identification of excreted iron superoxide dismutase for the diagnosis of excreted iron superoxide dismutase (fesode) of pi 3.6 with a molecular weight of 28-30 kda was detected in the in vitro culture of phytomonas isolated from euphorbia characias (sodecha) and from lycopersicon esculentum (sodetom), in grace's medium without serum. these fesode excreted into the medium had immunogenic capacity: the positivity of the anti-sodecha serum persisted to a dilution of 1/30,000, and for the anti-sodetom to 1/10,000 by western blot. in addition, cross reaction was detect ...200617072478
anti-arthritic activity of a biopolymeric fraction from euphorbia tirucalli.the present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of a biopolymeric fraction (bet) from plant euphorbia tirucalli boiss (euphorbiaceae). the fraction showed dose dependent anti-arthritic activity and also showed in vivo immunomodulatory capacity being a major component in inhibiting arthritis. it caused suppression of cd4(+) and cd8(+) t cells, inhibition of intracellular interleukin-2 (il-2) and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) by flowcytometry. it inhibited vascular perme ...200717088037
interaction between doxorubicin and the resistance modifier stilbene on multidrug resistant mouse lymphoma and human breast cancer cells.the hydroxystilbene trans-3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene (piceatannol) (1), isolated from the methanol extract of euphorbia lagascae defatted seeds, was methylated to yield the derivatives trans-3,5,3',4'-tetramethoxystilbene (2), (trans-3,5-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxystilbene) (3) and trans-3,5,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4). the structures of the compounds were assigned by spectroscopic methods (ir, 1h-nmr, 13c-nmr and ms). the ability of piceatannol (1) and the three methylated derivative ...200617094479
ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in jordan, the ajloun heights region.the study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation of medicinal plants. this study therefore sought to collect information from local population concerning the use of ajloun heights region medicinal plants; identify the most important species used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed and calculate the informant consensus factor (icf) in relation to medicinal plant use. data collection r ...200717097250
molecular authentication of the traditional chinese medicinal plant euphorbia pekinensis.the its regions of euphorbia pekinensis and six other euphorbia species used as adulterants of e. pekinensis were sequenced to differentiate them. the sequences are identical among the individuals in the seven species studies. diversity in dna sequences among various species was found ranging from 8.3% to 43.8% in its1 and 7.6% to 36.6% in its2 region. furthermore, based on the divergent its regions, species-specific primers, jdjp 1 and jdjp 2, were designed in the polymorphic regions of e. peki ...200717128389
[studies on chemical constituents in roots of euphorbia soongarica].to study the chemical constituents of the roots of euphorbia soongarica (xinjiang origin).200617144466
screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors play a pivotal role in metazoan lipid and glucose homeostasis. synthetic activators of pparalpha (fibrates) and ppargamma (glitazones) are therefore widely used for treatment of dislipidemia and diabetes, respectively. there is growing evidence for herbal compounds to influence nuclear receptor signalling e.g. the ppars. we recently reported carnosic acid and carnosol, both being diterpenes found in the labiate herbs sage and rosemary, to be activa ...200617152989
synthesis of new phytogrowth-inhibitory substituted aryl-p-benzoquinones.reaction of [(2-alkyloxy)methyl]-1,4-dimethoxybenzene 10 (alkyl=butyl, hexyl, decyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) with ceric ammonium nitrate in order to produce p-benzoquinones (=cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diones) afforded 5-[(alkyloxy)methyl]-2-(4-formyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)benzo-1,4-quinones 12a-12g in yields that varied from 46 to 97%, accompanied by 2-[(alkyloxy)methyl]benzo-1,4-quinones 11a-11g in only small quantities (< or =5%). these quinones resemble the natural phytoto ...200617193291
a new bacillus pasteurii urease inhibitor from euphorbia decipiens.inhibition of bacillus pasteurii urease enzyme by 3,7,15-tri-o-acetyl-5-o-nicotinoyl-13,14-dihydroxymyrsinol (1), a diterpene ester with a myrsinol-type skeleton, isolated from euphorbia decipiens boiss. and buhse, was un-competitive consistent with the molecular docking results. the ki value was 117.40 +/- 0.7 microm.200617194023
characterization of scp-2 from euphorbia lagascae reveals that a single leu/met exchange enhances sterol transfer activity.sterol carrier protein-2 (scp-2) is a small intracellular basic protein domain implicated in peroxisomal beta-oxidation. we extend our knowledge of plant scp-2 by characterizing scp-2 from euphorbia lagascae. this protein consists of 122 amino acids including a pts1 peroxisomal targeting signal. it has a molecular mass of 13.6 kda and a pi of 9.5. it shares 67% identity and 84% similarity with scp-2 from arabidopsis thaliana. proteomic analysis revealed that e. lagascae scp-2 accumulates in the ...200617212780
induction of apoptosis in k562 cells by jolkinolide b.jolkinolide b, a bioactive diterpene isolated from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana steud, has various biological and pharmacological properties. in this study, the cytotoxicity of highly purified jolkinolide b was tested in human chronic myeloid leukemia (k562) and 2 other cell lines (human esophageal carcinoma eca-109 and human hepatoma hepg2). the results indicate a significant decrease in the proliferation of all the 3 cell lines when treated with jolkinolide b for 24 h; the ic50 value of ...200617218961
