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antidiarrhoeic activity of quercitrin in mice and rats.quercitrin, a flavonoid isolated from euphorbia hirta, shows antidiarrhoeic activity at doses of 50 mg kg-1, against castor oil- and pge2-induced diarrhoea in mice, but not when magnesium sulphate is used as a cathartic agent. it also delays rat small intestinal transit if this is accelerated with castor oil. however, the flavonoid does not modify the fluid transport across the colonic mucosa when it is administered intraluminally, either in normal conditions or when this transport is altered by ...19938095537
[treatment of upper respiratory infection with mixt. 716 compound].mixt. 716 is composed of traditional chinese medicinal herbs, including oldenlandia diffusa, euphorbia humifusa, onychium japonicum, acalypha australis. 150 cases of upper respiratory infection were divided into 716 treatment group (89 cases) and control group (61 cases) randomly. the effective rate was 92% in treatment group compared with 67% in control group. experimental studies also showed that mixt. 716 was slightly cytotoxic, it could obviously inhibit influenza virus a.19938136647
biologically active compounds from the euphorbiaceae; part 1. triterpenoids of euphorbia nicaeensis subsp. glareosa. 19938255939
a skin irritant principle from euphorbia matabelensis pax.a diterpene of the ingenane-type parent alcohol with tetradecanoic acid as the acid substituent was isolated by chromatographic methods from the latex of euphorbia matabelensis. the ingenol ester exhibited irritant activity on the mouse ear.19938258979
are plant factors a missing link in the evolution of endemic burkitt's lymphoma?burkitt's lymphoma, an epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated non-hodgkin's malignant lymphoma is endemic in an area of africa known as the lymphoma belt. this zone is demarcated by climatic requirements of temperature and rainfall. ebv-activating plant factors are among several co-factors which have been proposed for the development of epidemic burkitt's lymphoma (ebl). the distribution of euphorbia tirucalli, a plant which possesses ebv-activating substances and can induce the characteristic 8:14 ...19938260378
regio- and stereoselectivity of cytochrome p-450 and peroxygenase-dependent formation of cis-12,13-epoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolic acid) in euphorbia lagascae.two oxygenases associated with microsomes prepared from euphorbia lagascae developing seeds were found to convert linoleic acid into cis-12,13-epoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolate): a cytochrome p-450 and a peroxygenase. the cytochrome p-450 dependent epoxidation is characterized by a remarkable regio- and enantioselectivity, i.e. only the 12(s),13(r)-enantiomer is formed in the endosperm. in germinating seeds, peroxygenase was active but no cytochrome p-450 epoxidase could be detected. moreo ...19938267615
feeding behavior of grazing ruminants experiencing stress.the mechanisms underlying diet selection of ruminants are less studied than those for monogastrics. however, recent studies have shown that these mechanisms may be more similar in ruminants and monogastrics than previously believed. food aversion learning is observed in both monogastrics and ruminants, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis appears to be involved in avoidance learning. using leafy spurge (euphorbia esula), an introduced weed whose expansion has costly ecological and economi ...19938295963
skin irritant and tumour promoting extract from the latex of euphorbia bougheii.a crude ethylacetate extract was isolated from euphorbia bougheii by a combination of solvent-solvent and chromatographic methods. the extract exhibited significant skin irritant activity on the mouse ear as well as a tumour promoting activity on the mouse back skin. this indicates that the use of this plant as a medicine must be discouraged since the latex extract causes cancer.19938306385
purification and partial characterization of a mitogenic lectin from the latex of euphorbia marginata.a lectin was purified from the latex of euphorbia marginata by affinity chromatography on acid-treated sepharose 6b and elution with lactose. the lectin is a glycoprotein composed of two identical subunits with m(r) 30,000, approx. the haemagglutinating activity of the lectin is not specific for any human blood group, and is inhibited by galactose and galactose-containing sugars and by gentiobiose. the lectin is strongly mitogenic for human t-lymphocytes and induces the release of interleukin-1 ...19938353129
antidiarrhoeic activity of euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent.the antidiarrhoeic activity of the euphorbia hirta whole plant was investigated. the lyophilized decoction demonstrated antidiarrhoeic activity in experimental models of diarrhoea induced by castor oil, arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin e2. it showed no activity when magnesium sulphate was used to provoke the diarrhoea. the lyophilized decoction delayed small intestinal transit when this was accelerated by castor oil but not in normal conditions. a flavonoid, quercitrin, with antidiarrhoeic ac ...19938372151
[eye burns caused by wolf's milk].if the sap of euphorbia inadvertently gets in the eye, it can cause conjunctivitis, keratitis or iritis. therapy consists of rinsing, antibiotics, steroids and mydriatics when the anterior chamber is inflamed. it may also be necessary to protect the damaged eye from light, because photoallergic reactions are possible.19938443451
respiratory allergy to the pollen of mercurialis annua (euphorbiaceae).we have described ten cases of respiratory allergy to the pollen of mercurialis annua in the area of bordighera (riviera dei fiori) on the italian mediterranean coast. the incidence of sensitivity is only 0.9% in a population of 1081 patients with pollinosis. since the euphorbiaceae family (spurges) contains strongly sensitizing allergens (eg, seeds of ricinus communis and latex of hevea brasiliensis) our findings raise the possibility that respiratory allergy to the pollens of mercurialis annua ...19938452320
biosynthesis of vernoleate (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoate) in microsomal preparations from developing endosperm of euphorbia lagascae.epoxidated fatty acids are the major constituents of the triacylglycerols in a few plant species. we have investigated the biosynthesis of vernolic acid (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid) in the seed oil of euphorbia lagascae. microsomes were isolated from developing endosperm. the membrane lipids were labeled in situ with [14c]oleate or [14c]linoleate, which mainly were recovered in phosphatidylcholine (pc), and the metabolization of the radioactive fatty acids was followed in incubations ...19938489257
