critical role of ca2+ ions in the reaction mechanism of euphorbia characias peroxidase.a cationic peroxidase was isolated and characterized from the latex of the perennial mediterranean plant euphorbia characias. the purified enzyme contained one heme prosthetic group identified as ferric iron-protoporphyrin ix. in addition, the purified peroxidase contained 1 mol of endogenous calcium per mol of enzyme; removal of this calcium ion resulted in almost complete loss of the enzyme activity. however, when excess ca(2+) was added to the native enzyme the catalytic efficiency was enhanc ...200312873152
jatrophane diterpenoids from euphorbia mongolica as modulators of the multidrug resistance of l5128 mouse lymphoma cells.the dried aerial parts of euphorbia mongolica afforded three new acylated polyhydroxy diterpenoids based on the jatrophane framework. the structures were established by means of a combination of 1d and 2d nmr techniques and mass spectrometry as (2s,3s,4r,5r,7s,8r,13s,15r)-5alpha,7beta,8alpha-triacetoxy-3beta-benzoyloxy-15beta-hydroxyjatropha-6(17),11e-diene-9,14-dione (1), (2s,3s,4r,5r,7s,8s,9s13s,15r)-5alpha,7beta,8alpha,9alpha,15beta-pentaacetoxy-3beta-benzoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11e-dien-14-one ...200312880317
multiple forms of endo-1,4-beta-glucanases in the endosperm of euphorbia heterophylla l.germinating seeds of euphorbia heterophylla l. contain endo-1,4-beta-glucanases which degrade carboxymethylcellulose (cmc). the activity decreased approximately 66% in extracts of endosperm containing isopropanol or ethanol. the endoglucanases were isolated from endosperm extracts using ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by sephacryl s-100-hr chromatography resulting in two main peaks: i and ii. peak i endoglucanase was further purified about 15-fold on deae-sephadex a50 and then by affini ...200312885862
diterpenes from the roots of euphorbia kansui and their in vitro effects on the cell division of xenopus (part 2).four new ingenane-type diterpenes, 3-o-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-dodecanoyl-20-o-acetylingenol (1), 3-o-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-o-dodecanoyl-20-deoxyingenol (2), 3-o-(2e,4z-decadienoyl)-20-deoxyingenol (3), and 3-o-(2e,4e-decadienoyl)-20-deoxyingenol (4), two new jatrophane-type diterpenes, kansuinins d (9) and e (10), and four known ingenane-type diterpenes were isolated from the root of euphorbia kansui. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis, and individua ...200312913231
molluscicidal action of the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii n.e.b. ("christ's crown") (euphorbiaceae) against lymnaea columella (say, 1817) (pulmonata: lymnaeidae), intermediate host of fasciola hepatica linnaeus, 1758 (trematode: fasciolidae): 1- test in laboratory.the latex action of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (christ's crown) against snails lymnaea columella, intermediate host of fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the station of pisciculture at universidade federal rural do rio de janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons ...200312937774
proteolytic activity in some patagonian plants from argentina.six patagonian plants were screened for proteolytic activity: colliguaja integerrima, euphorbia collina, e. peplus and stillingia patagonica (euphorbiaceae), philibertia gilliesii (asclepiadaceae) and grindelia chiloensis (asteraceae). p. gilliesii extracts showed the highest specific activity, followed by s. patagonica and e. collina. proteolytic activity was unnoticeable in the other three species studied. inhibition assays revealed that p. gilliesii and s. patagonica extracts contain cysteine ...200312946720
identification and expression analysis of the cyclophilin gene in kandelia candel under stress of salt.two cdna fragments, named for srgkc2 and srgkc3, encoding cyclophilin in kandelia candel were isolated by representational difference analysis of cdna. the two cdna fragments were 282 bp and 160 bp, respectively. sequence analysis shows that both of the srgkc2 and srgkc3 come from the same gene region, and srgkc3 is a part of srgkc2. in addition the srgkc2 displayed 90% sequence identity over a region of 84 amino acids to the cyclophilin from euphorbia esula and the srgkc3 displayed 93% sequence ...200312966731
synthesis of new aliphatic and aromatic phytotoxic derivatives of 2alpha,4alpha-dimethyl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-3-one.several new compounds with potential herbicidal activity were synthesized from 2alpha,4alpha-dimethyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxy-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one (4). seven aromatic alcohols were prepared by reaction of (4) with aryllithium reagents, where the aryl groups were 4-ethoxyphenyl (5, 70% yield), 4-ethylphenyl (6, 82% yield), 4-butylphenyl (7, 78% yield), 4-tert-butylphenyl (8, 81% yield), 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (9, 75% yield), 2-ethylphenyl (10, 12% yield) and para-(4-bromophenoxy)phenyl ...200312974357
observations on the antispasmodic principle of euphorbia pilulifera, l. 195313096401
[pharmacognostic studies on euphorbia peplus l]. 195513280334
[active agents of euphorbia cyparissias; preliminary report]. 195513310233
[study and distribution of amino acids in euphorbia characias l.: amino acids of leaves and latex]. 195613343705
[presence of anti-tumor substances in euphorbia amygdaloides. i. experiments with crocker's tumor]. 195713464887
[trials of in vitro culture of euphorbia characial l. stems]. 195713473279
modes of union and interaction between parasite and host in the loranthaceae. iv. viscum obscurum on euphorbia polygona. 195813554430
