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inhibition of tumor cells growth and stimulation of lymphocytes by euphorbia species.plants have been shown to possess a number of beneficial anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. in this study the possible in vitro antitumor activity and immunomodulatory effects of five species of euphorbia, an important genus of euphorbiaceae, including e. petiolata, e. hebecarpa, e. osyridea, e. microciadia, and e. heteradenia were investigated using cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays. among different tumor cell lines, the most sensitive cell line to methanolic extracts of the p ...201120331330
a review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the pacific.ciguatera fish poisoning (cfp) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (ctxs). the clinical management of patients with cfp is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. in new caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of ...201121287650
calcium ions and a secreted peroxidase in euphorbia characias latex are made for each other.this minireview deals of a protein, a class iii secreted peroxidase, present as unique isoform in the latex of the perennial mediterranean shrub euphorbia characias. the paper reports on the molecular properties, on the structures (primary, secondary and tertiary), and on the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. here is also reported the extraordinary effect of calcium ions on the structure and on the enzyme activity of euphorbia peroxidase. these ions can either enhance the catalytic efficiency ...201121293912
feeding deterrents against two grain storage insects from euphorbia fischeriana.the screening of several chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that euphorbia fischeriana roots possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against two stored-product insects (tribolium castaneum and sitophilus zeamais). from ethanol extract, four feeding deterrents were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. the compounds were identified as jolkinolide b, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-(9z)-octadecenoate 20-acetate, 17-hydroxyjolkinolide a and b on the basis of their phytochem ...201121221063
new promising euphorbiaceae extracts with activity in human lymphocytes from primary cell cultures.context: euphorbiaceae plants exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. methods: we evaluated the activity of 14 extracts from seven euphorbiaceae plants on primary immune cell cultures from healthy individuals. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were exposed to the extracts w/o phytohaemagglutinin a or cycloheximide as agents that induce proliferation or apoptosis in pbmc, respectively. results: we found that five up to 14 euphorbiaceae's extracts had the ability to modu ...201120670161
latex of euphorbia antiquorum induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells via c-jun n-terminal kinase activation and reactive oxygen species production.latex of euphorbia antiquorum (ea) has inhibitory effects on several different cancer cell lines. however, the molecular mechanism of ea inhibitory effects on human cervical cancer hela cell growth has not been explored. ea induced apoptosis, which was characterized by morphological change, dna fragmentation, increased sub-g1 population, and alterations in levels of apoptosis-associated proteins. treatment with ea increased cell death and expression levels of caspase-8, -9, and -3. ea suppressed ...201122044063
analysis of euphornin in euphorbia helioscopia l. and its cytotoxicity to mice lung adenocarcinoma cells (la795).euphorbia helioscopia l. has been used as a herbal remedy for cancer in mainland china. euphornin is one of the main bioactive constituents with the maximal content of euphorbia helioscopia l. a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection (elsd) was developed for the analysis of euphornin for better quality control of e. helioscopia l. a good calibration curve in double logarithmic coordinator for euphornin was obtained. the validation ...201121958384
Fearful symmetry in aposematic plants.Symmetry has been proposed to increase the efficiency of visual aposematic displays in animals, and I suggest that it may also be true for many aposematic spiny or poisonous plants. For instance, in the very spiny plant taxa cacti, Aloe sp., Agave sp. and Euphorbia sp., which have been proposed to be aposematic because of their colorful spine system, the shoots, and in cacti, the spiny fruits as well, are usually radially symmetric. Moreover, in the radial symmetric shoots of Agave and Aloe thei ...201122067106
Anticancer Potential of Euphorbia helioscopia L Extracts Against Human Cancer Cells.Euphorbia helioscopia L is considered a traditional Chinese herb which is widely distributed in China. The active anticancer fractions and anticancer mechanism of the herb are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effects of Euphorbia helioscopia L extracts on five different human cancer cell lines for screening the main active fraction with antitumor effect. In this regard, the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in ...201122190452
molecular authentication of the medicinal herb ruta graveolens (rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast dna markers.dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with euphorbia dracunculoides. the genomic dna was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified ctab method. internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal dna (nrdna-its), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpob and rpoc1) are regarded as potential genes for plant dna ba ...201122095605
