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toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail lymnaea acuminata.the aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of plant euphorbia hirta (family-euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of lc50) of aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of this plant also significantly (p<0.05) alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acids (dna and rna) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase in various tissues of the vector snail lymnaea acuminata in time and dose dependent manner. euphorbi ...200415722098
flavonoids that mimic human ligands from the whole plants of euphorbia lunulata.in our investigation of a cell proliferation-based screening assay using human ligand-dependent cell lines for medicinal herbal extracts, the acetone extract of the whole plants of euphorbia lunulata (el) was observed for its proliferation activity for insulin- and interleukin-10 (il-10)-dependent cell lines. fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation of one new flavonoid galactoside, quercetin 3-o-(2'',3''-digalloyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1), and four known ones, quercetin 3-o ...200515744103
antinociceptive diterpene from euphorbia decipiens.one myrsinol-type diterpene ester (1) isolated from euphorbia decipiens was evaluated for analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. different dose (5-20 mg/kg i.p.) of the compound showed significant antinociceptive activity, which was comparable to standard analgesic drugs, aspirin and ibuprofen (100 mg/kg i.p.).200515752637
three new jatrophone-type diterpenoids from euphorbia helioscopia.three new jatrophone-type diterpenoids, euphoheliosnoids a-c, together with two known related compounds, were isolated from the chinese medicinal plant euphorbia helioscopia l. the structures including relative stereochemistry of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with known related compounds.200515770554
lathyranoic acid a: first secolathyrane diterpenoid in nature from euphorbia lathyris.[structures: see text] lathyranoic acid a (1), the first secolathyrane diterpenoid with an unprecedented skeleton, and a new diterpenoid euphorbia factor l11 (2) were isolated from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. a biogenetic route involving an enzymatic baeyer-villiger oxidation as the key step was postulated for the transformation of 2 to 1 and mimicked by an unusual chemical baeyer-villiger oxidation.200515787511
a molecular phylogeny of the hawkmoth genus hyles (lepidoptera: sphingidae, macroglossinae).the hawkmoth genus hyles is one of 15 genera in the subtribe choerocampina of the subfamily macroglossinae. due to a remarkable uniformity, morphological characters usually used to identify and classify lepidoptera at the species level cannot be used in this genus. instead, we used dna sequences comprising about 2300 bp derived from the mitochondrial genes cox i, cox ii, and trna-leucine to elucidate the phylogeny of hyles. the results corroborate the monophyly of hyles but conflict with previou ...200515804414
pep005, a selective small-molecule activator of protein kinase c, has potent antileukemic activity mediated via the delta isoform of pkc.ingenol 3-angelate (pep005) is a selective small molecule activator of protein kinase c (pkc) extracted from the plant euphorbia peplus, whose sap has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of skin conditions including warts and cancer. we report here that pep005 also has potent antileukemic effects, inducing apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia (aml) cells at nanomolar concentrations. of importance, pep005 did not induce apoptosis in normal ...200515845901
euphorbia thymifolia suppresses herpes simplex virus-2 infection by directly inactivating virus infectivity.1. the ethyl acetate (etoac) extract and 3-o-galloyl-4,6-(s)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose (3og46hg) of euphorbia thymifolia linnea have been shown to exhibit anti-herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 activity in vitro. in the present study, we investigated the mode of action of these two compounds in suppressing hsv-2 multiplication. 2. the results demonstrated that the etoac extract and 3og46hg affected virus infectivity in a dose-dependent manner. the etoac extract significantly reduced virus infect ...200515854140
cytotoxic diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata.three new diterpenoids, yuexiandajisu d (1), e (2) and f were isolated from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata, along with eight known diterpenoids, jolkinolide b (4), jolkinolide a, ent-11alpha-hydroxyabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12alpha-olide (6), ent-(13s)-hydroxyatis-16-ene-3,14-dione, ent-3beta,(13s)-dihydroxyatis-16-en-14-one, ent-3-oxokaurane-16alpha,17-diol, ent-16alpha,17-dihydroxyatisan-3-one and ent-atisane-3beta,16alpha,17-triol. the structures of all compounds were deduced using spe ...200515856412
contribution of natural products to the discovery of the transient receptor potential (trp) channels family and their functions.members of the transient receptor potential (trp) family of nonselective cation channels are involved in several pathological and physiological conditions. the search for the molecular targets for naturally occurring substances, especially from plants, allowed the characterization of many trp channels. in fact, attempts to understand the hot and painful action of the vanillyl group containing compounds capsaicin (from capsicum sp.) and its ultrapotent analogue resiniferatoxin (rtx, from euphorbi ...200515866319
plant medicines of indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the ayurveda, the indian traditional system of medicine. several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term vranaropaka. most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation ...200315866825
cytotoxicity of plants used in traditional medicine in yemen.twenty-five extracts obtained from 14 plant species used in the traditional medicine in yemen have been screened for cytotoxic activity against human ecv-304 cells. extracts of dracaena cinnabari, eucalyptus camaldulensis, euclea divinorum, euphorbia cactus, pulicaria crispa, and withania somnifera displayed a remarkable activity.200515890471
poinsettia latent virus is not a cryptic virus, but a natural polerovirus-sobemovirus hybrid.the biochemical and genetic features of poinsettia latent virus (pnlv, formerly named poinsettia cryptic virus), which is spread worldwide in commercial cultivars of euphorbia pulcherrima without inducing symptoms, have been determined using virus-purification, immunological techniques, electron microscopy, cloning, and sequencing. pnlv was found to be a chimeric virus with one 4652 bases, plus strand rna showing a close relationship to poleroviruses within the first three quarters of its genome ...200515892965