effect of niclosamide (bayluscide wp 70), anacardium occidentale hexane extract and euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818), under laboratory conditions.the repellent effect of the molluscicides niclosamide (bayluscide wp 70), anacardium occidentale and the latex of euphorbia splendens on biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the ld 50. the total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "natural escape index". the comparison between this total and the total number of surviving sna ...19958531656
selectively cytotoxic diterpenes from euphorbia poisonii.bioactivity-guided fractionation of the latex of euphorbia poisonii pax. (euphorbiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of a new tigliane diterpene, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-(9,10-methylene)undecanoate (3), together with five known diterpenes (1,2,4-6). when evaluated for cytotoxicity in a panel of six human solid tumor cell lines, the diterpene esters, 1-3, 5, and 6, were selectively cytotoxic for the human kidney carcinoma (a-498) cell line with potencies for 2 and 3 exceeding that of adr ...19968632402
evaluation of the mutagenicity of the molluscicidal latex of christ's crown (euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.the latex of christ's crown (euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. e. splendens var. hislopii) is a highly active plant molluscicide and could be used for snail control to reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. in the course of its toxicological evaluation, the mutagenicity of the latex of euphorbia milii was tested in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. latex was investigated for its capability of inducing gene mutations and chromosome aberrations in v79 cells in the absence ...19968637506
aleppicatines a and b from euphorbia aleppica.two new pentacyclic diterpene polyesters, aleppicatine a and b, have been isolated from the acetone extract of the whole plant of euphorbia aleppica, in addition to five known cycloartane-type triterpenes (24-methylenecycloartanol, cyclolaudenol cycloart-25-en-3 beta-ol-24-one, cycloart-22-en-3 beta,25-diol and cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol), scopoletin, kaempferol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its methyl ether. the structures of the new compounds and their hydrolysis products have been extensiv ...19968688177
[chemical constituents of euphorbia hylonoma hand. -mazz].three compounds have been isolated from the root of euphorbia hylonoma and identified as 3,3',4-tri-o- methylellagic acid, beta-sitosterol and sucrose by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. the compound 3,3'4-tri-o-methylellagic acid is discovered in euphorbia for the first time.19958703340
cytotoxic triterpenoids from the leaves of euphorbia pulcherrima.two cytotoxic triterpenes have been isolated from euphorbia pulcherrima. their structures and stereochemistry have been established from nmr, ir, and ei-mass spectroscopy. the compounds were identified as 9,19-cycloart-23-ene-3 beta,25-diol and, 9,19-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol. cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using ehrlich ascites tumor cells. while cycloartenol induced no cytotoxic activity against ehrlich ascites tumor cells, both isolated triterpenes exhibited cell inactivating effe ...19968792663
plant exposures: a state profile of the most common species.plant exposures are the fourth most common cause of poisoning and 86% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. the large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. these efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. aapcc tess data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant species and state to e ...19968829350
antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (camellia sinensis) and euphorbia hirta on shigella spp.--a cell culture study.antibacterial effect of compounds extracted from camellia sinensis l. and the methanol extract of euphorbia hirta l. were studied against dysentery causing shigella spp. using the vero cell line. cytotoxicity studies of the extracts were performed using the cell line and the non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract was tested for antibacterial activity against the cytopathic dose of the pathogen. these extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic and effective antibacterial agents.19958847884
an investigation of some turkish herbal medicines in salmonella typhimurium and in the comet assay in human lymphocytes.medicinal plants play a major role in the life of turkish people and of late medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information about the biological activities of herbal medicine. in the present study, therefore, various turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic potential in the salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the alkaline single cell gel electroph ...19968875742
poinsettia exposures have good outcomes...just as we thought.the poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima) is a much-maligned plant which is thought by the public and some health professionals to be extremely toxic. despite pronouncements by public health officials to the contrary, the poinsettia continues to be recognized as a poisonous plant. to determine if there was any validity to the toxicity claims, 849,575 plant exposures reported to the american association of poison control centers were electronically analyzed. poinsettia exposures accounted for 22,793 ...19968906768
an m(r) 145,000 low-density lipoprotein (ldl)-binding protein is conserved throughout the kinetoplastida order.in view of the importance of the low-density lipoprotein (ldl)-receptor in trypanosoma brucei, we have examined whether other bloodstream trypanosomes of medical and veterinary importance (t.b. rhodesiense, t. equiperdum, t. vivax, t. congolense), but also related parasites developing in mammalian (leishmania donovani) and non-mammalian hosts (crithidia luciliae and phytomonas sp. isolated from euphorbia), would possess an ldl-receptor of their own. (1) all these parasites specifically accumulat ...19968919994
