PMID(sorted ascending)
alternative and complementary antileishmanial treatments: assessment of the antileishmanial activity of 27 lebanese plants, including 11 endemic species.aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts from 27 lebanese plants were investigated for their in vitro immunomodulatory and antileishmanial activities as compared to their toxicity against human cells. extracts from yellow chamomile (anthemis tinctoria), white larkspur (consolida rigida), syrian broom (cytisus syriacus), coast spurge (euphorbia paralias), shield fibigia (fibigia clypeata), auchers golden-drop (onosma aucheriana), shell-flower sage (salvia multicaulis), snowy woundwort (s ...200818315506
cytotoxic diterpenoids from euphorbia helioscopia.four new jatrophane-type diterpenoids (1-4), together with 16 known related compounds, were isolated from the chinese medicinal plant euphorbia helioscopia. the structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against hela and mda-mb-231 cells was evaluated, with only helioscopinolide a (5) and euphornin (3a) being active.200818321057
chemical constituents with antibacterial activity from euphorbia sororia.a group of ceramide (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of euphorbia sororia. on the basis of spectroscopic data, chemical methods and gc-ms analysis, the structure of 1 was characterised as (2s,3s,4r,8e)-2-(eicosanoyl approximately octacosanoyl amino)-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-8-ene. in addition, four known ellagic acid derivatives 3,3'-di-o-methylellagic acid (2), 3,3',4'-tri-o-methylellagic acid (3), 4-o-sulfooxy-3,3'-di-o-methylellagic acid (4) and 4-o-sulfooxy- 3,3',4'-tri-o-methylellagic ac ...200818322851
[studies on the methods of extract and determination of total tannins and gallic acids of the root of euphorbia hylonoma].to determine total tannins and gallic acid of the root of euphorbia hyloomla.200718323208
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin rna constructs confers resistance to poinsettia mosaic virus.agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima willd. ex klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. millenium were transformed by agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain lba 4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) rna gene constructs to induce rna silencing-mediated resistance to poinsettia mosaic virus (pnmv). prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. millenium in w ...200818327592
bidens pilosa l. exhibits high sensitivity to coumarin in comparison with three other weed species.nine natural plant compounds were screened for phytotoxicity to bidens pilosa l. a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. the sensitivity of three other weed species to coumarin, the most active identified compound, was also evaluated. coumarin, at a concentration of 500 microm, had little effect on germination and growth of senna obtusifolia l., euphorbia heterophylla l., and ipomoea grandifolia l. when compared with its effects on b. pilosa l. in a concentration range of 10-100 microm ...200818338136
two new diterpenes from euphorbia kansuensis.two new lathyrane diterpenes, 3beta,5alpha-dihydroxy-15beta-cinnamoyloxy-14-oxolathyra-6z,12e -diene (1) and 3beta,5alpha,20-trihydroxy-15beta-cinnamoyloxy-14-oxolathyra-6z,12e-diene (2), were isolated from the roots of euphorbia kansuensis. their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.200818372116
termiticidal activity of diterpenes from the roots of euphorbia kansui.five ingenane compounds, 1-5, kansuinins a and b, isolated from euphorbia kansui, and their derivatives 7 and 9 were tested for termiticidal activity against the japanese termite, reticulitermes speratus. at 72 hours after treatment, the ingenane compounds 1 to 5 caused 100% mortality in r. speratus at 50, 25 and 12.5 microg/disk, respectively, except for compound 1, which gave a mortality rate of (93.06 +/- 5.56)% at 12.5 microg/disk. at 36, 48 and 60 hours after treatment, compounds 1 to 5 sho ...200818386488
antinematodal activities of ingenane diterpenes from euphorbia kansui and their derivatives against the pine wood nematode (bursaphelenchus xylophilus).under the bioassay-guided method, two diterpenes, 3-o-(2",3"-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-dodecanoylingenol (1) and 3-o-(2",3"-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-decanoylingenol (2) isolated from euphorbia kansui, showed a pronounced antinematodal activity against the nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus at the same minimum effective dose (med) of 5 microg per cotton ball and still displayed antinematodal activity at a dose of 2.5 microg per cotton ball. compounds 3-6 were obtained, and the structure of the new co ...200818386489
chromosome number and cytogenetics of euphorbia heterophylla l.euphorbia heterophylla l. (euphorbiaceae) is a herbaceous species of great economic importance due to its invasive potential and consequent damage to agriculture and pasture land. for the first time, we provide information on its chromosome number, morphology, and behavior of mitotic chromosomes. seeds were germinated and submitted to four treatments to obtain metaphases: 0.5% colchicine for 2 to 5 h, at ambient temperature; 0.5% colchicine for 16 to 24 h; 0.0029 m 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-hq) for ...200818393225
effects of protein kinase c modulation by pep005, a novel ingenol angelate, on mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in cancer cells.pep005 (ingenol-3-angelate) is a novel anticancer agent extracted from euphorbia peplus that was previously shown to modulate protein kinase c (pkc), resulting in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in several human cancer cell lines. in colo205 colon cancer cells, exposure to pep005 induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease of cells in s phase of cell cycle and apoptosis. in colo205 cells exposed to pep005, a variety of signaling pathways were activated as shown by increased p ...200818413805
tyramine oxidation by copper/tpq amine oxidase and peroxidase from euphorbia characias latex.tyramine, an important plant intermediate, was found to be a substrate for two proteins, a copper amine oxidase and a peroxidase from euphorbia characias latex. the oxidation of tyramine took place by two different mechanisms: oxidative deamination to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde by the amine oxidase and formation of di-tyramine by the peroxidase. the di-tyramine was further oxidized at the two amino groups by the amino oxidase, whereas p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde was transformed to di-p-hydroxyp ...200818423366
