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quantitative determination of polyfunctional diterpene esters of the ingenane type in euphorbia lathyris by hplc. 198817265381
weed hosts of meloidogyne arenaria and m. incognita common in tobacco fields in south carolina.thirty-two weed species common in south carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and m. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. egg mass production and galling differed (p < 0.05) among weed species. chenopodium album, euphorbia maculata, and vicia villosa were good hosts of m. arenaria. amaranthus palmeri, rumex crispus, amaranthus hybridus, ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, setaria lutescens, sida spinosa, portulaca ol ...198819290313
euphorcinol: a new pentacyclic triterpene from euphorbia tirucalli.euphorcinol, a new triterpene of the friedelane group, has been isolated from the fresh and un-dried stem bark of euphorbia tirucalli. the structure 1 is assigned to it on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic studies including 2d-nmr.198917262419
purification and characterization of calmodulins from papaver somniferum and euphorbia lathyris.calmodulins (cam) were isolated and characterized from two well-known latex producing plants, papaver somniferum and euphorbia lathyris. the molecular weights of both were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 17,000 comparable to that of bovine brain cam. amino acid compositions also compared similarly with those of known cams, with regard to the presence of trimethyllysine and the ratio of phenylalanine to tyrosine. the cornish-bowden equation (sdeltan) ...198916666573
enhancement of terpenoid biosynthesis from mevalonate in a fraction of the latex from euphorbia lathyris.a latex pellet fraction from euphorbia lathyris incorporates mevalonate into triterpenols and their fatty acid esters. conditions for improved incorporation were determined. cacl(2) or cacl(2) plus mncl(2) stimulated biosynthesis, and the metal ion chelator, ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid (egta) enhanced stimulation. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was almost as effective as egta, but phthalic acid and citric acid were relatively poor stimulators. the concentration of the ca(2+) ...198916666601
comparison of the oxygen exchange between photosynthetic cell suspensions and detached leaves of euphorbia characias l.using a mass-spectrometric (16)o(2)/(18)o(2)-isotope technique, we compared the nature and the relative importance of oxygen exchange in photomixotrophic (pm) and photoautotrophic (pa) suspensions of euphorbia characias l. with those in intact leaves of the same species. young and mature leaves, dividing and nondividing cell suspensions were characterized in short-term experiments. on chlorophyll basis, the gross photosynthetic activities at co(2) saturating concentration of pa and pm suspension ...198916667114
comparative study of the surface charge of some isolates of trypanosomatids of the genus phytomonas.the surface charge of different isolates of phytomonas from euphorbia hyssopifolia, euphorbia pinea, euphorbia characias and manihot esculenta was analysed by the binding of cationic particles (colloidal iron hydroxide at ph 1.8 and cationized ferritin at ph 7.2) to the protozoan surface and by determination of the cell electrophoretic mobility (epm). all the isolates had a net negative surface charge, and the isolate from e. hyssopifolia manifested the greatest negative charge. a good relations ...19892517559
anti-inflammatory studies on euphorbia prostrata.anti-inflammatory studies were conducted in rats on an ethanol extract of whole plant euphorbia prostrata and its partitioned fractions. the ethyl acetate fraction in an oral dose of 200 mg/kg, inhibited 76% of acute carrageenan-induced paw edema. a fraction, labelled as kse-23, isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited 57% of pedal edema at a dose of 8 mg/kg. acute inflammatory studies of fractions using histamine and bradykinin-induced pedal edema indicated a selective inhibition of h ...19892615426
an antitumor principle from euphorbia lathyris.the extract of seeds of euphorbia lathyris l. showed antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 ascites in mice. systematic fractionation of the extract led to the characterization of ingenol-3-hexadecanoate as an active principle, together with an inactive diterpene ingenol-20-hexadecanoate.19892740459
resiniferatoxin, a phorbol-related diterpene, acts as an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, the irritant constituent in red pepper.resiniferatoxin is an extremely irritant diterpene present in the latex of several members of the genus euphorbia. its mechanism of action has been shown to be clearly distinct from that of the structurally related phorbol esters. since resiniferatoxin possesses a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl substituent, a key feature of capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient of plants of the genus capsicum, we examined the ability of resiniferatoxin to induce typical capsaicin responses. we report here that trea ...19892747924
thermoregulatory effects of resiniferatoxin in the mouse: comparison with capsaicin.resiniferatoxin, an extremely irritant diterpene present in several members of the genus euphorbia, produced an 8 c decrease in the rectal temperature of mice with an effective dose in the range of 2-20 micrograms/kg. the structurally related natural product capsaicin produced a similar magnitude of fall in body temperature, albeit with 1000-fold lower potency. tolerance to the hypothermic effects of both compounds readily developed and cross-tolerance between the compounds was observed. the ext ...19892927241
behavioral effects of euphorbia hirta l.: sedative and anxiolytic properties.lyophilised aqueous extract of euphorbia hirta l. (euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for behavioral effects in mice. the extract did not induce any toxic effect when it was administered i.p. and orally. sedative properties could be confirmed with high doses (100 mg of dried plant/kg, and more), by a decrease of behavioral parameters measured in non-familiar environment tests (activitest and staircase test), whereas anticonflict effects appeared at lower doses (12.5 and 25 mg of dried plant/kg), ...19901973750