new 19-acetoxyingol diterpenes from the latex of euphorbia poisonii (euphorbiaceae).the poisonous latex of euphorbia poisonii gave bioactive 3,12-diacetyl-8-nicotinyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (1) together with its less active congeners, 3,12-diacetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (2) and 3-acetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (3). the chemical structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic methods including hrms, dept, hetcor, cosy, noesy, hmqc and hmbc. the absolute configurations of the hydroxylated carbons in 2 and 3 were provisionally suggested by the mosher est ...19968931937
euphorbia sap keratopathy: four cases and a possible pathogenic mechanism.to report four cases of euphorbia sap causing anterior segment toxicity.19968942380
constituents from the stem wood of euphorbia quinquecostata with phorbol dibutyrate receptor-binding inhibitory activity.bioassay-guided fractionation of an etoac extract of the stem wood of euphorbia quinquecostata using a phorbol dibutyrate receptor-binding assay system as a monitor yielded four inhibitory isolates (1-4), inclusive of one new compound, 17-hydroxyingenol 20-hexadecanoate (1), and three previously known compounds, ingenol 20-hexadecanoate (2), ent-16 alpha,17-dihydroxyatisan-3-one (3), and ent-3 beta,16 alpha,17-trihydroxyatisane (4). also isolated from this extract were 10 constituents inactive i ...19968946746
phytoplasma induced free-branching in commercial poinsettia cultivars.free-branching poinsettia cultivars that produce numerous axillary shoots are essential for propagating desirable multi-flowered poinsettias (euphorbia pulcherrima wild. klotz). for more than a decade, a biological agent has been suspected to cause free-branching in poinsettias. attempts to identify the branching agent have failed. isolation of the pathogen was accomplished using a living host and it was concluded that an unculturable phytoplasma is the cause of free-branching in poinsettias. th ...19979035146
euphorbium: modern research on its active principle, resiniferatoxin, revives an ancient medicine.resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent capsaicin analog present in the latex of euphorbia resinifera, interacts at a specific membrane recognition site (referred to as the vanilloid receptor), expressed by primary sensory neurons mediating pain perception as well as neurogenic inflammation. desensitization to resiniferatoxin is a promising approach to mitigate neuropathic pain and other pathological conditions in which sensory neuropeptides released from capsaicin-sensitive neurons play a crucial role. ...19979064473
purification and characterisation of a novel iso-propanol dehydrogenase from phytomonas sp.an alcohol dehydrogenase with two identical subunits and a subunit molecular mass of 40,000 was purified from phytomonas sp. isolated from the lactiferous tubes of euphorbia characias. digitonin titration and subcellular fractionation suggest that the enzyme is present in the mitochondrion. it utilises as substrates, primary and secondary alcohols, is specific for nad+ as coenzyme and is inhibited by hgcl(2). the ph optimum for the oxidation of ethanol is 9.5, and for the reverse reaction 8.5. t ...19979106194
analysis of rabbit vascular responses to dbi, an ingol derivative isolated from euphorbia canariensis.we have analysed the effects of 7,12-o-diacetyl-8-o-benzoil-2,3-diepiingol (dbi), an ingol derivative isolated from e. canariensis, on isometric tension developed by isolated rabbit basilar and carotid arteries. concentration-response curves to dbi (10(-8) - 3 x 10(-5) m) were obtained cumulatively in both arteries at resting tension and active tone (kci, 50 mm). at resting tension, dbi induced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was not inhibited in ca(2+)-free medium. h7 (1-(5-isoquin ...19979178197
tumor promoter-like activity of the molluscicidal latex of 'crown-of-thorns' (euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in the v79 metabolic cooperation assay.the latex of 'crown-of-thorns' (euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. e. splendens) has been shown to be a potent plant molluscicide that could be used against the snails which are intermediate hosts of schistosoma trematodes. however, a comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the latex is necessary before its large-scale use in schistosomiasis control becomes possible. in fact, one cause for concern is the presence of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in several plants of the euphorbiaceae family. ...19969196556
plant exposures ... a national profile of the most common plant genera.plant exposures are the 4th most common cause of poisoning and 85% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. the large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. these efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. american association of poison control centers (aapcc) data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically ...19979251180
euphorbia sap keratouveitis. 19979274425
characterisation of the two malate dehydrogenases from phytomonas sp. purification of the glycosomal isoenzyme.two nad(h)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (mdh) isoenzymes were detected in phytomonas isolated from the lactiferous tubes of euphorbia characias. the total specific activity in crude extracts using oxaloacetate as substrate was 3.3 u mg-1 of protein. the two isoenzymes had isoelectric points of 6.0 and 7.2, respectively. the acidic isoform represented 80% of the total activity in the cell and was present in the glycosome. it was purified to homogeneity by a method involving hydrophobic interact ...19979297700
urodynamic effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin in humans: preliminary results in stable and unstable detrusor.resiniferatoxin, a substance isolated from some species of euphorbia, a cactus-like plant, presents pharmacological effects similar to those of capsaicin. we studied the urodynamic effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin* in normal subjects and patients with unstable detrusor contraction to provide insight into the action mechanism of the molecule on sensory neurons and possible future pharmacological and clinical use.19979366319
microbiological screening of indian medicinal plants with special reference to enteropathogens.the world health organisation (who) has recommended that all member states actively promote native medicines in their country. ten indian medicinal plants were screened for antibacterial activity specific to enteropathogens. diffusion and dilution methods were used to measure the antibacterial activity. allium sativum, camellia sinensis, and chamaesyce hirta showed higher activity when compared to the rest. they had a minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc) of < 100 micrograms/ml and gave inhib ...19979395690
