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the laticifer system of chamaesyce thymifolia: a closed host environment for plant trypanosomatids.specimens of chamaesyce thymifolia (euphorbiaceae) infected and uninfected by phytomonas sp., a parasite of the trypanosomatidae family, were anatomically and ultrastructurally analyzed with special emphasis on the laticifer system. c. thymifolia presents branched non-articulated laticifers and was heavily infected by phytomonas sp. in all collection sites. infection was often observed in the initial stages inside the vacuole, when the latex particles could be seen. in intermediary stages of lat ...200010979610
ultrastructural analysis of phytomonas species from euphorbia pinea reveals trans-cytoplasmic filaments 10 nm in diameter.phytomonas sp. derived from euphorbia pinea are digenetic plant trypanosomes that are transmitted by the squashbug stenocephalus agilis and exist exclusively as promastigotes. the stable sub-pellicular microtubular array, the flagellar axoneme and the paraflagellar rod represent the major cytoskeletal components common to all trypanosomes. the work described in this paper examines in detail the ultrastructural morphology of the organism and highlights a number of novel structural features, and i ...200011068818
anti-inflammatory activity of the hydrosoluble fraction of euphorbia royleana latex.the hydrosoluble fraction of euphorbia royleana latex (aer), administered by gavage at doses of 50-200 mg/kg, showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects in different acute and chronic test models in rats and mice. it reduced the exudate volume and the migration of leukocytes and showed a poor inhibitory effect on the granuloma formation induced by cotton pellets, while it had a low ulcerogenic score. the oral ld(50) was more than 1500 mg/kg in both rats and mice.200011077172
laboratory evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of some saudi arabian euphorbiales against biomphalaria pfeifferi.laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal properties of three saudi arabian euphorbiales. the results showed that the methanol extract of euphorbia schimperiana has a high molluscicidal potency. the activity remains stable over a wide range of temperature and ph values, in the presence of organic and inorganic substrates and after exposure of the solutions to ultraviolet radiation.200111164747
the involvement of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases in triacylglycerol production.we have characterized three coa-independent types of enzyme, phospholipases, phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (pdats) and cholinephosphotransferases, responsible for the removal of unusual fatty acids from phosphatidylcholine (pc) in microsomal preparations from developing oil seeds. the metabolism of sn-2-[(14)c]acyl-pc was monitored in microsomal preparations from various oilseeds having either medium-chain, acetylenic, epoxy or hydroxy fatty acids as their major fatty acids in the ...200011171177
characterization of a euphorbia lagascae epoxide hydrolase gene that is induced early during germination.in euphorbia lagascae the major fatty acid in triacylglycerol is the epoxidated fatty acid vernolic acid (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid). the enzymic reactions occurring during the catabolism of epoxidated fatty acids during germination are not known, but it seems likely that the degradation requires the activity of an epoxide hydrolase. epoxide hydrolases are a group of functionally related enzymes that catalyse the cofactor-independent hydrolysis of epoxides to their corresponding vici ...200011171232
dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens (tumor promoters) in produce of livestock fed on species of spurge (euphorbiaceae). iv. toxicologic and pathophysiologic observations in lactating goats and their suckling kids fed on the irritant herbs euphorbia nubica and euphorbia helioscopia: an etiologic model for investigations on the putative risk of cancer by consumption of food p.the feeding of lactating goats on usual green fodder, contaminated with euphorbia helioscopia or e. nubica, results in poisoning of the dams as well as their suckling kids. general signs of toxicity were emaciation, depression, shedding of body hair, arching of back, and possible death. post-mortem changes of dams and dead suckling kids included congestion and hemorrhage in cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and kidneys. blood analyses of goats exposed to these contaminants showed an increased level o ...200111206269
dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens (tumor promoters) in produce of livestock fed on species of spurge (euphorbiaceae). v. skin irriitant and tumor-promoting diterpene ester toxins of the tigliane and ingenane type in the herbs euphorbia nubica and euphorbia helioscopia contaminating fodder of livestock.irritant diterpene ester toxins were isolated from euphorbia nubica and e. helioscopia, which are contaminants of the green fodder of livestock in egypt. fractionations of methanol extracts of aerial parts of both plants were monitored by the irritation unit on the mouse ear. plant extracts were subjected to multiplicative distribution methods, yielding irritant hydrophilic fractions that were further purified by column chromatography. final purification of the materials was achieved by tlc (sil ...200111206270
neutrophil migration and aggregation induced by euphorbin, a lectin from the latex of euphorbia milii, var. milii.to study the neutrophil migration and aggregation induced by euphorbin, a d-galactose binding lectin from euphorbia milii var. milli latex.200011211926
the use of herbal preparations for tick control in western ethiopia.information on the traditional tick control methods used in keffa, illubabor and wellega provinces in western ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. latexes of euphorbia obovalifolia and ficus brachypoda, juice of crushed leaves of phytolaca dodecandra and vernonia amygdalina, fruit juice of solanum incanum, crushed seeds of lepidium sativum mixed with fresh cattle faeces, juice of crushed leaves and bark of calpurnea aurea and co ...200011212935
an isopimarane diterpene from euphorbia ebracteolata hayata.from the ethanolic extract of the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata hayata four compounds were isolated. they are 24-methylenecycloartanone, tirucallol, procesterol and a new isopimarane diterpene, namely yuexiandajisu c. the structure of yuexiandajisu c was elucidated by spectral analysis. the bioassay in vitro showed yuexiandajisu c exhibited immunomodulatory activity.200011249607