protective effects of polysaccharide from euphorbia kansui (euphorbiaceae) on the swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice.the present study examined the effects of derivatives of galactosides and glucosides in a polysaccharide extract from euphorbia kansui (euphorbiaceae) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. exhaustive swimming exercise significantly increases the degree of lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde content and reduces the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (sod) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx). our findings revealed that chronic oral treatment with the extract elevates en ...200617218972
[studies on chemical constituents of euphorbia sororia].to study the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of euphorbia sororia.200617225538
new diterpenoids from euphorbia sieboldiana.from the acetone extract of roots of euphorbia sieboldiana, three known diterpenes, ent-atisane-3beta,16alpha,17-triol ( 1), ingenol ( 4), and helioscopinolide a ( 5) as well as two new diterpenes, 3beta- o-acetyl- ent-atisane-16alpha,17-diol ( 2), and ingenol-20-palmitate ( 3) were isolated. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations.199117226204
tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenes from the aerial parts of euphorbia piscatoria. 199417236086
lathyrane and ingenane diterpenoids from euphorbia micractina. 199417236090
the origin and transmission of a series of plastogene mutants in dianthus and euphorbia. 196517248283
lagaspholones a and b: two new jatropholane-type diterpenes from euphorbia lagascae.[structure: see text] two new diterpenes, lagaspholones a (1) and b (2), have been isolated from the methanolic extract of euphorbia lagascae, along with the known compounds (+)-dehydrovomifoliol, scopoletin, dehydrodiconiferyl diacetate, 3-indolcarbaldehyde, and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. compounds 1 and 2 contain the rare jatropholane-type skeleton, characterized by a 5:6:7:3 fused ring system. a possible biosynthetic pathway ...200717249794
ingenane diterpenes from euphorbia petiolata.from the whole plants of euphorbia petiolata, four new ingenane-type diterpenoids, 3,20-o-diacetylingenol 5-o-(2' e,4' z)-tetradecadienoate (1), 5,20-o-diacetylingenol 3- o-(2' e,4' z)-tetradecadienoate (2), ingenol 3-o-(2' e,4' z)-tetradecadienoate (3), and 5,20-o-isopropylidenylingenol 3-o-(2' e,4' z)-tetradecadienoate (4) were isolated. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations.199617252444
a new flavonoid from euphorbia ebracteolata. 199617252476
three tricyclic diterpenoids from euphorbia decipiens.three new diterpene esters with a tricyclic lathyraneor myrsinol-type skeleton have been isolated from euphorbia decipiens boiss & buhse. the structures have been elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy techniques.199817253318
triterpenoids and a diterpene from euphorbia iberica.from the aerial parts of euphorbia iberica, an ingenane diterpene ester, ingenol 20-eicosanoate, and three ursanetype triterpenoids, 3beta-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-1beta,11alpha-diol, 3beta-( e)-coumaroyloxy-urs-12-ene, and 3beta-( z)-coumaroyloxy-urs-12-ene have been isolated together with known cylcoartane-type triterpenes, a flavone, and coumarins. the first four compounds are new and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.199917260273
a new lanostane-type triterpenoid from chamaesyce prostrata.a new triterpenoid, namely, lanost-25-en-3-beta-ol, and two known flavonoids (kaempferol-3,6-dimethyl ether and kaempferol 7- o-glucoside) were isolated from the aerial parts of chamaesyce prostrate (euphorbiaceae). the structure of the new compound was established based on spectral evidences.199917260274
euphorcinol: a new pentacyclic triterpene from euphorbia tirucalli.euphorcinol, a new triterpene of the friedelane group, has been isolated from the fresh and un-dried stem bark of euphorbia tirucalli. the structure 1 is assigned to it on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic studies including 2d-nmr.198917262419
proceedings of the first international conference on pep005.the sap of euphorbia peplus, commonly know as 'petty spurge', 'radium weed' or 'milkweed' has been used for centuries as a traditional treatment for skin conditions, including warts, corns and cancers of the skin. documentation of its use by medical professionals to treat basal cell carcinoma (bcc) dates from the early 19 century. individuals who participated in a 1988 survey of home treatments for cancer indicated the sap of e. peplus was an effective cure for actinic lesions leading the invest ...200717264770
triterpenoids from the latex of euphorbia caudicifolia. 198817265336
quantitative determination of polyfunctional diterpene esters of the ingenane type in euphorbia lathyris by hplc. 198817265381
further triterpenes from the stem bark of euphorbia tirucalli. 198717269106
diterpenoids and triterpenoids from euphorbia guyoniana.two new compounds with tigliane and cycloartane skeletons: 4,12-dideoxy(4alpha)phorbol-13-hexadecanoate (1) and 24-methylenecycloartane-3,28-diol (2), respectively, in addition of four known diterpenoids and 13 triterpenoids: 3-benzoyloxy-5,15-diacetoxy-9,14-dioxojatropha-6(17),11-diene (4), ent-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12-olide (5), ent-8alpha,14alpha-epoxyabieta-11,13(15)-dien-16,12-olide (6), ent-3-hydroxyatis-16(17)-ene-2,14-dione (7), 3beta-hydroxytaraxer-14-en-28-oic acid (8), beta-sito ...200717337022