[detection of tumoricidal substances in euphorbia amygdaloides. ii. experimental studies with walker rat tumor]. 195813600516
[detection of tumoricidal substances in euphorbia amygdaloides. iii. effect of subfraction of aqueous extract on walker carcinoma in rat]. 195813600517
preliminary biological assay on cerebroside mixture from euphorbia nicaeensis all. isolation and structure determination of five glucocerebrosides.preliminary studies of in vitro cytostatic activity on less polar fraction of the meoh extract of the plant euphorbia nicaeensis all., carried out on kb cells, have evinced a relatively low ability of extract to inhibit cell growth. successive, five glucocerebrosides were isolated from the cerebroside molecular species obtained from this extract using normal and reversed phase column 'flash-chromatography'. the structures of these cerebrosides were determined on the basis of chemical and spectro ...200313679173
tumor promotion by euphorbia latices. 196113742650
[on some leptomonas of euphorbia of madagascar]. 196113778825
[euphorbia and cantharidine in the topical treatment of verruca]. 195913853231
an onocostatic factor present in euphorbia amygdaloides. 196213914849
[clinical observation and animal experimental studies on the effect of the sap of euphorbia lathyris on the eye]. 196213947005
[severe burn of the conjunctiva due to the projection of juice of the ornamental plant "euphorbia"]. 196213980780
castor bean allergy as cross-reactive hypersensitivity to the spurges (euphorbiaceae): absence of reaction to chlorogenic acid in primary allergy to castor beans. 196314083097
[demonstration of a new combined form of glutamic acid in euphorbia characias l. latex]. 196314099855
[the antidysenteric properties of euphorbia hirta]. 196414144081
[therapeutic action of euphorbia hirta extracts in intestinal amebiasis. apropos of 150 cases]. 196414181745
phase cinemicrographic observations on cultured cells. ii. mass movement of cytoplasm in euphorbia marginata. 196514291405
use of monkeys to demonstrate allergic cross-reactions among the euphorbicae: ricinus communis, poinsettia pulcherrima, euphorbia esula. 196214463067
isolation of a floating cell strain from submerged cell cultures of euphorbia marginata pursh. 196214468435
dose-response in tumour-promotion by euphorbia tirucalli latex. 196214484914
new bioactive diterpene polyesters from euphorbia decipiens.a reinvestigation with a modified extraction procedure of euphorbia decipiens resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of three new myrsinane-type diterpene esters (1-3). the structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. compound 1 showed inhibitory activity against prolyl endopeptidase (pep), whereas compound 2 exhibited dna-damaging activity in a mutant yeast bioassay.200314510601
evaluation of the antiviral and antimicrobial activities of triterpenes isolated from euphorbia segetalis.a phytochemical reinvestigation of the whole plant of euphorbia segetalis yielded five tetracyclic triterpenes: 3beta-hydroxy-cycloart-25-en-24-one (1), cycloart-25-ene-3beta,24-diol (2), cycloart-23-ene-3beta,25-diol (3), lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol (4) and lanosta-7,9(11),24(31)-trien-3beta-ol (5). beta-acetoxy-cycloart-25-en-24-one (1a) and glutinol (6), lupenone (7), dammaranodienol (9), cycloartenol acetate (10), 24-methylenecycloartanol acetate (11) and beta-sitosterol (12), isolated ...200314526920
absence of tumor promoting activity of euphorbia milii latex on the mouse back skin.euphorbia milii (euphorbiaceae) is a decorative plant used in gardens and living fences. in china, it has also been employed in herbal remedies for hepatitis and abdominal edema. since e. milii latex--lyophilized or in natura--proved to be a potent plant molluscicide, its toxicity to non-target organisms has been comprehensively studied. concerns on a possible tumor promoting activity have discouraged its use as a locally-available alternative molluscicide in schistosomiasis control programs. tw ...200314581170
modified jatrophane diterpenes as modulators of multidrug resistance from euphorbia dendroides l.the new diterpenoids terracinolides j-l (1-3), 13alpha-oh terracinolide f (8), abeodendroidin f (11) and epiabeodendroidin f (12) have been identified from euphorbia dendroides l. the new compounds and six co-occurring known terracinolides were tested as inhibitors of the drug-efflux activity of p-glycoprotein from cancer cells. the results were used to extend the structure-activity relationships established for this class of compounds highlighting the relevance of substitution at positions 2, 3 ...200314604686
morphometric and histopathological studies on the effects of some chromatographic fractions of phyllanthus amarus and euphorbia hirta on the male reproductive organs of rats.the aqueous crude extracts of p. amarus and e. hirta were administered to thirty eight-week old sexually mature male albino to determine the effects of these extracts on the male reproductive organs of these animals. the results from this study revealed that the aqueous crude extracts of p. amarus and e. hirta caused varying degrees of testicular degeneration as well as reduction in the mean seminiferous tubular diameter (std) in the treated rats. it thus shows that the aqueous crude extracts of ...200314610373
new cerebrosides from euphorbia peplis l.: antimicrobial activity evaluation.the less polar fraction of the methanolic extract from the plant euphorbia peplis l. exhibited interesting antifungal and antitubercular activity. a complex mixture of four glucocerebrosides was responsible for this activity. two new cerebrosides were isolated for the first time from euphorbiaceae, 4 was assigned as 1-o-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-(2s,3s,4e,8e)-2n-[(2'r)-2'-hydroxy-hexadecanoyl]-4 (e), 8 (e)-octadecadiene-1,3-diol and 3 as the 1-o-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-(2s,3s,4r,8z)-2n-[(2'r)-2'-h ...200314643323
analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine north-east of portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. the serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. one hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total co, cr, cu, fe, mn, ni, pb and zn. substantial amounts of ni, cr, co and mn were detected in plant ti ...200414675842
tocopherols, fatty acids and sterols in seeds of four sardinian wild euphorbia species.sardinian wild euphorbia pithyusa, e. semiperfoliata, e. dendroides and e. characias seed oils were analyzed for their fatty acids, unsaponifiable and tocopherol content. total tocopherol content showed a wide variability, ranging from 939 mg/kg in e. semiperfoliata seeds to its absence in e. characias. the results on tocopherol content were statistically correlated with both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) radical scavenging test and the beta-carotene bleaching antioxidant test. all seeds ...200414693220
molluscicidal and in-vitro schistosomicidal activities of the latex and some extracts of some plants belonging to euphorbiacea.plant molluscicicdes proved to be good means for controlling fresh water snails of schistosomiasis. the molluscicidal activities of the natural and lyophilized latex extracts of euphorbia royleana and e. mouritanica and acetonitril and chloroform extracts of jatropha carcus were investigated against biomphalaria alexandrina the intermediate hosts for s. mansoni. the lyophilized latex extract of e. royleana showed the highest toxicity against snails with lc90 value of 11 ppm. while the natural la ...200314708864
larvicidal activity of latex and stem bark of euphorbia tirucalli plant on the mosquito culex quinquefasciatus.the methanolic, chloroform and ether extracts of euphorbia tirucalli latex and stem bark were evaluated for larvicidal activity against laboratory-reared larvae of culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae), vector of the brancroftian filariasis and worst urban nuisance mosquito. the latex extracts contain more potent larvicidal components (177.14 mg/l-326.37 mg/l) than the stem bark extracts (237.663 mg/l-513.39 mg/l). the order of toxicity (lc50) for the latex extracts was methanol extract (1 ...200214710857
lipophylic compounds from euphorbia peplis l.--a halophytic plant from the bulgarian black sea coast.the chemical composition of the lipophylic fraction from the halophytic plant euphorbia peplis l. was investigated. compared to other terrestrial higher plants an increase of triacylglycerols and especially of glycolipids was observed. the main phospholipid was phosphatidyl choline, followed by almost equal concentrations of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl glycerol. a relatively high concentration of phosphatidic acids (6.5% of the total phospholipids) was found. the main sterol appea ...200314713150
the effect of medicinal plants of islamabad and murree region of pakistan on insulin secretion from ins-1 vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from islamabad and the murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. dried ethanol extracts of all plants (zh1-zh19) were dissolved in ethanol and dmso, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/ml) for insulin release from ins-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mm glucose. glibenclamide was used as a control. promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 micro ...200414750205
jatrophane diterpenes as modulators of multidrug resistance. advances of structure-activity relationships and discovery of the potent lead pepluanin a.from the whole plant of euphorbia peplus l., five new diterpenes based on a jatrophane skeleton (pepluanins a-e, 1-5) were isolated, together with two known analogues (6 and 7), which served to divulge in detail the structure-activity relationships within this class of p-glycoprotein inhibitors. the results revealed the importance of substitutions on the medium-sized ring (carbons 8, 9, 14, and 15). in particular, the activity is collapsed by the presence of a free hydroxyl at c-8, while it incr ...200414761200
activity of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii n.e.b. (euphorbiaceae) latex against lymnaea columella (say, 1817) (pulmonata: lymnaeidae), intermediate host of fasciola hepatica, linnaeus, 1758 (trematoda: fasciolidae). 2: limited field-testing.the molluscicidal evaluation of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (crown of thorns) against lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the pisciculture station at universidade federal rural do rio de janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. an aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches), after initial sampling of the snail population present. twenty-four hours after app ...200414762529
rearranged jatrophane-type diterpenes from euphorbia species. evaluation of their effects on the reversal of multidrug resistance.the rearranged jatrophane-type diterpenes ( 1 - 3), isolated from the me (2)co extracts of euphorbia portlandica and euphorbia segetalis, were examined for their effects on multidrug resistance (mdr) in mouse lymphoma cells. compounds 2 and 3 revealed to be active with the latter being more active than the positive control verapamil, a known resistance modifier. the new compound 1, named portlandicine, was isolated from euphorbia portlandica and its structure characterised by high-field nmr spec ...200414765292