removal of disperse dye from aqueous solution by novel adsorbent prepared from biomass plant material.the adsorption of disperse orange 25 (3-[n-ethyl-4-(4-nitrophenylazo) phenylamino] propionitrile) onto activated carbon was investigated in a batch system with respect to contact time, carbon dosage, ph and temperature from aqueous solutions. the langmuir, freundlich and dubinin-radushkevich (d-r) adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were also determined. the langmuir isotherm model agrees with the experimental data well. maximum adsorpt ...200818448248
discovery of a new series of jatrophane and lathyrane diterpenes as potent and specific p-glycoprotein modulators.a new series of diterpenes, the jatrophanes euphoscopin m (1), euphoscopin n (2) and euphornin l (3), and the lathyrane euphohelioscopin c (7) were isolated from plants of euphorbia helioscopia l., together with four other known analogues, euphoscopin c (4), euphornin (5), epieuphoscopin b (6) and euphohelioscopin a (8). the new compound stereostructures were elucidated by nmr analysis and computational data. the resulting isolated diterpenes were found to be potent inhibitors of p-glycoprotein ...200818452010
keratouveitis caused by sap of euphorbia myrsinites plant.euphorbia plants grow in many gardens. their milky latex is, however, a strong irritant which may induce various ocular lesions from keratoconjunctivitis to severe uveitis.200818454396
new alpha-pyrrolidinonoids and glycosides from euphorbia humifusa.a phytochemical investigation on the constituents from euphorbia humifusa willd. has resulted in the isolation of three new alpha-pyrrolidinonoidal compounds, 5beta-methoxy-4beta-hydroxy-3-methylene-alpha-pyrrolidinone (1), 5beta-methoxy-4alpha-hydroxy-3-methylene-alpha-pyrrolidinone (2), and 5beta-butoxy-4alpha-hydroxy-3-methylene-alpha-pyrrolidinone (3), and three new glycosides including an indole glycoside, 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-(1-o-beta-glucopyranosyloxy)-indole (4), an ionone glycoside, 3- ...200818470805
stimulatory effects of euphorbia cheiradenia on cell mediated immunity and humoral antibody synthesis.studies have demonstrated that plant extracts possess various biological characteristics including immunomodulatory activity.200818523357
effect of drying on yield and calorific values of extractables from leafy spurge (euphorbia esula).the effect of dehydration on yield and calorific values has been investigated for oils, hydrocarbons, and polyphenols extracted from leaves of euphorbia esula/ (leafy spurge). methods of dehydration employed were with a warm oven (50 degrees c), a hot oven (105 degrees c), at room temperature (25 degrees c), and with freeze drying. generally, dehydration resulted in a loss of yield for all extractives. noteworthy exceptions were oil yields from the warm-oven- or air-dried biomass which did not d ...198418553299
17-acetoxyjolkinolide b irreversibly inhibits ikappab kinase and induces apoptosis of tumor cells.nuclear factor-kappab (nf-kappab) is critically important for tumor cell survival, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. one of the key events in the nf-kappab signaling is the activation of inhibitor of nf-kappab kinase (ikk) in response to stimuli of various cytokines. we have identified 17-acetoxyjolkinolide b (17-ajb) from a traditional chinese medicinal herb euphorbia fischeriana steud as a novel small-molecule inhibitor of ikk. 17-ajb effectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induc ...200818566223
three-dimensional reconstruction of glycosomes in trypanosomatids of the genus aided three dimensional (3-d) reconstruction of cells from two isolates of protozoa of the genus phytomonas, trypanosomatids found in plants, were made from 0.3 microm thick sections, imaged on a zeiss 902 electron microscope with a energy filter for in ellastically scattered electrons, in order to obtain information about glycosomal shape diversity. direct counts of peroxisomes (glycosomes) from phytomonas sp. from chamaesyce thymifolia indicated that there were fewer glycosomes per ce ...199518621296
induction of heme oxygenase-1 by plant extract kiom-79 via akt pathway and nf-e2 related factor 2 in pancreatic beta-cells.the objective of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which kiom-79 induced heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) in rat pancreatic beta-cells (rinm5f). a mixture of plant extracts (kiom-79) was obtained from magnolia officinalis, pueraria lobata, glycyrrhiza uralensis, and euphorbia pekinensis. ho-1, an antioxidant phase 2 enzyme, was previously reported to possess cytoprotective properties in pancreatic beta-cells. kiom-79 induced heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) expression at the mrna and protein lev ...200818704831
purification, biochemical and functional characterization of miliin, a new thiol-dependent serine protease isolated from the latex of euphorbia milii.miliin, a new thiol-dependent serine protease purified from the latex of euphorbia milii possesses a molecular weight of 79 kda, an isoelectric point of 4.3 and is optimally active at 60 degrees c in the ph range of and 7.5-11.0. activity tests indicate that milliin is a thiol-dependent serine protease.200818782069
[mites (acari) from rubber trees (hevea brasiliensis muell. arg., euphorbiaceae) and spontaneous euphorbiaceous in rubber trees cultivation].quarterly samples were done in 2001 on three rubber tree plantation in the northwest of the state of são paulo. three rubber trees of each locality were sampled. between the rows of rubber tree four species of spontaneous euphorbiaceous were collected: chamaesyce hirta, c. hyssopifolia, euphorbia heterophylla and phyllanthus tenellus. a total of 8.954 mites of 38 species, belonging to 31 genera of 11 families were collected. tydeidae and phytoseiidae had the highest diversity of species, 9 and 7 ...200818813750
chemical and pharmacological research of the plants in genus euphorbia. 200818817355
synergistic interaction between p-glycoprotein modulators and epirubicine on resistant cancer cells.the macrocyclic lathyrane diterpene latilagascene b, previously isolated from euphorbia lagascae, was acylated to afford three new diterpene esters, latilagascenes g (1), h (2), and i (3), whose structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods. these acyl derivatives, and the macrocyclic diterpenes of the jatrophane-type, tuckeyanols a (4) and b (5), and euphotuckeyanol (6), isolated from euphorbia tuckeyana, were tested for p-gp modulating properties on human mdr1 gene-transfected and parental ...200818824363
heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants collected from environmentally different estimate the heavy metal content in soil and selected medicinal plants procured from environmentally different sites of the same city.200818837296
in vitro anti-influenza screening of several euphorbiaceae species: structure of a bioactive cyanoglucoside from codiaeum variegatum.a bio-guided screening against influenza a virus (fluav) was carried out with seven euphorbiaceae species. the results showed that chromatographic fractions from phyllantus niruri, euphorbia pulcherrima and codiaeum variegatum had relevant anti-fluav activity, although only chromatographical subfractions from c. variegatum kept the activity. from this plant, the active compound against fluav was isolated. its structure was assigned as 2-(3,4,5)-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxyme ...200818851862
a pharmacological study of the egyptian plant, euphorbia peplus. 194818880521
fungal control of pathogenic fungi isolated from wild plants in taif governorate, saudia arabia.twenty two plants were collected from taif governorate and identified as: euphorbia glomerifera, juniperus procera, launaea mucronata, capparis dcidua, punica granatum, opuntia ficus, prunus persica, eucalyptus globulus, medicago sativa, artemisia monosperma, trichodesma calathiforme, artemisia judaica, foeniculum vulgare, phagnalon sinaicum, rumex dentatus, asphodelus aestives, pulicaria crispa, launae sonchoides, forsskaolea tenacissima, arnebia hispidissima, avena spp and aerva lanata. pathog ...200718928069
antisickling activity of anthocyanins from bombax pentadrum, ficus capensis and ziziphus mucronata: photodegradation effect.a survey was conducted in lubumbashi city (democratic republic of congo) in order to: (a) identify medicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of sickle cell anaemia, (b) verify their antisickling activity in vitro, (c) determine the most active plants, and (d) verify if anthocyanins are responsible of the bioactivity and study their photodegradation effect.200818930798
distribution and diversity of geminiviruses in trinidad and tobago.abstract seven crop and eight weed species from 12 agricultural locations in trinidad and tobago were assayed for the presence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (wtgs) by using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of the n-terminal coat protein sequence with degenerate primers. the amplified fragments were cloned and analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion to determine fragment length polymorphism among the cloned fragments. representative clones were the ...199818944827
conidial germination, infection structure formation, and early colony development of powdery mildew on poinsettia.abstract powdery mildew disease on poinsettias (euphorbia pulcherrima) growing in commercial greenhouses was first observed in the united states in 1990 and has become an economically significant problem for poinsettia growers in the midwest and northern united states since 1992. the temporal development of infection structures produced by conidial germ tubes of the pathogen (oidium sp.) and the effect of high temperature on their development were investigated using poinsettia leaf disks placed ...199818944978
a kinetically stable plant subtilase with unique peptide mass fingerprints and dimerization properties.milin, a potent molluscicide from the latex of euphorbia milii, holds promise in medicinal biochemistry. electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and other biochemical characteristics identify milin as a homodimeric, plant subtilisin-like serine protease, the first of its kind. the subunits of milin are differentially glycosylated affecting dimer association, solubility and proteolytic activity. the dimeric dissociation is sds-insensitive and strongly temperature depende ...200918951690
comparison of supercritical fluid and soxhlet extractions for the quantification of hydrocarbons from euphorbia macroclada.this study compares conventional soxhlet extraction and analytical scale supercritical fluid extraction (sfe) for their yields in extracting of hydrocarbons from arid-land plant euphorbia macroclada. the plant material was firstly sequentially extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide, modified with 10% methanol (v/v) in the optimum conditions that is a pressure of 400atm and a temperature of 50 degrees c and then it was sonicated in methylene chloride for an additional 4h. e. macroclada was s ...200418969630
[studies on macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenes of euphorbia kansui].to study macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenes of euphorbia kansui.200819007010
transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.).dormancy of buds is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive extreme seasonal variations in climate. dormancy transitions in underground crown buds of the model herbaceous perennial weed leafy spurge were investigated using a 23 k element cdna microarray. these data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial species. crown buds collected monthly from august through december, over a five year pe ...200819014493
activity and structural changes of euphorbia characias peroxidase in the presence of trifluoroethanol.activity assays, conformational changes and transitional switches between secondary structures of a peroxidase from euphorbia characias were studied in the presence of trifluoroethanol and in the presence or absence of calcium ions. the addition of trifluoroethanol up to 10-20% first induced a drastic decrease of alpha-helix content followed by an increase of tryptophan fluorescence emission intensity, a progressive re-induction of the formation of alpha-helical elements concomitant with loss of ...200819015965
cytotoxic macrocyclic diterpenoids from euphorbia helioscopia.a new cytotoxic macrocyclic diterpenoid, euphornin l (1), together with seven known analogues were isolated from the plant euphorbia helioscopia l. the structure of 1 was elucidated by spectral data and x-ray crystallographic analysis. euphornin l (1) and euphoscopin f (2) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against hl-60 cell lines with ic(50) values of 2.7 and 9.0 microm, respectively. the 13c-nmr data of euphoscopin f (2), epieuphoscopin b (3), euphoscopin b (5), and euphoscopin c (6) were als ...200819099222