New tigliane-type diterpenoids from Euphorbia aellenii Rech. f. with immunomodulatory activity.The cytotoxic chloroform fraction of Euphorbia aellenii Rech. F. (Euphorbiaceae) afforded two new phorbol diterpenoids: 4-deoxy-4a-phorbol-12-(2,3-dimethyl) butyrate-13-isobutyrate and 17-hydroxy-4-deoxy-4a-phorbol-12-(2,3-dimethyl) butyrate-13-isobutyrate. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and other spectroscopic methods. The immunomodulating potentials of the isolated compounds were tested using standard proliferation and chemiluminescence assays. Compound 2 showed moderate inhibitory ac ...201122049276
Jolkinolide B from Euphorbia fischeriana Steud induces apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells through PI3K/Akt and XIAP pathways.Jolkinolide B, a bioactive diterpene isolated from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, is known to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer activity has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that Jolkinolide B reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose- and timedependent manner in human leukemic U937. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by the downregulation of PI3K/Akt and the inhibitor of apoptosis p ...201122083305
bioseparation of four proteins from euphorbia characias latex: amine oxidase, peroxidase, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, and purple acid phosphatase.this paper deals with the purification of four proteins from euphorbia characias latex, a copper amine oxidase, a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, a peroxidase, and a purple acid phosphatase. these proteins, very different in molecular weight, in primary structure, and in the catalyzed reaction, are purified using identical preliminary steps of purification and by chromatographic methods. in particular, the deae-cellulose chromatography is used as a useful purification step for all ...201122013530
inhibitory effects of constituents from euphorbia lunulata on differentiation of 3t3-l1 cells and nitric oxide production in raw264.7 cells.a new flavonol galactopyranoside, myricetin 3-o-(2'',3''-digalloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (1), and 23 known constituents, including myricetin 3-o-(2''-galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (2), myricitrin (3), myricetin (4), quercetin 3-o-(2'', 3''-digalloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (5), quercetin 3-o-(2''-galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (6), hyperin (7), isoquercetrin (8), quercetin (9), kaempferol (10), apigenin (11), luteolin (12), 3-o-methylquercetin (13), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavone (14), 1,3,4,6-tetra ...201121959301
phylogenetics of the chamaesyce clade (euphorbia, euphorbiaceae): reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent c4 lineage.• premise of the study: the chamaesyce clade of euphorbia is the largest lineage of c(4) plants among the eudicots, with 350 species including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds. we sampled this group worldwide to address questions about subclade relationships, the origin of c(4) photosynthesis, the evolution of weeds, and the role of hybridization and long-distance dispersal in the diversification of the group. • methods: two nuclear (its and exon 9 of emb2765) and three chloroplast ma ...201121875975
17-hydroxy-jolkinolide b, a diterpenoid from euphorbia fischeriana, inhibits inflammatory mediators but activates heme oxygenase-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages.jolkinolides are the main abietane-type diterpenoids isolated from the root of euphorbia fischeriana steud. in the present study, we investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of four structural analogs of jolkinolide in lipopolysaccharide (lps)-stimulated raw264 macrophages. among these jolkinolides, 17-hydroxy-jolkinolide b (hjb) exhibited the most potent inhibition of lps-induced production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin e(2) (pge(2)), nitric oxide (no), and pro-inflamm ...201122080918
antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of euphorbia hirta leaves extract studied in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats.euphorbia hirta, commonly known as asthma weed, is a popular folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments. recent studies have indicated that plant has potent antioxidant properties. as part of an ongoing programme to validate the use of some reputed herbs in indian traditional medicines, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of e. hirta leaves in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. oral administration of e. hirta leaves extrac ...201121952437
anthelmintic effect of euphorbia prostrata ait. extracts. 201122144794
folk medicine in the northern coast of colombia: an overview.traditional remedies are an integral part of colombian culture. here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the atlantic coast of colombia, specifically in department of bolívar. we collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed.201121939522
structure elucidation of two new unusual monoterpene glycosides from euphorbia decipiens, by 1d and 2d nmr experiments.two new unusual monoterpene glycosides, (z)-3,6-dimethyl-3-(β-d-o-glucosylmethylene)cyclohept-4-ene-1-one (1) and 3,6-dimethyl-3-(β-d-o-glucosylmethylene)cycloheptanone (2) have been isolated along with five known compounds, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, luteolin, apigenin 5-o-αl-l-rhamnoside, and pinocembrin-7-o-rutinoside from ethyl acetate extract of euphorbia decipiens. the structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive 1d- and 2d-nmr, and mass sp ...201121898586
evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from burkina faso.the aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from burkina faso. methanolic extracts were used for their glutathione-s-transferase (gst), acetylcholinesterase (ache), carboxylesterase (ces) and xanthine oxidase (xo) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using folin-ciocalteu, alcl3 and ammonium citrate iron ...201121916259
New species of Gondwanamyces from dying Euphorbia trees in South Africa.Gondwanamyces and its Custingophora anamorphs were first described from Protea infructescences in South Africa. Subsequently, these unusual fungi were also found on Cecropia in Central America. During the course of an investigation into the decline and death of native Euphorbia trees in South Africa, several fungal isolates resembling the anamorph state of Gondwanamyces were obtained from diseased tissues. In this study, these isolates are identified based on morphology and comparisons of DNA se ...201122086910
impact of taraxerol in combination with extract of euphorbia tirucalli plant on biological parameters of lymnaea acuminata.the present work was carried out to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of active ingredient taraxerol with the acetone extract of euphorbia tirucalli against lymnaea acuminata snail. the (fecundity, hatchability and survivability) of snail l. acuminata exposed to this extract was studied. the effects of the tested extracts on life-history traits of harmful snail l. acuminata have also been evaluated, and this study also expounds the inhibitory effects of these extracts singly as well as in bina ...201122012452
preventive and therapeutic euphol treatment attenuates experimental colitis in mice.the tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of euphorbia tirucalli. this plant is widely known in brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action.201122073270
isolation and characterisation of new bio-active compounds from euphorbia cornigera: cytotoxic ingenol esters.the aerial parts of euphorbia cornigera boiss., on extraction with meoh, yielded new bio-active constituents (1, 2) and known compounds (3 and 4) after mtt cytotoxicity assay-guided fractionation and chromatographic separation were conducted. from the aerial parts of e. cornigera boiss., new bio-active constituents were extracted in methanol. the extract was partitioned in different organic solvents and the ethylacetate-soluble portion was subjected to craig's distribution. the mtt cytotoxicity ...201122007629
new anti-cancer characteristics of jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia dendroides.jatrophane diterpenes were shown to be inhibitors of p-glycoprotein (p-gp). there are also evidences on their microtubule-interacting activity in cancer cells. we evaluated new anti-cancer characteristics of two jatrophane type compounds from euphorbia dendroides. for that purpose, the model system of sensitive non-small cell lung cancer cell line (nci-h460) and its resistant counterpart (nci-h460/r) was used. although both jatrophanes showed inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth, they were no ...201121996302
effects of chinese herbal cataplasm xiaozhang tie on cirrhotic ascites.conventional methods of treating cirrhotic ascites are inadequate. we sought to identify a novel, effective approach to relieve the suffering of patients with cirrhotic ascites.201122107835
molecular characterization of a new begomovirus that infects euphorbia heterophylla and solanum lycopersicum in venezuela.we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus isolate infecting euphorbia heterophylla and tomato (solanum lycopersicum) in central venezuela. based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus begomovirus, the isolate was shown to represent a novel species, tentatively named euphorbia mosaic venezuela virus (eumvv). its dna-a is most closely related to those of euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from the caribbean and central america. the dna b component forms a phylogenetic clu ...201122052541
an inventory of the ethnobotanicals used as anti-diabetic by a rural community of dhemaji district of assam, northeast india.traditional remedies used for treating diabetic ailments are very important in the primary health care of the people living in rural dhemaji district of assam, north-east india. novel information gathered from the current survey is important in preserving folk indigenous knowledge.201121871548
Bioactivity-guided Isolation of Antiproliferative Diterpenoids from Euphorbia kansui.Cytotoxic assay guided multistep separation on the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui resulted in the isolation of 10 ingenol-type diterpenoids (1-4 and 7-12), of which, 5-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (1) is a new compound, and two are jatrophane-type diterpenoids (13-14). Interconversion of two pairs of positional ester isomers (1-4) in aqueous alcoholic solution was observed, the transesterification mechanism of which was speculated and confirmed by acylatio ...201122095916
Bioactive components in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. against the inflammatory irritant action of Euphorbia plants.Chinese jujube (also known as Chinese date) is the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae). As a famous folk medicine, it is used as antidote in traditional Chinese formula, Shi Zao Decoction, to relieve the drastic inflammatory irritant nature of Euphorbia species. The irritant activities may cause serious adverse effects in clinical practices. This study aimed to investigate the active components of Z. jujuba through the inhibitory effects on the inflammatory cells activated by Euphorbia k ...201121982434