topical antiinflammatory effects of euphorbia prostrata on carrageenan-induced footpad oedema in mice.the ethyl acetate extract and a fraction, kse-23, isolated chromatographically from the ethyl acetate extract of euphorbia prostrata, showed significant antiinflammatory activity when topically applied in a murine model of carrageenan footpad oedema. kse-23 was found to be more potent than indomethacin given in the same manner.19902214815
hepatoprotective compounds from canarium album and euphorbia nematocypha.successive purification of the extract from canarium album and euphorbia nematocypha, guided by antihepatotoxic activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, led to the isolation of brevifolin (1), hyperin (2), ellagic acid (3) and 3,3'-di-o-methylellagic acid (4) as hepatoprotective compounds. compounds 1,3 and 4 also reduced carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-induced liver damage in mice. the hepatoprotective activities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro and in vivo are apparently due to their antioxidative e ...19902279282
similarities and differences in the action of resiniferatoxin and capsaicin on central and peripheral endings of primary sensory neurons.we have compared the ability of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, a natural diterpene present in the latex of plants of the euphorbia family to excite and desensitize capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in a variety of models. both capsaicin and resiniferatoxin inhibited the twitch contractions of the rat isolated vas deferens and prevented, in a concentration-related manner, the effect of a subsequent challenge with 1 microm capsaicin (desensitization). resiniferatoxin was 1000-10,000 times more ...19901723514
activity on the cns of crude extracts and of some diterpenoids isolated from euphorbia calyptrata suspended cultures.crude methanolic extracts from both root and cell cultures of euphorbia calyptrata were investigated and found to be active on the cns. an active fraction was isolated from the methanolic extract of suspension cultures; this possesses significant depressant activity on the cns. when compared with the crude methanolic root extract, this fraction showed the presence of some common products, four of which were isolated and characterized as helioscopinolides a, c, d, and e. the pure products, admini ...19911818344
evaluation of the genotoxic activity and acute toxicity of euphorbia splendens latex, a molluscicide for the control of schistosomiasis.1. the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii has a molluscicidal action at low concentration (ld90 less than 1.5 ppm or 1.5 micrograms/ml) against the vector snails of schistosomiasis. 2. in the present study, the latex in natura or after lyophilization was submitted to the ames test and the chromotest to evaluate genotoxicity, to the microtox system to determine acute toxicity, and to the chinese hamster ovary cell assay (cho) to measure cytotoxicity. 3. the latex had no mutagenic activity ...19911823273
irritant contact dermatitis from euphorbia marginata. 19911828219
toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye.aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. although this irritant potential does not preclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for handling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potential should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.19911842019
analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of euphorbia hirta.lyophilised aqueous extract of euphorbia hirta l. (euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties in mice and rats, in order to complete its activity profile, after the confirmation of the existence of a central depressant activity particularly expressed by a strong sedative effect, associated with anxiolytic effects. this study leads us to the conclusion that this plant extract exerts central analgesic properties. such a dose-dependent action was o ...19911896520
antitumor agents, 119. kansuiphorins a and b, two novel antileukemic diterpene esters from euphorbia kansui.the extract of the roots of euphorbia kansui, which has been widely used in chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, demonstrated antileukemic activity against the p-388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice. bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation and characterization of two novel antileukemic diterpene esters, kansuiphorin a [1] [13-hydroxyingenol-3-(2,3-dimethylbutanoate)-13-dodecanoate- 20- hexadecanoate] and kansuiphorin b [2] [6,7-epoxy-13-hydroxyingenol ...19911955882
chromosome translocation and c-myc activation by epstein-barr virus and euphorbia tirucalli in b lymphocytes.dual exposure to epstein-barr virus and purified 4-deoxyphorbol ester derived from the plant euphorbia tirucalli induced a high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements in human b lymphocytes in vitro. rearrangements most commonly affected chromosome 8, the chromosome most often showing structural changes in burkitt's lymphoma (bl) cells. e tirucalli is indigenous in parts of africa where bl is endemic and may be an important risk factor for the disease.19911673740
use of an amoeba proteus model for in vitro cytotoxicity testing in phytochemical research. application to euphorbia hirta extracts.amoeba proteus is proposed as a low-cost multi-purpose biochemical tool for screening and standardizing cytotoxic plant extracts with possible application in the laboratories of developing countries. advantages and limitations of this test are examined and different mathematical treatments (probit analysis versus curve fitting to von bertalanffy and hill functions) are investigated. known anti-cancer (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil) and antiparasitic (emetine, dehydroemet ...19911686625
[clinical and experimental study on the treatment of children diarrhea by granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping].granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping is a proved recipe composed of seven medical herbs such as poria cocos, haw charcoal, euphorbia humifusa, etc. after more 20 years' clinical application of 419 cases, the total effective rate proved to be 96.4% and the cure rate 90%, much better than the control groups [tcm: gelian san and shenglingbaizhu san; wm: gentamycin and ppa]. it had the effect of fast-stopping diarrhea and shortening the recovery period. it also had excellent curative effect fo ...19912060055
