary immune cell cultures from healthy individuals. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were exposed to the extracts w/o phytohaemagglutinin a or cycloheximide as agents that induce proliferation or apoptosis in pbmc, respectively. results: we found that five up to 14 euphorbiaceae's extracts had the ability to modu ...201120670161
which plant for which skin disease? part 2: dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.this paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. after plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. there is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. plant ex ...201020707877
toxicity of aqueous extract of euphorbia tirucalli latex on catfish, heteropneustes fossilis.a four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was performed to determine the lc(50) value of aqueous extract of euphorbia tirucalli latex for the freshwater fish, heteropneustes fossilis. the lc(50) values, their upper and lower confidence limits and slope functions were calculated. the lc(50) values for aqueous extract of e. tirucalli latex at various exposure periods are 3.450 μl/l for 24 h, 2.516 μl/l for 48 h, 1.623 μl/l for 72 h and 1.315 μl/l for 96 h. the toxicity of aqueous extract of e. ...201020719388
carbohydrate metabolism alterations in biomphalaria glabrata infected with schistosoma mansoni and exposed to euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex.this paper evaluates the alterations in the glycogen content of tissues (digestive gland and cephalopedal mass) and glucose in the haemolymph of biomphalaria glabrata bh strain infected with schistosoma mansoni bh strain and exposed to the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii. a reduction in the glycogen deposits was observed in infected snails exposed and not exposed to latex. however, the exposure to latex caused a greater depletion of the glycogen levels in both sites analysed, especial ...201020721497
landscape modelling of gene flow: improved power using conditional genetic distance derived from the topology of population networks.landscape genetics is a burgeoning field of interest that focuses on how site-specific factors influence the distribution of genetic variation and the genetic connectivity of individuals and populations. in this manuscript, we focus on two methodological extensions for landscape genetic analyses: the use of conditional genetic distance (cgd) derived from population networks and the utility of extracting potentially confounding effects caused by correlations between phylogeographic history and co ...201020723052
euphorbia peroxidase catalyzes thiocyanate oxidation in two different ways, the distal calcium ion playing an essential role.the oxidation of the pseudohalide thiocyanate (scn(-)) by euphorbia peroxidase, in the presence or absence of added calcium, is investigated. after incubation of the native enzyme with hydrogen peroxide, the formation of compound i occurs and serves to catalyze the thiocyanate oxidation pathways. the addition of a stoichiometric amount of scn(-) to compound i leads to the native enzyme spectrum; this process clearly occurs via two electron transfers from pseudohalide to compound i. in the presen ...201020822104
[analysis and comparison of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].herba euphorbiae humifusae is the dried whole plant of euphorbia humi fusa willd. that belongs to euphorbiaceae. in the present paper, the microwave digestion procedure was used to digest herba euphorbiae humifusae collected in different periods, and then flame atomic absorption spectrometry (faas) was used to determine the contents of eight kinds of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, and the change in the contents of trace elements at different times was studied ...201020828013
new diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata hayata.three new diterpenoids, ingenol-5β,20-o,o-isopropylidene-3β-palmitate, ingenol-5β,20-o,o-isopropylidene-3β-myristinate and 3β,19-dihydroxy-1(10),15-rosadien-2-one, were isolated from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata hayata. their structures were deduced by spectroscopic means and analytic techniques.201020835949
metabolism of ebracteolata compound b studied in vitro with human liver microsomes, hepg2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes.ebracteolata compound b (ecb) is one major active component of both euphorbia ebracteolata and euphorbia fischeriana, which have been extensively used as a tuberculocide in the asian countries. the aim of our present study was to characterize ecb metabolism in human liver microsomes, hepg2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes. one monohydroxylation metabolite, determined by mass spectrometry to be 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)-2-hydroxyethanone, and one monoglucuronide, isolated and ...201020837661
agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in south the 2009/2010 growing season, brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by argentina. glyphosate-resistant soybeans (grs) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in south america. overall, the grs system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. grs resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in brazil and argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting grs in b ...201020839871
in vitro activity of cameroonian and ghanaian medicinal plants on parasitic ( onchocerca ochengi) and free-living ( caenorhabditis elegans) nematodes.ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected medicinal plants from cameroon and ghana were assessed for their in vitro anthelmintic activity by using the bovine filarial parasite onchocerca ochengi and the free living nematode caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for research on nematode parasites. worms were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of extracts and inhibitory effects were monitored at different time points. among the extracts used in this study, ethanolic extracts ...201020863422
assessment of euphorbia hirta l. leaf, flower, stem and root extracts for their antibacterial and antifungal activity and brine shrimp lethality.the antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of euphorbia hirta l leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. four gram positive (staphylococcus aureus, micrococcus sp., bacillus subtilis and bacillus thuringensis), four gram negative (escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia, salmonella typhi and p. mirabilis) and one yeast (candida albicans) species were screened. inhibition zones ranged betw ...201020877206
inhibition of nitrogen-fixing and nitrifying bacteria by seed plants: vi. inhibitors from euphorbia supina.euphorbia suinna occurs in the pioneer weed stage of succession in abandoned fields in several midwestern states of the united states. it was previously found to be very inhibitory to several test strains of nitrogen-fixing and nitrifying bacteria and to several associated seed plants. the present project was concerned wilh the identification of the chief inhibitors produced by that species, using appropriate column and paper chromatographic techniques, and by tests of bacterial inhibition emplo ...196920925667
new anti-hbv caryophyllane-type sesquiterpenoids from euphorbia humifusa willd.activity-guided fractionation of euphorbia humifusa for anti-hbv activity led to the isolation of two novel sesquiterpenoids, named humifusane a (1) and humifusane b (2). their structures were elucidated by spectral data to show that they have a caryophyllane-type precursor structure. the two new sesquiterpenoids showed anti-hbv activities through specifically inhibiting the secretion of hbsag in hepg2.2.15.201020940034
production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils: euphorbia lathyris l., sapium sebiferum l. and jatropha curcas l.a comparative study on the composition, biodiesel production and fuel properties of non-edible oils from euphorbia lathyris l. (el), sapium sebiferum l. (ss), and jatropha curcas l. (jc) was conducted. under optimal conditions, the fame content and yield of the three oils were greater than 97.5 wt.% and 84.0%, respectively. the best biodiesel was produced from el due to its high monounsaturation (82.66 wt.%, cn: 1), low polyunsaturation (6.49 wt.%, cn: 2, 3) and appropriate proportion of saturat ...201020951029
analysis of a new strain of euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short rep sequences in the dna-b intergenic region.euphorbia mosaic virus (eumv) is a member of the slcv clade, a lineage of new world begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (rep) and virion-strand replication origin. the first entirely characterized eumv isolate is native from yucatan peninsula, mexico; subsequently, eumv was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of mexico, and partial dna-a sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity det ...201020958988
is leafy a useful marker gene for the flower-inflorescence boundary in the euphorbia cyathium?the flower-like reproductive structure of euphorbia s.l. (euphorbiaceae) is widely believed to have evolved from an inflorescence, and is therefore interpreted as a special type of pseudanthium, termed a cyathium. however, fuzzy morphological boundaries between the inflorescence, individual flowers, and organs have fuelled the suggestion that the cyathium does not merely superficially resemble a flower but could actually share developmental genetic pathways with a conventional flower. to test th ...201020965944
macrocyclic diterpenoids from the iranian plant euphorbia bungei acetone extract from the aerial parts of euphorbia bungei afforded three new (2, 3 and 5) and one known (4) macrocyclic diterpenoids. several cycloartane triterpenoids were also obtained, two of which (6a and 6b) were assayed for antiviral effects. the structures of all new compounds were elucidated using modern spectroscopic methods including 2d nmr and hrms.201020971166