pubescenes, jatrophane diterpenes, from euphorbia pubescens, with multidrug resistance reversing activity on mouse lymphoma cells.the macrocyclic jatrophane diterpene polyesters, pubescenes a - d ( 1 - 4) were isolated from the whole dried plant of euphorbia pubescens, and evaluated for multidrug resistance (mdr) reversing activity on mouse lymphoma cells. all the compounds displayed very strong activity compared with the positive control verapamil. pubescene d ( 4) is a new compound, whose structure was established as 3beta,9alpha,-diacetoxy-7beta-benzoyloxy-15beta-hydroxy-14-oxo-2beta h-jatropha-5 e,12 e-diene by spectro ...200414765302
chemical constituents and energy content of some latex bearing plants.the latex bearing plants plumeria alba, calotropis procera, euphorbia nerrifolia, nerium indicum and mimusops elengi were evaluated as potential renewable sources of energy and chemicals. plant parts (leaf, stem, bark) and also whole plants were analyzed for elemental composition, oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbons, crude protein, alpha-cellulose, lignin and ash. the dry biomass yields were between 4.47 and 13.74 kg/plant. the carbon contents in whole plants varied from 38.5% to 44.9%, while hydrogen ...200414766154
a note on the isolation of quercitrin from euphorbia pilulifera l. 195114813964
a note on the isolation of 1-inositol from euphorbia pilulifers, l. 195114861123
self assembly of epicuticular waxes on living plant surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (afm).the cuticle of terrestrial vascular plants and some bryophytes is covered with a complex mixture of lipids, usually called epicuticular waxes. self-assembly processes of wax molecules lead to crystalline three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures that emerge from an underlying wax film. this paper presents the first afm study on wax regeneration on the surfaces of living plants and the very early stages of wax crystal formation at the molecular level. wax formation was analysed on the leaves of ...200414966216
a new tetracyclic triterpene from the latex of euphorbia nerifolia.a new tetracyclic triterpene 9,19-cyclolanost-22(22'), 24-diene-3beta-ol, named as nerifoliene (2) along with euphol (1) were isolated from the fresh latex of euphorbia nerifolia. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral (ir, 1h and 13c nmr, fab and ei mass) data.200414974615
two new flavonol glycosides from gymnema sylvestre and euphorbia ebracteolata.two new flavonol glycosides, namely kaempferol 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-o-6"-(3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), have been isolated from the aerial parts of gymnema sylvestre and euphorbia ebracteolata, respectively. their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods.200414980834
two novel steroids from euphorbia officinarum latex.two novel steroids, 3beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-4alpha,14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-8-en-11-one (2) and 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-4alpha,14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-8-en-11-one (3) were isolated from the latex of euphorbia officinarum. their structures were established on the basis of nmr and ms studies.200414984093
molecular determinants of vanilloid sensitivity in trpv1.vanilloid receptor 1 (trpv1), a membrane-associated cation channel, is activated by the pungent vanilloid from chili peppers, capsaicin, and the ultra potent vanilloid from euphorbia resinifera, resiniferatoxin (rtx), as well as by physical stimuli (heat and protons) and proposed endogenous ligands (anandamide, n-arachidonyldopamine, n-oleoyldopamine, and products of lipoxygenase). only limited information is available in trpv1 on the residues that contribute to vanilloid activation. interesting ...200414996838
putranjivain a from euphorbia jolkini inhibits both virus entry and late stage replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 in investigate the in vitro antiviral properties of putranjivain a, isolated from the whole plant of euphorbia jolkini bioss (euphorbiaceae).200414998984
chemical constituents of euphorbia marschalliana boiss.acetone extract of aerial parts of euphorbia marschalliana collected from iran has been subjected to different chromatography techniques for fractionation and purification. the stereo-structures of the myrsinol esters 15-o-acetyl-3-o-propionyl-5-o-butanoyl-7-o-nicotinoylmyrsinol (1) and 15-o-acetyl-3,5-o-dibutanoyl-7-o-nicotinoylmyrsinol (2) have been probed using roesy spectroscopy and modified for the stereochemistry at c-6, c-12 and c-13. beta-sitosterol (3), 29-norcycloart-5-ene (4), 5,8-lan ...200415018044
abiotic stress alters transcript profiles and activity of glutathione s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in euphorbia esula.glutathione s-transferase (gst), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), and glutathione reductase (gr) are enzymes that utilize glutathione to play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. in leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.), transcript and activity profiles for these enzymes are differentially influenced in tissue exposed to xenobiotic (diclofop-methyl) and environmental stress (cold and drought). five different eegst cdna (including phi, tau, theta, and zeta class gsts), one eegpx cdna, and one ...200415032839
toxicity of euphorbia canariensis latex to some developmental stages of drosophila melanogaster (diptera: drosophilidae). 200415058653