De novo assembly of Euphorbia fischeriana root transcriptome identifies prostratin pathway related genes.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Euphorbia fischeriana is an important medicinal plant found in Northeast China. The plant roots contain many medicinal compounds including 12-deoxyphorbol-13-acetate, commonly known as prostratin that is a phorbol ester from the tigliane diterpene series. Prostratin is a protein kinase C activator and is effective in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by acting as a latent HIV activator. Latent HIV is currently the biggest limitation for viral eradication. ...201122151917
meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruv ...201122192329
uptake of heavy metals by native species growing in a mining area in sardinia, italy: discovering native flora for phytoremediation.this study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of zn, pb, and cd present in an abandoned mine at ingurtosu, sardinia (italy). geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings, and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. mean values of total zn, pb and cd were respectively (mg kg(-1)) 7400, 1800, and 56 in tailings, 31000, 2900, and 100 in sediments, and 400, 200, and 8 in the pasture soil ...201121972566
Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The ...201121986363
bioactive myrsinol diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia prolifera.ten myrsinol diterpenes, euphorbiaproliferins a-j (1-10), along with nine known analogues (11-19) were isolated from the roots of euphorbia prolifera. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis (ir, esims, hresims, 1d and 2d nmr), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. the diterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against mpp+-induced neuronal cell death in sh-sy5y cells.201121928782
Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Fl ...201121964921
amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb euphorbia hirta.euphorbia hirta (l.) (euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of e. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.201122022170
evaluation of nonpolar metabolites in plant extracts by 13c nmr spectroscopy.(13)c nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy was explored as a simple and efficient technique for the quantitative analysis of nonpolar metabolites in plants. the method was first optimized with a mixture of known metabolites and then applied to the nonpolar leaf extracts of plants harvested in the valencian community (eastern spain) belonging to three different genera: euphorbia (euphorbiaceae), araujia (apocynaceae), and morus (moraceae). furthermore, an exhaustive analysis of euphorbi ...201121955286
the sap from euphorbia peplus is effective against human nonmelanoma skin cancers.the sap from euphorbia peplus, commonly known as petty spurge in the u.k. or radium weed in australia, has been used as a traditional treatment for a number of cancers.201121375515
specific and nonspecific immunostimulation study of euphorbia hirta on pseudomonas fluorescens-infected cyprinus carpio.infectious diseases are one of the major factors affecting the production of fish worldwide. the pathogens (especially bacteria) affect the immune system of fish and the administration of immunostimulants can increase resistance to infectious diseases by enhancing both specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms.201121385104
laticifer proteins play a defensive role against hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic phytopathogens.proteins from latex of calotropis procera (cplp), plumeria rubra (prlp), carica candamarcensis (p1g10) and euphorbia tirucalli (etlp) were tested for antifungal activity against phytopathogens. cplp and p1g10 inhibited each fungi analyzed. prlp and etlp did not exert inhibition. cplp and p1g10 exhibited preferential inhibitory activity towards r. solani (icôéàôéç = 20.7 and 25.3 -ág/ml, respectively). the inhibitory activity was lost after heat treatment or proteolysis, providing evidence for th ...201121394468
stable molluscicide formulation of an aqueous extract of euphorbia myrsinites.aqueous extracts of euphorbia myrsinites l. (euphorbiaceae) were tested for molluscicidal activity against biomphalaria glabrata; lc(50) values of 15.1 and 8.9?ppm were obtained for the stem and leaf extracts, respectively, which are within the who limit for an effective molluscicide. however, the extracts were found to be unstable at room temperature and the level of activity fell rapidly (about 50% after 7?days at 20?°c). moreover, the extracts were shown to be cytotoxic and would thus, if use ...201121413091
autophosphorylation is crucial for cdk-activating kinase (ee;cdkf;1) activity and complex formation in leafy spurge.ee;cdkf;1 protein is a leafy spurge (euphorbia esula) cdk-activating kinase that is involved in a phosphorylation cascade linked to early stages of cell cycle progression. yeast two-hybrid screening performed using ee;cdkf;1 as a bait indicated that one of the interacting proteins was ee;cdkf;1. protein-protein interaction of ee;cdkf;1 was further confirmed by yeast two-hybrid interaction and in vitro pull-down assays. gel exclusion chromatography and/or native page showed that gst-cdkf;1, mbp-c ...201121421369
