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towards a better pharmacophore description of p-glycoprotein modulators, based on macrocyclic diterpenes from euphorbia species.multidrug resistance related to the increased expression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) by cancer cells is the major contributor for the failure of chemotherapeutic treatments. starting from pharmacophores and data already published and in macrocyclic diterpenes isolated from euphorbia species, a comprehensive study of pharmacophore definitions of features was performed in order to obtain a new improved four-point pharmacophore able to detect literature and in-house modulators, and simultaneously spec ...201121604687
jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia esula as antiproliferative agents and potent chemosensitizers to overcome multidrug resistance.phytochemical study of whole, undried plants of euphorbia esula led to the isolation of six new (1-6) jatrophane diterpene polyesters, named esulatins h-m, together with the known compounds 2α,3β,5α,7β,15β-pentaacetoxy-9α-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11-dien-14-one (7), salicinolide (8), and euphosalicin (9). the structures and relative configuration of 1-6 were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including hresims and one- and two-dimensional nmr techniques. all these c ...201121612217
molecular characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase from euphorbia pekinensis rupr.the root of euphorbia pekinensis as a traditional herbal medicine has been recorded in chinese pharmacopoeias for the treatment of oedema, gonorrhea, migraine and wart cures. in this work, we reported on the cdna cloning and characterization of a novel farnesyl diphosphate synthase (fps) from e. pekinensis. the full-length cdna named epfps (genbank accession number fj755465) contained 1431 bp with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a polypeptie of 342 amino acids. the deduced amino acid s ...201121614522
3α-hydr-oxy-ent-atis-16-en-14-one.the title compound, c(20)h(30)o(2), is an ent-atisane diterpenoid which was isolated from the roots of euphorbia kansuensis. the mol-ecule contains five six-membered rings, among which three six-membered rings of the bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane unit adopt boat conformations and two cyclo-hexane rings adopt chair conformations. in the crystal structure, mol-ecules are connected by inter-molecular o-h⋯o hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating parallel to [001].200921583534
are spurred cyathia a key innovation? molecular systematics and trait evolution in the slipper spurges (pedilanthus clade: euphorbia, euphorbiaceae).the study of traits that play a key role in promoting diversification is central to evolutionary biology. floral nectar spurs are among the few plant traits that correlate with an enhanced rate of diversification, supporting the claim that they are key innovations. slight changes in spur morphology could confer some degree of premating isolation, explaining why clades with spurs tend to include more species than their spurless close relatives. we explored whether the cyathial nectar spur of the ...201021622411
chemopreventive effect of hydroethanolic extract of euphorbia neriifolia leaves against dena-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice.the present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of hydro-ethanolic extract of euphorbia neriifolia (en) on n-nitrosodiethylamine (dena) induced renal cancer in male swiss albino mice. animals were pretreated with en extract (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o) and butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) as a standard (0.5% and 1% bha p.o) both for two week prior to the administration of single dose of dena (50 mg/kg body weight; p.o). various in vivo antioxidant biochemical par ...201121627363
scaling relations for a functionally two-dimensional plant: chamaesyce setiloba (euphorbiaceae).many characteristics of plants and animals scale with body size as described by allometric equations of the form y = βm(α), where y is an attribute of the organism, β is a coefficient that varies with attribute, m is a measure of organism size, and α is another constant, the scaling exponent. in current models, the frequently observed quarter-power scaling exponents are hypothesized to be due to fractal-like structures. however, not all plants or animals conform to the assumptions of these model ...200921628240
purification, primary structure, and properties of euphorbia characias latex purple acid phosphatase.a purple acid phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from euphorbia characias latex. the native protein has a molecular mass of 130 ± 10 kda and is formed by two apparently identical subunits, each containing one fe(iii) and one zn(ii) ion. the two subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge. the enzyme has an absorbance maximum at 540 nm, conferring a characteristic purple color due to a charge-transfer transition caused by a tyrosine residue (tyr172) coordinated to the ferric ion. the cdna n ...201121639850
blood electrolytes of the freshwater catfish heteropneustes fossilis in response to treatment with a botanical pesticide (latex of euphorbia royleana).the aim of the present study was to determine changes in blood electrolytes (calcium and phosphate) in the freshwater catfish heteropneustes fossilis following short- and long-term exposure to latex of euphorbia royleana. to investigate the effects of short-term exposure, fish were exposed to 80% of the 96-h lc(50) of e. royleana latex (2.47 mg/l) for 96 h. to assess the effects of long-term exposure, fish were exposed to 20% of the 96-h lc(50) of e. royleana latex (0.618 mg/l) for 28 days. fish ...201121645279