the molluscicidal activity of crown of christ (euphorbia splendens var. hislopii) latex on snails acting as intermediate hosts of schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma haematobium.the present study describes the action of the latex of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (e. milli) on species of the genus bulinus and on biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in africa, and the brazilian snails b. glabrata, b. tenagophila, and b. straminea, intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in brazil. the impact of the latex on the egg masses and embryos of b. glabrata was also evaluated. using the standardized methodology of the world health organization for testin ...19989452283
contact dermatitis due to euphorbia pulcherrima willd, simulating a phototoxic reaction. 19989506231
study of the embryofeto-toxicity of crown-of-thorns (euphorbia milii) latex, a natural molluscicide.the crude latex of crown-of-thorns (euphorbia milii var. hislopii) is a potent plant molluscicide and a promising alternative to the synthetic molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control. the present study was undertaken to investigate the embryofeto-toxic potential of e. milii latex. the study is part of a comprehensive safety evaluation of this plant molluscicide. lyophilized latex (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in corn oil was given by gavage to wistar rats (n = 100) from days 6 to ...19979532242
photodegradation of the molluscicidal latex of "crown-of-thorns" (euphorbia milii var hislopii). 19979566235
evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n.e.b.) latex: experimental test in an endemic area in the state of minas gerais, brazil.following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. after recording the average annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of e. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream a, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream b and a third st ...19979566245
comparative analysis of the vascular actions of diterpenes isolated from euphorbia canariensis.we have analysed the effects of 2,3-diepiingol 7,12-diacetate-8-isobutyrate (compound 1), ingenol-3-angelate-17-benzoate (compound 2), ingenol-3-angelate-17-benzoate-20-acetate (compound 3) and 3,5,7,8,9,15-hexahydroxyjatropha-6(17),11-dien-14-one-5,8-bi s(2-methylbutyrate)-7-(2-methylpropionate) (compound 4), four diterpenes isolated from e. canariensis, on the isometric tension developed by isolated rabbit basilar and carotid arteries. concentration-response curves to these compounds were obta ...19989580339
screening of australian medicinal plants for antiviral activity.extracts of 40 different plant species used in the traditional medicine of the australian aboriginal people have been investigated for antiviral activity. the extracts have been tested for activity against one dna virus, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) and two rna viruses, ross river virus (rrv) and poliovirus type 1, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. the most active extracts were the aerial parts of pterocaulon sphacelatum (asteraceae) and roots of dianella longifolia var. grandis (liliaceae), whic ...19989582007
dietary cancer risk conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock fed on species of spurge (euphorbiaceae). i. skin irritant and tumor-promoting ingenane-type diterpene esters in e. peplus, one of several herbaceous euphorbia species contaminating fodder of livestock.the hypothesis was proposed that there is a risk of dietary cancer from conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock polluted with irritants of the diterpene ester type, picked up by feeding on species of euphorbiaceae (spurge). to challenge this, several herbaceous plants of the genus euphorbia, widespread as weeds and contaminants of livestock fodder, were identified botanically and extracts of their aerial parts were tested for irritancy on the mouse ear. as compared to a standard probe of ...19989619738
dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock fed on species of spurge (euphorbiaceae). ii. pathophysiological investigations in lactating goats fed on the skin irritant herb euphorbia peplus and in their milk-raised kids.lactating goats were fed on aerial parts of the herb euphorbia peplus l. admixed with their usual green fodder. during the experimental feeding period they showed symptoms of general poisoning. in necropsy the main toxic effects were seen in the heart, lung and liver. histopathological examinations revealed that the primary toxic effects originated from degenerative changes in parenchymal and endothelial cells. adverse symptoms in the liver and kidney were also reflected in an alteration of the ...19989619744
macrocyclic diterpenoids from euphorbia semiperfoliata.in addition to known compounds, the aerial parts of e. semiperfoliata afforded an abietanolide (3), 13 jatrophane polyesters (4-9, 12, 14-19), two 4-deoxyphorbol diesters (23, 24), and a pair of epimeric diterpenes (21, 22) with a novel carbon skeleton, which was named euphoperfoliane. structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, and the main conformational features of jatropha-6(17),11-dienes are discussed in detail. the obtained isolation yield of several jatrophanes was unprecedented ...19989644058
study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics.the purpose of this research was to study the anti-hyperglycemic effect of 28 medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. each plant was processed in the traditional way and intragastrically administered to temporarily hyperglycemic rabbits. the results showed that eight out of the 28 studied plants significantly decrease the hyperglycemic peak and/or the area under the glucose tolerance curve. these plants were: guazuma ulmifolia, tournefortia hirsutissima, lepechinia caulescen ...19989683340
dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock fed on species of spurge (euphorbiaceae). iii. milk of lactating goats fed on the skin irritant herb euphorbia peplus is polluted by tumor promoters of the ingenane diterpene ester type.special procedures were developed to investigate poisonous milk of lactating goats fed experimentally on aerial parts of the herb euphorbia peplus l. in extracts of the milk, weakly irritant in the mouse-ear assay, three diterpene ester toxins were detected by techniques of high-performance liquid chromatography. they are of the ingenane structural type: euphorbia factor pel (ingenol 20-acetate 3-angelate), euphorbia factor pe2 (20-deoxyingenol 3-angelate) and euphorbia factor pe4 (20-deoxyingen ...19989692836