[polyphenols from leaves of euphorbia hirta l].six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-o-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-o-galloyl-d-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-o-galloyl-beta-d-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.19912069701
new diterpenoids from euphorbia sieboldiana.from the acetone extract of roots of euphorbia sieboldiana, three known diterpenes, ent-atisane-3beta,16alpha,17-triol ( 1), ingenol ( 4), and helioscopinolide a ( 5) as well as two new diterpenes, 3beta- o-acetyl- ent-atisane-16alpha,17-diol ( 2), and ingenol-20-palmitate ( 3) were isolated. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations.199117226204
evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b.) (euphorbiaceae)--1. experimental test in a lentic habitat.the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. the lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. no lethal effect was observed among pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.19921308551
a skin irritant phorbol ester from euphorbia cooperi n e br.from the fresh latex of euphorbia cooperi n e br was isolated by partition and chromatographic methods, a diterpene ester 12-deoxyphorbol-16-isobutyrate-13-tigliate. the phorbol ester exhibited highly irritant activity on the mouse ear. since skin irritancy is an indication of possible tumour promotion, the use of this plant as a medicine should be discouraged.19921340794
evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of euphorbia splendens latex.laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscacidal principle, with ld90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring), 1.02 ppm (fall), 1.09 ppm (winter), and 1.07 ppm (summer) that have been determined against biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. assays on latex collected in belo horizonte and recife yielded ld90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in rio de janeiro (ilha do governador) ...19921342068
euphorbia species. 19921346699
stimulatory effects of ingenols from euphorbia kansui on the expression of macrophage fc receptor.immune complex binding to macrophages was enhanced by treatment with an e. kansui extract. systematic fractionation of the extract led to the characterization of 3-o-(2'e,4'z-decadienoyl)- and 3-o-(2,3-dimethylbutyryl)-13- o-n-dodecanoyl-13-hydroxyingenol as the active principles. immune complex binding to macrophages by the action of these compounds increased in a dose-dependent manner. when each ingenol (10 nm) was added to the separated culture medium, the immune complex binding ability of ma ...19921409980
[constituents of tannins from euphorbia prostrata ait].ten compounds have been isolated from euphorbia prostrata and identified as gallic acid, corilagin, 1,2,3-tri-o-galloyl-d-glucose,geraniin,tellimagradin i, ii, rugosin a, rugosin e, rugosin d and rugosin g on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.19921418550
characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and demonstration of glycosomes in a phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia characias.phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia characias was adapted to sdm-79 medium. cells isolated in the early stationary phase of growth were analyzed for their capacity to utilize plant carbohydrates for their energy requirements. the cellulose-degrading enzymes amylase, amylomaltase, invertase, carboxymethylcellulase, and the pectin-degrading enzymes polygalacturonase and oligo-d-galactosiduronate lyase were present in phytomonas sp. and were all, except for amylomaltase, excreted into the extern ...19921435859
[triterpene constituents from euphorbia nematocypha hand-mazz].seven triterpenoids have been isolated from the roots of euphorbia nematocypha hand-mazz. through chromatography on 20% agno3-silica gel. one of them was identified as a new compound named nematocyphol on the basis of spectral data (ir, eims, 1h-nmr and 13c-nmr). its structure was deduced as iva. other compounds were identified as nepehinol acetate (i), germanicol acetate (ii), euphol (iii), tanaxastanol (va), 24-methylenecycloartanol (via) and nepehinol (viia). these compounds were obtained for ...19921442072
[purification of lipase from latex of euphorbia characias by an extraction method with apolar solvent].a lipase from the latex of euphorbia characias was purified using a new method involving extraction by apolar solvent and adsorption chromatography on silica. the lipase (specific activity 1,500 iu/mg of protein) was eluted from silica complexed with a lipid. the main proteic fraction, showing a molecular weight of 38,000, was inactive when dissociated from the lipid fraction. it was necessary to reassociate the lipid and proteic fractions for 72% of the lipolytic activity to be recovered.19921617480
a soap technique for cell separation to study the seed coat of sesbania punicea.a technique is described for separating plant cells used for morphological studies. the plant material is placed in a concentrated solution of olive oil castile soap for 1-2 days or more. the material is then thoroughly washed and placed between two glass slides. the upper glass slide is lifted from the lower one, then gently pressed down several times. through this procedure malpighian cells of the seed coat of sesbania punicea, mesophyll cells of euphorbia peplus and of trifolium pratense and ...19937687883
functional connection between intracellular and extracellular secretion in species of euphorbia genus.in species of the euphorbia genus the intracellular latex-secretion and the extracellular nectar-secretion are anatomically connected. the functional connection of the secretional systems was proved to be probable by tlc and gc-msd. the chemical composition of euphorbia latex and honey was examined with these analytical methods. in our research, the comparative chemical analysis of the latex and the honey of two euphorbia species (euphorbia cyparissias l., euphorbia seguieriana necker.) was disc ...19937871930