immunosuppressive properties of an ethyl acetate fraction from euphorbia royleana.the objective of the study was to investigate the activity of the ethyl acetate (ea) fraction of euphorbia royleana latex on cellular and humoral-mediated immune responses and phagocytic function of the cells of the reticuloendothelial system in mice. oral administration of ea at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. in mice with sheep red blood cells (srbc) as an antigen-inhibited both the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and the production of circulating antibody titre. reduction of cd4+ t ...200515894125
the toxicity of four native indian plants: effect on ache and acid/alkaline phosphatase level in fish channa marulius.the latex of four plants viz. euphorbia royleana, jatropha gossypifolia (euphorbiaceae), nerium indicum and thevetia peruviana (apocynaceae) caused significant reduction in acid/alkaline phosphatase activity and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity in nervous tissue of freshwater air breathing fish channa marulius. the reduction in the activity of both phosphatases and ache were time as well as dose dependent.200515910912
lipids as regulators of the activity of transient receptor potential type v1 (trpv1) channels.after 7 years from its cloning, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (trpv1) channel remains the sole membrane receptor mediating the pharmacological effects of the hot chilli pepper pungent component, capsaicin, and of the euphorbia toxin, resiniferatoxin. yet, this ion channel represents one of the most complex examples of how the activity of a protein can be regulated. among the several chemicophysical stimuli that can modulate trpv1 permeability to cations, endogenous lipids app ...200515936040
reactions of plant copper/topaquinone amine oxidases with n6-aminoalkyl derivatives of adenine.plant copper/topaquinone-containing amine oxidases (caos, ec 1.4.3.6) are enzymes oxidising various amines. here we report a study on the reactions of caos from grass pea (lathyrus sativus), lentil (lens esculenta) and euphorbia characias, a mediterranean shrub, with n6-aminoalkyl adenines representing combined analogues of cytokinins and polyamines. the following compounds were synthesised: n6-(3-aminopropyl)adenine, n6-(4-aminobutyl)adenine, n6-(4-amino-trans-but-2-enyl) adenine, n6-(4-amino-c ...200515968819
a dna microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional chinese medicinal plants.a silicon-based dna microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional chinese medicinal plants. species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5s ribosomal rna gene of aconitum carmichaeli, a. kusnezoffi, alocasia macrorrhiza, croton tiglium, datura inoxia, d. metel, d. tatula, dysosma pleiantha, dy. versipellis, euphorbia kansui, hyoscyamus niger, pinellia cordata, p. pedatisecta, p. ternata, rhododendron molle, strychnos nux-vomica, typhonium div ...200515971136
acute toxicity of euphorbia kamerunica on oreochromis niloticus.a series of static short-term bioassays was conducted to assess the acute toxicity of the plant euphorbia kamerunica on the fingerlings of oreochromis niloticus. the 96-h lc(50) was computed using two methods: probit analysis and the arithmetic graphic method. the overall mean value of 0.023 +/- 0.002 g/l was obtained. aquatic invertebrates are generally much more sensitive than fish species. poisoning of streams with this plant to capture fish may therefore have ecological consequences, as nont ...200415978298
cloning and characterization of a cdna encoding beta-amyrin synthase from petroleum plant euphorbia tirucalli l.euphorbia tirucalli l., known as the petroleum plant, produces a large amount of triterpenes, such as beta-amyrin. degenerate rt-pcr based on the sequences conserved among known beta-amyrin synthases led to cloning of a putative triterpene synthase cdna, etas, from leaves of e. tirucalli. the deduced amino acid sequence of the etas cdna showed the highest identity of 82% to the panax ginseng beta-amyrin synthase. heterologous expression of the etas orf in the methylotrophic yeast, pichia pastori ...200516005035
latazienone, a new lathyrane-type diterpenoid from euphorbia latazi kunth.a new lathyrane-type diterpene 8alpha,15beta-diacetoxy-7beta-benzoyloxy-3beta-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)-4alphah,9alphah, 11alphah-lathyra-5e,12e-dien-14-one (latazienone) has been isolated from the latex of euphorbia latazi kunth. the structure of the new diterpene was determined by a combination of id- and 2d-nmr techniques.200516010826
fructose variation in the dengue vector, aedes aegypti, during high and low transmission seasons in the mae sot region of thailand.to understand the potential for facultative sugar feeding by aedes aegypti, an important vector of dengue viruses, we evaluated seasonal and villagewide variation in sugar feeding during high- and low-dengue transmission seasons (rainy and dry seasons, respectively) in the mae sot region of thailand. these seasons in thailand are represented by different periods of flowering plant phenology. although overall sugar feeding among female and male mosquitoes was low (ranging from 0.60 to 7.53 microg ...200516033119
ant behaviour and seed morphology: a missing link of myrmecochory.seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) is mediated by the presence of a lipid-rich appendage (elaiosome) on the seed that induces a variety of ants to collect the diaspores. when seeds mature or fall onto the ground, these ant species transport them to their nest. after eating the elaiosome, the seed is discarded in nest galleries or outside, in the midden or farther away, where seeds can potentially germinate. the final location of seeds with their elaiosomes removed was evaluated to assess the ...200516044350
comparative study of the conformational lock, dissociative thermal inactivation and stability of euphorbia latex and lentil seedling amine oxidases.the thermal stability of copper/quinone containing amine oxidases from euphorbia characias latex (elao) and lentil seedlings (lsao) was measured in 100 mm potassium phosphate buffer (ph 7.0) following changes in absorbance at 292 nm. elao was shown to be about 10 degrees c more stable than lsao. the dissociative thermal inactivation of elao was studied using putrescine as substrate at different temperatures in the range 47-70 degrees c, and a "conformational lock" was developed using the theory ...200516096724
inhibition of p-glycoprotein transport activity in a resistant mouse lymphoma cell line by diterpenic lactones.multidrug resistance (mdr) is believed to be a major reason for the failure of cancer treatment. it is in most cases caused by the activity of the various abc transporters, multidrug resistance (mdr) gene-encoded p-glycoproteins that pump anticancer drugs out of the cells. p-glycoprotein (p-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (mrp1) are the most important and widely studied members of the abc superfamily of transporters. the ability of four diterpenic lactones isolated from euphorbia ...200516101136
evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.the antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of euphorbia paralias l. (ep), bidens bipinnata l. (bb), cynachum acutum l. (cyac), diplotaxis acris (forssk.) boiss (da), convolvulus fatmensis (cf) and schouwia thebaica webb (st) and the leaves of plantago major l. (pm), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. a significant antidiarrhoeal ...200516114083
fine carbohydrate recognition of euphorbia milii lectin.glycans are key structures involved in biological processes such as cell attachment, migration, and invasion. information coded on cell-surface glycans is frequently deciphered by proteins, as lectins, that recognize specific carbohydrate topology. here, we describe the fine carbohydrate specificity of euphorbia milii lectin (eml). competitive assays using various sugars showed that galnac was the strongest inhibitor, and that the hydroxyl axial position of c4 and acetamido on c2 of galnac are c ...200516122701
anti-bacterial activity of euphorbia fusiformis--a rare medicinal herb.euphorbia fusiformis buch.-ham. ex. d.don (euphorbiaceae) is a rare medicinal herb. aqueous and organic solvent extracts of the leaves and rootstocks were investigated for anti-bacterial properties by using disc diffusion and well-in agar methods, against pathogenic strains of gram positive (bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhii a and salmonella typhii b). the d ...200516159702
screening of plants acting against heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.the aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. the venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. more than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of andrographis paniculata nees (acanthac ...200616169172
putranjivain a from euphorbia jolkini inhibits proliferation of human breast adenocarcinoma mcf-7 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.putranjivain a, isolated from the whole plant of euphorbia jolkini bioss (euphorbiaceae), was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human breast adenocarcinoma mcf-7 cells. the results showed that putranjivain a inhibited the proliferation of mcf-7 by blocking cell cycle progression in the g0/g1 phase and inducing apoptosis. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that putranjivain a increased the expression of p21/waf1 concomitantly as mcf-7 cell underwent g0/g1 arrest. an enhance ...200616171837
[evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against plutella xylostella population].through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (iipc), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against plutella xylostella natural population. the experimental population life table of dbm showed that the index of population trend (i) was 69. 8964 in contro ...200516180759
evaluation of nigerian animal feeds by particle-induced x-ray emission.there is need to evaluate the locally available animal feeds in nigeria so as to be able to combine them in acceptable proportions to the animals to achieve the desired growth rate. the technique of particle-induced x-ray emission (pixe) was employed for the evaluation of these locally available animal feeds, which include panicum maximum (guinea grass), cynodon plectostachyum (grass), leucaena leucephala (legume), calopogonium mucunoides (legume), gliricidia sepium (legume), euphorbia polychrom ...200516217142
psychopharmacological profile of hydro-alcoholic extract of euphorbia neriifolia leaves in mice and rats.the leaf extract of e. neriifolia significantly reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice at all doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) in mice and rats and was devoid of catalepsic effect thereby, suggesting specific dopaminergic receptor modulating activity. the extract (400 mg/kg) potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. it showed protection against maximal electro-shock-induced convulsion at 400 mg/kg. e. neriifolia leaf extract had anxiolytic action at 400 mg/kg by increasing the ...200516235717
identification of protease from euphorbia amygdaloides latex and its use in cheese production.in this research, protease enzyme was purified and characterized from milk of euphorbia amygdaloides. (nh4)2so4 fractionation and cm-cellulose ion exchange chromatography methods were used for purification of the enzyme. the optimum ph value was determined to be 5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 60 degrees c. the v(max) and k(m) values at optimum ph and 25 degrees c were calculated by means of linewearver-burk graphs as 0.27 mg/l min(-1) and 16 mm, respectively. the purificatio ...200516239194
a ca2+/calmodulin-binding peroxidase from euphorbia latex: novel aspects of calcium-hydrogen peroxide cross-talk in the regulation of plant defenses.calmodulin (cam) is a ubiquitous ca(2+) sensor found in all eukaryotes, where it participates in the regulation of diverse calcium-dependent physiological processes. in response to fluctuations of the intracellular concentration of ca(2+), cam binds to a set of unrelated target proteins and modulates their activity. in plants, a growing number of cam-binding proteins have been identified that apparently do not have a counterpart in animals. some of these plant-specific ca(2+)/cam-activated prote ...200516245928
discovery and biological evaluation of the novel naturally occurring diterpene pepluanone as antiinflammatory agent.from the whole plant of euphorbia peplus l., a new diterpene based on a rare pepluane skeleton, named pepluanone (1), was isolated together with a known pepluane diterpene (2). the stereostructure of pepluanone was determined on the basis of an extensive nmr study, ms data, and chemical reaction. the ability of these compounds to act as antiinflammatory agents has been evaluated for the first time by in vivo tests on carrageenin-induced rat paw edema, an experimental model of acute inflammation. ...200516250665
[correlation between inhibition activity of endophytic fungus from euphorbia pekinensis and its host].to develop endophytic fungi resources from medicinal plants, this paper studied the correlation between endophytic fungus fusariium sp. es from euphorbia pekinensis and its host through analyzing the inhibition activity of this pathogen. an endophytic strain s12 (alternaria sp.) from sapium sebiferum was used as contrast. the results showed that e5 had an inhibitory effect on the host, while s12 and e. pekinensis extract didn't have it. the inhibition activity of e5 could be stimulated by the ex ...200516252869