the efficacy of euphorbia prostrata in early grades of symptomatic hemorrhoids--a pilot study.the medical treatment for hemorrhoids has undergone significant changes on introduction of new pharmaceutical agents in the last decade. euphorbia prostrata is a new molecule used for grade i and ii hemorrhoids. beneficial effects of the euphorbia prostrata in hemorrhoids have multiple mechanisms that are due to its active constituents flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acid. this pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of this molecule in early grades of symptomatic hemorrhoids.201121434487
the occurrence of c(2) photosynthesis in euphorbia subgenus chamaesyce (euphorbiaceae).this study investigated whether euphorbia subgenus chamaesyce subsection acutae contains c(3)-c(4) intermediate species utilizing c(2) photosynthesis, the process where photorespired co(2) is concentrated into bundle sheath cells. euphorbia species in subgenus chamaesyce are generally c(4), but three species in subsection acutae (e. acuta, e. angusta, and e. johnstonii) have c(3) isotopic ratios. phylogenetically, subsection acutae branches between basal c(3) clades within euphorbia and the c(4) ...201121459765
structure identification of euphorbia factor l3 and its induction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway.in this article, we have focused on the structure identification of euphorbia factor l3 belonging to the lathyrane diterpenoids isolated from caper euphorbia seed. its anticancer activity in vitro against lung cancer a549 cells was also investigated and the ic(50) values were 34.04 ± 3.99 μm. furthermore, euphorbia factor l3 could induce apoptosis in a549 cells via the mitochondrial pathway including loss of mitochondrial potential and release of cytochrome c.201121499222
effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of bemisia tabaci (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) biotype b.we tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae; =bemisia argentifolii bellows & perring) biotype b reared on poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima willdenow ex klotzch). free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient ass ...201121510203
effects of euphorbia esula l. (leafy spurge) on cattle and sheep in vitro fermentation and gas production.background: euphorbia esula l. (leafy spurge) is indigenous to eurasia and has been known to cause grazing aversion in ruminant species. as a result, e. esula encroachment has negatively impacted rangelands in the northern great plains and intermountain west of the usa, as well as southern canada. our objectives were to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of e. esula on in vitro dry matter digestibility (dmd) and gas production. two ruminally-cannulated cows and ewes were used as ru ...201121520450
medicinal plants used as antitumor agents in brazil: an ethnobotanical approach.we describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in brazil? have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. a total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for canc ...201121528006
biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of a novel metalloprotease, cotinifolin from an antiviral plant shrub: euphorbia cotinifolia.a high molecular mass novel metalloprotease, cotinifolin is purified from the latex of euphorbia cotinifolia by a combination of anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. the nonglycosylated enzyme has a molecular mass of 79.76 kda (esi-ms) and the isoelectric point of the enzyme is ph 7.7. cotinifolin hydrolyzes denatured natural substrates such as casein, azoalbumin, and hemoglobin with high specific activity. the k(m) value of the enzyme was found to be 20 μm with azocasein. ...201121531144
tigliane-type diterpenoid glycosides from euphorbia fischeriana.investigation of whole plants of euphorbia fischeriana afforded three new tigliane-diterpenoid glycosides, fischerosides a-c (1-3), together with 11 known diterpenoids. fischerosides a-c (1-3) are the first tigliane-type diterpenoid glucosides. their structures were determined by a combination of 1d and 2d nmr, ms, and acid hydrolysis. inhibitory activity against hiv-1 was assessed for compounds 1-5. the new compound 3 showed an ec(50) value of 0.02 μm and a therapeutic index (ti) of 17.50, whil ...201121534540
lathyrane diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia micractina and their biological activities.seventeen new lathyrane diterpenoids (1-17) and two known analogues have been isolated from an ethanolic extract of euphorbia micractina roots. their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal x-ray crystallography. compound 10 showed activity against hiv-1 replication in vitro, with an ic(50) value of 8.2 μm. compounds 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, and 18, at 10(-6) m, showed significant vascular-relaxing activities against phenyleph ...201121534583
efficacy of euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails.the toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of euphorbia hirta linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails lymnaea (radix) acuminata and indoplanorbis exustus in pond. these combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. these compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish channa punctatus (bloch) (channidae {ophicephalidae}), which shares the habitat with these snails, b ...201121537758