sj23b, a jatrophane diterpene activates classical pkcs and displays strong activity against hiv in vitro.existence of virus reservoirs makes the eradication of hiv infection extremely difficult. current drug therapies neither eliminate these viral reservoirs nor prevent their formation. consequently, new strategies are needed to target these reservoirs with the aim of decreasing their size. we analysed a series of jatrophane diterpenes isolated from euphorbia hyberna and we found that one of them, sj23b, induces the internalization of the hiv-1 receptors cd4, cxcr4 and ccr5 and prevents r5 and x4 v ...200919100719
synthetic studies toward jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia characias. enantioselective synthesis of (-)-15-o-acetyl-3-o-propionyl-17-norcharaciol.the enantioselective synthesis of (+)-17-norcharaciol is described. an uncatalyzed intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction and a ring-closing metathesis were used as key c/c-connecting transformations to assemble the trans-bicyclo[10.3.0]pentadecane norditerpenoid core. we also report the evolution of our synthetic strategy toward the fully substituted characiol skeleton and the experiences from this venture.200919140728
coumarin glycosides from euphorbia soongarica (boiss).two new coumarin glycosides (1 and 2), along with six known compounds (3-8), were isolated from the roots of euphorbia soongarica. the structures of two new compounds were elucidated as aesculetin-6-o-(6'-o-galloyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1) and fraxetin-8-o-(6'-o-galloyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (2) by spectral methods and chemical evidences.200919177237
pep005 (ingenol mebutate) gel, a novel agent for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, phase iia study.the sap of the plant euphorbia peplus is a traditional remedy for skin conditions, including actinic keratosis. the active constituent of the sap is ingenol mebutate (ingenol-3-angelate), formerly known as pep005. this randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, phase iia study investigated the safety (and secondarily the efficacy) of two applications of ingenol mebutate gel in 58 patients with biopsy-confirmed actinic keratosis. five preselected lesions were treated with ingenol mebutate gel, ...200919178487
phenotypical differences among b. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.b. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes botrytis blight (grey mould) in most ornamental plants. it may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. in this work, several b. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (chamelaucium uncinatum, pelargonium x hortorum, euphorbia pulcherrima, lantana camara, lonicera japonica, hydrangea macrophylla, and cyclamen persicum) affected by botrytis blight in the south of spain were studi ...200819226749
translocation and accumulation of boron in roots and shoots of plants grown in soils of low boron concentration in turkey's keban pb-zn mining area.boron (b) concentrations were investigated in both shoots and roots of euphorbia macroclada, verbascum cheiranthifolium, and astragalus gummifer grown in soil of the keban, turkey, lead-zinc-copper-fluoride mining area, which has an arid climate. soil b concentrations were also investigated. plants and their associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (icp-ms). total b concentrations of soils in the study area were very low (mean: 4.97 mg k ...200819260215
cloning and characterization of a squalene synthase gene from a petroleum plant, euphorbia tirucalli l.euphorbia tirucalli l., which is also known as a petroleum plant, produces a large amount of phytosterols and triterpenes. during their biosynthesis, squalene synthase converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate into a hydrophobic product, squalene. an e. tirucalli cdna clone of a putative squalene synthase gene (etss) was isolated by rt-pcr followed by 5'- and 3'-race. the restriction fragment polymorphisms revealed by southern blot analysis suggest that etss is a s ...200919283408
weed hosts of meloidogyne arenaria and m. incognita common in tobacco fields in south carolina.thirty-two weed species common in south carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and m. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. egg mass production and galling differed (p < 0.05) among weed species. chenopodium album, euphorbia maculata, and vicia villosa were good hosts of m. arenaria. amaranthus palmeri, rumex crispus, amaranthus hybridus, ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, setaria lutescens, sida spinosa, portulaca ol ...198819290313
the effect of water extracts of euphorbia hirta on cartilage degeneration in arthritic rats.the effect of water extracts of euphorbia hirta on the histological features and expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (mmps) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (timps) in the rat articular cartilage was investigated. arthritis was induced in rats using freund's complete adjuvant containing heat-killed m. tuberculosis, and treated with water extracts of e. hirta. paraffin tissue sections of the arthritic joints were evaluated. the extent of cartilage degeneration was found to ...200819291918
histopathology of okra and ridgeseed spurge infected with meloidodera charis.histological observations of okra abelomoschus esculentus 'clemson spineless' and ridgeseed spurge euphorbia glyptosperma (a common weed) infected with meloidodera charis hopper, indicated that the juvenile nematode penetrated the roots intercellularly. within 5 days after plant emergence the nematode positioned its body in the cortical tissue parallel to the vascular system. by 10 days after plant emergence the juvenile had extended its head into the vascular system and initiated giant cell for ...198419295883
not just vicariance: phylogeography of a sonoran desert euphorb indicates a major role of range expansion along the baja examine the generality of population-level impacts of ancient vicariance identified for numerous arid-adapted animal taxa along the baja peninsula, we tested phylogeographical hypotheses in a similarly distributed desert plant, euphorbia lomelii (euphorbiaceae). in light of fossil data indicating marked changes in the distributions of baja floristic assemblages throughout the holocene and earlier, we also examined evidence for range expansion over more recent temporal scales. two classes of c ...200919302467
studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected yemeni medicinal plants from the island soqotra.recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. the aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in yemen (soqotra island) for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.200919320966