the extraction process optimization and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana.response surface methodology (rsm) was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides (efp) from the roots of euphorbia fischeriana. a box-behnken design (bbd) with four independent variables was investigated, such as extraction temperature (┬░c), water/solid ratio, extraction number (n), and extraction time (h). the results indicated optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 97┬░c, water/solid ratio of 9:1, extraction number of 2 and extraction time o ...201121664923
linking self-incompatibility, dichogamy, and flowering synchrony in two euphorbia species: alternative mechanisms for avoiding self-fertilization?plant species have several mechanisms to avoid selfing such as dichogamy or a self-incompatibility response. dichogamy in a single flower may reduce autogamy but, to avoid geitonogamy, plants must show flowering synchronization among all their flowers (i.e. synchronous dichogamy). it is hypothesized that one species would not simultaneously show synchronous dichogamy and self-incompatibility because they are redundant mechanisms to reduce selfing; however, this has not been accurately assessed.201121674062
dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds.leafy spurge (euphorbia esula l.) is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (uabs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo-, and ecodormancy). in this study, the effects of dehydration stress on vegetative growth and flowering potential from endodormant uabs of leafy spurge was monitored. further, microarray analysis was used to identify critical signaling pathways of transcriptome profiles associat ...201121789635
molecular and biological characterization of a new brazilian begomovirus, euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (euymv), infecting euphorbia heterophylla plants.to date, no begomovirus has been fully characterized from euphorbia heterophylla, a widely distributed weed, in brazil. here, we show the occurrence of a new begomovirus on e. heterophylla plants showing bright yellow mosaic. the bipartite viral genome was cloned from 10 samples, and all clones are almost identical to each other (95.6-98.8% nucleotide sequence identity). the dna-a sequences shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity of 87.3% with euphorbia mosaic peru virus (eumpv) and thus w ...201121779908
antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of euphorbia hirta l.to assess antioxidant activities of different parts of euphorbia hirta (e. hirta), and to search for new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants.201121771682
antibacterial activity of selected ethnomedicinal plants from south india.to screen the antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants chassalia curviflora thw. (c. curviflora), cyclea peltata hook. f. & thomson (c. peltata) and euphorbia hirta l (e. hirta) used in folk medicines in aarukani hills kani tribe, tamil nadu, india against human bacterial pathogens.201121771680
chemical constituents and biological activities of euphorbia fischeriana steud. 201121766443
toxic effect of two common euphorbiales latices on the freshwater snail lymnaea acuminata.the aqueous and serially purified latex extracts of plants euphorbia pulcherima and euphorbia hirta (family euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. sub-lethal doses (40 and 80% of lc(50)) of aqueous and partially purified latex extracts of both the plants also significantly alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acid (dna and rna) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase in nervous tissue of the snail lymnaea acuminata in time an ...200421782684
[components of myrsinane-type diterpenes from euphorbia prolifera].to extract and isolate the component from myrsinane-type diterpenes of euphorbia prolifera.201121845750
giants and dwarfs: molecular phylogenies reveal multiple origins of annual spurges within euphorbia subg. esula.euphorbia (euphorbiaceae) comprises over 2150 species and is thus the second-largest genus of flowering plants. in europe, it is represented by more than 100 species with highest diversity in the mediterranean area; the majority of taxa belong to subgenus esula pers., including about 500 taxa. the few available phylogenetic studies yielded contrasting results regarding the monophyly of subg. esula, and the phylogenetic relationships among its constituents remain poorly understood. we have sample ...201121708275
explosive seed dispersal in two perennial mediterranean euphorbia species (euphorbiaceae).the distance of explosive dispersal, its pattern in time, and the relative importance of autochory have been studied in two diplochorous species: euphorbia boetica and e. nicaeensis. the seeds of e. boetica released by explosive dispersal reached a median distance of 156 cm and a maximum of almost 8 m, while the distances reached by the seeds of e. nicaeensis were lower: a median of 132 cm and a maximum of 5 m. the differences in explosive dispersal distance between species seem to depend on bot ...200521652429
piscicidal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of euphorbia royleana stem bark extracts against freshwater common predatory fish channa punctatus.the present paper deals with the piscicidal activity of different solvent extracts of euphorbia royleana stem bark against freshwater predatory fish channa punctatus, which is commonly present in shrimp and carp culture ponds. the rank of order of toxicity of different solvent extract was: diethyl ether (lc(50) (96h) 31.76mg dw/l) > chloroform (lc(50) (96h) 56.26mg dw/l) > methanol (lc(50) (96h) 56.80mg dw/l) > acetone (lc(50) (96h) 65.77mg dw/l). there was a significant (p < 0.05) negative corr ...200421782734