characterization of euphorbia characias latex amine oxidase.a copper-containing amine oxidase from the latex of euphorbia characias was purified to homogeneity and the copper-free enzyme obtained by a ligand-exchange procedure. the interactions of highly purified apo- and holoenzyme with several substrates, carbonyl reagents, and copper ligands were investigated by optical spectroscopy under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. the extinction coefficients at 278 and 490 nm were determined as 3.78 x 10(5) m-1 cm-1 and 6000 m-1 cm-1, respectively. active ...19989701592
[macrocyclic diterpene polyesters of the jatrophane type from euphorbia esula].three new jatrophane diterpenes, esulatin a, b and c (1-3) were isolated and characterized from the whole, undried plant of euphorbia esula. by means of spectral analysis, the structures were established as penta- and heptaesters of hitherto unknown, polyfunctional diterpene parent alcohols. esulatin a (1) and c (3) are the diterpenoids with the highest degree of esterification identified to date from the family euphorbiaceae.19989703704
cloning and characterization of cold-regulated glycine-rich rna-binding protein genes from leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.) and comparison to heterologous genomic clones.leafy spurge (euphorbia esula) is a perennial weed which is capable of acclimating to sub-freezing temperatures. we have used the differential display technique to identify and clone a cdna for a cold-regulated gene (cor20) which hybridizes to mrnas that accumulate specifically during the cold acclamation process. the cor20 cdna was used to isolate two different genomic clones. both clones were similar but not identical to each other and the cdna. sequence analysis of the genomic clones indicate ...19989747799
saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi isolated from golden hamster.healthy hair samples from golden hamsters were examined for the presence of dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes using baiting technique and direct inoculation. thirty-four species and 2 varieties attributed to 17 genera were recovered. paecilomyces variotii (isolated from 84.4% of the examined hair) and aspergillus niger (81.3%) were the more frequent isolates on sabouraud's dextrose agar (sda) without cycloheximide. our results have clearly demonstrated that the hair of hamster was free from tr ...19989768288
[studies on chemical constituents of roots of euphorbia pekinensis].nine compounds were isolated from the roots of euphorbia pekinensis rupr., a traditional chinese medicine. by combination of chemical methods and spectral analyses, the structures of the compounds were identified as lanosterol (i), octadecanyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzeneacrylate (ii), beta-sitosterol (iii), 7-hydroxycoumarin (iv), 2, 2'-dimethoxy-3, 3'-dihydroxy-5, 5'-oxygen-6, 6'-biphenylformic anhydride (v), d-pinoresinol (vi), quercetin (vii), 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid (viii) and 3, 4-dihydro ...19969772694
diterpene polyesters from euphorbia seguierianaan me2co extract of euphorbia seguieriana (euphorbiaceae) afforded seven new diterpene polyesters (1-7). five of them (1-5), having a new parent alcohol that was named 17-hydroxymyrsinol, were structurally related to myrsinol. the other two compounds (6, 7) were new derivatives of the known parent alcohols cyclomyrsinol and lathyrane. the structure elucidations of the new compounds by highfield spectroscopic methods, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques, are described.19989784151
inhibitors of plant copper amine oxidases.in this review, inhibitors of plant copper amine oxidases from lens esculenta seedlings, pisum sativum seedlings, and euphorbia characias latex are described. reversible competitive inhibitors and non-competitive inhibitors, irreversible active-site directed inhibitors and mechanism-based inactivators are reviewed in regard to their mechanisms of action.19989793836
immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers.short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational dermatitis in danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. aimed prick or scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed in 105 persons with plants as is. 35 persons (33%) had at least 1 positive reaction and a family history of, or personal, atopy was significantly more prevalent among these compared to attendants with n ...19989817221
intravesical resiniferatoxin for the treatment of detrusor hyperreflexia refractory to capsaicin in patients with chronic spinal cord diseases.resiniferatoxin (rtx), a substance isolated from some species of euphorbia, a cactus-like plant, shows pharmacological effects similar to those of capsaicin. we have studied the possibility of treating detrusor hyperreflexia refractory to intravesical capsaicin in patients with chronic spinal cord injuries, thereby providing insight into the mechanism of action of rtx on sensory neurons and its possible future pharmacological and clinical use.19989825395
[application of phytotherapy in odontology: the case of euphorbia balsamifera. endodontic clinical trial].phytotherapy is a medicinal and ancestral practice in africa. it deals with all the fields of human pathology. we wanted to ascertain the efficacy of some plants used in odontology as euphorbia balsamifera traditionally used as antalgic treatment of acute dental pulpitis. the latex of the plant was caught and treated as to get enough stable paste. we used that paste in the same conditions we use arsenical nerve caustics, a pulpal devitalizer widely used in dental offices. the study carried out o ...19979827145
recent advances on bioactive natural products from chinese medicinal plants.china has accumulated a rich body of empirical knowledge of the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases throughout its long history. chemical studies on chinese medicinal plants provide a valuable material base for the discovery and development of new drugs of natural origin. in this article recent chemical work on various chinese medicinal plants is reviewed, including mussaenda pubescens (rubiaceae), isatis indigotica (cruciferae), euphorbia fischeriana, and e. ebracteola ...19989828038
botanical briefs: leafy spurge--euphorbia esula l. 19989836052
in vitro inhibitory effects of dna topoisomerase ii by fernane-type triterpenoids isolated from a euphorbia genus.several kinds of naturally occurring fernane-type triterpenoids isolated from a euphorbia genus were tested on the inhibitory effects of dna topoisomerases i (topo i) and ii (topo ii) activities. a-ring cleaved 3,4-seco-8 beta h-ferna-4(23),9(11)-dien-3-oic acid and its 3-hydroxyl derivative were found to be selective inhibitors of topo ii activity without the stabilization of a dna/topo ii cleavable complex.19989873631