the molluscicidal activity of the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii on melanoides tuberculata (thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of biomphalaria glabrata (planorbidae).the use of the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii was considered as an effective control method for biomphalaria glabrata in sumidouro, rio de janeiro. however, the appearance and expansion of the snail melanoides tuberculata since august 1997, with the concomitant reduction of the population of b. glabrata suggest that competitive exclusion might be taking place. depending on the susceptibility of the thiarid to the e. splendens toxin, the natural control that is occurring could be inte ...200111285483
[identification of a confused species of euphorbia hirta l. e. indica lam].the article reported the morphological and histological identification for euporbia hirta l. and its confused species e. indica lam.. it provided evidences for identifying euphorbia hirta l..200111341025
utilizing image processing techniques to compute herbivory.leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l. sensu lato) is a perennial weed species common to the north-central united states and southern canada. the plant is a foreign species toxic to cattle. spurge infestation can reduce cattle carrying capacity by 50 to 75 percent [1]. university of wyoming entomology doctoral candidate vonny barlow is conducting research in the area of biological control of leafy spurge via the aphthona nigriscutis foudras flea beetle. he is addressing the question of variability wit ...200111347423
the control of the schistosome-transmitting snail biomphalaria glabrata by the plant molluscicide euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (syn milli des. moul): a longitudinal field study in an endemic area in brazil.under laboratory conditions, latex from euphorbia splendens has shown promise as a plant molluscicide for control of biomphalaria species, intermediate hosts for schistosoma mansoni. the purpose of this study was to evaluate its efficiency under field conditions. application of filtered latex at 12 ppm to one stream in an endemic rural area in minas gerais state, brazil, in september 1995, did result in a reduction in snail density as compared to an untreated stream but the snail population reco ...200111369309
aposematic (warning) coloration associated with thorns in higher plants.aposematic coloration, a well-known phenomenon in animals, has been given little attention in plants. here i discuss two types of conspicuousness of thorns which are typical of many plant species: (1) colorful thorns, and (2) white spots, or white and colorful stripes, associated with thorns in leaves and stems. both types of aposematic coloration predominate the spine system of taxa rich with spiny species-cacti, the genera agave, aloe and euphorbia. the phenomena have been recorded here in ove ...200111397139
unnatural natural products from the transannular cyclization of lathyrane diterpenes.the potential of macrocyclic diterpenoids to afford natural product-like polycyclic compounds was demonstrated by the conversion of two lathyrane euphorbia factors into a series of densely functionalized diterpenoids of unnatural skeletal type. apparently, nature is far from having fully exploited the built-in reactivity of these compounds to generate chemical diversity.200111405667
antinociceptive activity of euphorbia heterophylla roots.following an identified use of the plant as analgesic in traditional medicine, the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of euphorbia heterophylla root have been tested for antinociceptive activity in rats. all extracts showed significant effects at doses of 150-300 mg/kg i.p.200011449508
inhibitory activity for chitin synthase ii from saccharomyces cerevisiae by tannins and related compounds.in the course of search for potent inhibitors of chitin synthase ii from natural resources, seven tannins and related compounds were isolated from the aerial part of euphorbia pekinensis and identified as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), 3-o-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3), corilagin (4), geraniin (5), quercetin-3-o-(2"-o-galloyl)-beta-d-glucoside (6), and kaempferol-3-o-(2"-o-galloyl)-beta-d-glucoside (7). these and nine related compounds, (-)-quinic acid (8), (-)-shikimic acid (9), ellagic a ...200111509967
new jatrophane diterpenoid esters from euphorbia turczaninowii.five new (1-5) and one known (6) jatrophane diterpenoid esters were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole herb of euphorbia turczaninowii. their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods. the absolute stereochemistry of 3 beta,5 alpha,8 alpha,15 beta-tetraacetoxy-7 beta-benzoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11e-dien-9,14-dione (1) was confirmed by a single-crystal x-ray analysis coupled with the exciton chirality circular dichroism method. compounds 1-6 were inactive when evalua ...200111520228
cytotoxicities and anti-herpes simplex virus activities of diterpenes isolated from euphorbia species.the cytotoxicities of nine diterpene polyesters obtained from euphorbia species were assayed by measuring their effects on the growth of vero cells. their antiviral effects on the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were studied by using the virus yield reduction method in cell cultures. with the exception of the strongly cytotoxic 2alpha,5alpha,14beta-triacetoxy-3beta-benzoyloxy-8alpha,15beta-dihydroxy-7beta-isobutanoyloxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11e-diene (cc(50) 3 ...200111582549
enhanced antifungal activity of ketoconazole by euphorbia characias latex against candida albicans.the in vitro suseptibility of candida albicans to ketoconazole and euphorbia characias latex alone or in combination was tested using the macrobroth dilution method. the mic 80% of crude latex and ketoconazole are respectively 159 microg protein/ml and 0.3901 microg/ml. this method permits us to determine an affinity constant k(aff) for crude latex (0.015 microg(-1) protein ml) and ketoconazole (23.828 microg(-1) ml). the utilization of a mixture of latex at several concentrations (7.8-15.62-31. ...200111585681
a neglected mayan galactagogue, ixbut (euphorbia lancifolia). 197811619638
terracinolides a and b, two bishomoditerpene lactones with a novel carbon framework from euphorbia terracina.a methanolic extract of euphorbia terracina l. has been shown to contain two peracylated polyhydroxy terpenoid lactones with a novel c(22) carbon framework. these metabolites, which have been named terracinolides a (1) and b (2), are based on the same parent compound, but differ in the nature of one of the acyl residues. this novel skeletal system is formally derived from the jatrophane framework by addition of a two-carbon fragment on c-17 (jatrophane numbering).199611667040