towards a better pharmacophore description of p-glycoprotein modulators, based on macrocyclic diterpenes from euphorbia species.multidrug resistance related to the increased expression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) by cancer cells is the major contributor for the failure of chemotherapeutic treatments. starting from pharmacophores and data already published and in macrocyclic diterpenes isolated from euphorbia species, a comprehensive study of pharmacophore definitions of features was performed in order to obtain a new improved four-point pharmacophore able to detect literature and in-house modulators, and simultaneously spec ...201121604687
jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia esula as antiproliferative agents and potent chemosensitizers to overcome multidrug resistance.phytochemical study of whole, undried plants of euphorbia esula led to the isolation of six new (1-6) jatrophane diterpene polyesters, named esulatins h-m, together with the known compounds 2α,3β,5α,7β,15β-pentaacetoxy-9α-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11-dien-14-one (7), salicinolide (8), and euphosalicin (9). the structures and relative configuration of 1-6 were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including hresims and one- and two-dimensional nmr techniques. all these c ...201121612217
molecular characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase from euphorbia pekinensis rupr.the root of euphorbia pekinensis as a traditional herbal medicine has been recorded in chinese pharmacopoeias for the treatment of oedema, gonorrhea, migraine and wart cures. in this work, we reported on the cdna cloning and characterization of a novel farnesyl diphosphate synthase (fps) from e. pekinensis. the full-length cdna named epfps (genbank accession number fj755465) contained 1431 bp with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a polypeptie of 342 amino acids. the deduced amino acid s ...201121614522
euphorbia factor l1 reverses abcb1-mediated multidrug resistance involving interaction with abcb1 independent of abcb1 downregualtion.euphorbia factor l1 (efl1) belongs to diterpenoids of genus euphorbia. in this article, its reversal activity against abcb1-mediated mdr in kbv200 and mcf-7/adr cells was reported. however, efl1 did not alter the sensitivity of kb and mcf-7 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. meanwhile, efl1 significantly increased accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 in kbv200 and mcf-7/adr cells, showing no significant influence on that of kb and mcf-7 cells. furthermore, efl1 could enhance the atp hydr ...201121308736
unusual tigliane diterpenes from euphorbia grandicornis.phytochemical study of the aerial parts of euphorbia grandicornis led to the isolation of two new tigliane diterpenes, 16-angeloyloxy-13a-isobutanoyloxy-4ß,9a,20-trihydroxytiglia-1,5-diene-3,7-dione (1) and 16-angeloyloxy-13a-isobutanoyloxy-4ß,9a,7ß-trihydroxytiglia-1,5-dien-3-one (2). the structures and relative configuration of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1d and 2d nmr experiments ((1)h nmr, jmod, (1)h-(1)h cosy, noesy, hsqc, an ...201121319774
quantitative analysis of quercetin in euphorbia helioscopia l by rp-hplc.euphorbia helioscopia l is widespread in china and has a large number of flavonoids. quercetin glycosides, having useful biological activities, are abundant in this plant, and no validated analytical method has so far been developed for their determination. we, therefore, standardized a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) assay for quercetin detection. for this, the plant was locally procured and identification was confirmed based on its morpho-histological characteri ...201121327945
chemopreventive effect of hydroethanolic extract of euphorbia neriifolia leaves against dena-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice.the present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of hydro-ethanolic extract of euphorbia neriifolia (en) on n-nitrosodiethylamine (dena) induced renal cancer in male swiss albino mice. animals were pretreated with en extract (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o) and butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) as a standard (0.5% and 1% bha p.o) both for two week prior to the administration of single dose of dena (50 mg/kg body weight; p.o). various in vivo antioxidant biochemical par ...201121627363
purification, primary structure, and properties of euphorbia characias latex purple acid phosphatase.a purple acid phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from euphorbia characias latex. the native protein has a molecular mass of 130 ± 10 kda and is formed by two apparently identical subunits, each containing one fe(iii) and one zn(ii) ion. the two subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge. the enzyme has an absorbance maximum at 540 nm, conferring a characteristic purple color due to a charge-transfer transition caused by a tyrosine residue (tyr172) coordinated to the ferric ion. the cdna n ...201121639850
blood electrolytes of the freshwater catfish heteropneustes fossilis in response to treatment with a botanical pesticide (latex of euphorbia royleana).the aim of the present study was to determine changes in blood electrolytes (calcium and phosphate) in the freshwater catfish heteropneustes fossilis following short- and long-term exposure to latex of euphorbia royleana. to investigate the effects of short-term exposure, fish were exposed to 80% of the 96-h lc(50) of e. royleana latex (2.47 mg/l) for 96 h. to assess the effects of long-term exposure, fish were exposed to 20% of the 96-h lc(50) of e. royleana latex (0.618 mg/l) for 28 days. fish ...201121645279