phylogeny of a macaronesian radiation: host-plant use and possible cryptic speciation in liparthrum bark beetles.the macaronesian islands are well known for their unique endemic floras of woody plants. many of these unusual plant groups provide important novel resources for bark and wood boring beetles which breed in dead or moribund parts of their host plants. the bark beetle genus liparthrum exploits a wide range of unusual host plants and has its highest proportion of species living on the macaronesian islands. we used dna sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i gene and the nuclear elongati ...200415062794
antitumor activity of 3-ingenyl angelate: plasma membrane and mitochondrial disruption and necrotic cell death.options for skin cancer treatment currently include surgery, radiotherapy, topical chemotherapy, cryosurgery, curettage, and electrodessication. although effective, surgery is costly and unsuitable for certain patients. radiotherapy can leave a poor cosmetic effect, and current chemotherapy is limited by low cure rates and extended treatment schedules. here, we describe the preclinical activity of a novel topical chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of skin cancer, 3-ingenyl angelate (pep005 ...200415087400
effects of coal-smoke pollutants from different sources on the growth, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and cuticular traits of euphorbia hirta l.variations occurred in the growth, assimilate partitioning, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and leaf cuticular traits of euphorbia hirta l. on long-term exposure to coal-smoke pollutants prevailing at two sites, one situated close to a railway loco shed (site b) and another in the vicinity of a thermal power plant (site c). the botanical garden of aligarh muslim university, aligarh, was considered as a control site (a). site c possessed a greater load of coal-smoke pollutants than site b. the ...198715092709
phytomonas iron superoxide dismutase: a possible molecular marker.we have isolated and biochemically characterized two iron superoxide dismutases activities (sodi and sodii) from a plant trypanosomatid isolated from euphorbia characias. the isoenzyme fesodii has immunogenic capacity, and the positivity of the anti-sodii serum persists to a dilution of 1/40,000, by western blot. in addition, western blot has been used to test the positivity of the anti-sodii serum against antigen fractions (sod) from 17 isolates belonging to the family trypanosomatidae and for ...200415109721
euphopubescenol and euphopubescene, two new jatrophane polyesters, and lathyrane-type diterpenes from euphorbia pubescens.the structures of euphopubescenol and euphopubescene, two new macrocyclic jatrophane diterpene polyesters, isolated from the whole dried plant of euphorbia pubescens, were established as 5alpha,8alpha,15beta-triacetoxy-3alpha-benzoyloxy -4alpha-hydroxy -9,14-dioxo-13beta h-jatropha-6(17),11 e-diene ( 1) and 3beta,7beta,8beta,9alpha,14alpha,15beta-hexaacetoxy-2beta h-jatropha-5 e,11 e-diene ( 2) by 1d- and 2d-nmr (cosy, hmqc, hmbc and noesy), ir, ei-ms and ei-fticr-ms. two known lathyrane derivat ...200415114502
characterization of the interaction of ingenol 3-angelate with protein kinase c.ingenol 3-angelate (i3a) is one of the active ingredients in euphorbia peplus, which has been used in traditional medicine. here, we report the initial characterization of i3a as a protein kinase c (pkc) ligand. i3a bound to pkc-alpha in the presence of phosphatidylserine with high affinity; however, under these assay conditions, little pkc isoform selectivity was observed. pkc isoforms did show different sensitivity and selectivity for down-regulation by i3a and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ...200415126366
ocular injuries from plant sap of genera euphorbia and dieffenbachia.clinical findings in 3 cases of ocular injuries caused by the milky latex from euphorbia tirucalli and dieffenbachia sequine were reported. the initial symptoms of all patients were burning pain with subsequently blurred vision. visual acuity was reduced between 6/30 and 6/20. euphorbia sap caused punctate erosion, microbullae and descemet's folds; while dieffenbachia sap induced conjunctival chemosis and fine blue crystals in the stroma. ocular symptoms developed in 5 to 18 hours despite immedi ...200415146906
cross resistance to als-inhibiting herbicides in euphorbia heterophylla l. biotypes resistant to imazethapyr.the effect of weeds on the diminution of agricultural production is considered to be between 30 and 50%. imazethapyr is a herbicide which acts on the enzyme als, the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of valine, leucine and isoleucine. euphorbia heterophylla is a common species in soybean fields in brazil and different populations resistant to herbicides of the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups are currently being reported. the objectives of this work were: to determine the resi ...200315149128
effect of cycloartanes on reversal of multidrug resistance and apoptosis induction on mouse lymphoma cells.the ability of fifteen cycloartanes, isolated from euphorbia species, to reverse multidrug resistance (mdr) and apoptosis induction in l5178y mouse lymphoma cells, including its multidrug-resistant subline, was studied by flow cytometry. reversion of mdr was investigated using a standard functional assay with rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent substrate analogue. for the evaluation of apoptosis, the cells were stained with fitc-labeled annexin v and propidium iodide. the majority of the compounds we ...200415161038