hplc-uv and hplc-positive-esi-ms analysis of the diterpenoid fraction from caper spurge (euphorbia lathyris) seed oil.caper spurge (euphorbia lathyris l.) seed oil contains a series of diterpenoids known as euphorbia factors, or l-factors, l1-l9. they are esters of several polyols (lathyrol, epoxylathyrol, hydroxylathyrol and ingenol) and account for about 3-5% of the oil. the percentage of ingenol-based l-factors is very low, less than 5% of the diterpenoid fraction, but some of them (factors l5 and l6) are responsible for the irritant and co-carcinogenic activities of the oil. this paper reports an hplc-uv an ...200111705332
diterpenoids from euphorbia paralias.two segatane diterpenoids containing a bicyclic [4,3,1] ring system were isolated, together with 11 known diterpenoids, four segetanes, five jatrophanes and two paralianes, from the aerial parts of euphorbia paralias. the structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means, including by 2d nmr and cd spectroscopic analyses. the antifeedant and antiviral activities of the isolated compounds are also described.200111730879
male-specific sesquiterpenes from phyllotreta and aphthona flea beetles.it was previously reported that males of the crucifer flea beetle, phyllotreta cruciferae, feeding on host foliage are attractive to both males and females in the field. based on this evidence for an aggregation pheromone, volatiles were collected from male and female p. cruciferae feeding on cabbage (brassica oleracea) and analyzed. for comparison, volatiles were also collected from males and females of three other flea beetle species, aphthona flava, a. czwalinae, and a. cyparissiae, all feedi ...200111789948
[host plants of aphis gossypii (aphididae), vector of virus of cucumis melo melon (cucurbitaceae) in costa rica].plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of aphis gossypii glover. the study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of costa rica. plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. differences between locations were observed. a total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were ident ...200111795159
macrocyclic diterpenes from euphorbia nivulia.the latex of euphorbia nivulia afforded two ingol diterpenes 3,12-diacetyl-8-benzoylingol (4) and 3,12-diacetyl-7-benzoyl-8-nicotinylingol (5) along with three known ingol diterpenes 1, 2,and 3, and two known triterpenes cycloart-25-en-3beta-ol and cyclonivulinol. their structures have been assigned on the basis of their structural data as well as their acetylated products. the diterpenes 1-5 were tested for the lps induced pge(2) inhibition activity.200211830142
cycloartane triterpenes from euphorbia tuckeyana.investigation of the acetone extract of the whole plant of euphorbia tuckeyana afforded a new cycloartane-type triterpene named as cyclotucanol. its structure was established as cycloartane-24-methylene-3beta,25-diol (1). the known cycloartane triterpenes cycloeucalenol (2), 3beta-hydroxycycloart-25-en-24-one (3), cycloart-25-ene-3beta,24-diol (4), 25,26,27-trisnor-3beta-hydroxycycloartan-24-al (5) and cycloart-23-ene-3beta,25-diol (6) were also isolated and identified.200111841121
transgenic production of epoxy fatty acids by expression of a cytochrome p450 enzyme from euphorbia lagascae seed.seed oils of a number of asteraceae and euphorbiaceae species are enriched in 12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid (vernolic acid), an unusual 18-carbon delta(12)-epoxy fatty acid with potential industrial value. it has been previously demonstrated that the epoxy group of vernolic acid is synthesized by the activity of a delta(12)-oleic acid desaturase-like enzyme in seeds of the asteraceae crepis palaestina and vernonia galamensis. in contrast, results from metabolic studies have suggested the inv ...200211842164
eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol ("antiquol c") and other triterpenes from euphorbia antiquorum latex and their inhibitory effects on epstein-barr virus activation.the structures of three triterpene alcohols isolated from the latex of euphorbia antiquorum were established to be eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol (2; antiquol c), 19(10-->9)abeo-8alpha,9beta,10alpha-eupha-5,24-dien-3beta-ol (3; antiquol b), and 24-methyltirucalla-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol (4; euphorbol) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. compounds 3 and 4 have previously been assigned the erroneous structures of 10alpha-cucurbita-5,24-dien-3alpha-ol and 24-methyleupha-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta ...200211858748
jolkinolide b induces neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate lncap cancer cell line.euphorbia fischeriana is a chinese herbal medicine which has been reported to possess chemotherapeutic effects, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. in order to understand its possible anti-tumor property, we have isolated a number of chemical compounds from the roots of this plant [phytochemistry 52 (1999) 117] and studied their in vitro effects by using human prostate lncap cancer cell line. among the six compounds tested, jolkinolide b exhibited the most potent anti-proliferative activity ...200211911847
new macrocyclic diterpenoids from euphorbia esula.the structures of two new macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenoid esters from the whole herb of euphorbia esula, were established as 11,14-epoxy-3beta,5alpha,7beta,8alpha,9alpha,15beta-hexaacetoxy-12-oxo-13alphah-jatropha-6(17)-ene (1) and 1alpha,3beta-diacetoxy-5alpha,7beta-dibenzoyloxy-9,14-dioxo-11beta,12alpha-epoxy-2alpha,8alpha,15beta-trihydroxy-13betah-jatropha-6(17)-ene (2) by a combination of 1d- and 2d-nmr techniques as well as uv, ir and mass spectral data. bioassay evaluation of all isolat ...200211914962
cytotoxic diterpenoids from euphorbia pekinensis.a new diterpenoid, named euphpekinensin, along with three known diterpenoids, was isolated from the roots of euphorbia pekinensis for the first time and the structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. the 2d-nmr techniques such as 1h-1h cosy, hmqc, hmbc and noesy spectra were mainly applied to determine the structure of the new diterpenoid. the four diterpenoids showed cytotoxic activity against human kb cells in vitro.200211914963
[studies on diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia ebracteolata].euphorbia ebractolata has been used as insecticide and tuberculocide. four crystalline compounds were isolated from the root of this plant. they were characterized by their physico-chemical properties and spectral data as: 3-acety alpha-amyrin (i), jolkinolide b (ii), ebracteolatanolide a (iii) and ebracteolatanolide b (iv). i and ii were isolated for the first time from e. ebracteolata hayata. iii and iv are new compounds.199811938948
molecular analysis of signals controlling dormancy and growth in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge.dormancy and subsequent regrowth of adventitious buds is a critical physiological process for many perennial plants. we have used the expression of hormone and cell cycle-responsive genes as markers to follow this process in leafy spurge (euphorbia esula). in conjunction with earlier studies, we show that loss of mature leaves results in decreased sugar levels and increased gibberellin perception in underground adventitious buds. gibberellin is sufficient for induction of s phase-specific but no ...200211950992