common plant toxicology: a comparison of national and southwest ohio data trends on plant poisonings in the 21st from the american association of poison control centers (aapcc) and the cincinnati-based drug and poison information center (dpic) were analyzed to determine the incidence and trends of human plant poisonings since the year 2000. approximately 3.4% of the approximately 4.3million annual calls to the aapcc centers involved plants, with a higher fraction (4.5%) for pediatric exposures. nearly 70% of plant exposures occurred in children under six. only 8% of cases required treatment in a healt ...201021034756
the influence of exposure to euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex on the concentrations of total proteins and nitrogen products in biomphalaria glabrata infected with schistosoma mansoni.the aim of this work was to analyze the content of total protein and nitrogen degradation products in biomphalaria glabrata infected with schistosoma mansoni and exposed to euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex. the lc(50) of this latex was 1.0mg/l. concentrations of uric acid, urea and total proteins were determined in the hemolymph of b. glabrata infected with five s. mansoni miracidia and exposed to a sublethal concentration of e. splendens var. hislopii latex for 24h. the exposure to this ...201021055383
isolation and characterization of cytotoxic compounds from euphorbia cornigera boiss.methanolic extract of euphorbia cornigera shoots was separated using hplc, affording compounds 1-4. their structures and relative stereochemistry were established after obtaining their spectroscopic (ir, (1)h, (13)c nmr cosy-45°, hohaha, hsqc, hmbc, noesy, and mass measurement) data. on the basis of these data, the compounds were characterized as 3-o-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-dodecanoyl-20-o-tetradecanoylingenol (1), 3-o-decanoyl-20-o-hexanoylingenol (2), 3-o-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-dodeca ...201021061221
new myrsinane-type diterpenoids from euphorbia aellenii rech. f. with their immunomodulatory activity.two new 14-desoxo-10, 18-dihydromyrinsol diterpenoids (1 and 2) were isolated and characterized from the cytotoxic chloroform fraction of euphorbia aellenii rech. f. (euphorbiaceae). the structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and their immunomodulatory properties were evaluated by t-cell proliferation and phagocyte chemiluminescence assays.201021128141
diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana.six tigliane-type diterpenoids (1-6) were isolated from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana. their structures were elucidated by various spectral analyses. among them, compounds 1 and 3 were new, and compounds 2, 4, and 5 were naturally obtained for the first time. all compounds were tested against two human cancer cell lines, mda-mb-231 and hepg2, and one human immortalized cell line, and only compound 6 showed cytotoxicity for mda-mb-231 cells with an ic(50) value of 6.694 μm.201021128144
infectivity of euphorbia leaf curl virus and interaction with tomato yellow leaf curl china investigate the infectivity of euphorbia leaf curl virus (eulcv), an infectious clone was constructed and tested by agroinoculation and whitefly inoculation. eulcv infected nicotiana benthamiana, n. glutinosa, solanum lycopersicum, petunia hybrida efficiently upon agroinoculation and induced leaf curling, vein swelling and stunting in these plants but no symptoms in n. tabacum. co-inoculation of eulcv with a betasatellite dna from an unrelated begomovirus enhanced symptoms in n. benthamiana, ...201021136128
traditional herbal medicine in far-west nepal: a pharmacological appraisal.plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west nepal. the medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the ayurveda and the phytochemical findings.201021144003
fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the fusarium oxysporum species complex.a new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in the netherlands. diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of fusarium macroconidia. a species of fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. it differed morphologically from f. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. the fusarium ...200421148861
comparative ontogeny of the cyathium in euphorbia (euphorbiaceae) and its allies: exploring the organ-flower-inflorescence boundary.we present a detailed comparative ontogenetic analysis of pseudanthia of representatives of all three subtribes of euphorbieae (euphorbiinae, neoguillauminiinae, anthosteminae) in order to clarify their homologies and interpretation. the cyathium of euphorbia and its allies (subtribe euphorbiinae) closely resembles a bisexual flower but is traditionally interpreted as an inflorescence bearing clusters of highly reduced male flowers surrounding a single terminal female flower. previously unreport ...200721151828