biological screening of euphorbia helioscopia l.the present research is preliminary biological screening of euphorbia helioscopia l. (euphorbiaceae). dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the plant were investigated for their antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and phytotoxic activities. dichloromethane extract exhibited significant activity against fusarium solani with 90% inhibition, where as the same extract also showed non-significant activity against salmonella typhi and bacillus subtilis. methanolic extract has ...200919339230
bio-active compounds from euphorbia cornigera boiss.euphorbia cornigera boiss. (euphorbiaceae) roots extracted in various organic solvents were tested against biomphalaria glabrata snails as molluscicide using bayluscide as a control. among these, acetone extract was found to be the most active (lc(50)=17.5 microg l(-1)) as compared to bayluscide. the application of hplc fractionation yielded ten (1-10) n-(2-aminobenzoyl)anthraniloy esters. structure and the relative configuration of all the compounds were established through spectroscopic (uv, i ...200919376614
two novel butanol rhamnosides from an indian traditional herb, euphorbia hirta.two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an indian traditional herb, euphorbia hirta. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-o-beta-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including ir, hr-fabms, 1d and 2d nmr techniques.200919401919
non-target effect of organic insecticides: effect of two plant extracts on soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in soil.efficacious botanical derivatives can provide an alternative to synthetic pesticides for organic farming systems. however, there is lack of information regarding the side effects of organic pesticides on key soil ecological processes. in this study, we investigated the effects of aqueous extracts from urginea maritima and euphorbia myrsinites exhibiting translaminar and systemic activity against pests on microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in soil. two grams of plant material was extracte ...201019415510
inhibitory effects of solidago chilensis meyen hydroalcoholic extract on acute inflammation.alcoholic or hydroalcoholic preparations of the plant solidago chilensis meyen (asteraceae) are employed in popular medicines to treat inflammation. the anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plant (93% ethanol) were investigated and the main components of the extract were identified.200919429316
ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in showbak, jordan.two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) the most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). these two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of showbak region in jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for ...200919429338
evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some yemeni plants used in folk medicine.the present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three gram-positive, three gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant staphylococcus strains by ...200919435146
molecular cloning, characterization and function analysis of the gene encoding hmg-coa reductase from euphorbia pekinensis rupr.a new full-length cdna encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutoryl-coenzyme a reductase (hmgr; ec1.1.1.34), which catalyzes the first committed step of isoprenoids biosynthesis in mva pathway, was isolated from young leaves of euphorbia pekinensis rupr. by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) for the first time. the full-length cdna of hmgr (designated as ephmgr, genbank accession no. ef062569) was 2,200 bp containing a 1,752 bp orf encoding 583 amino acids. bioinformatic analyzes revealed that the d ...201019437136
ingol and ingenol diterpenes from the aerial parts of euphorbia royleana and their antiangiogenic activities.ten new ingol lathyrane-type diterpenes (1-10) and two known ingenol derivatives (11 and 12) were isolated from the aerial parts of euphorbia royleana. the structures of 1-10 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 2d nmr analysis, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal x-ray crystallography. antiangiogenic effects of all compounds except for 5 were tested using a zebrafish model, with compounds 11 and 12 being active in this bioassay.200919438253
lathyrane diterpenes from euphorbia lathyris as modulators of multidrug resistance and their crystal structures.two lathyrane diterpenes (1-2) together with previous ones (3-6) were isolated from euphorbia lathyris. the structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including two-dimensional nmr techniques. stereo configuration and conformation of 1 and 2 were analyzed by x-ray diffraction for the first time. the configuration of the unique isolathyrol diterpene 2 from the seeds of e. lathyris, was rectified from s * to r * at c-5. all compounds were examined as mo ...200919443229
total synthesis of jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia characias.the enantioselective total synthesis of the jatrophane diterpene (-)-15-o-acetyl-3-o-propionylcharaciol is described. starting from an advanced cyclopentane building block, a b-alkyl suzuki-miyaura cross-coupling and carbonyl addition were utilized to assemble a fully functionalized triene, and a ring-closing metathesis was then employed to construct the rigid 12-membered ring. twenty-five years after the original report on the isolation of the natural product, our total synthesis unambiguously ...200919453178
antiviral activities of extracts of euphorbia hirta l. against hiv-1, hiv-2 and sivmac251.the antiretroviral activities of extracts of euphorbia hirta were investigated in vitro on the mt4 human t lymphocyte cell line. the cytotoxicities of the extracts were tested by means of the mtt cell proliferation assay, and then the direct effects of the aqueous extract on hiv-1, hiv-2 and siv(mac251) reverse transcriptase (rt) activity were determined. a dose-dependent inhibition of rt activity was observed for all three viruses. the hiv-1 inhibitory potency of e. hirta was studied further, a ...200919454510
the efficacy of some wild medicinal plant extracts on the survival and development of third instar larvae of chrysomyia albiceps (wied) (diptera: calliphoridae).four crude wild plants extract of artemisia herba-alba asso, artemisia monosperma del., euphorbia aegyptiaca boiss. and francoeuria crispa (forsk.) extracted with four successive solvents; hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol were evaluated against the third instar larvae of chrysomyia albiceps using dipping and thin film techniques. in dipping technique, larvae were immersed in the concentrations of plant extracts for 30 seconds. however, in thin film technique, larvae were exposed ...200919455398
randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, vehicle-controlled study of ingenol mebutate gel 0.025% and 0.05% for actinic keratosis.there is a need for improved medical approaches to the treatment of actinic keratosis. ingenol mebutate, a diterpene ester extracted and purified from the plant euphorbia peplus, is being evaluated as a topical therapy for actinic keratosis.200919467365
how do euphorbia plants cause contact dermatitis? 200919474600
the chemical composition of the essential oils of euphorbia caracasana and e. cotinifolia (euphorbiaceae) from venezuela.the essential oils from leaves of e. caracasana boiss collected from miyoi, pueblo llano, mérida state at 1800 m above sea level and leaves of e. cotinifolia l collected from manzano alto-ejido, mérida state at 1520 m were analyzed by gc/ms. beta-caryophyllene (33.7 %), alpha-humulene (18.8 %) and aromadendrene (8.4 %) were the major constituents of e. caracasana oil, whereas those of e. cotinifolia oil were beta-caryophyllene (39.3 %), germacrene-d (21.5 %) and alpha-copaene (9.3 %).200919476008
gallotannin isolated from euphorbia species, 1,2,6-tri-o-galloyl-beta-d-allose, decreases nitric oxide production through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa>b and downstream inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in macrophages.gallotannins are plant secondary metabolites and are widely included to polyphenolic compounds. gallotannins are water-soluble polyphenols with wide-ranging biological activities. nitric oxide (no) is well known as a mediator of inflammation. macrophages express inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) and produce no after lipopoly saccharide (lps) stimulation. in the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of seven gallotannins isolated from euphorbia species (euphorbiaceae) on the lps- ...200919483314
ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in raw 264.7 macrophages.ciguatera fish poisoning (cfp) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. ciguatoxins (ctxs), issued from gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. we have recently demonstrated that a pacific ctx (p-ctx-1b) strongly modulated inos expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (no) in raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells. no produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. many ...200919501268
phytotoxic allelochemicals from roots and root exudates of leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.).invasive plants are a widespread problem but the mechanisms used by these plants to become invasive are often unknown. the production of phytotoxic natural products by invasive weeds is one mechanism by which these species may become successful competitors. here we conducted a bioactivity-driven fractionation of root extracts and exudates from the invasive plant leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.), and structurally characterized jatrophane diterpenes and ellagic acid derivatives. ellagic acid deri ...200619517003
diterpenoids and triterpenoids from euphorbia retusa.six new ent-abietane lactones (1-6), three new esterified tetracyclic triterpenes (7-9), and seven known diterpenoids and triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of euphorbia retusa. their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic studies including 1d and 2d nmr, mass spectrometry, chemical transformation, and comparison with literature data.200919518124
a new cytotoxic casbane diterpene from euphorbia pekinensis.a new cytotoxic casbane diterpene, named pekinenal, was isolated from the roots of euphorbia pekinensis. its structure was elucidated as 5alpha-hydroxy-1betah,2alphah-casba-3z,7e,11e-triene-18-al by a combination of 1d- and 2d-nmr techniques and confirmed by x-ray crystallography. pekinenal showed cytotoxic activity against all four human cancer cell lines tested.200919560525
keratouveitis caused by euphorbia plant sap.the milky sap or latex of euphorbia plant is highly toxic and an irritant to the skin and eye. this report illustrates the spectrum of ocular inflammation caused by accidental inoculation of latex of euphorbia plant. three patients presented with accidental ocular exposure to the milky sap of euphorbia species of recent onset. the initial symptoms in all cases were severe burning sensation with blurring of vision. visual acuity reduced from 20/60 to counting fingers. clinical findings varied fro ...200919574703
topical anti-inflammatory effect of tirucallol, a triterpene isolated from euphorbia lactea latex.latex from euphorbia lactea (euphorbiaceae), a native dominican medicinal plant, is claimed to be useful in the treatment of inflammation. topical application of tirucallol, a tetracyclic triterpene isolated from euphorbia lacteal latex, suppressed ear edema in the mouse model in a dose-dependent manner, as well as affecting the influx of polymorphonuclear cells in response to topical application of 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (tpa) in the mouse ear. in addition, the effect of tirucallol, ...201019577446
kiom-79, an inhibitor of ages-protein cross-linking, prevents progression of nephropathy in zucker diabetic fatty rats.advanced glycation end products (ages) have been implicated in the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy. kiom-79, an 80% ethanolic extract obtained from parched puerariae radix, gingered magnolia cortex, glycyrrhiza radix and euphorbia radix, was investigated for its effects on the development of renal disease in zucker diabetic fatty rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. in vitro inhibitory effect of kiom-79 on ages cross-linking was examined by enzyme-linke ...200919605553
[apigenin glycosides from euphorbia humifusa wild].the investigation on the herbal of euphorbia humifusa wild. was carried out in order to find its anti-hbv constituents. the isolation and purification were performed by chromatography such as sephadex lh-20, mci gel chp 20p, etc. based on the spectral analysis, five apigenin glycosides were identified as apigenin-7-o-(6"-o-galloyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), apigenin-7-o-beta-d-apiofuranosyl (1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin-7-o-beta-d-lutinoside (3), apigenin-7-o-beta-d-glucopyransi ...200919618725