molluscicidal evaluation of three common plants from india.mortality caused by the aqueous extract of latex of thevetia peruviana, alstonia scholaris and euphorbia pulcherrima against two harmful freshwater snails, lymnaea acuminata and indoplanorbis exustus, is reported. latices of all the plants at high doses were also lethal to freshwater fish channa punctatus, which shares the habitat with these snails, but within 24 h, lc90 of snail l. acuminata did not cause any mortality to fishes in a mixed population of snail and fish. therefore, these plant ex ...200516253436
acetophenone derivatives and sesquiterpene from euphorbia ebracteolata.two new acetophenone derivatives and a new sesquiterpene, along with four known acetophenone compounds, were isolated from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata. the structures of the new compounds were identified as 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6,6'-dimethoxy-3,3'-dimethyl-7,5'-bisacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylacetophenone 4-o-alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta- d-glucopyranoside and decahydro-1a,4a,7,7-tetramethyl-1h-cycloprop[e]azulene-2,5-diol (1a r,2 r,4a s,5 s,7a r,7b r) using 1 ...200516254837
effect of aqueous euphorbia hirta leaf extract on gastrointestinal motility.the aqueous leaf extract of euphorbia hirta decreased the gastrointestinal motility in normal rats and decreased the effect of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice.200616257136
fungal pathogens of euphorbia heterophylla and e. hirta in brazil and their potential as weed biocontrol agents.a two-year survey of the fungi associated with two important congeneric pantropical weeds, euphorbia heterophylla and e. hirta, was conducted in part of their native range in southern brazil. sampling was concentrated mainly in rio de janeiro state and ten species were identified as pathogens of these weeds. two taxa, botrytis ricini and uromyces euphorbiae, were common to both weed hosts. alternaria euphorbiicola, bipolaris euphorbiae, melampsora sp., oidium sp. and sphaceloma poinsettiae were ...199816284862
a new guaiane diterpenoid from euphorbia wallichii.a new guaiane-type diterpenoid, (1alpha,5beta,7alpha)-3,10(18),11-dictytriene-19-acid, was obtained from the roots of euphorbia wallichii. this is the first isolation of guaiane diterpene from this genus of euphorbia. the structure was elucidated by spectral methods. and the compound was tested for the cytotoxicities on the cancer cell line p-388 and a-549 in vitro.200616286316
alterations in carbohydrates and the protein metabolism of the harmful freshwater vector snail lymnaea acuminata induced by the euphorbia tirucalli latex extract.to know the short- as well as long-term effect of aqueous latex extracts of euphorbia tirucalli on carbohydrate and protein metabolism, the snail lymnaea acuminata was exposed to sublethal doses of 0.37 and 0.55 mg/l for a 24-h and 0.20 and 0.31 mg/l for a 96-h exposure period. significant (p<0.05) alterations in the glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, total protein, and free amino acid level, as well as in the activity of enzyme lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, proteas ...200516307980
a new bisabolane sesquiterpenoid from euphorbia chrysocoma.the new sesquiterpenoid (6r)-2-chloro-6-[(1s)-1,5-dimethylhex-4-en-1-yl]-3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), together with ten known compounds, (6r)-6-[(1s)-1,5-dimethylhex-4-en-1-yl]-3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (2), bauerenol acetate (3), lupenone (4), alpha-amyrenone (5), beta-sitosterol (6), stigmasterol (7), beta-amyrin (8), ursolic acid (9), betulinic acid (10), scopolin (11), have been isolated from the roots of euphorbia chrysocoma lévl. et vant. their structures have been elucidated by spec ...200516308205
inhibition of cellular proliferation by diterpenes, topoisomerase ii inhibitor.we examined the effects of 12 terpene compounds derived from the roots of euphorbia kansui on the proliferative activity of xenopus embryo cells. eight of these compounds showed significant inhibition of cellular proliferation even at low concentrations, while four of them needed to be present at higher concentrations to inhibit cellular proliferation. in order to define the mechanism of inhibition of cellular proliferation by these compounds, the effects of diterpene compounds on the activity o ...200616314107
reversible thermal inactivation and conformational states in denaturant guanidinium of a calcium-dependent peroxidase from euphorbia characias.the changes in the heme environment and overall structure occurring during reversible thermal inactivation and in denaturant guanidinium of euphorbia characias latex peroxidase (elp) were investigated in the presence and absence of calcium ions. native active enzyme had an absorption spectrum typical of a quantum-mixed spin ferric heme protein. after 40 min at 60 degrees c elp was fully inactivated showing the spectroscopic behavior of a pure hexacoordinate low-spin protein. the addition of ca2+ ...200516336996
euphorbia tirucalli l. modulates myelopoiesis and enhances the resistance of tumour-bearing mice.myelosuppression concomitant with increased numbers of spleen cfu-gm was observed in tumour-bearing mice. treatment of these animals with euphorbia tirucalli l. (et) (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) stimulated marrow myelopoiesis and reduced spleen colony formation, with no differences observed between the effects of the three doses. the changes produced by the tumour in total and differential marrow cell counts were restored by the treatment with et. prostaglandin e2 (pge2) levels, which were dramatica ...200616399635
isolation and characterization of methyl esters and derivatives from euphorbia kansui (euphorbiaceae) and their inhibitory effects on the human sgc-7901 cells.in this study, the inhibitory activity of the methyl esters and derivatives extracted from euphorbia kansui (euphorbiaceae) and their effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution in the human gastric cancer cell line (sgc-7901) were evaluated.200516401398
biochemical stress response in freshwater fish channa punctatus induced by aqueous extracts of euphorbia tirucalli plant.piscicidal activities of aqueous extracts of euphorbia tirucalli were very well established, but their ultimate mode of action on fish metabolism was not yet known. exposure of fishes over 24h or 96h to sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of lc(50)) of aqueous extract of e. tirucalli stem-bark and latex, significantly (p<0.05) altered the level of total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen, pyruvate, lactate and activity of protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransfe ...200616423380