an expeditious procedure for the isolation of ingenol from the seeds of euphorbia lathyrisa short and practical process for the isolation of ingenol (1a) from an agricultural commodity (the seeds of euphorbia lathyris) is described. macrocyclic diterpene esters are obtained as byproducts, and the esterification pattern of the euphorbia factors l2 (3), l3 (4a), and l8 (4b) was established by 2d nmr measurements. full spectroscopic data for these compounds are reported.19999917286
isolation and structure revision of pepluane diterpenoids from euphorbia peplusa new pepluane diterpene polyester (2) was isolated from a ch2cl2 extract of the whole, undried plant of euphorbia peplus, together with the known compound 1. the structures were established by high-field spectroscopic methods, including 2d nmr techniques, and by x-ray crystallography, and the stereostructure of the first member of the pepluane diterpenoids (1) was revised.19999917293
isoterracinolides a and b, novel bishomoditerpene lactones from euphorbia terracinaan extract of euphorbia terracina l. has yielded six acylated polyhydroxy terpenoid lactones (1-6), which all display the c22 17-ethyljatrophane carbon framework. four of these (1-4) are delta lactones belonging to the previously described terracinolide type, and two of them (2, 3) are new. two further new compounds have been named isoterracinolides a (5) and b (6) and exhibit an eight-membered lactone ring. another isolated new compound is the jolkinolide-type, ent-abietane gamma lactone (7).19999917294
a novel lathyrane diterpenoid from the roots of euphorbia lathyrisa new lathyrane diterpene (1) has been isolated and characterized from a ch2cl2 extract of the roots of euphorbia lathyris. detailed spectral analysis revealed that the structure of 1, including relative stereochemistry, is that of a diester of a hitherto unknown, polyfunctional diterpene parent alcohol.19999917314
euphorbia hirta leaves and musa sapientum fruits in culture media for fungi.two plant products, euphorbia hirta leaves and fruits of musa sapientum, were evaluated as principal ingredients for selective cultivation of fungi. sapientum glucose agar supported the growth of both dermatophytic, yeast-like, and saprophytic fungi; growth on this medium compared favourably with growth on sabouraud glucose agar, a standard mycological medium. sporulation and pigment formation were stronger on sapientum glucose agar than on sabouraud glucose agar, although fungal growth on the l ...19989919898
effects of euphorbia milii latex on schistosoma mansoni eggs, miracidia and cercariae. 19989921358
cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the compounds from euphorbia kansui.eleven compounds including four triterpenes, one sterol, and six diterpenes from e kansui had been assayed for their cytotoxicity and activiral activity. the relations between structures and bioactivities have also been noted.19989933994
a search for anti-viral properties in panamanian medicinal plants. the effects on hiv and its essential enzymes.aqueous and methanolic extracts of 39 panamanian medicinal plants were tested for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) effects. the extracts were tested for the inhibition of hiv-induced cytopathic effects in cultured cells, hiv-reverse transcriptase (rt) and hiv-protease (pr) enzymes. the water extract of the branches of jatropha curcas (euphorbiaceae) inhibited strongly the hiv-induced cytopathic effects with low cytotoxicity. on the other hand, the water extracts of the whole plant of cham ...199910075118
inhibitory effects of sudanese plant extracts on hiv-1 replication and hiv-1 protease.forty-eight methanol and aqueous extracts from sudanese plants were screened for their inhibitory activity on viral replication. nineteen extracts showed inhibitory effects on hiv-induced cytopathic effects (cpe) on mt-4 cells. the extracts were further screened against hiv-1 protease (pr) using an hplc assay method. of the tested extracts, the methanol extracts of acacia nilotica (bark and pods), euphorbia granulata (leaves), maytenus senegalensis (stem-bark) and aqueous extracts of a. nilotica ...199910189947
biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in kinshasa, congo.forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use as antidiarrhoeic agents. they were submitted in a broad biological screening including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. the results of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32 (69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activity respectively. only 8 plant ...199910228613
euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats.euphorbia hirta is locally used in africa and australia to treat numerous diseases, including hypertension and edema. the diuretic effect of the e. hirta leaf extracts were assessed in rats using acetazolamide and furosemide as standard diuretic drugs. the water and ethanol extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg) of the plant produced time-dependent increase in urine output. electrolyte excretion was also significantly affected by the plant extracts. the water extract increased the urine excretion of na+, k ...199910350369
tumor promoting diterpenes from euphorbia leuconeura l.diterpene esters of the phorbol and ingenol types are known to be highly active tumor promoting agents that typically occur in members of the euphorbiaceae. in the present work, euphorbia leuconeura, a rare indoor plant, is analyzed for its tumor promoting potential. latex as well as total leaf extracts exhibited epstein-barr-virus (ebv) inducing activity comparable to 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-o-acetate, a well known tumor promoter. the activity of individual fractions correlated with their ...199910365450
[terpenoids and steroids from several euphorbiaceae and pinaceae plants].during the course of a search for biologically active constituents from unexamined plant sources, several biogenetically interesting new di- and tri-terpenes and steroids were isolated from several weeds and shrubs of euphorbiaceae and the bark, leaves and cones of several pinaceae trees which had been treated as wastes in the forestry industry. euphorbia supina contained 3,4-seco-5 alpha- and 5 beta-adian-4(23)-ene-3,5-diols and related oxides, oxygenated fern-8-en-3 beta-ols named supinenolone ...199910375995