euphorbia factor l(8): a diterpenoid from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris.the title compound [systematic name: (2s*,3s*,4r*,5r*,9s*,11s*,15r*)-5,15-diacet-oxy-3-nicotino-yloxy-14-oxolathyra-6(17),12(e)-diene], c(30)h(37)no(7), was isolated from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris. the tricyclic diterpenoid molecule contains an 11-membered ring, a five-membered ring exhibiting an envelope conformation and a three-membered ring. the 11-membered ring is cis-fused with the three-membered ring and trans-fused with the five-membered ring.200721200892
antidiabetic and free radicals scavenging potential of euphorbia hirta flower extract.the present study was carried out to evaluate antidiabetic and in vitro free radicals scavenging effects of flower extract of euphorbia hirta. the ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally tested for 21 days in alloxan induced diabetic mice and blood glucose level was measured with glucometer. administration of extract resulted in significant reduction in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase levels but high density lipoprotein leve ...201021218075
feeding deterrents against two grain storage insects from euphorbia fischeriana.the screening of several chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that euphorbia fischeriana roots possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against two stored-product insects (tribolium castaneum and sitophilus zeamais). from ethanol extract, four feeding deterrents were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. the compounds were identified as jolkinolide b, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-(9z)-octadecenoate 20-acetate, 17-hydroxyjolkinolide a and b on the basis of their phytochem ...201121221063
[study on the chemical constituents from fresh roots of euphorbia fischeriana].to study the chemical constituents in ethyl acetate fraction from the euphorbia fischeriana.201021243769
[isolation and purification of esculetin from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris l. using high-speed counter-current chromatography].a method for the isolation and purification of esculetin from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris l. was developed using high-speed counter-current chromatography (hsccc). the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of euphorbia lathyris l. was separated by the hsccc directly. different solvent systems were investigated, and the results showed that the best solvent system was the two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water (4: 3: 2, v/ v/v). the lower phase was used as the mobile phase ...201021261053
a review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the pacific.ciguatera fish poisoning (cfp) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (ctxs). the clinical management of patients with cfp is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. in new caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of ...201121287650
calcium ions and a secreted peroxidase in euphorbia characias latex are made for each other.this minireview deals of a protein, a class iii secreted peroxidase, present as unique isoform in the latex of the perennial mediterranean shrub euphorbia characias. the paper reports on the molecular properties, on the structures (primary, secondary and tertiary), and on the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. here is also reported the extraordinary effect of calcium ions on the structure and on the enzyme activity of euphorbia peroxidase. these ions can either enhance the catalytic efficiency ...201121293912
protective potential [correction of potencial] of euphorbia hirta against cytotoxicity induced in hepatocytes and a hepg2 cell line.medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. frustration over the side effects of allopathic drugs has driven the medical world to take asylum in the plant kingdom for the treatment of various ailments. euphorbia hirta belonging to the family of euphorbiacae has been reported to possess antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer activity. the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of e. hirta against antitubercular drug-induced cytotoxicity in freshly isolated ...201021305854
euphorbia factor l1 reverses abcb1-mediated multidrug resistance involving interaction with abcb1 independent of abcb1 downregualtion.euphorbia factor l1 (efl1) belongs to diterpenoids of genus euphorbia. in this article, its reversal activity against abcb1-mediated mdr in kbv200 and mcf-7/adr cells was reported. however, efl1 did not alter the sensitivity of kb and mcf-7 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. meanwhile, efl1 significantly increased accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 in kbv200 and mcf-7/adr cells, showing no significant influence on that of kb and mcf-7 cells. furthermore, efl1 could enhance the atp hydr ...201121308736