the extraction process optimization and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana.response surface methodology (rsm) was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides (efp) from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana. a box-behnken design (bbd) with four independent variables was investigated, such as extraction temperature (┬░c), water/solid ratio, extraction number (n), and extraction time (h). the results indicated optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 97┬░c, water/solid ratio of 9:1, extraction number of 2 and extraction time o ...201121664923
linking self-incompatibility, dichogamy, and flowering synchrony in two euphorbia species: alternative mechanisms for avoiding self-fertilization?plant species have several mechanisms to avoid selfing such as dichogamy or a self-incompatibility response. dichogamy in a single flower may reduce autogamy but, to avoid geitonogamy, plants must show flowering synchronization among all their flowers (i.e. synchronous dichogamy). it is hypothesized that one species would not simultaneously show synchronous dichogamy and self-incompatibility because they are redundant mechanisms to reduce selfing; however, this has not been accurately assessed.201121674062
dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds.leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.) is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (uabs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo-, and ecodormancy). in this study, the effects of dehydration stress on vegetative growth and flowering potential from endodormant uabs of leafy spurge was monitored. further, microarray analysis was used to identify critical signaling pathways of transcriptome profiles associat ...201121789635
molecular and biological characterization of a new brazilian begomovirus, euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (euymv), infecting euphorbia heterophylla plants.to date, no begomovirus has been fully characterized from euphorbia heterophylla, a widely distributed weed, in brazil. here, we show the occurrence of a new begomovirus on e. heterophylla plants showing bright yellow mosaic. the bipartite viral genome was cloned from 10 samples, and all clones are almost identical to each other (95.6-98.8% nucleotide sequence identity). the dna-a sequences shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity of 87.3% with euphorbia mosaic peru virus (eumpv) and thus w ...201121779908
antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of euphorbia hirta l.to assess antioxidant activities of different parts of euphorbia hirta (e. hirta), and to search for new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants.201121771682
antibacterial activity of selected ethnomedicinal plants from south india.to screen the antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants chassalia curviflora thw. (c. curviflora), cyclea peltata hook. f. & thomson (c. peltata) and euphorbia hirta l (e. hirta) used in folk medicines in aarukani hills kani tribe, tamil nadu, india against human bacterial pathogens.201121771680
chemical constituents and biological activities of euphorbia fischeriana steud. 201121766443
phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus euphorbia l. (euphorbiaceae).euphorbia is among the largest genera of angiosperms, with about 2000 species that are renowned for their remarkably diverse growth forms. to clarify phylogenetic relationships in the genus, we used maximum likelihood, bayesian, and parsimony analyses of dna sequence data from 10 markers representing all three plant genomes, averaging more than 16kbp for each accession. taxon sampling included 176 representatives from euphorbioideae (including 161 of euphorbia). analyses of these data robustly r ...201222273597
accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. the main soil contaminants were as, pb, cu, and zn. sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that euphorbia prostrata aiton, parthenium incanum kunth, and zinnia acerosa (dc.) a. gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. the plants accumulated the metals in ...201223649544
[effects of grazing disturbance on leaf traits and their interrelationships of plants in desert steppe].this paper studied the effects of grazing disturbance on the specific leaf area (sla), leaf dry matter content (ldmc), leaf area, and leaf dry mass of dominant plant species cynanchum komarovii, euphorbia esula, glycyrrhiza uralensis, and lespedeza potaninii in desert steppe of ningxia, northwest china, aimed to approach the responses and adaptation strategies of different plant species in desert steppe to the environmental change. with the decrease of grazing intensity, the specific leaf area ( ...201223431780
biodiversity and land degradation in the lower euphrates subregion of turkey.atotal of 107 plant taxa were determined in this study, 24 being new records for the area. out of 813 plant taxa reported from the study area 100 species couldn't be verified. the number of endemics in the study area is around 46. the majorfamilies and genera are asteraceae, fabaceae, and poaceae and astragalus, euphorbia, allium and trigonella. the area shows a relatively rich and highly diverse fauna. for terrestrial vertebrate species peculiarly showing marginal distribution, this area forms ...201223424834
vegetation geography of western part of elmacik mountain, turkey.the study examines the western part of elmacik mountain from the perspective of vegetation geography. research area is within the phytogeographical region of euro-siberian that is among the flora and phytogeographical region of turkey. according to turkey's grid square system, the research area is located in the a3 square. the main elements of forest formation consist of fagus orientalis, abies nordmanniana subspp. bommuelleriana, pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, pinus sylvestris, quercus spp., pl ...201223424832