[determination of esculetin in semen euphorbiae lathyridis l. by tlcs and comparison on the quality in different areas].a tlc-densitometric method for the determination of oesculetin in semen euphorbia lathyridis (euphorbiae lathyrdis) was established, and esculetin content in semen euphorbia lathyridis from three different producing areas (zhengzhou, chengdu and chongqing) was determined. the method is accurate, sensitive and simple. the recovery is 98.63% and the coefficient of variation is 1.59% (n = 5). the esculetin average contents in the three samples are 0.3013%, 0.2046% and 0.2094% respectively.19938011091
antidiarrhoeic activity of quercitrin in mice and rats.quercitrin, a flavonoid isolated from euphorbia hirta, shows antidiarrhoeic activity at doses of 50 mg kg-1, against castor oil- and pge2-induced diarrhoea in mice, but not when magnesium sulphate is used as a cathartic agent. it also delays rat small intestinal transit if this is accelerated with castor oil. however, the flavonoid does not modify the fluid transport across the colonic mucosa when it is administered intraluminally, either in normal conditions or when this transport is altered by ...19938095537
[treatment of upper respiratory infection with mixt. 716 compound].mixt. 716 is composed of traditional chinese medicinal herbs, including oldenlandia diffusa, euphorbia humifusa, onychium japonicum, acalypha australis. 150 cases of upper respiratory infection were divided into 716 treatment group (89 cases) and control group (61 cases) randomly. the effective rate was 92% in treatment group compared with 67% in control group. experimental studies also showed that mixt. 716 was slightly cytotoxic, it could obviously inhibit influenza virus a.19938136647
biologically active compounds from the euphorbiaceae; part 1. triterpenoids of euphorbia nicaeensis subsp. glareosa. 19938255939
a skin irritant principle from euphorbia matabelensis pax.a diterpene of the ingenane-type parent alcohol with tetradecanoic acid as the acid substituent was isolated by chromatographic methods from the latex of euphorbia matabelensis. the ingenol ester exhibited irritant activity on the mouse ear.19938258979
are plant factors a missing link in the evolution of endemic burkitt's lymphoma?burkitt's lymphoma, an epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated non-hodgkin's malignant lymphoma is endemic in an area of africa known as the lymphoma belt. this zone is demarcated by climatic requirements of temperature and rainfall. ebv-activating plant factors are among several co-factors which have been proposed for the development of epidemic burkitt's lymphoma (ebl). the distribution of euphorbia tirucalli, a plant which possesses ebv-activating substances and can induce the characteristic 8:14 ...19938260378
regio- and stereoselectivity of cytochrome p-450 and peroxygenase-dependent formation of cis-12,13-epoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolic acid) in euphorbia lagascae.two oxygenases associated with microsomes prepared from euphorbia lagascae developing seeds were found to convert linoleic acid into cis-12,13-epoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolate): a cytochrome p-450 and a peroxygenase. the cytochrome p-450 dependent epoxidation is characterized by a remarkable regio- and enantioselectivity, i.e. only the 12(s),13(r)-enantiomer is formed in the endosperm. in germinating seeds, peroxygenase was active but no cytochrome p-450 epoxidase could be detected. moreo ...19938267615
feeding behavior of grazing ruminants experiencing stress.the mechanisms underlying diet selection of ruminants are less studied than those for monogastrics. however, recent studies have shown that these mechanisms may be more similar in ruminants and monogastrics than previously believed. food aversion learning is observed in both monogastrics and ruminants, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis appears to be involved in avoidance learning. using leafy spurge (euphorbia esula), an introduced weed whose expansion has costly ecological and economi ...19938295963
skin irritant and tumour promoting extract from the latex of euphorbia bougheii.a crude ethylacetate extract was isolated from euphorbia bougheii by a combination of solvent-solvent and chromatographic methods. the extract exhibited significant skin irritant activity on the mouse ear as well as a tumour promoting activity on the mouse back skin. this indicates that the use of this plant as a medicine must be discouraged since the latex extract causes cancer.19938306385
purification and partial characterization of a mitogenic lectin from the latex of euphorbia marginata.a lectin was purified from the latex of euphorbia marginata by affinity chromatography on acid-treated sepharose 6b and elution with lactose. the lectin is a glycoprotein composed of two identical subunits with m(r) 30,000, approx. the haemagglutinating activity of the lectin is not specific for any human blood group, and is inhibited by galactose and galactose-containing sugars and by gentiobiose. the lectin is strongly mitogenic for human t-lymphocytes and induces the release of interleukin-1 ...19938353129
antidiarrhoeic activity of euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent.the antidiarrhoeic activity of the euphorbia hirta whole plant was investigated. the lyophilized decoction demonstrated antidiarrhoeic activity in experimental models of diarrhoea induced by castor oil, arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin e2. it showed no activity when magnesium sulphate was used to provoke the diarrhoea. the lyophilized decoction delayed small intestinal transit when this was accelerated by castor oil but not in normal conditions. a flavonoid, quercitrin, with antidiarrhoeic ac ...19938372151
[eye burns caused by wolf's milk].if the sap of euphorbia inadvertently gets in the eye, it can cause conjunctivitis, keratitis or iritis. therapy consists of rinsing, antibiotics, steroids and mydriatics when the anterior chamber is inflamed. it may also be necessary to protect the damaged eye from light, because photoallergic reactions are possible.19938443451
respiratory allergy to the pollen of mercurialis annua (euphorbiaceae).we have described ten cases of respiratory allergy to the pollen of mercurialis annua in the area of bordighera (riviera dei fiori) on the italian mediterranean coast. the incidence of sensitivity is only 0.9% in a population of 1081 patients with pollinosis. since the euphorbiaceae family (spurges) contains strongly sensitizing allergens (eg, seeds of ricinus communis and latex of hevea brasiliensis) our findings raise the possibility that respiratory allergy to the pollens of mercurialis annua ...19938452320