the phytotoxic effect of exogenous ethanol on euphorbia heterophylla l.this study investigated the effects of exogenously applied ethanol on euphorbia heterophylla l., a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. ethanol at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5% caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of e. heterophylla. measurements of respiratory activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (e.c. activity during seed imbibition and initial seedling growth revealed that ethanol induces a prolongation of hypoxic conditions in the growing ...200919640725
ultrastructure and cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase of laticifers in euphorbia kansui liou.acid phosphatase (acpase) activities are involved in the degeneration process of cytoplasm in plants. in this study, acid phosphatase was detected by the method of lead nitrate and cytochemical electron microscopy during the development of nonarticulated laticifers in euphorbia kansui liou. the most important feature in the differentiation of the laticifers in e. kansui is that the development of small vacuoles arises from endoplasmic reticulum (er). the mature laticifers possess a thin layer of ...200919649693
supinaionosides a and b: megastigmane glucosides and supinanitrilosides a-f: hydroxynitrile glucosides from the whole plants of euphorbia supina rafinesque.from whole plants of euphorbia supina, two new megastigmane glucosides, named supinaionosides a and b (1, 2), six new hydroxynitrile glucosides, named supinanitrilosides a-f (3-8), and six known compounds were isolated. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence.200919652410
screening of tanzanian medicinal plants against plasmodium falciparum and human immunodeficiency virus.medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in bunda district, tanzania, were screened for activity against plasmodium falciparum and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1, iiib strain) and type 2 (hiv-2, rod strain). antiplasmodial activity was observed for the 80 % meoh extract of ormocarpum kirkii (root; mic = 31.25 microg/ml), combretum adenogonium (leaves), euphorbia tirucalli (root), harrisonia abyssinica (root), rhynchosia sublobata (root), sesbania sesban (root), tithonia div ...201019653145
antitumor activity of terpenoids against classical and atypical multidrug resistant cancer cells.nineteen terpenoids, including macrocyclic diterpenes, diterpenic lactones and other polycyclic diterpenes, steroids and a triterpene isolated from the methanolic extracts of euphorbia species, were evaluated for their potential antineoplastic activity in various human cancer cell lines that were derived from three tumor entities: gastric (epg85-257), pancreatic (epp85-181) and colon (ht-29) carcinomas. furthermore, different multidrug-resistant variants of these cancer cell lines with over-expr ...201019682879
changes in plant communities along soil pollution gradients: responses of leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin contents.this work describes an ecological and ecotoxicological study of polluted wasteland plant communities in a former coke-factory located in homécourt (france). ecological analyses were performed along two transects to investigate changes in plant community structure through species richness (s), biological diversity (h') and evenness (j). five species (arrhenatherum elatius, bromus tectorum, euphorbia cyparissias, hypericum perforatum and tanacetum vulgare) were then selected to assess cellular res ...200919692108
chemical constituents of the roots of euphorbia micractina.nine minor new tirucallane (1-7) and euphane (8 and 9) triterpenoids including five hydroperoxides, together with 18 known compounds, have been isolated from an ethanolic extract of the roots of euphorbia micractina. their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis. in the in vitro assays, betulin (10) showed a selective cytotoxic activity against a2780 ovarian cells with an ic(50) value of 6.1 microm and inhibitory activity against protei ...200919702283
cerebrosides with antiproliferative activity from euphorbia peplis l.two new cerebrosides have been isolated from the whole plants of euphorbia peplis l. the structures were established by ft-ir spectroscopy, fab ms, ei-ms, esi-ms, 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy. the structures of the cerebrosides were characterized as 1-o-beta-d-glycosides of phytosphingosines, which comprised a common long-chain base, (2s, 3s, 4r, 8z)-2-amino-8 (z)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol with 2-hydroxy fatty acids of varying chain lengths (c25, c22) linked to the amino group. the isolated compounds ...201019703528
vanilloid-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through a trpv-1 dependent and a trpv-1-independent mechanism.vanilloids are natural molecules identified in a plethora of foods normally ingested through the diet. they mediate apoptosis through a direct pathway (independent of trpv-1, the receptor for vanilloids) and through an indirect pathway, i.e., thanks to the interaction with trpv-1 and the successive intracellular calcium growth [ca2+]i. some vanilloids, such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and resiniferatoxin (the ultrapotent analogue of capsaicin, extractable from euphorbia resinifera), may be co ...200919705615
17-hydroxy-jolkinolide b inhibits signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 signaling by covalently cross-linking janus kinases and induces apoptosis of human cancer cells.constitutive activation of the janus kinase (jak)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat) pathway occurs frequently in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis. among the members of stat family, stat3 plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of human tumors. the stat3-mediated signaling pathway has been recognized as a promising anticancer target. here, we show that 17-hydroxy-jolkinolide b (hjb), a diterpenoid from the chinese medicinal herb euphorbia fischeria ...200919706767
effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from environmental protection agency registration under section 25(b) of the federal insecticide fungicide and rodenticide act. however, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. in fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not bee ...200919736770
gene-based microsatellites for cassava (manihot esculenta crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility.cassava (manihot esculenta crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. the repertoire of simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic ssrs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications.200919747391
complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that infects euphorbia heterophylla and wissadula amplissima in jamaica. 200919774336
mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of euphorbia hirta.euphorbia hirta (e. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. however, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. this work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the ames test utilising the mutant salmonella typhimurium ta98 and ta100 strains. ...200919778596
müllerian mimicry in aposematic spiny plants.müllerian mimicry is common in aposematic animals but till recently, like other aspects of plant aposematism was almost unknown. many thorny, spiny and prickly plants are considered aposematic because their sharp defensive structures are colorful and conspicuous. many of these spiny plant species (e.g., cacti and agave in north american deserts; aloe, euphorbia and acacias with white thorns in africa; spiny plants in ohio; and spiny members of the asteraceae in the mediterranean basin) have over ...200919816137
potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern africa.plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, s ...200919831265
hepatoprotective and toxicological assessment of an ethnomedicinal plant euphorbia fusiformis buch.-ham.ex d.don.the tubers of euphorbia fusiformis buch.-ham.ex d.don (euphorbiaceae) are traditionally used in india by the malayali tribes of chitteri hills, eastern ghats, tamil nadu to treat liver disorders. the objective of the present study was to assess the hepatoprotective potential and biosafety of euphorbia fusiformis tuber upon administration thereby justifying the traditional claims.201019837150
amaranthus oleracea and euphorbia hirta: natural potential larvicidal agents against the urban indian malaria vector, anopheles stephensi liston (diptera: culicidae).malaria control in developing countries is based largely on vector eradication by the use of mosquito larvicides which is an ideal method for controlling mosquito and the related epidemics. on account of ecohazardous nature, nontarget specificity of chemical insecticides and evidences of developing resistance against them in the exposed species, currently, importance of secondary plant metabolites has been acknowledged. insecticides of plant origin are environmentally safe, degradable, and targe ...200919838734
bioassay-guided separation of the proinflammatory constituents from the roots of euphorbia view of the toxic inflammatory reaction induced by euphorbia kansui roots, a traditional chinese medicine used for the treatment of edema, ascites, and asthma, the 95% ethanol extract was found to have a significant stimulating effect on inflammatory cells. bioassay-guided separation of the 95% ethanol extract from the roots of e. kansui led to the isolation of five diterpenoids whose structures were identified by (1)h, (13)c nmr spectroscopy and hr-esi-ms as kansuinine b (1), kansuinine a (2 ...201019844773
the grape component piceatannol induces apoptosis in du145 human prostate cancer cells via the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.piceatannol (trans-3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene) is a polyphenol that is found in grapes, red wine, rheum undulatum, and the seeds of euphorbia lagascae. it has been previously reported that piceatannol inhibits the proliferation of a variety of cancer cell types. in the present study, we assessed the effects of piceatannol on the growth of androgen-insensitive du145 prostate cancer cells at concentrations of 1-10 micromol/l. piceatannol reduced the viable numbers and increased the numbers of ...200919857055
potential of laticifer fluids for inhibiting aedes aegypti larval development: evidence for the involvement of proteolytic has been shown previously that the laticifer fluid of calotropis procera (ait.) is highly toxic to the egg hatching and larval development of aedes aegypti l. in the present study, the larvicidal potential of other laticifer fluids obtained from cryptostegia grandiflora, plumeria rubra l. and euphorbia tirucalli l. was evaluated. we attempted to correlate larvicidal activity with the presence of endogenous proteolytic activity in the protein fraction of the fluids. after collectio ...200919876551
effects of diterpenes from latex of euphorbia lactea and euphorbia laurifolia on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reactivation.the persistence of latent hiv-infected cellular reservoirs represents the major hurdle to virus eradication in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, referred to as haart. hiv-1 reservoirs are long-lived resting cd4+ memory cells containing the virus latently integrated. since the hiv-1 reservoirs are not targeted by haart, reactivation therapy has been suggested to purge viral latency. bioassay-guided study of an ethyl acetate extract of euphorbia laurifolia afforded two is ...201019897215
bioactive jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia guyoniana.chromatographic investigation of the methylenechloride/methanol extract of the aerial parts of euphorbia guyoniana afforded two jatrophane diterpenes, designated guyonianins e and f, in addition to a known jatrophane diterpene. the structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive nmr analyses, including dept, cosy, hmqc, hmbc, noesy and hrms. these compounds exhibited cytotoxicity against human embryonic kidney 293 (hek293) cells with ic(50) values of 35-100 microm.201019900686
initial changes in the transcriptome of euphorbia esula seeds induced to germinate with a combination of constant and diurnal alternating temperatures.we investigated transcriptome changes in euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) seeds with a focus on the effect of constant and diurnal fluctuating temperature on dormancy and germination. leafy spurge seeds do not germinate when incubated for 21 days at 20 degrees c constant temperatures, but nearly 30% germinate after 21 days under fluctuating temperatures 20:30 degrees c (16:8 h). incubation at 20 degrees c for 21 days followed by 20:30 degrees c resulted in approximately 63% germination in about 10 ...201019916049
13c-nmr data of three important diterpenes isolated from euphorbia species.euphorbia species are widely distributed plants, many of which are used in folk medicine. over the past twenty years, they have received considerable phytochemical and biological attention. their diterpenoid constituents, especially those with abietane, tigliane, ingenane skeletons, are thought to be the main toxicant and bioactive factors. in this work, the utility of (13)c-nmr spectroscopy for the structural elucidation of these compounds is briefly discussed.200919924079
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