bioactive diterpenoids, a new jatrophane and two ent-abietanes, and other constituents from euphorbia pubescens.a new jatrophane diterpene, pubescenol (1), known ent-abietane lactones, helioscopinolide a (2) and b (3), and taraxerone, 24-methylenecycloartanol, and vanillin have been isolated from euphorbia pubescens. diterpenes 1-3 and previously described pubescene d (4) were shown to be moderate inhibitors of the growth of mcf-7, nci-h460, and sf-268 human tumor cell lines, whereas compounds 2 and 3 also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus.200415165162
in vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the democratic republic of congo.the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven etoh extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven african medicinal plants used in the democratic republic of congo (dr congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. the most active etoh extracts (ic50 < 3 microg/ml) were those from cassia occidentalis leaves, euphorbia hirta whole plant, garcinia kola stem bark and phyllanthus niruri whole plant. their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions ...200415182900
structure and biogenesis of jolkinin, a highly oxygenated ellagitannin from euphorbia jolkinii.a new ellagitannin, jolkinin (2), was isolated from the fresh whole plant of euphorbia jolkinii, and its structure, including absolute configuration, was determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. a highly oxygenated acyl group with unique hexacyclic structure is attached to the 2,4-positions of 1-o-galloyl-3,6-(r)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose. the structural similarity to elaeocarpusin (4) suggests that jolkinin is produced by a condensation reaction between as ...200415217286
[repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on plutella xylostella].based on the theory of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, the repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on diamondback moth(dbm) plutella xylostella was studied, aimed at finding out the oviposition repellents and antifeedants of insect pests. when the ethanol extracts(etho exts) of bauhinia variegata, eucalyptus tereticornis, euphorbia hirta, duranta repens, zanthoxylum bungeanum, magnolia grandiflora, and nicotiana tabacum were applied resp ...200415228000
structure-activity relationships for euphocharacins a-l, a new series of jatrophane diterpenes, as inhibitors of cancer cell p-glycoprotein.the mediterranean spurge euphorbia characias l. afforded twelve new diterpenes based on a jatrophane skeleton named euphocharacins a-l. their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry methods. euphocharacins a-l were tested as inhibitors of the daunomycin-efflux activity of p-glycoprotein from cancer cells. the results were used to extend the structure-activity relationship established for this class of compounds, highlighting the positive ...200415254859
purification and characterization of two iron superoxide dismutases of phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia characias (plant trypanosomatids).two superoxide dismutases (sodi and sodii) have been purified by differential centrifugation, fractionation with ammonium sulphate followed by chromatographic separation (ionic exchange and affinity), from a plant trypanosomatid isolated from euphorbia characias, and then characterized for several biochemical properties. both enzymes were insensitive to cyanide but sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, properties characteristic of iron-containing superoxide dismutase. sodi had a molecular mass of appr ...200415267114
plants used for poison fishing in tropical with the aid of poisonous plants was formerly very common in africa. today this easy and simple method of fishing is forbidden but still practised in remote areas. the poisonous ingredients are pounded and thrown into a pool or dammed sections of a small river. after a time which varies according to conditions the fish begin to rise to the surface of the water and can readily be taken by hand. in general, the fish can be eaten without problems. 325 fish-poisoning plants, spread among 71 ...200415302524
efficacy of euphorbia splendens and leonotis nepetaefolia on aflatoxin producing fungi aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus.efficacy of three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15 mg/ml) of dry flower powder of e. splendens and l. nepetaefolia was tested on the growth of aflatoxin-producing toxigenic strains of fungi a. flavus (ncbt 101) and a. parasiticus (ncbt 128) in sabouraud dextrose agar medium (sda). maximum (75%) inhibition of growth of a. flavus was seen at 15 mg/ml concentration of e. splendens flower dry powder, while a. parasiticus showed 50% inhibition of growth at 10 and 15 mg/ml concentrations. total ...200315320507
asthma induced by latex from 'christmas flower' (euphorbia pulcherrima). 200415355476
structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.a structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from jackfruit (artocarpus heterophyllus) and painted spurge (euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from hevea brasiliensis. the rubber content of latex from jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from hevea tree. the rubber from jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (mwd), whereas that obtained from e. hetero ...200415360318
activity of macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia kansui in a trka fibroblast survival assay.three new macrocyclic diterpenes, kansuinins f (1), g (2), and h (3), together with four known jatrophane diterpenes, kansuinins d (4), e (5), and a (6) and 3beta,5alpha,7beta,15beta-tetraacetoxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17)-11e-dien-14-one, were isolated from the roots of euphorbia kansui. compounds 1 and 2 were assigned as 6(17)-en-11,12-epoxy-14-one-type jatrophane diterpenes, and compound 3 as a 6(17)-en-11,14-epoxy-12-one jatrophane diterpene. the structures of compounds 1-3 and the r ...200415387657