biosynthesis of vernoleate (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoate) in microsomal preparations from developing endosperm of euphorbia lagascae.epoxidated fatty acids are the major constituents of the triacylglycerols in a few plant species. we have investigated the biosynthesis of vernolic acid (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid) in the seed oil of euphorbia lagascae. microsomes were isolated from developing endosperm. the membrane lipids were labeled in situ with [14c]oleate or [14c]linoleate, which mainly were recovered in phosphatidylcholine (pc), and the metabolization of the radioactive fatty acids was followed in incubations ...19938489257
screening of epstein-barr virus early antigen expression inducers from chinese medicinal herbs and plants.ether extracts of 1693 chinese medicinal herbs and plants from 268 families were studied for the induction of epstein-barr viral (ebv) early antigen (ea) expression in the raji cell line. fifty-two from 18 families were found to have inducing activity. twenty-five and seven of them were from euphorbiaceae and thymelaeaeeae, respectively. some of them, such as croton tiglium, euphorbia kansui, daphne genkwa, wikstroemia chamaedaphne, wikstroemia indica, prunus mandshurica koehne and achyranthes b ...19948024719
molecular phylogeny of families related to celastrales based on rbcl 5' flanking sequences.the region between the rbcl and atpb chloroplast genes and the first 53 codons of the rbcl gene have been sequenced for 19 species of angiosperms. nine of these belong to the four largest families within the order celastrales sensu cronquist (i.e., aquifoliaceae s.l., icacinaceae, celastraceae, and hippocrateaceae). both phenetic and cladistic approaches were used to test the monophyly of the order and to specify its relationships with euphorbiaceae, rhamnaceae, rosaceae, and theaceaea. based up ...19948025727
resiniferatoxin and piperine: capsaicin-like stimulators of oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb.the naturally occurring capsaicin-like molecules, resiniferatoxin (rtx, euphorbia spp.) and piperine (piper nigrum), each stimulated oxygen uptake (vo2) in association with increased vascular resistance in a concentration-dependent manner when infused into the perfused rat hindlimb. 5 microm glyceryl trinitrate (gtn, a nitrovasodilator) significantly blocked the oxygen and pressure responses to both rtx and piperine, indicating a close relationship between changes in vo2 and the vasoconstriction ...19948035653
constituents of euphorbiaceae 12. comm. (1). isolation and structure elucidation of four new cerebrosides from euphorbia biglandulosa desf.four new cerebrosides 4-6 were isolated from the latex of euphorbia biglandulosa desf. and their structures determined. normal and reverse-phase flash chromatography was effective for the isolation of the cerebrosides, and fab-ms spectrometry, 1h-nmr, 13c-nmr, dqf-cosy and hmqc experiments and chemical reactions were useful in elucidating their structure. ei-ms of the dimethyl disulfide derivatives of the long chain bases and glucosphingoside-heptaacetates was decisive for the determination of t ...19948043167
african burkitt's lymphoma: a plant, euphorbia tirucalli, reduces epstein-barr virus-specific cellular immunity.endemicity of burkitt's lymphoma (bl) coincides with profusion of a plant euphorbia tirucalli in tropical africa. e. tirucalli contains 4-deoxyphorbol ester that enhances epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection of b lymphocytes. in this study, we found that 4-deoxyphorbol ester reduced ebv-specific cytotoxic t-cell function. furthermore, the b lymphocytes dually exposed to ebv and 4-deoxyphorbol ester were resistant to ebv-specific t cell cytotoxicity, through down-regulation of latent membrane prote ...19948074496
[identification of euphorbia humifusa wind, and e. maculata raf. from its confused species e. thymifolia l]. 19947945877
[clinical analysis of 72 epileptic patients treated with alkaline extract of euphorbia fisheriana].the effect of 72 epileptic patients treated with alkaline extract of euphorbia fisheriana (ef) was reported. 22 of them with intractable epilepsy were compared with the treatment of both single-blind and placebo. the results showed that the total effective rate with ef was 78%, its marked effective rate was 42% and the effective rate 36%. the epileptic patients reduced their frequency of seizures significantly (p < 0.05), while the effective rate of 22 epileptic patients with single-blind treatm ...19947950213
tannins and related polyphenols of euphorbiaceous plants. xi. three new hydrolyzable tannins and a polyphenol glucoside from euphorbia humifusa.three new hydrolyzable tannins, euphormisins m1, m2, and m3, were isolated from euphorbia humifusa willd., and respectively characterized as 1,3,6-tri-o-galloyl-4-o- brevifolincarboxyl-beta-d-glucose (19), an oxidative metabolite (23) of geraniin, and 1,3,6-tri-o-galloyl-alpha-d-glucose (18), by spectroscopic and chemical methods. a new ellagic acid glucoside (16) and fifteen known tannins, including geraniin (8) and four dimers [euphorbins a (13), b (14), excoecarianin (15) and eumaculin a (12) ...19947954930
lipases of the euphorbiaceae family: purification of a lipase from euphorbia characias latex and structure-function relationships with the b chain of ricin.a lipase from the latex of euphorbia characias was purified using a method involving extraction with apolar solvent and adsorption chromatography on silica gel. the lipase (specific activity, 1500 international units/mg of protein) was eluted from silica gel complexes with a lipid. the main protein fraction, which had a molecular mass of 38 kda, was inactive when dissociated from the lipid fraction. when the lipid and protein fractions were reassociated, 72% of the lipolytic activity was recover ...19947972058
influence of some traditional medicinal plants of senegal on prostaglandin biosynthesis.aqueous extracts of combretum micranthum g. don, euphorbia hirta l., guiera senegalensis lam. and melaleuca leucadendron l. were investigated for their influence on prostaglandin biosynthesis (pg i2, pg e2, pg d2). only the extract of euphorbia hirta strongly reduced the release of prostaglandins i2, e2, and d2. additionally euphorbia hirta extracts exerted an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and depressed the formation of carrageenin induced rat paw oedema. the chemical nature of the a ...19947980813