[new diterpene polyesters isolated from hungarian euphorbia species].sixteen new diterpene polyesters were isolated and identified from hungarian euphorbiaceae species. two of them (21, 23) are based on formerly unknown diterpene core. the structures of three jatrophane type diterpene heptaester were elucidated (1, 3, 6), which are diterpenoids with the highest degree of esterification identified from this plant family. some of the isolated compounds have pharmacological effects, others are under testing now.200111961895
[allergic reaction after contact with hura crepitans (sandbox tree)].we describe a 36-year-old female patient with angioedema-like swellings and rhinoconjunctivitis for 1 year occurring exclusively at her home. the clinical history revealed no correlation with foods, food additives, drugs, or aeroallergens. the complaints always started immediately after contact with the sandbox tree (hura crepitans) placed in her apartment. scratch testing resulted in a two-fold positive reaction towards leaves and stem, while five controls remained negative. thus we suggest the ...200211974592
evaluation of a forage allocation model for theodore roosevelt national park.we developed a forage allocation model using a deterministic, linear optimization module in a commercially available spreadsheet package to help resource managers in theodore roosevelt national park (trnp), north dakota determine optimum numbers of four ungulate species, bison (bison bison), elk (cervus elaphus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), and feral horses, in the park. trnp staff actively managed bison, elk, and feral horse numbers within bounds suggested by our model from 1983 to 1996. d ...200211995238
molluscicidal and anti-feedant activities of diterpenes from euphorbia paralias l.nine known diterpene polyesters of segetanes, jatrophenes and paralianes have been isolated from the aerial parts of euphorbia paralias l. the molluscicidal activity of isolated compounds was evaluated on biomphalaria alexandrina (ehrenberg). paraliane diterpene, (2s,3s,4r,5r,6r,8r,12s,13s,14r,15r)-5,8,14-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15- hydroxy-9-oxo-paraliane, was the most potent compound against the snail. anti-feedant activity was tested by a conventional leaf disc method against third-instar lar ...200211997975
characterization of germination-specific lipid transfer proteins from euphorbia lagascae.the endosperm of euphorbia lagascae spreng. seeds contains high levels of the epoxidated fatty acid vernolic acid ( cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid). to obtain transgenic oilcrops producing high levels of vernolic acid, better knowledge of its endogenous metabolism is needed. in this paper we study the gene activities involved in the mobilization and oxidation of vernolic acid during germination. a cdna library was constructed from mrna isolated from germinating e. lagascae seeds. over 300 ...200212012240
discovery and biological evaluation of a new family of potent modulators of multidrug resistance: reversal of multidrug resistance of mouse lymphoma cells by new natural jatrophane diterpenoids isolated from euphorbia species.the effects of 15 jatrophane diterpene polyesters (1-3 and 5-16) isolated from lipophilic extracts of euphorbia serrulata, e. esula, e. salicifolia, and e. peplus (euphorbiaceae) on the reversion of multidrug resistance of mouse lymphoma cells were examined. the structures of five new compounds (1-5) were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including hrfabms, esims, (1)h-(1)h homonuclear and (1)h-(13)c heteronuclear correlations, long-range correlation spectra, and noesy experiments. the stereo ...200212036352
inhibition of hiv-1 integrase by galloyl glucoses from terminalia chebula and flavonol glycoside gallates from euphorbia pekinensis.the bioassay-directed isolation of terminalia chebula fruits afforded four human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) integrase inhibitors, gallic acid ( 1) and three galloyl glucoses ( 2 - 4). in addition, four flavonol glycoside gallates ( 5 - 8) from euphorbia pekinensis containing the galloyl moiety also showed the inhibitory activity at a level comparable to those of 2 - 4. by comparison with the activities of the compounds not bearing this moiety, it is proposed that the galloyl moiety pl ...200212058327
diet of eared doves (zenaida auriculata, aves, columbidae) in a sugar-cane colony in south-eastern brazil.farmers in the paranapanema valley (são paulo, brazil) have reported problems with flocks of eared doves (zenaida auriculata) eating sprouting soybeans. in this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. three weeds (euphorbia heterophylla, brachiaria plantaginea, and commelina benghalensis) were important. this information suggests that the doves adapted particul ...200112071322
functional andromonoecy in euphorbia (euphorbiaceae).the occurrence of cyathia containing staminate flowers but lacking a pistillate flower was studied in 17 species of euphorbia. male cyathia were found in the majority of species studied (88.2%) giving functional andromonoecy. in the male cyathia, the pistillate flower is generally totally absent, but sometimes a vestigial pistillate flower with a non-functional ovary is present. the proportion of male cyathia varied at both the population and species level. the position of male cyathia within th ...200212099531
lack of modification of rat hepatocarcinogenesis by fernane-type triterpenoids, isolated from a euphorbia genus.inhibitors of topoisomerases, enzymes that produce an unusual type of dna damage, are considered as antitumor agents. recently it has been reported that the fernane-type triterpenoid ec-2 and its hydroxyl derivative, isolated from euphorbia, are potent topoisomerase ii inhibitors. in this study, the modifying effects of ec-2 and ec-4 on the development of putative preneoplastic lesions, glutathione s-transferase placental form (gst-p)-positive foci, in the liver of rats were investigated using a ...200212111713
cytotoxic and antiviral activities of colombian medicinal plant extracts of the euphorbia genus.forty-seven plant extracts of 10 species of the genus euphorbia (euphorbiaceae) used by colombian traditional healers for the treatment of ulcers, cancers, tumors, warts, and other diseases, were tested in vitro for their potential antitumour (antiproliferative and cytotoxic) and antiherpetic activity. to evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and the reduction of viability of infected or uninfected cell cultures, the end-point ...200212118288