the antispasmotic action of euphorbia pilulifera. 195015405492
a new sesquiterpene-coumarin ether and a new abietane diterpene and their effects as inhibitors of p-glycoprotein.a new sesquiterpene-coumarin ether (5'beta,9'alpha,10'alpha)-7-0-(3alpha-methoxy-8'(12')-drimen-11'-yl)-scopoletin, designated driportlandin (1) and a new abietane quinoid diterpene 16-hydroxy-abieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione, named portlanquinol (2) together with lupeol, nepehinol, wrightial, formonetin and davidigenin were isolated and characterized from the me2co extract of whole dried plant of euphorbia portlandica. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated from spectral data includin ...200415503353
delphastus catalinae and coleomegilla maculata lengi (coleoptera: coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae).predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles coleomegilla maculata lengi timberlake and delphastus catalinae (horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (fuchsia hybrida voss cv lena corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (euphorbia pulcherrima willd ex klotzch cv dark red annette hegg). on glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of c maculata were the most efficient, both against ...200415532680
the origin and radiation of macaronesian beetles breeding in euphorbia: the relative importance of multiple data partitions and population sampling.species-level phylogenies derived from many independent character sources and wide geographical sampling provide a powerful tool in assessing the importance of various factors associated with cladogenesis. in this study, we explore the relative importance of insular isolation and host plant switching in the diversification of a group of bark beetles (curculionidae: scolytinae) feeding and breeding in woody euphor biaspurges. all species in the genus aphanarthrumare each associated with only one ...200415545251
distribution of phytoplasmas in infected plants as revealed by real-time pcr and bioimaging.phytoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria inhabiting the phloem and utilizing it for their spread. infected plants often show changes in growth pattern and a reduced crop yield. a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-pcr) assay and a bioimaging method were developed to quantify and localize phytoplasmas in situ. according to the q-pcr assay, phytoplasmas accumulated disproportionately in source leaves of euphorbia pulcherrima and, to a lesser extent, in petioles of source leaves an ...200415553243
cytotoxicity of three new triazolo-pyrimidine derivatives against the plant trypanosomatid: phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia characias.there is no effective chemotherapy against diseases caused by phytomonas sp., a plant trypanosomatid responsible for economic losses in major crops. we tested three triazolo-pyrimidine complexes [two with pt(ii), and another with ru(iii)] against promastigotes of phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia characias. the incorporation of radiolabelled precursors, ultrastructural alterations and changes in the pattern of metabolite excretion were examined. different degrees of toxicity were found for ...200415558180
effects of two plant extracts on larval leafminer liriomyza trifolii (diptera: agromyzidae) in tomatoes.aqueous extracts from two plants, urginea maritima l. (liliaceae) and euphorbia myrsinites l. (euphorbiaceae), were tested for their insecticidal activity against the leafminer liriomyza trifolii (burgess) on infested tomato, lycopersicon esculentum mill., plants in the laboratory and field. two grams of plant material was extracted with 100 ml of water and then diluted 1:100, 1:50, and 1:25 with distilled water. diluted plant extract was either applied to the infested tomato leaves or by soil d ...200415568346
is endemic burkitt's lymphoma an alliance between three infections and a tumour promoter?malaria and epstein-barr virus (ebv), recognised cofactors for endemic burkitt's lymphoma, are ubiquitous within the lymphoma belt of africa, and, unless other cofactors are involved, the tumour should be much more common than it is. malaria and ebv alone cannot account for the occasional shifting foci and space-time case clusters of endemic burkitt's lymphoma. arboviruses and plant tumour promoters are other possible local cofactors that could explain such characteristics. the geographical and ...200415581545
toxicological effect and biochemical alterations induced by different fractions of euphorbia royleana latex in freshwater harmful vector snail lymnaea acuminata.laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of different fractions of euphorbia royleana (family- euphorbiaceae) latex obtained through sephadex gel column against freshwater snail lymnaea (radix) acuminata lamarack. this snail is the vector of liver fluke, fasciola hepatica linnaeus and fasciola gigantica cobbold, which causes endemic fascioliasis in cattle and livestock. the toxic effect of the different fractions was time dependent and fifth fraction obtained through b ...200415623235
ingenol 3-angelate induces dual modes of cell death and differentially regulates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells.ingenol 3-angelate (pep005), one of the active ingredients in an extract from euphorbia peplus, was shown in preclinical studies to have activity against human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. in the present study, we have tested its ability to induce the apoptosis of melanoma cells in vitro in the absence or presence of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (trail). the results showed that at relatively high concentrations (100 microg/ml), pep005 killed melanoma cells mainly ...200415634659