structure activity relations of polyfunctional diterpenes of the tigliane type, vi1.a method for the isolation and preparation of 12-deoxyphorbol ( 1) from euphorbium resin ( euphorbia resinifera berg) was established to provide substantial amounts of 1-esters for bioassays. acylation of 1 yielded 12-deoxyphorbol-13,20-diesters ( 2, esters with acids ch (3)(ch (2)) (n)cooh, n = 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20; and with benzoic, oleic, elaidic and linoleic acid). upon mild transesterification the 13,20-diesters 2 yielded the 13-monoesters 3. both ester types were tested for their irritant a ...198417340253
plant antiviral agents; vi.1 3-methoxyflavones as potent inhibitors of viral-induced block of cell investigation of the constituents responsible for the pronounced antiviral activity observed for extracts of euphorbia grantii oliv. stems has afforded four related 3-methoxyflavones exhibiting remarkable activities against picornaviruses and vesicular stomatitis virus. all compounds were found to be derivatives of 3-methylquercetin. the concentration of 3-methylquercetin (3-mq) and 3,3'-dimethyl-quercetin (3,3'-dmq) inhibiting 90 % of polio type 1 and coxsackie b4 viruses in tissue culture w ...198417340366
isolation of prostratin from euphorbia cornigera. 198517340537
macrocyclic lathyrane diterpenes as antitumor promoters.human cytomegalovirus (cmv) preferentially infects tumor tissues and the accumulated cmv immediate-early (ie) antigen may lead to tumor promotion and progression. the development of strategies to inhibit human cmv ie antigen expression and/or function is an important goal to prevent and treat certain forms of cancers associated with human cmv. the aim of this study was to search for antitumor promoters from plant sources. the effect of six macrocyclic lathyrane-type diterpenoids, latilagascenes ...200717352233
antibacterial activity of ergosterol peroxide against mycobacterium tuberculosis: dependence upon system and medium employed.ergosterol peroxide, cycloart-23-en-3beta,25-diol, vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde have been isolated and characterized from a crude methanol extract of euphorbia lagascae. previous studies have shown contradictory results about the antibacterial activity of ergosterol peroxide against mycobacterium tuberculosis. in order to clarify this question, the activity of this compound was tested against mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv atcc 27294 strain using two different systems: bactec 460tb (bact ...200717357175
ethnomedicines used in trinidad and tobago for reproductive problems.throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by european folk medicine, either through the early spanish and french settlers or through the continuous immigration of spanish-speaking peoples from venezuela. some folk uses are ancient and were documented by galen and pliny the elder.200717362507
kiom-79 inhibits high glucose or ages-induced vegf expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.we evaluated whether kiom-79, a mixture of extracts obtained from puerariae lobata, magnolia officinalis, glycyrrhiza uralensis and euphorbia pekinensis, could inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (rpe) cells cultured under high glucose (hg, 25mm) or s100b (a specific ligand of the receptor for advance glycation end products (rage), 5microg/ml). in this study, the effect of kiom-79 on hg or s100b-induced vegf expression was investigated ...200717383127
the composition of a mixture of ingol esters from euphorbia kamerunica. 198117402067
habitat use and phenology of the large insular endemic grasshopper acrostira euphorbiae (orthoptera: pamphagidae).the habitat use and the phenology of the large grasshopper acrostira euphorbiae garcía and oromí endemic to la palma (canary islands) are studied. this grasshopper is entirely dependent on the canarian endemic shrub euphorbia lamarckii both for food and to avoid predation. adults stay on subapical branches during the day, probably to reduce the risk of predation, and climb up to the apex at night to feed. while females seem to ensure the genetic diversity of offspring by waiting for visits by di ...200717411476
three antinematodal diterpenes from euphorbia kansui.three compounds, 20-o-acetyl-[3-o-(2'e,4'z)-decadienoyl]-ingenol (1), 20-o-acetyl-[5-o-(2'e,4'z)-decadienoyl]-ingenol (2) and 3-o-(2'e,4'z)-decadienoylingenol (3), were isolated from euphorbia kansui under the bioassay-guided method. each compound showed the same antinematodal activity against the nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, at a minimum effective dose (med) of 5 microg/cotton ball.200717420578
an important lysine residue in copper/quinone-containing amine oxidases.the interaction of xenon with copper/6-hydroxydopa (2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine) quinone (tpq) amine oxidases from the plant pulses lentil (lens esculenta) and pea (pisum sativum) (seedlings), the perennial mediterranean shrub euphorbia characias (latex), and the mammals cattle (serum) and pigs (kidney), were investigated by nmr and optical spectroscopy of the aqueous solutions of the enzymes. (129)xe chemical shift provided evidence of xenon binding to one or more cavities of all these enzym ...200717433047
wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the polish countryside: a review.this paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of poland.200717433114
cytoprotective effects of kiom-79 on streptozotocin induced cell damage by inhibiting erk and ap-1.the present study investigated the potential cytoprotective properties of a combination of plant extracts (kiom-79) obtained from magnolia officinalis, pueraria lobata, glycyrrhiza uralensis, and euphorbia pekinensis, against the oxidative stresses induced by streptozotocin (stz) in a rat pancreatic beta-cells (rinm5f). kiom-79 was found to scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species (ros), thereby preventing dna damage and lipid peroxidation. the kiom-79 inhibited apoptosis of the beta-cells ...200717473425