the molluscicidal activities of some euphorbia milii hybrids against the snail indoplanorbis exustus.the objective of this study was to observe the molluscicidal activities of euphorbia milli, known as "poysean" in thailand, against indoplanorbis exustus. latex from 12 different e. milii hybrids was screened for its molluscicidal activities. indoplanorbis exustus were exposed for 24 and 48 hours to the latex at various concentrations ranging from 6 to 25 ppm and mortality rates were recorded. eight hybrids of latex were effective. the six most effective hybrids were e. milii dang-udom, e. milii ...200516438208
the lethality of euphorbia conspicua to adults of biomphalaria glabrata, cercaria of schistosoma mansoni and larvae of artemia salina.leaf extracts of euphorbia conspicua (euphorbiaceae), together with the latex and fractions derived therefrom, were evaluated for their molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities and their toxicities to brine shrimps. whilst the leaf extracts were inactive against biomphalaria glabrata, the latex, its triterpenic fraction and irritant fractions i and ii exhibited high activities against adult snails with lc90 values of 4.87, 10.55, 0.64 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. the latex and its derived ...200716458000
3-o-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-decanoylingenol from euphorbia kansui suppresses ige-mediated mast cell activation.aggregation of the high affinity receptor for ige (fcepsilonri) on mast cells by antigen and ige complex induces release of chemical mediators, leading to acute allergic inflammation. we recently found that 3-o-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-decanoylingenol (dbdi), purified from the euphorbia kansui l., inhibits degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia 2h3 cells upon aggregation of the fcepsilonri. in the present study, we demonstrated that the dbdi significantly inhibits release of beta-hexosamini ...200616462033
induction of apoptosis in leukemia cell lines by linum persicum and euphorbia cheiradenia.in the present study two medicinal herbs linum persicum and euphorbia cheiradenia that are native to iran were tested for their possible anticancer effect and induction of apoptosis on human tumor cell lines including leukemia cell lines.200616477442
new macrocyclic lathyrane diterpenes, from euphorbia lagascae, as inhibitors of multidrug resistance of tumour cells.the new macrocyclic lathyrane diterpenes latilagascenes a and b ( 1 and 2), the diacetylated derivative of 2, latilagascene c ( 3), and the known diterpenes ent-16alpha,17-dihydroxyatisan-3-one ( 4) and ent-16alpha,17-dihydroxykauran-3-one ( 5), isolated from the methanol extract of euphorbia lagascae, were examined for their effects on the reversal of multidrug resistance (mdr) on mouse lymphoma cells. among the active lathyrane derivatives 1 - 3, compound 2 displayed the highest inhibition of ...200616491453
interactions between euphorbia esula toxins and bovine ruminal microbes.cattle generally avoid grazing leafy spurge (ls; euphorbia esula), whereas sheep and goats will often eat it. understanding metabolism of toxic phytochemicals in ls by bovine rumen microflora may help explain why cattle often develop aversions to ls after initially eating it. toxicity of ls compounds after in vitro fermentation with normal vs. antibiotic-modified bovine rumen digesta was evaluated at different lengths of fermentation. levels of toxic and aversion-inducing ingenols were determine ...200616525867
inhibition of early and late phase allergic reactions by euphorbia hirta l.a 95% ethanol extract from whole aerial parts of euphorbia hirta (eh a001) showed antihistaminic, antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in various animal models. eh a001 inhibited rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation triggered by compound 48/80. it significantly inhibited dextran-induced rat paw edema. eh a001 prevented eosinophil accumulation and eosinophil peroxidase activity and reduced the protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) in a 'mild' model of asthma. moreo ...200616557622
cytochemical studies on gerl, provacuoles, and vacuoles in root meristematic cells of euphorbia.the genesis of plant vacuoles has been studied by high-voltage and conventional electron microscopy. vacuole genesis is a lysosomal multistep process: (i) gerl (golgi-associated endoplasmic reticulum from which lysosomes apparently form) produces provacuoles into which lysosomal enzymes and probably other materials appear to be concentrated and packaged; (ii) gerl-derived provacuoles cooperate to drive a programmed cellular autophagy leading to young vacuoles; and (iii) the young vacuoles swell ...197816592499
physiological changes in biomphalaria glabrata say, 1818 (pulmonata: planorbidae) caused by sub-lethal concentrations of the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii n.e.b (euphorbiaceae).molluscides have been used as one of the strategies to control schistosomiasis. many plant extracts with molluscidal effects have been tested, but the action of the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii is considered the most promising because it meets the recommendations of the world health organization (who). the objective of this study was to determine the lethal dose and identify the effects of the different doses of latex of e. splendens var. hislopii on the physiology of biomphalaria ...200616612505
anthocyanins in bracts of euphorbia pulcherrima as revealed by paper chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. 195816655069
phorbic acid biosynthesis in the latex vessel system of euphorbia.evidence is presented that phorbic acid is formed in the latex producing cell system, rather than in photosynthetic or chlorophyll-free tissues of euphorbia resinifera berg. when a branch of the plant was kept first in a (14)co(2) atmosphere with 12 hr light-dark periods for 2 days and then left under natural conditions in the air outside for at least 2 to 3 days, radioactive phorbic acid was found in the latex. phorbic acid synthesis appeared to be independent of the photosynthetic and respirat ...196916657036
an excellent source of vegetative buds for use in plant hormone studies on apical dominance.when studying the role of plant hormones in the control of growth at apical meristems, it is often difficult to obtain needed amounts of physiologically uniform buds. a source and method are described for obtaining sufficient quantities of large, uniform buds and for the treatment of the buds with indoleacetic acid and kinetin. buds from the root system of euphorbia esula l. were grown in petri plates, with agar suspending the short root sections from which they emanate. plant hormones are appli ...197316658506
c(4) photosynthesis in tree form euphorbia species from hawaiian rainforest sites.the (13)c (12)c isotope ratios and the leaf anatomy of 18 species and varieties of euphorbia native to the hawaian islands indicated that all possess c(4) photosynthesis. these species range from small prostrate coastal strand shrubs to shrubs and trees in rainforest and bog habitats. the results show that c(4) photosynthesis occurs in plants from a much wider range of habitats and life-forms than has been previously reported.197516659208