extraordinary resistance to insecticides reveals exotic q biotype of bemisia tabaci in the new world.a strain of the whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) possessing unusually high levels of resistance to a wide range of insecticides was discovered in 2004 in the course of routine resistance monitoring in arizona. the multiply resistant insects, collected from poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima willd. ex klotzsch) plants purchased at a retail store in tucson, were subjected to biotype analysis in three laboratories. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of naphthyl esterases and sequencing of the mit ...201021309242
unusual tigliane diterpenes from euphorbia grandicornis.phytochemical study of the aerial parts of euphorbia grandicornis led to the isolation of two new tigliane diterpenes, 16-angeloyloxy-13a-isobutanoyloxy-4ß,9a,20-trihydroxytiglia-1,5-diene-3,7-dione (1) and 16-angeloyloxy-13a-isobutanoyloxy-4ß,9a,7ß-trihydroxytiglia-1,5-dien-3-one (2). the structures and relative configuration of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1d and 2d nmr experiments ((1)h nmr, jmod, (1)h-(1)h cosy, noesy, hsqc, an ...201121319774
quantitative analysis of quercetin in euphorbia helioscopia l by rp-hplc.euphorbia helioscopia l is widespread in china and has a large number of flavonoids. quercetin glycosides, having useful biological activities, are abundant in this plant, and no validated analytical method has so far been developed for their determination. we, therefore, standardized a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) assay for quercetin detection. for this, the plant was locally procured and identification was confirmed based on its morpho-histological characteri ...201121327945
[anti-hbv constituents from euphorbia fischeriana].to investigate the anti-hbv constituents in the roots of euphorbia fischeriana.201021355270
the sap from euphorbia peplus is effective against human nonmelanoma skin cancers.the sap from euphorbia peplus, commonly known as petty spurge in the u.k. or radium weed in australia, has been used as a traditional treatment for a number of cancers.201121375515
specific and nonspecific immunostimulation study of euphorbia hirta on pseudomonas fluorescens-infected cyprinus carpio.infectious diseases are one of the major factors affecting the production of fish worldwide. the pathogens (especially bacteria) affect the immune system of fish and the administration of immunostimulants can increase resistance to infectious diseases by enhancing both specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms.201121385104
laticifer proteins play a defensive role against hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic phytopathogens.proteins from latex of calotropis procera (cplp), plumeria rubra (prlp), carica candamarcensis (p1g10) and euphorbia tirucalli (etlp) were tested for antifungal activity against phytopathogens. cplp and p1g10 inhibited each fungi analyzed. prlp and etlp did not exert inhibition. cplp and p1g10 exhibited preferential inhibitory activity towards r. solani (icôéàôéç = 20.7 and 25.3 -ág/ml, respectively). the inhibitory activity was lost after heat treatment or proteolysis, providing evidence for th ...201121394468
stable molluscicide formulation of an aqueous extract of euphorbia myrsinites.aqueous extracts of euphorbia myrsinites l. (euphorbiaceae) were tested for molluscicidal activity against biomphalaria glabrata; lc(50) values of 15.1 and 8.9?ppm were obtained for the stem and leaf extracts, respectively, which are within the who limit for an effective molluscicide. however, the extracts were found to be unstable at room temperature and the level of activity fell rapidly (about 50% after 7?days at 20?°c). moreover, the extracts were shown to be cytotoxic and would thus, if use ...201121413091
autophosphorylation is crucial for cdk-activating kinase (ee;cdkf;1) activity and complex formation in leafy;cdkf;1 protein is a leafy spurge (euphorbia esula) cdk-activating kinase that is involved in a phosphorylation cascade linked to early stages of cell cycle progression. yeast two-hybrid screening performed using ee;cdkf;1 as a bait indicated that one of the interacting proteins was ee;cdkf;1. protein-protein interaction of ee;cdkf;1 was further confirmed by yeast two-hybrid interaction and in vitro pull-down assays. gel exclusion chromatography and/or native page showed that gst-cdkf;1, mbp-c ...201121421369
the efficacy of euphorbia prostrata in early grades of symptomatic hemorrhoids--a pilot study.the medical treatment for hemorrhoids has undergone significant changes on introduction of new pharmaceutical agents in the last decade. euphorbia prostrata is a new molecule used for grade i and ii hemorrhoids. beneficial effects of the euphorbia prostrata in hemorrhoids have multiple mechanisms that are due to its active constituents flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acid. this pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of this molecule in early grades of symptomatic hemorrhoids.201121434487