isolation of new phenylacetylingol derivatives that reactivate hiv-1 latency and a novel spirotriterpenoid from euphorbia officinarum latex.three new, highly functionalized ingol diterpenes, ingol 7,8,12-triacetate 3-phenylacetate (1), ingol 7,8,12-triacetate 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)acetate (2) and 8-methoxyingol 7,12-diacetate 3-phenylacetate (3), together with the novel spirotriterpene, 3s,4s,5r,7s,9r,14r-3,7-dihydroxy-4,14-dimethyl-7[8-->9]-abeo-cholestan-8-one (4), have been isolated from euphorbia officinarum latex. structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional nmr analysis and noe e ...200717481906
[the virtue of that precious balsam...: approach to don quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective].the most outstanding novel of the spanish literature, don quixote, represents the source to which the different specialists who intend to deepen their knowledge of the late renaissance society usually address. this masterpiece of miguel de cervantes has been frequently approached from the psychopathological perspective to obtain a psychiatric diagnosis of its main character, alonso quijano. also, other clinical approaches from the traumatological and general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, ...200717508291
purification of euphorbia characias latex peroxidase by calmodulin-affinity chromatography.a new procedure to purify to homogeneity an euphorbia characias latex peroxidase is performed employing a calmodulin-sepharose column as affinity chromatography. the advantage of this approach is the isolation of a peroxidase under fast and mild elution conditions with a high recovery in total activity.200717511348
anti-tumor 12-deoxyphorbol esters from euphorbia cornigera.nine (1-8 and 10) new and two (9 and 11) known compounds have been isolated from roots of euphorbia cornigera boiss. their structure and relative stereochemistry were acquired through nmr ((1)h, (13)c, cosy-45, hohaha, hmqc, hmbc, noe and hmbc) spectroscopic measurements. compounds 1-10 were identified as diesters of 13,20-o-diacyl and 11 as 13-o-acetyl of 12-deoxyphorbol. cytotoxic activity of the compounds was investigated on human kb cells by reduction of mtt. compounds 8-10 displayed ic(50) ...200817512094
sphingolipids with neuritogenic activity from euphorbia sororia.two groups of sphingolipids 1 and 2 were isolated from the aerial parts of euphorbia sororia. on the basis of spectroscopic data, chemical methods and gc-ms analysis, the structures of 1 and 2 were characterized as 1-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(2s,3s,4r,8z)-2-[(2'r)-2'-hydroxydocosanoyl approximately hexacosanoyl, octacosanoyl amino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-8-ene and (2s,3s,4r,8e)-2-[(2'r)-2'-hydroxyeicosanoyl approximately hexacosanoyl amino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-8-ene, respectively. both of them e ...200717540352
[effects of intercropping peanut with medicinal plants on soil microbial community].with pot experiment, this paper studied the quantitative variations of bacteria, actinomyces, mould and yeast in soils of peanut intercropped with medicinal plants, aimed to test if such an intercropping pattern could remove the obstacles of peanut's continuous cropping. the results showed that atractylodes lancea and euphorbia pekinensis had the strongest inhibitory effect on mould. compared with ck (mono-cropping peanut), the cfu of mould in the treatments intercropped with a. lancea and e. pe ...200717552215
paraliane and pepluane diterpenes as anti-inflammatory agents: first insights in structure-activity relationships.two new diterpenes, named paralianone (2) and pepluene (3), based, respectively, on rare paraliane and pepluane skeletons, have been isolated from euphorbia paralias, together with two known analogues (4 and 5), and their stereostructure determined by spectroscopic methods. the isolated compounds were tested as anti-inflammatory agents in vitro for evaluating their ability to inhibit the nitric oxide production in lps-stimulated j774 murine macrophages. compound 4 showed the highest anti-inflamm ...200717561395
review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in brazil.transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (grs) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the western hemisphere, including brazil. worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when grs are adopted. in the usa and argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practic ...200717562462
expression of the gene for sterol-biosynthesis enzyme squalene epoxidase in parenchyma cells of the oil plant, euphorbia plants, phytosterols and triterpenes are major secondary metabolites. in an attempt to reveal the mechanism for synthesis and storage of these compounds, we isolated and characterized cdna clones for squalene epoxidase (se), from a succulent shrub, euphorbia tirucalli. southern-blot analysis of total dna using cdna fragment as a probe showed that the e. tirucalli squalene epoxidase gene (etse) is single-copy type in terms of restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp). deduced amino-acid ...200717569082
catalase and antiquitin from euphorbia characias: two proteins involved in plant defense?here we report the cdna nucleotide sequences of a calmodulin-binding catalase and an antiquitin from the latex of the mediterranean shrub euphorbia characias. present findings suggest that catalase and antiquitin might represent additional nodes in the euphorbia defense systems, and a multi-enzymatic interaction contributing to plant's protection against biotic and abiotic stresses is proposed to occur in e. characias laticifers.200717573704