disappearance of porphobilinogen deaminase activity in leaves before the onset of senescence.the activity of porphobilinogen deaminase was measured in young and senescent or mature leaves of pepper (capsicum annuum), and poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima). whereas high activity was found in the crude extracts of the young leaves, almost no activity was found in the extracts of senescent or mature leaves. the decrease in deaminase activity was not due to the presence of an isolatable inhibitor. by purifying the crude enzyme extracts from leaves of different ages on deae-cellulose columns ...197916660874
epinasty of poinsettias-the role of auxin and ethylene.upward physical restraint of the normally horizontal bracts of poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima willd.) resulted in increased ethylene production and epinastic curvature of the petioles after 5 days. downward restraint caused little change in ethylene production or epinasty, indicating that the enhanced ethylene production observed in petioles bent upwards is not due to the bending stress alone. epinasty, measured upon removal of upward physical restraint, was not affected by spraying plants wi ...198116661798
isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase from guayule (parthenium argentatum gray).electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule parthenium argentatum gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. the terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (ipp) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the e ...198416663758
photosynthetic responses to dynamic light environments by hawaiian trees : time course of co(2) uptake and carbon gain during sunflecks.gas exchange responses to rapid changes in light were studied in a c(3) tree, claoxylon sandwicense muell-arg and a c(4) tree, euphorbia forbesii sherff that are native to the understory of a mesic hawaiian forest. when light was increased to 500 micromoles per meter per second following a 2 hour preexposure at 22 micromoles per meter per second, net co(2) uptake rates and stomatal conductance gradually increased for over 1 hour in c. sandwicense but reached maximum values within 30 minutes in e ...198516664512
no latex starch utilization in euphorbia esula l.utilization of leaf, stem, root, and latex starch was monitored in euphorbia esula l. plants. leaf, stem, and root starch decreased rapidly during a 52 day light starvation period while latex starch did not. scanning electron and light microscope studies provided additional evidence that no changes in latex starch granules had occurred. amylase activity (6.6 units per milligram protein) could be isolated from latex. however, latex starch granules were extremely resistant to enzymic hydrolysis by ...198616664883
triterpene biosynthesis in the latex of euphorbia lathyris: effect of calmodulin antagonists and chlorinated phenoxy compounds.recognized calmodulin antagonists and chlorinated phenoxyalkylamines were tested as inhibitors of mevalonate incorporation into triterpenols and their fatty acid esters in a centrifuged pellet from the latex of euphorbia lathyris. the calmodulin antagonists, chlorpromazine (ii), fluphenzine, and trifluoperazine were good inhibitors; i(50) values for ii and trifluoperazine were 150 and 55 micromolar, respectively. inhibition by the phenoxyalkylamines increased with increasing chlorine substitutio ...198716665197
triterpene biosynthesis in the latex of euphorbia lathyris: calmodulin antagonists are ineffective in whole latex.the calmodulin antagonists chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, trifluoperazine, and 2-(pentachlorophenoxy)ethyl n,n-diethylamine are not inhibitors of acetate incorporation into triterpenols (toh) and their fatty acid esters (te) in whole tapped latex from euphorbia lathyris, although prior work demonstrated that these antagonists are good inhibitors of mevalonate incorporation into toh and te in a centrifuged pellet from the latex. antagonist absorption into the endogenous terpene pool is the primary ...198716665198
euphorbia escula l. root and root bud indole-3-acetic acid levels at three phenologic stages.endogenous indoleacetic acid (iaa) levels of euphorbia esula l. primary root and root buds were examined at three phenologic stages. high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using (13)c(6)[benzene ring]-indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, were used to measure root bud free and bound iaa levels in vegetative, full flower, and post-flower plants. highest levels of free iaa (103 nanograms per gram fresh weight) were ...198716665432
purification and characterization of calmodulins from papaver somniferum and euphorbia lathyris.calmodulins (cam) were isolated and characterized from two well-known latex producing plants, papaver somniferum and euphorbia lathyris. the molecular weights of both were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 17,000 comparable to that of bovine brain cam. amino acid compositions also compared similarly with those of known cams, with regard to the presence of trimethyllysine and the ratio of phenylalanine to tyrosine. the cornish-bowden equation (sdeltan) ...198916666573
enhancement of terpenoid biosynthesis from mevalonate in a fraction of the latex from euphorbia lathyris.a latex pellet fraction from euphorbia lathyris incorporates mevalonate into triterpenols and their fatty acid esters. conditions for improved incorporation were determined. cacl(2) or cacl(2) plus mncl(2) stimulated biosynthesis, and the metal ion chelator, ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid (egta) enhanced stimulation. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was almost as effective as egta, but phthalic acid and citric acid were relatively poor stimulators. the concentration of the ca(2+) ...198916666601
comparison of the oxygen exchange between photosynthetic cell suspensions and detached leaves of euphorbia characias l.using a mass-spectrometric (16)o(2)/(18)o(2)-isotope technique, we compared the nature and the relative importance of oxygen exchange in photomixotrophic (pm) and photoautotrophic (pa) suspensions of euphorbia characias l. with those in intact leaves of the same species. young and mature leaves, dividing and nondividing cell suspensions were characterized in short-term experiments. on chlorophyll basis, the gross photosynthetic activities at co(2) saturating concentration of pa and pm suspension ...198916667114
antimicrobial activity of caesalpinia pulcherrima, euphorbia hirta and asystasia gangeticum.the ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of euphorbia hirta and flowers of asystasia gangeticum were tested for antimicrobial activity. the three plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly against escherichia coli (enteropathogen), proteus vulgaris, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus.200616730921