the occurrence of c(2) photosynthesis in euphorbia subgenus chamaesyce (euphorbiaceae).this study investigated whether euphorbia subgenus chamaesyce subsection acutae contains c(3)-c(4) intermediate species utilizing c(2) photosynthesis, the process where photorespired co(2) is concentrated into bundle sheath cells. euphorbia species in subgenus chamaesyce are generally c(4), but three species in subsection acutae (e. acuta, e. angusta, and e. johnstonii) have c(3) isotopic ratios. phylogenetically, subsection acutae branches between basal c(3) clades within euphorbia and the c(4) ...201121459765
structure identification of euphorbia factor l3 and its induction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial this article, we have focused on the structure identification of euphorbia factor l3 belonging to the lathyrane diterpenoids isolated from caper euphorbia seed. its anticancer activity in vitro against lung cancer a549 cells was also investigated and the ic(50) values were 34.04 ± 3.99 μm. furthermore, euphorbia factor l3 could induce apoptosis in a549 cells via the mitochondrial pathway including loss of mitochondrial potential and release of cytochrome c.201121499222
effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of bemisia tabaci (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) biotype b.we tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae; =bemisia argentifolii bellows & perring) biotype b reared on poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima willdenow ex klotzch). free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient ass ...201121510203
effects of euphorbia esula l. (leafy spurge) on cattle and sheep in vitro fermentation and gas production.background: euphorbia esula l. (leafy spurge) is indigenous to eurasia and has been known to cause grazing aversion in ruminant species. as a result, e. esula encroachment has negatively impacted rangelands in the northern great plains and intermountain west of the usa, as well as southern canada. our objectives were to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of e. esula on in vitro dry matter digestibility (dmd) and gas production. two ruminally-cannulated cows and ewes were used as ru ...201121520450
medicinal plants used as antitumor agents in brazil: an ethnobotanical approach.we describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in brazil? have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. a total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for canc ...201121528006
biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of a novel metalloprotease, cotinifolin from an antiviral plant shrub: euphorbia cotinifolia.a high molecular mass novel metalloprotease, cotinifolin is purified from the latex of euphorbia cotinifolia by a combination of anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. the nonglycosylated enzyme has a molecular mass of 79.76 kda (esi-ms) and the isoelectric point of the enzyme is ph 7.7. cotinifolin hydrolyzes denatured natural substrates such as casein, azoalbumin, and hemoglobin with high specific activity. the k(m) value of the enzyme was found to be 20 μm with azocasein. ...201121531144
tigliane-type diterpenoid glycosides from euphorbia fischeriana.investigation of whole plants of euphorbia fischeriana afforded three new tigliane-diterpenoid glycosides, fischerosides a-c (1-3), together with 11 known diterpenoids. fischerosides a-c (1-3) are the first tigliane-type diterpenoid glucosides. their structures were determined by a combination of 1d and 2d nmr, ms, and acid hydrolysis. inhibitory activity against hiv-1 was assessed for compounds 1-5. the new compound 3 showed an ec(50) value of 0.02 μm and a therapeutic index (ti) of 17.50, whil ...201121534540
lathyrane diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia micractina and their biological activities.seventeen new lathyrane diterpenoids (1-17) and two known analogues have been isolated from an ethanolic extract of euphorbia micractina roots. their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal x-ray crystallography. compound 10 showed activity against hiv-1 replication in vitro, with an ic(50) value of 8.2 μm. compounds 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, and 18, at 10(-6) m, showed significant vascular-relaxing activities against phenyleph ...201121534583
efficacy of euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails.the toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of euphorbia hirta linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails lymnaea (radix) acuminata and indoplanorbis exustus in pond. these combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. these compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish channa punctatus (bloch) (channidae {ophicephalidae}), which shares the habitat with these snails, b ...201121537758
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