allelopathic effects of aconitic acid on wild poinsettia (euphorbia heterophylla) and morningglory (ipomoea grandifolia).high infestations of alexandergrass (brachiaria plantaginea) in experimental area have reduced seedbank of some weed species in soil at a greater degree compared to those obtained with the use of an efficient herbicide. aconitic acid (aa) has been identified in those plants in high concentration. thus, two experiments were carried out in the laboratory to determine the effects of pure aa on weed seed germination and on endophytic fungi in wild poinsettia (euphorbia heterophylla) and morningglory ...200515656164
multiple resistance of acetolactate synthase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors in euphorbia heterophylla biotypes.resistance to acetolactate synthase (als)-inhibiting herbicides in brazil has been documented for six species. the probability to select biotypes of euphorbia heterophylla (epphl) with multiple resistance increases in the same order of magnitude as the use of other herbicides belonging to only one mechanism of action. the objectives of this work were to evaluate the distribution of resistant populations (r) in the states of the parana and santa catarina; to determine the existence of populations ...200515656167
population dynamics of weeds in no-tillage and conventional crop systems.population dynamics of weeds in successive maize and bean crops were evaluated in two soil management systems (conventional and no-tillage), for two maize applications (grain and silage), and in four consecutive growing seasons. every year, conventional tillage consisted in plowing and harrowing before sowing. in no-tillage, chemical weed desiccation was made with the mixture glyphosate + 2.4-d. to control weeds, the mixture fluazifop-p-butil + fomesafen was applied on the bean crop in all the p ...200515656169
effects of hand weeding strip and nitrogen fertilizer on corn plants.the objective of the present research was to evaluate effects of different strip weed control associated with nitrogen fertilizer on corn applied after planting. the experiment was set and conducted in botucatu, são paulo state, brazil, and the hybrid planted was dekalb 333-b. a completely randomized block design with four replications was used. experimental plots were disposed as a factorial scheme 2 x 2 x 4, constituted by two types of weeding on row (with or without manual hoeing), two types ...200515656170
influence of type and amount of straw cover on weed emergence.this research was undertaken during 2003-2004 growing season to evaluate the effects of type [forage sorghum "hybrid cober exp" (sorghum bicolor x sorghum sudanense), forage millet (pennisetum americanum "var. bn2"), finger millet (eleusine coracana), and st lucia grass (brachiaria brizantha)] and amount of straw cover (5.5 and 3.0 t ha(-1)) upon the emergence of bidens pilosa, chamaesyce spp., amaranthus spp., and commelina benghalensis, under field conditions of the brazilian cerrado, in the r ...200515656176
[toxic phytodermatitis caused by euphorbia helioscopia l. (sun spurge)].a 6-year-old patient presented with linear erythema and bullae on the face. the lesions developed after playing with plants the day before. the plant was identified as euphorbia helioscopia l. (sun spurge). the sun spurge belongs to the euphorbiaceae plant family. these plants produce a typical milky juice that causes toxic reactions following contact with skin and mucous membranes. in the literature several cases of toxic dermatitis caused by plants of the euphorbiaeae family have been describe ...200515662536
traditional phytotherapy in central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium).in this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium) have been reported and compared. the usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. among the wild plant mainly sti ...200515664457
screening of anti-helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from taiwanese folk medicinal this study, extracts from 50 taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-helicobacter pylori activity. ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. paederia scandens (lour.) merr. (psm), plumbago zeylanica l. (pzl), anisomeles indica (l.) o. kuntze (aiok), bombax malabaricum dc. (bmdc) and alpinia speciosa (j. c. wendl.) k. schum. (asks) and bombax malabaricum dc. (bmdc) all demonstrated strong anti-h. pylori activities. the minimum inhibitory concentrat ...200515681161
dichogamy and sexual dimorphism in floral traits in the andromonoecious euphorbia boetica.euphorbia boetica (euphorbiaceae) is a functional andromonoecious species that shows both intra- and interfloral dichogamy, hermaphrodite cyathia being protogynous. sexual dimorphism of the cyathia of e. boetica is examined according to their gender and arrangement on the inflorescence.200515701661
two new diterpene polyesters from euphorbia decipiens.two new myrsinol-type diterpene polyesters 3,5,13,17-tetra-o-acetyl-7-o-benzoyl-15-hydroxymyrsinol (1) and 3,5,13,17-tetra-o-acetyl-7-o-butanoyl-13-hydroxymyrsinol (2), with a tricyclic carbon skeleton have been isolated from euphorbia decipiens boiss. & buhse. the structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on hreims, eims, ir, uv, id-, and 2d-nmr analyses, including cosy, hmqc, hmbc, and noesy correlations. compounds 1 and 2 also showed activity against urease enzyme.200515702640
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