catalytic pathways of euphorbia characias peroxidase reacting with hydrogen peroxide.the reaction of euphorbia characias latex peroxidase (elp) with hydrogen peroxide as the sole substrate was studied by conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. the reaction mechanism occurs via three distinct pathways. in the first (pathway i), elp shows catalase-like activity: h2o2 oxidizes the native enzyme to compound i and subsequently acts as a reducing substrate, again converting compound i to the resting ferric enzyme. in the presence of an excess of hydrogen peroxide, compound i ...200616740127
euphorbain, a protease occurring in the latex of the weed euphorbia lathyris. 194516747939
yuexiandajisu d, a novel 18-nor-rosane-type dimeric diterpenoid from euphorbia ebracteolata hayata.yuexiandajisu d, a novel 18-nor-rosane-type dimeric diterpenoid, was isolated from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata hayata. its structure was elucidated as 6,3':7,2'-diepoxy-di-2,3-dihydroxy-18-nor-ros-1(10),2,4,15-tetraene by spectroscopic techniques (hsqc, hmbc, dqf-cosy, tocsy, noesy) and chemical methods. yuexiandajisu d showed moderate cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines on hct-8 and bel-7402, with ic50 values of 2.66 and 3.76 microm, respectively.200616753779
two novel phloroglucinol derivatives from euphorbia ebracteolata hayata.two new phloroglucinol derivatives, named ebracteolatain a and ebracteolatain b, along with three known phloroglucinol derivatives were isolated from euphorbia ebracteolata hayata., and their structures were elucidated as 3,3'-diacetyl-2,4'-dimethoxy-2',4,6,6'-tetrahydroxy-5'-methyl diphenylmethane (1) and 1-[3,5-bis-(3-acetyl-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-phenyl]-ethanone (2) on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods.200616753797
"the herbs that have the property of healing...,": the phytotherapy in don quixote.don quixote, the most outstanding novel of the spanish literature, represents a documentary source widely used among those specialists who intend to deepen in the knowledge of the late renaissance society. in this sense, don quixote has been also studied from a medical perspective, including a general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms, poultices, syrups and other pharmacy preparations). we have tackled don quixote from the phytotherapeutic and ethnopharmacological perspective, a barely ...200616757137
skeleton-rearranged pentacyclic diterpenoids possessing a cyclobutane ring from euphorbia wallichii.[structure: see text] two novel rearranged trachylobane diterpenoids, designated as wallichanol a (2) and wallichanol b (3), consisting of an unprecedented pentacyclic skeleton named wallichane with a cyclobutane ring, and a new ent-trachylobane diterpenoid, 3-oxo-ent-trachyloban-17-oic acid (1), were isolated from the roots of euphorbia wallichii. their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analysis of 2d-nmr spectroscopic data, with the stereochemistry of 1 confirmed by x-ray crystallogr ...200616774254
subtractive cdna libraries identify differentially expressed genes in dormant and growing buds of leafy spurge (euphorbia esula).two subtractive cdna libraries were developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy (reverse library) and initiation of shoot growth (forward library) in leafy spurge. to identify unique sequences represented in each library, 15744 clones were screened to reduce the level of redundancy within both libraries. a total of 516 unique sequences were obtained from 2304 minimally redundant clones. radioactive probes developed from rnas extracted from crown buds of either intact (para-dormant cont ...200616786310
euphoportlandols a and b, tetracylic diterpene polyesters from euphorbia portlandica and their anti-mdr effects in cancer cells.two new tetracyclic diterpene polyesters, euphoportlandols a (1) and b (2), have been isolated along with 12 known tetracyclic triterpenes from an acetone extract of euphorbia portlandica. their structures were established as 5alpha,11alpha,14alpha,17-tetraacetoxy-3beta-benzoyloxy-6beta,15beta-dihydroxy-9-oxoseget-8(12)-ene (1) and 5alpha,11alpha,14alpha,17-tetraacetoxy-3beta-benzoyloxy-6beta,15beta-dihydroxy-9-oxosegetane (2), respectively, by spectroscopic data interpretation. compounds 1 and ...200616792416
diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana.from the dried roots of euphorbia fischeriana, seven new diterpenoids, 3alpha,17-dihydroxy-ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene (1), 7beta,11beta,12beta-trihydroxy-ent-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12-olide (2), 17-acetoxyjolkinolide b (3), 13beta-hydroxy-ent-abiet-8(14)-en-7-one (4), 12-deoxyphorbaldehyde-13-acetate (5) 12-deoxyphorbaldehyde-13-hexadecacetate (6), and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-(9z)-octadecanoate-20-acetate (7), and two known compounds, 12-deoxyphorbol-13-decanoate (8) and prostratin (9), were isol ...200616792421
kiom-79 inhibits lps-induced inos gene expression by blocking nf-kappab/rel and p38 kinase activation in murine macrophages.we demonstrate that kiom-79, combined extracts obtained from magnolia officinalis, pueraria lobata, glycyrrhiza uralensis, and euphorbia pekinensis, inhibits lps-induced expression of inos gene in raw 264.7 cells. treatment of raw 264.7 cells with kiom-79 inhibited lps-stimulated nitric oxide production in a dose-related manner. immunohisto-chemical staining of inos and rt-pcr analysis showed that the decrease of no was due to the inhibition of inos gene expression. immunostaining of p65, emsa, ...200616806764
chemical studies on the constituents of the chinese medicinal herb euphorbia helioscopia l.euphoheliosnoid d (1), a new jatrophone-type diterpenoid, was isolated together with 22 known metabolites from the chinese medicinal herb euphorbia helioscopia l. the structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. compounds 14-23 were obtained from the species for the first time while compound 14, 2alpha-hydroxy helioscopinolide b, was isolated as a new natural product.200616819227
highly stable glycosylated serine protease from the medicinal plant euphorbia milii.a serine protease, named as "milin" was purified to homogeneity from the latex of euphorbia milii, a medicinal plant of euphorbiaceae family. the molecular mass (sds-page), optimum ph and temperature of the enzyme were 51kda, ph 8.0 and 60 degrees c, respectively. milin retains full proteolytic activity over a wide range of ph (5.5-12) and temperature (up to 65 degrees c) with casein and azoalbumin as substrates. the activity of milin is inhibited by serine proteases inhibitors like pmsf, apmsf ...200616839575