screening of antioxidant activity of three euphorbia species from turkey.euphorbia acanthothamnos, e. macroclada and e. rigida were investigated for their antioxidant activity. the antioxidant potential of extracts of e. acanthothamnos, e. macroclada and e. rigida was evaluated using different complementary antioxidant tests.200717582698
euphorbia lactea sap keratouveitis: case report and review of the describe a case of euphorbia lactea sap keratouveitis and to review all reported cases of ocular toxicity caused by euphorbia species.200717592331
allose gallates suppress expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines through attenuation of nf-kappab in human mast cells.gallotannins are plant-derived, water-soluble polyphenols with wide-ranging biological activities. mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation is known to cause many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. mast cells induce synthesis and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha, interleukin (il)-1beta, and il-6 with immune regulatory properties. expression of inflammatory cytokines is mainly regulated by a transcription factor, nucle ...200717599281
comparative ultrastructural analyses of platelets and fibrin networks using the murine model of asthma.the murine balb/c asthma model has been used successfully for a number of in vivo immunological applications and for testing novel therapeutics, and it is a reliable, clinically relevant facsimile of the human disease. here we investigate whether this model can be used to study other components of the human body, e.g. ultrastructure. in particular, we investigate the effect of the phytomedicine euphorbia hirta (used to treat asthma), on the ultrastructure of fibrin as well as platelets, cellular ...200717600694
molecular and morphological characterization of leveillula (ascomycota: erysiphales) on monocotyledonous plants.leveillula on monocotyledonous plants have been recorded as l. taurica by several authors, whereas the fungus on allium has been described as an independent species, namely l. allii, by some authors. we sequenced ca 600bp of the rdna its region for two leveillula specimens from allium and polianthes (both from monocotyledons) and compared them with several already published sequences from leveillula isolates from dicotyledons. pair-wise percentages of sequence divergences were calculated for all ...200717601717
lathyranone a: a diterpenoid possessing an unprecedented skeleton from euphorbia lathyris.lathyranone a (1), a novel diterpenoid with a rearrangement skeleton, along with a known diterpenoid, euphorbia factor l(11) (2), was isolated from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris. the structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. a possible biosynthetic pathway for lathyranone a (1) was proposed.200717637035
anti-anaphylactic effect of euphorbia hirta.the euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract (eh a001) was found to possess a prominent anti-anaphylactic activity. a preventive effect of eh-a001 given by oral route at dose from 100 to 1000 mg/kg was observed against compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis. at the same range of dose, eh-a001 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (pca) in rat and active paw anaphylaxis in mice. a suppressive effect of eh-a001 was observed on the release of tnf-alpha and il-6 from anti-dnp-hsa activated rat perit ...200717643865
biogenetical related highly oxygenated macrocyclic diterpenes from sea spurge euphorbia paralias.a new tricyclic diterpenoid, named pre-segetanin (1), and two new diterpenes, named segetanin a and b (2 and 3), the latter based on the rare segetane skeleton, have been identified from the whole plant of sea spurge along with four known segetane diterpenes (4-7). among them, pre-segetanin (1) has an unprecedented carbon skeleton, whose isolation provides a first insight into the biosynthesis of diterpenoids with a segetane skeleton. the stereostructure elucidation of the isolated metabolites w ...200717665924
[study on chemical constituents of euphorbia hylonoma hand. -mazz].to study the constituents of the roots of euphorbia hylonoma hand. -mazz.200717674791
preliminary identification and coat protein gene phylogenetic relationships of begomoviruses associated with native flora and cultivated plants from the yucatan peninsula of mexico.a number of native and cultivated eudicots in the yucatan peninsula of mexico (ypm) exhibit symptoms associated with virus infection. symptomatic leaves were collected and assessed for begomoviral detection using polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and universal primers that amplify a fragment of the coat protein gene (core cp). begomovirus were detected in nine native and seven cultivated species, representing seven eudicot families. dna extracts from the 16 hosts were used for pcr amplification a ...200717682933
disjunct foliar veins in hawaiian euphorbias.isolated segments of veins occur in the leaf mesophyll of several hawaiian species of euphorbia. these anomalous structures appear to consist entirely of tracheids and are a normal feature of the anatomy of species native to mesic and wet areas, but not to xeric, dry habitats.197117742577
oils and rubber from arid land this article the economic development potentials of cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. all of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.198017744536
content of nutrient and antinutrient in edible flowers of wild plants in mexico.nutrient and antinutritional/toxic factors present in some edible flowers consumed in mexico were determined. the edible flowers were: agave salmiana, aloe vera, arbutus xalapensis, cucurbita pepo (cultivated), erythrina americana, erythrina caribaea, euphorbia radians benth and yucca filifera. the nutrient content in the flowers studied is similar to that of the edible leaves and flowers studied mainly in africa. the moisture content of the flowers varied from 860 to 932 g kg(-1). crude protein ...200717768684