[preliminary study on molluscicidal effect of euphorbia helioscopia l ethanol extracts against oncomelania hupensis].to study the influences of euphorbia helioscopia l. on glycogen contents of oncomelania hupensis so as to explore its molluscicidal mechanism.201223373267
holiday plants with toxic misconceptions.several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. this review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima), english holly (ilex aquifolium), american holly (ilex opaca), bittersweet (solanum dulcamara), jerusalem cherry (solanum pseudocapsicum), american mistletoe (phoradendron serotinum), and european mistletoe (viscum album).201223359840
antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from colombian biodiversity.on a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. in this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (asteraceae, euphorbiaceae, rubiaceae and solanaceae), collected at the natural regional park ucumari (risaralda, colombia), were evaluated for their antibacterial and ant ...201223342508
poisonous plants in new zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the national poisons centre.new zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. the new zealand national poisons centre (nznpc) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter.201223321887
effect of a supplementation of euphorbia heterophylla on nutritional meat quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus l.).the aim of the present work was to study the effect of dietary supplementation of euphorbia heterophylla on the quality of the guinea pig meat. forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups fed ad libitum during 46 days a panicum maximum diet (panicum diet) or a mixed diet (75% panicum maximum+25% euphorbia heterophylla) (paneuphorbia diet) to compare their effects on performances and on the composition of guinea pig tissues and carcass. daily weight gain, liver weight, carcass yield, and the l ...201223305832
phenols and flavonoids from the aerial part of euphorbia hirta.to investigate the chemical constituents of the aerial part of euphorbia hirta linn.201223302529
[effects of calcium fertilizer on the development, survival, and feeding of b-biotype bemisia tabaci on euphorbia pulcherrima].this paper studied the development, survival, and feeding of b-biotype bemisia tabaci on euphorbia pulcherrima under the conditions of 26 +/- 1 degrees c and 60% - 80% relative humidity after applying calcium fertilizer, taking applying fresh water as the control. there existed significant differences in the developmental duration of b. tabaci between treatment applying calcium fertilizer and the control. after applying calcium fertilizer, the egg stage of b. tabaci shortened significantly, and ...201223286011
anti-human coronavirus (anti-hcov) triterpenoids from the leaves of euphorbia neriifolia.euphorbia neriifolia l. is a spiny herb native to southeast asia and currently cultivated in southern taiwan. from the ethanolic extract of e. neriifolia leaves, 23 compounds were isolated, including 22 triterpenoids and one flavonoid glycoside. the anti-human coronavirus (hcov) activity of the separated triterpenoids was studied revealing the structure-activity relationship (sar) of these isolates. 3beta-friedelanol exhibited more potent anti-viral activity than the positive control, actinomyci ...201223285797
a metabonomic approach to a unique detoxification effect of co-use of euphorbia kansui and zizyphus jujuba.euphorbia kansui (ek) has been widely used in traditional chinese medicine (tcm); however, it possesses toxic effects. the fruits of zizyphus jujuba (zj) are frequently co-used with ek to reduce ek's toxicity. the present study is to clarify the toxicity of water extract of ek and explore the detox effect of zj using (1) h nmr-based metabonomic approach. the water extracts of zj, ek and the co-use of ek and zj (cez) were orally administered to sd rats at designed doses for 1 week, respectively, ...201223280778
testing the directed dispersal hypothesis: are native ant mounds (formica sp.) favorable microhabitats for an invasive plant?ant-mediated seed dispersal may be a form of directed dispersal if collected seeds are placed in a favorable microhabitat (e.g., in or near an ant nest) that increases plant establishment, growth, and/or reproduction relative to random locations. we investigated whether the native ant community interacts with invasive leafy spurge (euphorbia esula) in a manner consistent with predictions of the directed dispersal hypothesis. resident ants quickly located and dispersed 60% of experimentally offer ...201222231374
diterpenoids from euphorbia neriifolia.nine diterpenoids were isolated from the stems of euphorbia neriifolia linn. with their structures established by 1d and 2d nmr techniques. relative stereochemistries were determined by roesy, and single-crystal x-ray experiments.201222226035
comparative characteristic of the inflammatory diterpenes in the roots of euphorbia fischeriana with different preparation method using hplc-elsd.a rapid and simple method was established for the simultaneous determination of ten diterpenes by reversed phase hplc coupled with evaporative light scattering detection. chromatographic separation was carried out in gradient mode by using a wondasil™ c(18) column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phases of methanol and water at 1ml/min. the drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detector was set to 65°c and nitrogen flow-rate was 2.7l/min. the method validated was shown to be speci ...201222266389
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