toxicity of tannins towards the free-living nematode caenorhabditis elegans and the brine shrimp artemia salina.toxicities of gallo- and condensed tannins towards the free-living nematode caenorhabditis elegans is dependent on the tannins' molecular sizes. in the present paper we investigate the toxicity of ellagitannins to c elegans and the toxicity of ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins to the brine shrimpartemia salina. ellagitannins 1 and 2 were isolated from euphorbia supina and identified as tellimagrandin i and rugosin a methyl ester, respectively. an ellagitannin preparation from cornus officin ...200212182536
a new case of pseudophytodermatitis: allergic contact dermatitis from nickel in an ornamental plant (euphorbia triangularis). 200212190625
[studies on chemical constituents of euphorbia ebracteolata ilayata].to search for the effective anti-epilepsiy components from the chinese folk drug langdu, the root of euphorbia ebracteolata.199912205948
the molluscicidal activity of niclosamide (bayluscide wp70(r)) on melanoides tuberculata (thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of biomphalaria glabrata (planorbidae).the aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of niclosamide (bayluscide (r)) on melanoides tuberculata and biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions. the latter species is the intermediate host of schistosoma mansoni (sambon 1917). m. tuberculata was successfully used as competitor of b. glabrata in biological control programs in french west indies. both molluscicide and biological control using m. tuberculata have proved to be successful in reducing the population density of b. g ...200212219145
analyzing the light energy distribution in the photosynthetic apparatus of c4 plants using highly purified mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids.the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids from plant species with the c4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis were investigated using flow cytometry. ten species with the nadp-malic enzyme (nadp-me) biochemical type of c4 photosynthesis were tested: digitaria sanguinalis (l.) scop., euphorbia maculata l., portulaca grandiflora hooker, saccharum officinarum l., setaria viridis (l.) beauv., zea mays l., and four species of the genus flaveria. thi ...199612226432
plant microsomal phospholipid acyl hydrolases have selectivities for uncommon fatty acids.developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of cuphea procumbens and ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. similarly, membranes from euphorbia lagascae and ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrol ...199512228415
light stress and oxidative cell damage in photoautotrophic cell suspension of euphorbia characias l.a photoautotrophic cell-suspension culture of euphorbia characias l. grown at 70 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 was very sensitive to light stress: the gross photosynthesis measured by using a mass spectrometric 16o2/18o2 isotope technique showed a fast decrease at a rather low light intensity of 100 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1, far below the photosynthetic saturation level. the contribution of activated oxygen species on photosystem ii photoinhibition was examined for a given light intensity. a protective ...199412232375
piscicidal effect of some common plants of india commonly used in freshwater bodies against target animals.mortality caused by the aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of four plants belonging to family euphorbiaceae and apocynaceae against freshwater fish channa punctatus has been reported. it was found that dilute aqueous solutions of leaf and stem bark were active in killing the fishes. the toxic effect of stem bark of all the plants were time as well as dose dependent. there was significant negative correlation between lc50 and exposure periods. thus, the lc50 values of stem bark extracts of eu ...200212243329
diterpenes from the roots of euphorbia kansui and their in vitro effects on the cell division of xenopus.twelve polycyclic diterpenes have been isolated from the roots of euphorbia kansui. nine were assigned with an ingenol skeleton, 20-o-(2'e,4'e-decadienoyl)ingenol (1), 20-o-(2'e,4'z-decadienoyl)ingenol (2), 3-o-(2'e,4'z-decadienoyl)ingenol (3), 3-o-(2'e,4'e-decadienoyl)ingenol (4), 3-o-(2'e,4'z-decadienoyl)-5-o-acetylingenol (5), 3-o-(2'e,4'z-decadienoyl)-20-o-acetylingenol (6), 3-o-(2'e,4'e-decadienoyl)-20-o-acetylingenol (7), 20-o-(decanoyl)ingenol (8), and 5-o-(2'e,4'e-decadienoyl)ingenol (9) ...200212350140
new chemical constituents of euphorbia quinquecostata and absolute configuration assignment by a convenient mosher ester procedure carried out in nmr tubes.two new compounds, an ent-isopimarane-type diterpene, 3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-ent-8(14),15-isopimaradien-18-al (1), and a dihydrobenzo[b]furan neolignan, (-)-trans-9-acetyl-4,9'-di-o-methyl-3'-de-o-methyldehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (2), along with five known compounds, 7,7'-dihydroxy-6,8'-bicoumarin (bicoumol) (3), 3,4-dimethoxycinnamaldehyde (4), 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (isoscopoletin), n-butylaniline, and vanillin, have been isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the stem wood o ...200212350147
contrary to the literature, vomiting is not a common manifestation associated with plant exposures.a review of clinical toxicology references and the contemporay literature illustrates that vomiting is reported as a nearly universal symptom associatedwith exposure to cultivated and wild plants. however, the literature fails to put thesymptom of vomiting into a clinical perspectivewith regard to its frequency of occurrence. to clarify this issue a retrospective review of plant exposures was conducted. aapcc tess 1997-1999 was queried electronicaly to identify and extract all plant ingestion ex ...200212361120
a new geniculatoside from aerial parts of euphorbia geniculata linn.the phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of euphorbia geniculata linn. has resulted in the isolation of a new steroidal galactoside, stigma 16-en-3 alpha-o-(beta-d-galactopyranoside) designated as geniculatoside f. the structure was elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.200212369455
toxic and aversive diterpenes of euphorbia esula.leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.), a plant introduced into the great plains of north america from europe, has become a serious economic and ecological threat to the productivity of agricultural and natural areas. cattle, the predominant livestock species on the great plains, as well as common wild ruminant species in this region appear to consume little if any leafy spurge. this is likely because they experience a toxic response after consuming small amounts of this plant, and they consequently ...200212371812