formation of carbon monoxide during seed germination and seedling growth.carbon monoxide was formed during the growth of cucumber seedlings in the dark in atmospheres containing 5 percent oxygen or less, but not by aerobic seedlings. the highest level recorded was 6000 ppm. carbon monoxide was also formed by euphorbia. germinating seeds of rye, cucumber, and other species also produced carbon monoxide at levels of 10 to 25 ppm.196217770955
[poisoning due to tropical spurges: description of two cases]. 200717784690
distribution of leafy spurge (euphorbia virgata) in the united states. 193317807153
mitotic waves in laticifers of euphorbia marginata.a successive pattern of nuclear divisions that result in mitotic waves has been observed within the coenocytic nonarticulated laticifers of embryos of euphorbia marginata pursh. these waves originate independently in the cotyledonary or hypocotyl portion of the laticifer and exhibit uni-or bidirectional movement at variable velocities. individual nuclei or groups of neighoring nuclei in a laticifer were observed in a sequence of mitotic stages ranging from prophase to telophase; division activit ...196617815080
removal of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto micro-particles of dry the present work, pb(ii) and cd(ii) ion adsorption onto inert organic matter (iom) obtained from ground dried plants: euphorbia echinus, launea arborescens, senecio anthophorbium growing in semi-arid zones of morocco and carpobrotus edulis as the mediterranean plant has been studied. a suspension of plant deroed micro-particles adsorbs lead and cadmium present as ionic species, with a higher affinity for pb(ii). the kinetics and the maximum capacity adsorption depend on the type of plant as w ...200817869071
in vitro anti-helicobacter pylori activity of extracts of selected medicinal plants from north west cameroon.helicobacter pylori, a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium is a major etiological agent in duodenal, peptic and gastric ulcers. the growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel compounds from plant based sources.200717913416
reproductive activity alterations on the biomphalaria glabrata exposed to euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex.the reproductive activity of biomphalaria glabrata exposed to euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex was evaluated. parameters related to fecundity and fertility were observed. the snails were exposed to the ld50 (1 mg/l) of crude latex. at the first week post exposure (p.e.), the egg laying was reduced. after the fourth week p.e., an increase of the number of eggs/snail occurred. the results showed a marked reduction in the hatching of the snails, revealing an interference of latex exposure wi ...200717923993
inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in pseudomonas aeruginosa by south florida plant extracts.quorum sensing (qs) is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation in pseudomonas aeruginosa and other medically relevant bacteria. aqueous extracts of six plants, conocarpus erectus, chamaesyce hypericifolia, callistemon viminalis, bucida buceras, tetrazygia bicolor, and quercus virginiana, were examined in this study for their effects on p. aeruginosa virulence factors and the qs system. c. erectus, b. buceras, and c. viminalis caused a significant inhibition of lasa protease, lasb elas ...200817938186
voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of kinshasa (democratic republic of congo).the daily voluntary intake (dvi) of guinea pigs (gp) fed 15 fresh forages used in periurban rearing systems of kinshasa (democratic republic of congo) was investigated. in order to determine the best forages combination for gp diet, dvi was compared to their nutritional value measured in vitro using (1) a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, (2) an gas fermentation test on the hydrolysed residues with an inoculum prepared from gp faeces, and (3) the chemical composition of the offered feeds and the hyd ...200717966272
new mdr modulators and apoptosis inducers from euphorbia species.several macrocyclic diterpenes with jatrophane or lathyrane skeletons were isolated from methanol extracts of hungarian euphorbia species and evaluated for multidrug resistance (mdr)-reversing activity on a human colon cancer cell line. mdr-reversing activity was tested by using a standard functional assay with rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent substrate analogue of epirubicin. in the model of combination chemotherapy, the interactions between epirubicin and certain resistance modifiers were studie ...200717970094
ingenane diterpenoids from euphorbia extensive study of metabolites present in euphorbia esula led to isolation of 16 ingenane diterpenoids 1-16 together with the known ingenane derivative 17 and four known cycloartane triterpenoids. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies and comparison with known related compounds. all the compounds were assayed for their inhibitory activity against human hela cervical cancer cell line.200817976667
a case of acute keratoconjunctivitis from exposure to latex of euphorbia tirucalli (pencil cactus).we present a case of a 40-year-old man who suffered chemical eye injury from the latex of euphorbia tirucalli (pencil cactus), resulting in acute keratoconjunctivitis. the euphorbia genus of plants contains numerous species widely distributed throughout all major continents, and therefore this may be a more common emergency department occurrence than previously thought.200917976795