cryptic dysfunction of cellular immunity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) carriers and its actualization by an environmental immunosuppressive factor.peripheral blood lymphocytes from 4 asymptomatic hiv-1 carriers with normally retained ebv-specific cytotoxic t-cell activity were exposed to ebv and incubated with 0.2 ng/ml 4-deoxyphorbol ester, an immunosuppressive substance derived from an african plant euphorbia tirucalli. the regression of ebv-induced b-cell transformation by ebv-specific cytotoxic t-cells was significantly impaired in the presence of a small amount of 4-deoxyphorbol ester, but not so in 5 hiv-1-seronegative healthy counte ...19947772730
perspectives of using euphorbia splendens as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis control programs.a total of 1,426 species of plants had been tested in order to find out a vegetal-derived molluscicide against the vectors of schistosoma mansoni. euphorbia splendens is one of the most promising molluscicides. in this article we briefly present the main aspects that have to be considered to use this plant as a molluscicide, which include some agricultural aspects and operational methods for application. this can be done by the extraction of the active principles (millaminas) present in the late ...19947777901
biologically active compounds from the euphorbiaceae; 2. two triterpenoids of euphorbia cyparissias. 19947809217
acute kerato-uveitis associated with topical self-administration of the sap of the petty spurge (euphorbia peplus) 19947867832
euphorbia lathyris latex keratoconjunctivitis. 19947867833
aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolism of phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia characias.metabolic studies on phytomonas sp. isolated from the lactiferous tubes of the latex-bearing spurge euphorbia characias indicate that glucose is the preferred energy and carbon substrate during logarithmic growth. in stationary phase cells glucose consumption was dramatically reduced. glucose consumption and end-product formation were measured on logarithmically growing cells, both under aerobic (air and 95% o2/5% co2) and anaerobic (95% n2/5% co2 and 100% n2) conditions. the rate of glucose con ...19947870136
characterisation of ingenol: an inflammatory diterpene from some nigerian euphorbia and elaeophorbia species.inflammatory latices of euphorbia deightonii, euphorbia desmondi, elaeophorbia drupifera and elaeophorbia grandiflora were found to contain ingenol as the parent alcohol of the diterpene esters. the chemotaxonomic significance of the occurrence of ingenol in the genus elaeophorbia is discussed.19947625305
tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenes from the aerial parts of euphorbia piscatoria. 199417236086
lathyrane and ingenane diterpenoids from euphorbia micractina. 199417236090
light stress and oxidative cell damage in photoautotrophic cell suspension of euphorbia characias l.a photoautotrophic cell-suspension culture of euphorbia characias l. grown at 70 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 was very sensitive to light stress: the gross photosynthesis measured by using a mass spectrometric 16o2/18o2 isotope technique showed a fast decrease at a rather low light intensity of 100 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1, far below the photosynthetic saturation level. the contribution of activated oxygen species on photosystem ii photoinhibition was examined for a given light intensity. a protective ...199412232375
[chemical constituents of euphorbia hylonoma hand. -mazz].three compounds have been isolated from the root of euphorbia hylonoma and identified as 3,3',4-tri-o- methylellagic acid, beta-sitosterol and sucrose by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. the compound 3,3'4-tri-o-methylellagic acid is discovered in euphorbia for the first time.19958703340
plant microsomal phospholipid acyl hydrolases have selectivities for uncommon fatty acids.developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of cuphea procumbens and ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. similarly, membranes from euphorbia lagascae and ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrol ...199512228415
[a review of the processing of euphorbia kansui liou]. 19957626206
[chemical constituents of euphorbia nematocypha hand.-mazz].four compounds were isolated from the roots of euphorbia nematocypha. three of them were identified as a'-neogammacer-22(29)-en-3 beta-ol (18 beta.21 alpha) (ii), jolkinolide e (iii) and beta-sitoesterol (iv). among them, ii was obtained from the genus euphorbia and iii from this plant for the first time.19957646781
the ethnopharmacology of madeira and porto santo islands, a review.the ethnopharmacology of madeira and porto santo islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). the medicinal flora of madeira is composed of 259 species. some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: acanthus mollis, aeonium glandulosum, ...19957650952
isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by lectin-agglutination tests of phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) and cherimoyas (anona cherimolia) in southeastern spain.plants of lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and anona cherimolia cultivated in southeastern spain were examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. parasites were detected from the onset of fruiting. isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. isolates were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. the form and the structural organization was studied by scanning a ...19957479649
the glycoinositol-phospholipids of phytomonas.the phytomonas spp. are trypanosomatid parasites of plants. a polar glycolipid fraction of a phytomonas sp., isolated from the plant euphorbia characias and grown in culture, was fractionated into four major glycolipid species (phy 1-4). the glycolipids were analysed by chemical and enzymic modifications, composition and methylation analyses, electrospray mass spectrometry and microsequencing after hno2 deamination and nab3h4 reduction. the water-soluble headgroup of the phy2 glycolipid was also ...19957487886