jatrophane diterpenoids from euphorbia peplus.from the pro-inflammatory active extract of euphorbia peplus, a new diterpene polyester (1) based on the jatrophane skeleton was isolated together with the known compounds 2-5. the irritant activities of some jatrophane diterpenes (2, 3 and 6-9) were also investigated: only compound 2 was found to exert a weak pro-inflammatory activity on mouse ear.199910392470
new diterpenoids from euphorbia teheranicatwo novel pentacyclic diterpenoid esters of the cyclomyrsinane type (1, 2), and one tetracyclic diterpenoid ester of the myrsinane type (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of the plant euphorbia teheranica. the structures of the novel compounds were determined by spectral data interpretation.199910425130
piceatannol, a stilbene phytochemical, inhibits mitochondrial f0f1-atpase activity by targeting the f1 complex.piceatannol is a stilbene phytochemical from the seeds of euphorbia lagascae, previously identified as an antileukemic principle. piceatannol is considered an inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases. we recently reported that resveratrol, another stilbene phytoalexin from grape seeds, was an inhibitor of atp synthase. here, we demonstrated that piceatannol potently inhibited the rat brain mitochondrial f0f1-atpase activity in both solubilized and submitochondrial preparations (ic50 of 8-9 microm), ...199910425214
the influence of environmental factors on the molluscicidal activity of euphorbia milii latex.the present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of biotic (snail size and presence of food during the test) and abiotic factors (temperature, water hardness and concentration of organic materials) on the molluscicidal activity of euphorbia milii latex. bioassays were conducted with b. glabrata (10 snails per concentration) and snail lethality was evaluated after 24 hr and 48 hr of exposure to lyophilized latex solutions. neither the degree of water hardness, nor the presence of foo ...199910507917
[dermatitis and conjunctivitis after contact with euphorbia myrsinites (wolf's milk extract)--a case report].fresh sap of euphorbiaceae leads to a toxic burn of the skin and the eyes. since years the sap of euphorbiaceae has been used in the treatment of different kinds of verrucas.199910528288
diterpenoids from euphorbia pithyusa subsp. cupaniithe aerial parts of euphorbia pithyusa subsp. cupanii collected in sardinia afforded eleven novel diterpenoids belonging to the lathyrane (1a), premyrsinane (4a-g), and tigliane (5a-c) types. compounds 4a-g and 5a are esters of two new parent alcohols, named premyrsinol and 4,12,20-trideoxyphorbol, respectively. structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. puzzling differences between the nmr data of lathyrol (1c) and its esters were rationalized in terms of flipping of the ...199910543901
rubber particles from four different species, examined by transmission electron microscopy and electron-paramagnetic-resonance spin labeling, are found to consist of a homogeneous rubber core enclosed by a contiguous, monolayer biomembranethe physical characteristics of rubber particles from the four rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing species euphorbia lactiflua phil., ficus elastica roxb., hevea brasiliensis mull. arg., and parthenium argentatum gray, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (tem) and electron-paramagnetic-resonance (epr) spin labeling spectroscopy. transmission electron microscopy showed the rubber particles to be composed of a spherical, homogeneous, core of rubber enclosed by a contiguous ...199910592036
antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine african medicinal plants used in kinshasa, congo.twenty extracts including ten etoh and ten ch2cl2 from different parts of nine african medicinal plants used in congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on p. falciparum growth in vitro. of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including etoh and ch2cl2 from cassia occidentalis leaves, cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, euphorbia hirta whole plant, garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, morinda lucida l ...199910624878
the spectrum of ocular inflammation caused by euphorbia plant sap.to report the spectrum of clinical findings in patients with ocular inflammation caused by plant sap from euphorbia species.200010636407
pollinator-mediated interactions between a pathogenic fungus, uromyces pisi (pucciniaceae), and its host plant,euphorbia cyparissias (euphorbiaceae).the plant euphorbia cyparissias is commonly infected by rust fungi of the species complex uromyces pisi. when infected, e. cyparissias is unable to flower, but instead is induced by the fungus to form pseudoflowers. pseudoflowers are rosettes of yellow leaves upon which the fungus presents its gametes in a sweet-smelling fungal nectar. we hypothesized that the fungi, as they are heterothallic, are dependent on insect visitation to cross-fertilize their mating types. we confirmed that insects are ...200010636829
bioactive steroids from the whole herb of euphorbia chamaesyce.three new ergostane-type steroids, 3beta-hydroxy-4alpha, 14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha-ergosta-8,24(28)-dien-11 -one (1); 3beta, 11alpha-dihydroxy-4alpha,14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha -ergosta-8, 24(28)-dien-7-one (2); and 3beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-4alpha, 14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha-ergosta-8,24(28)-dien-11 -one (3), were isolated, together with two known triterpenoids, wrightial and lup-20(30)-ene-3beta,29-diol from the whole herb of euphorbia chamaesyce. compound 3 showed a potent inhibitory effect on epstein-b ...200010650087
nonpolar components of the latex of euphorbia peplus.the less polar fractions of the latex of euphorbia peplus were found to contain obtusifoliol, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, lanosterol, and 24-methylenelanosterol in the free and esterified triterpene alcohol fractions; 9-cis-tricosene as the major component of the hydrocarbon fraction; and a new acyclic triterpene alcohol named peplusol (1). the structure of 1 was determined as the r-isomer of (all-e)-2-(5,9-dimethyl-1-methylene-4,8-decadienyl)-5,9, 13-trimethyl-4,8,12-tetradecatrien- ...200010691725
inhibitory effect of euphol, a triterpene alcohol from the roots of euphorbia kansui, on tumour promotion by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.the anti-inflammatory activity of euphol, twelve other triterpene alcohols and sitosterol-beta-d-glucopyranoside, isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the roots of euphorbia kansui, has been evaluated in mice with inflammation induced by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa). tpa (1.7 nmol; 1.0 microg/ear) was dissolved in acetone and 10 microl delivered to the inner and outer surfaces of the right ear of icr mice. a triterpene alcohol, sterol glucoside or vehicle (20 microl; chloro ...200010716613