cytotoxic macrocyclic diterpenoid esters from euphorbia cornigera.root extract of euphorbia cornigera boiss. (euphorbiaceae) was separated into seven (compound 1-7) isolates through multiple craig's distributions and preparative hplc. the structures and relative configuration of theses compounds were established via spectral analyses as 7,8,12- o-triacetyl-3- o-(2-methylbutanoyl)-ingol (1), 3,8,12- o-triacetyl-7- o-(2-methylbutanoyl = -ingol (2), 3,7,12- o-triacetyl-8- o-(2-methylbutanoyl)-ingol (3), 3,7,8- o-triacetyl-12- o-(2-methylbutanoyl)-ingol (4), 7,12- ...200616881017
chemistry and biological activity of secondary metabolites in euphorbia from iran.the chemical constituents of some species of euphorbia, which grow mostly in semi-desert areas in iran and on the alborz mountains in the north of tehran, have been found to include chemotaxonomically important myrsinane diterpenoids and cycloartane triterpenoids. the euphorbia plants collected in province of azarbaijan in the northwestern part of iran contained mostly derivatives of skin-irritating ingenol esters. some of the diterpenoids with myrsinane carbon skeleton inhibited enzymes such as ...200616889806
apparent 'sympatric' speciation in ecologically similar herbivorous beetles facilitated by multiple colonizations of an island.coexistence of recently diverged and ecologically similar sister species in complete sympatry represents a particularly compelling case for sympatric speciation. this study investigates the possible sympatric origin of two coexisting bark beetle taxa that utilize the same host plant on the island of la palma in the canary islands. aphanarthrum subglabrum and aphanarthrum glabrum ssp. nudum breed inside dead twigs of euphorbia lamarckii plants and are closely related to the allopatric a. glabrum ...200616911212
two-state irreversible thermal denaturation of euphorbia characias latex amine oxidase.thermal denaturation of euphorbia latex amine oxidase (elao) has been studied by enzymatic activity, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. thermal denaturation of elao is shown to be an irreversible process. checking the validity of two-state it really describes satisfactorily the thermal denaturation of elao. based on this model we obtain the activation energy, parameter t(*) (the absolute temperature at which the rate constant of denaturation is equal to 1 min(-1)), and tot ...200716971037
anti-proliferative effect of euphorbia stenoclada in human airway smooth muscle cells in culture.the ethanolic extract of a malagasy species euphorbia stenoclada (es) (euphorbiaceae), traditionally used as a herbal remedy against asthma and acute bronchitis, was tested to evaluate possible anti-proliferative activity on human airway smooth muscle cells (hasmc). the es ethanolic extract totally abolished the interleukin-1beta (il-1beta) induced proliferation of hasmc (ic(50)=0.73+/-0.08 microg/ml). no cytotoxic effect was observed up to 20 microg/ml. a bioassay-guided fractionation of the et ...200716971077
genetic diversity in the mycoparasite sphaerellopsis filum inferred from aflp analysis and its-5.8s sequences.genetic diversity among 51 isolates of the mycoparasite sphaerellopsis filum from melampsora rusts on willow and poplar was examined using aflp. genetic variation was relatively low among the isolates (nei & li's similarities > or =90). genetic diversity calculated using shannon index was 0.119 at loughgall, northern ireland, 0.109 at markington, northern england, 0.039 at craibstone, scotland, and 0.015 at long ashton, southwest england. at long ashton, 14 out of 16 isolates shared the same afl ...200617020805
apoptosis induction and modulation of p-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance by new macrocyclic lathyrane-type diterpenoids.the macrocyclic lathyrane diterpenes, latilagascenes d-f (1-3) and jolkinol b (4), were isolated from the methanol extract of euphorbia lagascae, and evaluated for multidrug resistance reversing activity on mouse lymphoma cells. all compounds displayed very strong activity compared with that of the positive control, verapamil. the structure-activity relationship is discussed. the evaluation of compounds 1 and 4, and of latigascenes a-c (5-7), isolated from the same species, as apoptosis-inducers ...200717035027
ethnomedicines used in trinidad and tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.this paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in trinidad and tobago with thirty male and female respondents.200617040567
[experimental study on the theraputic effect of crescent euphorbia on lewis lung cancer in mice].to observe the inhibitory effects of crescent euphorbia on tumor growth, immunoregulation, the side effect on the mice blood system, cell cycle and to investigate its effect on apoptosis of tumor cells.200617048650
[studies on constituents from roots of euphorbia hylonoma].to study the constituents from roots of euphorbia hylonoma.200617048682
potent antitumor activity of 3,4-seco-8betah-ferna-4(23),9(11)-dien-3-oic acid (ec-2) and 3,4-seco-oleana-4(23),18-dien-3-oic acid (ec-4), evaluated by an in vitro human cancer cell line panel.3,4-seco-8beta h-ferna-4(23),9(11)-dien-3-oic acid (ec-2) (1) and 3,4-seco-oleana-4(23),18-dien-3-oic acid (ec-4) (2) isolated from the whole herb of euphorbia chamaesyce l. were evaluated for their anti-tumor activities using a panel including 39 human cancer cell lines (hcc) coupled with a drug sensitivity database. compounds 1 and 2 showed strong cytotoxicity against the hcc panel, even though alcohols 1a and 2a and methyl esters 1b and 2b were inactive.200617051463
potential roles for autophosphorylation, kinase activity, and abundance of a cdk-activating kinase (ee;cdkf;1) during growth in leafy spurge.leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.) is a deep-rooted perennial weed that propagates both by seeds and underground adventitious buds located on the crown and roots. to enhance our understanding of growth and development during seed germination and vegetative propagation, a leafy spurge gene (accession no. af230740) encoding a cdk-activating kinase (ee;cdkf;1) involved in cell-cycle progression was identified, and its function was confirmed based on its ability to rescue a yeast temperature-sensitiv ...200717063377
ferulic acid esters from euphorbia hylonoma.octacosyl cis-ferulate (1), along with the trans isomer (2), cholest-5-en-3beta-ylhexadecanoate, chrysophanol and octadecanoic acid was isolated from the roots of euphorbia hylonoma.200717067756
toxicological screening of euphorbia tirucalli l.: developmental toxicity studies in rats.euphorbia tirucalli (euphorbiaceae family), an environmental risk factor for burkitt's lymphoma, also presents pharmacological activities. in the northeast region of brazil its latex is used as an antimicrobial, antiparasitic in the treatment of coughs, rheumatism, cancer and other maladies as folk remedy. the present work concerns its developmental toxicity in rats. wistar rats on the first day post-coitum (dpc) were grouped as control (distilled water) and treated (latex aqueous solution) grou ...200717070002
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