euphorbia hirta reverses chronic stress-induced anxiety and mediates its action through the gaba(a) receptor benzodiazepine receptor-cl(-) channel complex.chronic stress is known to result in impairment of learning and memory and precipitate several affective disorders including depression and anxiety. drugs of natural origin are known to possess several effects on the central nervous system and are emerging as promising alternative therapies. in this context, the hydroalcoholic extract of euphorbia hirta (eh) was evaluated for anxiolytic property in chronically stressed rats subjected to elevated plus maze (epm) and open field test (oft). eh trea ...200818087670
studies on the pharmacology of euphorbia pilulifera. 194818105642
anthocyanin inhibits propidium iodide dna fluorescence in euphorbia pulcherrima: implications for genome size variation and flow cytometry.measuring genome size by flow cytometry assumes direct proportionality between nuclear dna staining and dna amount. by 1997 it was recognized that secondary metabolites may affect dna staining, thereby causing inaccuracy. here experiments are reported with poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima) with green leaves and red bracts rich in phenolics.200818158306
glyphosate-resistant weeds of south american cropping systems: an overview.herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. in south america, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. the goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in south american agriculture. the first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (lolium multiflorum lam., ...200818161884
larvicidal activity of some euphorbiaceae plant extracts against aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of euphorbiaceae plants, jatropha curcas, pedilanthus tithymaloides, phyllanthus amarus, euphorbia hirta, and euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of aedes aegypti l. and culex quinquefasciatus (say). the larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. all extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether ext ...200818163189
antileishmanial activity of piceatannol isolated from euphorbia lagascae the search for biologically active compounds from euphorbia lagascae spreng, an herbaceous plant native to southeast of iberic peninsula, a stilbene, two coumarins and two 12-deoxyphorbol diterpene esters were isolated by chromatographic methods, from the methanol extracts of its defatted seeds. the structures of these compounds were elucidated by a combination of physical and spectral data (ir, ms and high-resolution (1)h-nmr and (13)c-nmr spectroscopy utilizing cosy, hmbc, hmqc and noesy ex ...200818167046
electroactive centers in euphorbia latex and lentil seedling amine oxidases.the electrochemical behavior of redox centers in the active site of amine oxidases from lentil seedlings and euphorbia characias latex was investigated using a mercury film electrode. tyrosine-derived 6-hydroxydopa quinone (tpq) and copper ions in the active site are redox centers of these amine oxidases. the enzymes undergo two reduction processes at negative potentials related to the reduction of the tpq cofactor to the corresponding hydroquinones and the reduction of copper ions, (cu(ii)-->cu ...200818175931
isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from abutilon indicum (linn.) sweet.larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, abutilon indicum, aegle marmelos, euphorbia thymifolia, jatropha gossypifolia and solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of culex quinquefasciatus. the larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. all extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract o ...200818176816
three new jatrophane polyesters and antiproliferative constituents from euphorbia tuckeyana.three new jatrophane diterpene polyesters named tuckeyanols a and b and euphotuckeyanol, as well as ten known compounds, helioscopinolides a, b, d and e, naringenin, aromadendrin, coniferaldehyde, 4,20-dideoxy-5-hydroxyphorbol 12,13-diisobutyrate, 4,20-dideoxy-5-hydroxyphorbol 12-benzoate-13-isobutyrate and dehydrodiconiferyl diacetate, were isolated from the methanolic extract of euphorbia tuckeyana. their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic methods including 1 d and 2 d ho ...200818176909
authentication of the 31 species of toxic and potent chinese materia medica (t/pcmm) by microscopic technique, part 2: three species of seed t/pcmm.toxic and potent chinese materia medica (t/pcmm) are being used more and more in the treatment of various diseases. in view of their toxic side effects and to ensure their safe use, accurate and reliable authentication is indispensable. however, identifying characteristics of t/pcmm are seldom reported, even though modern microscopy can provide ample, unique identifying characteristics from cells found in transverse sections and powders. in particular, no systematic authentication studies on see ...200818219667
inhibition of mrp1 transport activity by phenolic and terpenic compounds isolated from euphorbia species.a search for inhibitors of multidrug resistance (mdr)-associated protein 1 (mrp1) was performed among the compounds isolated from euphorbia species, plants traditionally used in folk medicine.200718225583
cheiradone: a vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor antagonist.angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing) and pathological conditions (tumour development). vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf), fibroblast growth factor-2 (fgf-2) and epidermal growth factor (egf) are the major angiogenic regulators. we have identified a natural product (cheiradone) isolated from a euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo and in vitro vegf- stimulated angiogenesis but had n ...200818230134