polycyclic diterpenoids from euphorbia characias.in addition to widespread flavonoids, a collection of euphorbia characias from sardinia afforded 13 oxygenated diterpenoids of the atisane, abietane, pimarane, and kaurane type. four of these compounds (1, 3a, 7a,b) are new. the accumulation of substantial amounts of biologically active diterpenoids of limited availability, like ent-atisanes endowed with anti-hiv activity and ent-abietanolides active on the central nervous system, makes e. characias an interesting source of lead compounds for bi ...200010727809
cucumisin-like protease from the latex of euphorbia supina.a protease has been purified from the latex of euphorbia supina rafin by two steps of chromatography. the mr was estimated by sds-page to be 80 kda. its activity was inhibited strongly by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, but not by edta, pepstatin, or cysteine protease inhibitors, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. the specificity of the protease is broad, but the preferential cleavage sites were c-terminal sites of hydrophobic amino acid residues. the n-terminal sequence of the first ...200010746875
molluscicidal activity of some saudi arabian euphorbiales against the snail biomphalaria pfeifferi.the comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from saudi arabian euphorbiales has been determined. methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (jatropha glauca, euphorbia helioscopia and euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with ld(50) values in the range 10-100 ppm.200010771201
antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in kinshasa, congo.three major extracts from some traditional preparations, based on medicinal plants, used as antidiarrhoeal agents were investigated for their putative antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities in vitro. results indicated that both biological activities are concentrated in the polyphenolic fraction, and not in the saponin or alkaloid containing fractions. the most active polyphenolic extracts were those from euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of alchornea cordifolia, crossopteryx febrifuga, nauclea ...200010782488
a phylogenetic study of tribe euphorbieae (euphorbiaceae).a phylogenetic investigation of a monophyletic lineage of spurge plants, tribe euphorbieae, was conducted to elucidate evolutionary relationships, to clarify biogeographic patterns, and to reexamine the previous classification of euphorbieae. cladistic analyses of the 52 morphological characters of 61 species resulted in 2922 equally most parsimonious trees of 193 steps with a consistency index of 0.34. the strict consensus tree indicates genus anthostema of subtribe anthosteminae as a likely si ...200010817978
microstructure of purified rubber particles.purified rubber particles from hevea brasiliensis (brazilian rubber tree), parthenium argentatum (guayule), ficus elastica (indian rubber tree), and euphorbia lactiflua were examined and compared using conventional scanning electron microscopy (sem), field-emission sem, cryo-sem, and transmission electron microscopy (tem). rubber particles of all four species were spherical; they varied in size and had a uniform homogeneous material, the rubber core, surrounded by a contiguous monolayer (half-un ...200010817979
constituents and bioactivity of the tubers of euphorbia sessiliflora.the diterpene ent-12-hydroxy-12[r]-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12-olide was isolated from the tubers of euphorbia sessiliflora roxb., together with four known ent-abietadienolides, four known cycloartane triterpenes and ellagic acid-beta-d-glucopyranoside. two of these metabolates displayed moderate antibacterial activities.200010820809
diterpenoids from euphorbia peplus.from a pro-inflammatory active extract of euphorbia peplus, two new diterpene polyesters based on the pepluane and jatrophane skeletons were isolated, together with four known ingenane and jatrophane diterpenes. the structures were determined on the basis of extensive nmr studies. ingenol 3-angelate, which was obtained for the first time from this plant, is an irritant toxin with high activity.200010821064
sequence analysis and genome organisation of poinsettia mosaic virus (pnmv) reveal closer relationship to marafiviruses than to tymoviruses.sequence comparison and genome organisation of poinsettia mosaic virus (pnmv), a putative member of the tymoviruses, revealed a closer relationship to marafiviruses. the complete nucleotide sequence of pnmv was determined. the 6099-nt rna genome encodes a putative 221-kda polyprotein that lacks a stop codon between the replicase and the coat protein genes, as in most tymovirus rnas. the genomic rna has a poly(a) tail at its 3'-terminus in contrast to the trna-like structure found in the rna of m ...200010860883
an economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (homoptera: aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.the objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, bemisia argentifolii bellows & perring, in new england greenhouse operations on poinsettia, euphorbia pulcherrima wild, ex koltz, using the parasitic wasp encarsia formosa gahan (nile delta strain). partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemi ...200010902307
imidacloprid applications by subirrigation for control of silverleaf whitefly (homoptera: aleyrodidae) on poinsettia.the objective of this study was to determine whether silverleaf whiteflies, bemisia argentifolii bellows & perring, on poinsettia, euphorbia pulcherrima willdenow ex klotsch, can be controlled with imidacloprid applied by subirrigation. different amounts of imidacloprid uptake by the growing medium were obtained by not watering the subirrigated plants for 0, 1, 2, or 4 d before the imidacloprid application. these treatments resulted in absorption of 12-175 ml of imidacloprid solution by the grow ...200010902335
toxicity of euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species.the toxicity of euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (ncl) to target snails (biomphalaria glabrata and biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h lc(50), mg/l: b. glabrata, 0.12; b. tenagophila, 0.09; helisoma duryi, 0.10). latex was less toxic (48-h lc(50) or ec(50), mg/l) to oligochaeta (tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea (daphnia similis, 0.38; c. dubia, 1 ...200010903832
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