jatrophane and lathyrane diterpenoids from euphorbia hyberna l.a new diterpene tetraester, from the jatrophane family, and two new diterpene triesters, with a lathyrane skeleton, have been isolated from the chloroform extract of the roots of euphorbia hyberna l. the structures of these compounds have been established by spectroscopic methods, including 2d nmr experiments.200212377228
pathogenicity of aschersonia spp. against whiteflies bemisia argentifolii and trialeurodes vaporariorum.entomopathogenic fungi of the genus aschersonia are specific for whitefly and scale insects. they can be used as biological control agents against silverleaf whitefly, bemisia argentifolii and greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum. forty-four isolates of aschersonia spp. were tested for their ability to sporulate and germinate on semi-artificial media and to infect insect hosts. seven isolates sporulated poorly (less than 1x10(7) conidia/dry weight) and 10 were not able to infect either ...200212417207
cuticular hydrocarbons of the flea beetles, aphthona lacertosa and aphthona nigriscutis, biocontrol agents for leafy spurge (euphorbia esula).the adult beetles aphthona lacertosa and aphthona nigriscutis, used as biocontrol agents for leafy spurge, had a complex mixture of hydrocarbons on their cuticular surface consisting of alkanes, methylalkanes, alkenes and alkadienes as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. a trace amount of wax esters were present. in both species, the hydrocarbons were the major cuticular lipid class and the gas chromatographic profiles of the total hydrocarbons were similar. however, the profiles ...200212431402
antioxidant and antiviral activities of euphorbia thymifolia l.the antioxidant and antiviral activities of euphorbia thymifolia l. (euphorbiaceae) were investigated in this study. the results showed that all of the fractions (meoh, chcl(3), etoac, n-butanol and water) and pure compounds (3-o-galloyl-4,6-(s)-hhdp-d-glucose, rugosin b and 1,3,4,6-tetra-o-galloyl-k-beta-d-glucose)tested possessed antioxidant activities, with the exception of the organic aqueous fraction in the anti-lipid and anti-superoxide formation assays. the range of ic(50) of anti-lipid f ...200212432232
macrocyclic diterpenoids from euphorbia hyberna l. subsp. insularis and their reaction with oxyphilic reagents.the aerial parts of euphorbia hyberna subsp. insularis from sardinia contain large amounts of macrocyclic diterpenoids of the jatrophane type, while phorboids could not be isolated. treatment of the major constituent (1a) with various acidic and oxyphilic reagents was investigated, showing the surprising reluctance of the macrocyclic system to undergo transannular reactions. dehydration, isomerization of the exocyclic double and acyl rearrangement were, however, observed after reduction of the 9 ...200212490215
evaluation of the growth response of six invasive species to past, present and future atmospheric carbon dioxide.the response of plant species to future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [co(2)] has been determined for hundreds of crop and tree species. however, no data are currently available regarding the response of invasive weedy species to past or future atmospheric [co(2)]. in the current study, the growth of six species which are widely recognized as among the most invasive weeds in the continental united states, canada thistle (cirsium arvense (l.) scop.), field bindweed (convolvulus arvens ...200312493868
biological properties of jatrophane polyesters, new microtubule-interacting agents.the biological activities of macrocyclic jatrophane polyesters 1-3 from the sardinian endemism euphorbia semiperfoliata viv. have not been evaluated in depth. we investigated the microtubule-interacting and antiproliferative activities of these drugs and the molecular mechanisms underlying their effects.200312497208
molluscicidal effect of fungicide, herbicide and plant extract on some biological and physiological parameters of biomphalaria alexandrina.in was found that the exposure of b. alexandrina to lc25 of fungicide (isoprothiolane), herbicide (anilofos) and plant extract (euphorbia lactea) led to highly significantly elevated in the number of abnormal egg masses laid by treated snails in comparison with the control ones. the lc25 caused reduction in infection rate of b. alexandrina. it caused reduction in number of cercariae per snail during the patent period and reduction in the period of cercarial shedding. the results obtained showed ...200212512815
a germination-specific epoxide hydrolase from euphorbia lagascae.the endosperm of euphorbia lagascae spreng. seeds contains high levels of the epoxidated fatty acid vernolic acid [12(s),13(r)-epoxy-12-octadecenoic acid]. to learn more about the function and metabolism of vernolic acid, we have initiated an investigation into the gene activities involved in the processes of vernolic acid mobilization and oxidation during germination. here we report the cloning and characterization of a soluble epoxide hydrolase from e. lagascae. epoxide hydrolases are a group ...200312520331
structure and nucleotide sequence of euphorbia characias copper/tpq-containing amine oxidase gene.a cdna encoding for a copper containing amine oxidase has been isolated and sequenced from young leaves of euphorbia characias, a perennial mediterranean shrub. a single long open reading frame of 2068 pb encodes a protein composed of 653 amino acids with a molecular mass of about 74 kda. a putative 24-aminoacid signal peptide precedes the sequence of the mature protein, with characteristics of a secretion signal peptide. alignments of euphorbia amine oxidase cdna nucleotide sequence with that o ...200212523646
[studies on chemical constituents from euphorbia fischeriana steud].to study the chemical constituents of ethanol extract from dried roots of euphorbia fischeriana.200112525037
a new p-glycoprotein inhibitor from the caper spurge (euphorbia lathyris).the macrocyclic lathyrane polyester euphorbia factor l10 (1a) has been obtained from the seeds of the caper spurge (e. lathyris). the interaction of l10 (1a) and its acetyl derivative (1b) with p-glycoprotein, a multidrug transporter overexpressed in cancer cells and responsible for resistance to chemotherapy, was investigated. the results established lathyrane diterpenoids as a novel chemotype for p-glycoprotein inhibitors.200312542364
effect of ruta graveolens l. and euphorbia peplus l. anti-inflammatory extracts on nutritional status of rats and the safety of their use.a significant increase in body weight with remarkable increase in total food intake and significant increase in protein efficiency ratio were observed following oral administration of r. graveolens ether extract (500 mg/kg body wt) to growing rats for 3 weeks. serum albumin was significantly decreased after administration of declofenac (15 mg/kg body wt). albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly on administration of e. peplus ether extract (500 mg/kg body wt). no significant changes were o ...200212561967