cytotoxic activity of an octadecenoic acid extract from euphorbia kansui (euphorbiaceae) on human tumour cell strains.we have investigated the cytotoxic and antitumour activity of an octadecenoic acid extract, mainly containing oleic and linoleic acids, from euphorbia kansui on human gastric (sgc-7901), hepatocellular carcinoma (bel-7402), and leukaemia (hl-60) tumour cell strains. significant and dose-dependent antiproliferation effects were observed on tumour cells from the dose of 3.2 microg ml(-1), which were comparable with or better than those of the common antitumour agent 5-fluorouracil. results from th ...200818237474
sexual dimorphism in the andromonoecious euphorbia nicaeensis: effects of gender and inflorescence andromonoecious taxa with separate floral types along the inflorescence, architectural or plastic effects can simulate floral sexual dimorphism. both the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of the cyathia of the protogynous andromonoecious species euphorbia nicaeensis were analysed according to their sex and arrangement on the inflorescence.200818250109
a new diterpene from the processed roots of euphorbia kansui.a new diterpene has been isolated from the processed roots of euphorbia kansui. by means of physico-chemical evidences and spectral analysis, the structure was identified as 4-o-acetyl-5-o-benzoyl-3beta-hydroxy-20-deoxyingenol (1).200818253876
physiological changes and molluscicidal effects of crude latex and milin on biomphalaria glabrata.euphorbian latex is commonly used as molluscicides and the euphorbia milii latex was reported as most powerful molluscicidal agents. the physiological and lethal effects of the latex components of euphorbia milii, on the intermediate host biomphalaria spp., of the human liver parasite schistosoma mansoni were described in this study. the standard methodologies for testing plant derived molluscicides formulated by world health organisation (who) were followed with some modifications. the young sp ...200818262588
differentiation of the traditional chinese medicinal plants euphorbia humifusa and e. maculata from adulterants by taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction.dna sequence analysis of the rdna internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction were exploited for their applications in the differentiation of the traditional chinese medicinal plants euphorbia humifusa and e. maculata from three related adulterants e. hypericifolia, e. atoto and e. prostrata. the data demonstrated that variations in the its1 regions were very low at the intra-species level but extremely high at the inter-species level, so that they could b ...200818266200
allosteric modulation of euphorbia peroxidase by nickel ions.a class iii peroxidase, isolated and characterized from the latex of the perennial mediterranean shrub euphorbia characias, contains one ferric iron-protoporphyrin ix pentacoordinated with a histidine 'proximal' ligand as heme prosthetic group. in addition, the purified peroxidase contained 1 mole of endogenous ca(2+) per mole of enzyme, and in the presence of excess ca(2+), the catalytic efficiency was enhanced by three orders of magnitude. the incubation of the native enzyme with ni(2+) causes ...200818266763
evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt.glyphosate is the world's most important herbicide, with many uses that deliver effective and sustained control of a wide spectrum of unwanted (weedy) plant species. until recently there were relatively few reports of weedy plant species evolving resistance to glyphosate. since 1996, the advent and subsequent high adoption of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the americas has meant unprecedented and often exclusive use of glyphosate for weed control over very large areas. consequently, in ...200818273881
isolation and characterization of antagonistic bacteria against bacterial leaf spot of euphorbia investigate the inhibition potential of leaf-associated bacteria against the pathogen of bacterial leaf spot of euphorbia pulcherrima.200818298451
sequential cell wall transformations in response to the induction of a pedicel abscission event in euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia).alterations in the detection of cell wall polysaccharides during an induced abscission event in the pedicel of euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia) have been determined using monoclonal antibodies and fourier transform infrared (ft-ir) microspectroscopy. concurrent with the appearance of a morphologically distinct abscission zone (az) on day 5 after induction, a reduction in the detection of the lm5 (1-->4)-beta-d-galactan and lm6 (1-->5)-alpha-l-arabinan epitopes in az cell walls was observed. pr ...200818298669
bioactive triterpene derivatives from latex of two euphorbia species.we have investigated the antifeedant and toxic effects of 23 semisynthetic terpenoid derivatives obtained through chemical modifications of the major components of euphorbia resinifera (alpha-euphol and alpha-euphorbol) and e. officinarum (obtusifoliol and 31-norlanostenol) latex on several insect species (spodoptera littoralis, myzus persicae and rhopalosiphum padi), their selective cytotoxicity on insect sf9 and mammalian cho cells and their phytotoxic effects on lactuca sativa. the conversion ...200818304594
spirowallichiione: a rearranged multiflorane from euphorbia wallichii hook f. (euphorbiaceae).euphorbia wallichii of the family euphorbiaceae yielded a new rearranged pentacyclic triterpene of the multiflorane class which we have named spirowallichiione. the structure of this natural spirocompound was elucidated with the aid of modern spectroscopic techniques, including 2d-nmr.200818305427
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