purification and partial characterization of a lectin from euphorbia neriifolia latex.a lectin was purified from euphorbia neriifolia latex to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on sepharose 4b. the protein appears to be a dimer with approximate m(r) of 60,000 on gel filtration and showing a single band at m(r) 32,000 in sds-page, and contains 12.3% carbohydrate. it agglutinated trypsinized human and rabbit erythrocytes, but not sheep erythrocytes. however, sialidase-treated sheep erythrocytes were agglutinated. the galactose and galactose containing sugars inhibited the heam ...19957492957
four diterpene esters from euphorbia myrsinites.the turkish species euphorbia myrsinites has yielded four new tetracyclic diterpene tetraesters from a cytotoxic acetone extract, in addition to the known cycloartane-type triterpenoids and betulin. the new compounds and their hydrolysis product have been extensively characterized by high field spectroscopic techniques, and were shown to be four new tetraesters of the parent alcohol, myrsinol.19957540394
fractionation and characterization of two forms of peroxidase from oryza sativa.peroxidase (e.c. 1.11.1.7., hydrogen donor oxidoreductase) is widely distributed and has been isolated from many higher plants (1). the wide distribution of the enzyme suggests that it could be of great biological importance. however the role that it plays in metabolism is not clear due to the large number of reactions it catalyzes and the considerable number of isozymic species (2). in tomato plants, evans and aldridge (3) separated out six isoperoxidases and in a later paper evans reported 12 ...19957603969
formation of novel poly(hydroxyalkanoates) from long-chain fatty acids.poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (phas) were isolated from pseudomonas aeruginosa 44t1 cultivated on euphorbia oil and castor oil. with the aid of 2-d proton nmr spectra and proton-detected multiple bond coherence nmr spectra the structures of the phas were determined. in addition to the usual pha constituents (c6-c14 3-hydroxy fatty acids), phas formed from euphorbia oil contained delta 8,9-epoxy-3-hydroxy-5c-tetradecenoate, and probably delta 6,7-epoxy-3-hydroxydodecanoate and delta 4,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy ...19957606658
new myrsinol-related polyfunctional pentacyclic diterpene esters from roots of euphorbia prolifera.five euphorbia substances, spr1-spr5, were isolated from the roots of euphorbia prolifera. they were found to have similar structures but were inactive in a mouse ear inflammation assay. by nmr analysis and after single-crystal x-ray crystallography the structure of spr5 was established as a hexaester (tetraacetate-benzoate-propionate) of a hitherto unknown polyfunctional pentacyclic diterpene parent alcohol, structurally related to myrsinol. as judged from its nmr spectra, spr4 is an analogue o ...19957775985
tumour promoter activity in malaysian euphorbiaceae.herbal medication has been practised by the rural malaysian malays for a long time. however, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. in the present study, 48 species of euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the epstein-barr virus (ebv) genome. twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely breynia coronata hk.f, codiaeum ...19957710943
effect of niclosamide (bayluscide wp 70), anacardium occidentale hexane extract and euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818), under laboratory conditions.the repellent effect of the molluscicides niclosamide (bayluscide wp 70), anacardium occidentale and the latex of euphorbia splendens on biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the ld 50. the total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "natural escape index". the comparison between this total and the total number of surviving sna ...19958531656
antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (camellia sinensis) and euphorbia hirta on shigella spp.--a cell culture study.antibacterial effect of compounds extracted from camellia sinensis l. and the methanol extract of euphorbia hirta l. were studied against dysentery causing shigella spp. using the vero cell line. cytotoxicity studies of the extracts were performed using the cell line and the non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract was tested for antibacterial activity against the cytopathic dose of the pathogen. these extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic and effective antibacterial agents.19958847884
three-dimensional reconstruction of glycosomes in trypanosomatids of the genus phytomonas.computer aided three dimensional (3-d) reconstruction of cells from two isolates of protozoa of the genus phytomonas, trypanosomatids found in plants, were made from 0.3 microm thick sections, imaged on a zeiss 902 electron microscope with a energy filter for in ellastically scattered electrons, in order to obtain information about glycosomal shape diversity. direct counts of peroxisomes (glycosomes) from phytomonas sp. from chamaesyce thymifolia indicated that there were fewer glycosomes per ce ...199518621296
an investigation of some turkish herbal medicines in salmonella typhimurium and in the comet assay in human lymphocytes.medicinal plants play a major role in the life of turkish people and of late medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information about the biological activities of herbal medicine. in the present study, therefore, various turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic potential in the salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the alkaline single cell gel electroph ...19968875742
poinsettia exposures have good outcomes...just as we thought.the poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima) is a much-maligned plant which is thought by the public and some health professionals to be extremely toxic. despite pronouncements by public health officials to the contrary, the poinsettia continues to be recognized as a poisonous plant. to determine if there was any validity to the toxicity claims, 849,575 plant exposures reported to the american association of poison control centers were electronically analyzed. poinsettia exposures accounted for 22,793 ...19968906768