total synthesis of ingenol.total synthesis of ingenol, a diterpene isolated from the genus euphorbia, was accomplished on the basis of the novel key reactions. the highly strained ingenane skeleton was constructed through an intramolecular cyclization reaction of an acetylene dicobalt complex followed by a rearrangement reaction of an epoxy alcohol. the c(3),c(4),c(5)-triol moiety was introduced by a stereoselective double dihydroxylation reaction of a diene having c(2)-c(3) and c(4)-c(5) double bonds.200312568608
[isolation and identification of terpenoides and anthraquinones from euphorbia fischeriana].in this paper, two terpenoides and one anthraquinone are isolated from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana. their structures are indentified by combination of physical constants and spectrum analysis as boehmerone (i), ent-16a, 17-dihydroxy-atisan-3-one (ii) and physcion (iii). they are found in the plant for the first time.199712572432
[studies on euphorbia fischeriana diterpenoide lactones inhibitory effect on human tumor cells in vitro].in this paper, two diterpenoide lactones 16-hydroxypseudojolkinolide b and jolkinolide b were isolated from euphorbia fischeriana steud. they showed inhibitory effect on human tumor cells both the k562 cell and cne2 cell and significant dose-effect relationship. the ic50 values of 16-hydroxypseudojolkinolide b on the two human tumor cells were near to that of adm's.200012575039
[antitumor activity of the root of euphorbia helioscopic in vitro].antitumor activity of the aquatic extract the root of euphorbia helioscopia l (ewe) in vitro were studied. viable cells count, mtt staining and colonal formation assays of three kinds of cancer cells were used to assess the antitumor activity. determined by viable cells count, the ic50 values of ewe against 7721, hela, mkn-45 cells were 1.26, 1.98, 1.72 mg/ml respectively (72 h). determined mtt staining, the ic50 values ewe against 7721, hela, mkn-45 cells were 1.43, 1.67, 0.97 mg/ml. determined ...199912575050
[pharmacognostical studies on the roots of euphorbia soongarica].morphological and microscopical characters of the roots of euphorbia soongarica boiss. used as one of the origins of the chinese medicine daji in xinjiang autonomous region of china were described and illustrated with line drawings. tlc and hplc analysis of the above drug was also undertaken. these studies provide referencial informations for clinics, quality control, development and identification of this crude drug.199912575074
[pharmacognostical studies on the roots of euphorbia prolifera].morphological and histological characters of the roots of euphorbia prolifera buch.-han., a traditional chinese medicine, were described and illustrated with line drawings. tlc analysis of the above drug was also undertaken. these studies provide referencial informations for clinics, quality control, development and identification of this crude drug.199912575093
[pharmacognostical studies on the roots of euphorbia stracheyi].morphological and histological characters of the roots of euphorbia stracheyi boiss., a traditional chinese medicine, were described and illustrated with line drawings. tlc analysis of the above drug was also undertaken. these studies provide referencial information for clinics, quality control, development and identification of this crude drug.200012575142
[pharmacognostical studies on the roots of euphorbia fischeriana].morphological and histological characters of the roots of euphorbia fischeriana steud., used as one of the origins of traditional chinese medicine langdu, were described and illustrated with line drawings. tlc analysis of the above drug was also undertaken. these studies provide referencial informations for clinics, quality control, development and identification of this crude drug.200012575149
identification and characterisation of the chinese herb langdu by lc-ms/ms analysis.an lc-ms/ms method has been developed for the identification of three species of herb used as the traditional chinese medicine langdu, namely stellera chamaejasme l., euphorbia ebracteolata hayata and e. fischeriana steud. as these herbs contain different mixtures of marker compounds, they could be unambiguously differentiated from each other by comparing their respective characteristic segmental multiple reaction monitoring profiles. the profiles indicated that s. chamaejasme contained daphneti ...200312597254
[study on enrichment process of total flavonoids from euphorbia himifusa with macroporous resin].to study the optimal technology parameters of the enrichment process for total flavonoids of euphorbia himifusa with macroporous resin.200212599412
ethanolic extracts of euphorbia and other ethnobotanical species as inhibitors of human tumour cell growth.ethanolic extracts of 20 plant species, selected from the ethnobotanical literature, were analysed for their pharmacological potential as antineoplastic agents against the hep-2 cell line. psoralea corylifolia and e. grandidens were the most efficacious species eliciting ic50 values of 22 microg/ml and 57 microg/ml respectively. psoralea corylifolia, additionally tested against lung carcinoma (a549) cells gave an ic50 value of 68 microg/ml. such data would justify a search for active compounds f ...200312622464
jatrophane diterpenes from the latex of euphorbia obtusifolia with inhibitory activity on the mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain.seven diterpenes isolated of the latex of the euphorbia obtusifolia were evaluated as inhibitors of the nadh oxidase activity in submitochondrial particles from bovine heart. compound 2, 2,3,5,7,8,9,15-heptahydroxyjatropha-6(17),11-diene-14-one 8,9-diacetate 7-isobutyrate 2,3-bis(2-methylbutyrate), was the most potent inhibitor with an inhibitory concentration (ic 50 ) value of 5.1 +/- 0.2 microm. in the present study, some structure-activity trends are suggested for the inhibitory activity of t ...200312624829
tigliane diterpenes from the latex of euphorbia obtusifolia with inhibitory activity on the mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain.six diterpenes isolated from the latex of euphorbia obtusifolia poir. (euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for their inhibition of the nadh oxidase activity in submitochondrial particles from beef heart. 4,20-dideoxyphorbol-12,13-bis(isobutyrate) was the most potent inhibitor and showed an inhibitory concentration with ic(50) value of 2.6+/-0.3mm. in the present study, some structure-activity trends are suggested for the inhibitory activity of the mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain of these nat ...200312639752
development of cuscuta species on a partially incompatible host: induction of xylem transfer cells.the growth of dodders, cuscuta reflexa and cuscuta japonica, on the partially incompatible host poinsettia ( euphorbia pulcherrima) is studied. poinsettia responds by bark growths to the formation of the dodder haustoria and prevents dodder from obtaining normal growth. the growth instead becomes extremely branched, coral-like, and dodder lacks the ability to form haustoria. after a period of coral-like growth, long shoots sprout, resembling the normal growth. these long shoots mark an ending ph ...200312664277
three new ingol diterpenes from euphorbia nivulia: evaluation of cytotoxic activity.the latex of euphorbia nivulia afforded three new ingol diterpenes, 3-acetyl-8-methoxyl-7-angolyl-12-hydroxylingol (7), 3,12-diacetyl-7-hydroxy-8-methoxylingol (8), and 3,12-diacetyl-7-angolyl-8-hydroxylingol (9) along with five known ingol diterpenes 2-6 and a known triterpene cyclonivulinol (1). their structures were established by means of spectroscopic analysis. diterpenes 2-9 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity.200312673000
three new jatrophane-type diterpenes from euphorbia pubescens.three new macrocyclic jatrophane diterpene polyesters, named pubescenes a ( 1), b ( 2), and c ( 3), and the known compounds indole-3-aldehyde and scopoletin have been isolated and characterised from the whole dried plant of euphorbia pubescens. the structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means including 2d-nmr techniques such as cosy, hmqc, hmbc and noesy experiments. compounds 1 - 3 were evaluated for their in vitro effect on the growth of three human cancer cell lines ...200312709905
mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of esculetin isolated from seeds of euphorbia lathyris l.a tyrosinase inhibitor was isolated from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris l. by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification, using silica gel column chromatography. it was identified as esculetin by comparing its physical properties and spectral data with those of an authentic sample. the ic50 value of esculetin in the mushroom tyrosinase activity test was 43 microm. the kinetic study indicates that esculetin exhibited competitive inhibition against the oxidation of 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ala ...200312723615
euphane and tirucallane triterpenes from the roots of euphorbia kansui and their in vitro effects on the cell division of xenopus.four new euphane-type triterpenes, kansenone (1), kansenonol (3), 11-oxo-kansenonol (4), kansenol (5), and a new tirucallane-type triterpene, epi-kansenone (2), were isolated from a 60% etoh extract of euphorbia kansui, together with alpha-euphol. their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of their 1d and 2d nmr spectral data. this appears to be the first report of the natural occurrence of euphane/tirucallane-type triterpenes with a ketone at c-7. in vitro treatment of ...200312762796
survey of bemisia tabaci (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) biotypes in italy with the description of a new biotype (t) from euphorbia characias. 200312762868
pentacyclic triterpenes from euphorbia stygiana.two pentacyclic triterpenes, d-friedomadeir-14-en-3beta-yl acetate and d:c-friedomadeir-7-en-3beta-yl acetate, named madeiranyl acetate and isomadeiranyl acetate, respectively, were isolated from leaves of euphorbia stygiana, together with the two known madeiranes, d-friedomadeir-14-en-3-one and d:c-friedomadeir-7-en-3-one, which were obtained from the stem bark. in addition, four known lupane and taraxerane-type triterpenes, namely lupenyl acetate, lupenone, taraxeryl acetate and taraxerone, we ...200312770591
activation of the epstein-barr virus lytic cycle by the latex of the plant euphorbia tirucalli.exposure to the plant euphorbia tirucalli has been proposed to be a cofactor in the genesis of endemic burkitt's lymphoma (ebl). the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unpurified e. tirucalli latex on epstein-barr virus (ebv) gene expression. a burkitt lymphoma cell line was treated with varying dilutions of the latex and the effects on ebv gene expression were measured. we observed that the latex was capable of reactivating the ebv lytic cycle in a dose-dependent manner and at ...200312771923
[comparative studies on the fatty acids contained in four species of medicinal plants from family euphorbiaceae and their endophytic fungi].the relation of four species of medicinal plants from family euphorbiaceae and their endophytic fungi was studied to find the source of active substances for developing new pharmaceutical resources.200112776425
first natural urease inhibitor from euphorbia decipiens.three new diterpene esters with a myrsinol-type skeleton have been isolated from euphorbia decipiens boiss. & buhse. the structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on two-dimensional (2d)-nmr techniques including correlation spectroscopy (cosy), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (hmqc), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (hmbc) and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (noesy) experiments. compounds 1 and 3 are active against prolyl endopeptidase and compoun ...200312808253
jatrophane diterpenes as p-glycoprotein inhibitors. first insights of structure-activity relationships and discovery of a new, powerful lead.the mediterranean spurge euphorbia dendroides l. afforded a series of 10 closely related jatrophane polyesters, nine of which are new, which served as a base for the establishment of structure-activity relationships within this class of p-glycoprotein inhibitors. the results, while pointing to the general role of lipophilicity for activity, also highlighted the relevance of the substitution pattern at the positions 2, 3, and 5, suggesting the involvement of this fragment in binding. the most pow ...200312852769
rodent and ruminant ingestive response to flavonoids in euphorbia esula.euphorbia esula, common name leafy spurge, was chemically evaluated for aversive phytochemicals that appear to minimize herbivory by rodents and cattle. a middle-layer extract elicited food aversions in rats as did the petroleum ether extract of the initial methanol extract. kaempferol-3-0-beta-glucuronic acid and quercetin-3-0-beta-glucuronic acid were separated and identified from the middle-layer residue. this study is the first report of quercetin-3-0-beta-glucuronic acid in leafy spurge. to ...200312857022
localization of nonspecific lipid transfer proteins correlate with programmed cell death responses during endosperm degradation in euphorbia lagascae seedlings.when the storage materials have been depleted, the endosperm cells undergo programmed cell death. very little is known about how the components of the dying cells are recycled and used by the growing seedling. to learn more about endosperm degradation and nutrient recycling, we isolated soluble proteins from the endosperm of euphorbia lagascae seedlings collected 2, 4, and 6 d after sowing. the protein extracts were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. proteins that increased in amo ...200312857807
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