an m(r) 145,000 low-density lipoprotein (ldl)-binding protein is conserved throughout the kinetoplastida order.in view of the importance of the low-density lipoprotein (ldl)-receptor in trypanosoma brucei, we have examined whether other bloodstream trypanosomes of medical and veterinary importance (t.b. rhodesiense, t. equiperdum, t. vivax, t. congolense), but also related parasites developing in mammalian (leishmania donovani) and non-mammalian hosts (crithidia luciliae and phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia), would possess an ldl-receptor of their own. (1) all these parasites specifically accumulat ...19968919994
new 19-acetoxyingol diterpenes from the latex of euphorbia poisonii (euphorbiaceae).the poisonous latex of euphorbia poisonii gave bioactive 3,12-diacetyl-8-nicotinyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (1) together with its less active congeners, 3,12-diacetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (2) and 3-acetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (3). the chemical structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic methods including hrms, dept, hetcor, cosy, noesy, hmqc and hmbc. the absolute configurations of the hydroxylated carbons in 2 and 3 were provisionally suggested by the mosher est ...19968931937
euphorbia sap keratopathy: four cases and a possible pathogenic mechanism.to report four cases of euphorbia sap causing anterior segment toxicity.19968942380
constituents from the stem wood of euphorbia quinquecostata with phorbol dibutyrate receptor-binding inhibitory activity.bioassay-guided fractionation of an etoac extract of the stem wood of euphorbia quinquecostata using a phorbol dibutyrate receptor-binding assay system as a monitor yielded four inhibitory isolates (1-4), inclusive of one new compound, 17-hydroxyingenol 20-hexadecanoate (1), and three previously known compounds, ingenol 20-hexadecanoate (2), ent-16 alpha,17-dihydroxyatisan-3-one (3), and ent-3 beta,16 alpha,17-trihydroxyatisane (4). also isolated from this extract were 10 constituents inactive i ...19968946746
tumor promoter-like activity of the molluscicidal latex of 'crown-of-thorns' (euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in the v79 metabolic cooperation assay.the latex of 'crown-of-thorns' (euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. e. splendens) has been shown to be a potent plant molluscicide that could be used against the snails which are intermediate hosts of schistosoma trematodes. however, a comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the latex is necessary before its large-scale use in schistosomiasis control becomes possible. in fact, one cause for concern is the presence of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in several plants of the euphorbiaceae family. ...19969196556
selectively cytotoxic diterpenes from euphorbia poisonii.bioactivity-guided fractionation of the latex of euphorbia poisonii pax. (euphorbiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of a new tigliane diterpene, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-(9,10-methylene)undecanoate (3), together with five known diterpenes (1,2,4-6). when evaluated for cytotoxicity in a panel of six human solid tumor cell lines, the diterpene esters, 1-3, 5, and 6, were selectively cytotoxic for the human kidney carcinoma (a-498) cell line with potencies for 2 and 3 exceeding that of adr ...19968632402
evaluation of the mutagenicity of the molluscicidal latex of christ's crown (euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.the latex of christ's crown (euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. e. splendens var. hislopii) is a highly active plant molluscicide and could be used for snail control to reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. in the course of its toxicological evaluation, the mutagenicity of the latex of euphorbia milii was tested in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. latex was investigated for its capability of inducing gene mutations and chromosome aberrations in v79 cells in the absence ...19968637506
aleppicatines a and b from euphorbia aleppica.two new pentacyclic diterpene polyesters, aleppicatine a and b, have been isolated from the acetone extract of the whole plant of euphorbia aleppica, in addition to five known cycloartane-type triterpenes (24-methylenecycloartanol, cyclolaudenol cycloart-25-en-3 beta-ol-24-one, cycloart-22-en-3 beta,25-diol and cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol), scopoletin, kaempferol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its methyl ether. the structures of the new compounds and their hydrolysis products have been extensiv ...19968688177
[studies on chemical constituents of roots of euphorbia pekinensis].nine compounds were isolated from the roots of euphorbia pekinensis rupr., a traditional chinese medicine. by combination of chemical methods and spectral analyses, the structures of the compounds were identified as lanosterol (i), octadecanyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzeneacrylate (ii), beta-sitosterol (iii), 7-hydroxycoumarin (iv), 2, 2'-dimethoxy-3, 3'-dihydroxy-5, 5'-oxygen-6, 6'-biphenylformic anhydride (v), d-pinoresinol (vi), quercetin (vii), 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid (viii) and 3, 4-dihydro ...19969772694
analyzing the light energy distribution in the photosynthetic apparatus of c4 plants using highly purified mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids.the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids from plant species with the c4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis were investigated using flow cytometry. ten species with the nadp-malic enzyme (nadp-me) biochemical type of c4 photosynthesis were tested: digitaria sanguinalis (l.) scop., euphorbia maculata l., portulaca grandiflora hooker, saccharum officinarum l., setaria viridis (l.) beauv., zea mays l., and four species of the genus flaveria. thi ...199612226432
cytotoxic triterpenoids from the leaves of euphorbia pulcherrima.two cytotoxic triterpenes have been isolated from euphorbia pulcherrima. their structures and stereochemistry have been established from nmr, ir, and ei-mass spectroscopy. the compounds were identified as 9,19-cycloart-23-ene-3 beta,25-diol and, 9,19-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol. cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using ehrlich ascites tumor cells. while cycloartenol induced no cytotoxic activity against ehrlich ascites tumor cells, both isolated triterpenes exhibited cell inactivating effe ...19968792663
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