effects of floral restrictiveness and stigma size on heterospecific pollen receipt in a prairie community.plant species vary greatly in the degree to which floral morphology restricts access to the flower interior. restrictiveness of flower corollas may influence heterospecific pollen receipt, but the impact of floral morphology on heterospecific pollen transfer has received little attention. we characterized patterns of pollinator visitation and quantities of conspecific and heterospecific pollen receipt for 29 species with a range of floral morphologies in a prairie community dominated by the intr ...201121833640
triterpenes from euphorbia rigida.phytochemical studies of the aerial parts of euphorbia rigida afforded three triterpenes: betulin (1), cycloart-23z-ene-3, 25-diol (2) and cycloartan-3, 24, 25-triol (3), firstly isolated from this plant. the structures and relative stereochemistry were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr experiments (1h nmr, 13c nmr, cosy, noesy, hmqc and hmbc).201021808559
evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from ricinus communis against paramphistomum cervi.the purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of euphorbia hirta l., psidium guajava l., ricinus communis l., solanum trilobatum l., and tridax procumbens l. against sheep fluke paramphistomum cervi (digenea: paramphistomatidae). all plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24-áh of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of r. communis. in the present study, bioas ...201121842382
extinction threat in the pedilanthus clade (euphorbia, euphorbiaceae), with special reference to the recently rediscovered e. conzattii (p. pulchellus).the type locality of the slipper spurge euphorbia conzattii has been in doubt because the 1917 type is a mixed collection with vague label data. in recent field work, the species was found on cerro espino, pochutla district, oaxaca, mexico. we used the method for evaluation of risk of extinction for mexican wild species (mer), required to protect a species under mexican law, to assess the conservation status of e. conzattii and found it to be endangered. we discuss the mixture in the type of thi ...200521652441
two new casbane diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia pekinensis.from the roots of euphorbia pekinensis, two new casbane diterpenoids, named pekinenins a (1) and b (2), were isolated. their structures were elucidated as 18-hydroxy-1+¦h,2+¦h-casba-3e,7e,11e-trien-5-one (1), 5+¦-methoxy-1+¦h,2+¦h-casba-3z,7e,11e-trien-18-oic acid (2) by a combination of 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. in the cytotoxicity assay of the two new compounds against hela, mcf-7, and c6 human cancer cell lines, compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against two ...201121830884
isolation and biological evaluation of jatrophane diterpenoids from euphorbia dendroides.from the montenegrin spurge euphorbia dendroides, seven new diterpenoids [jatrophanes (1-6) and a tigliane (7)] were isolated and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. the biological activity of the new compounds was studied against four human cancer cell lines. the most effective jatrophane-type compound (2) and its structurally closely related derivative (1) were evaluated for their interactions with paclitaxel and doxorubicin using a multi-drug-resistant cancer cell line. b ...201121707046
assessment of immunomodulatory activity of euphorbia hirta l.immune system is the major target for development of treatment strategies to improve the management of infections. many species of indian medicinal plants have been reported to possess active principles with immunomodulating properties. euphorbia hirta, a pantropic herb has been reported to be pharmacologically active. this study reports one another not widely reported property of the plant, immunomodulatory activity, which has been proved using simple techniques like the macrophage activity tes ...201021694995
biochemical alteration in freshwater fish channa punctatus due to latices of euphorbia royleana and jatropha gossypifolia.exposure of fish over 96 h to 40 and 80% of lc(50) (24 h) of aqueous latex extracts of euphorbia royleana and jatropha gossypifolia of family euphorbiaceae significantly altered the level of total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, pyruvate, lactate, glycogen and as well as protease activity also in muscle, liver and gonadal tissue of the fish channa punctatus. the alterations in all the biochemical parameters were significantly dose-dependent. withdrawal study also shows that there ...200221782632
inhibition of nitric oxide production and proinflammatory cytokines by several medicinal plants.a number of medicinal plants have been used to treat various immunological diseases. nitric oxide (no) has an important regulatory role in the various types of inflammatory processes.201121931202
Antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activity of triterpene derivatives from latex of two Euphorbia species.The in vitro activity on Leishmania infantum promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes of 25 semisynthetic terpenoid derivatives has been evaluated. These compounds were obtained through chemical modifications of the major components of Euphorbia resinifera (alpha-euphol and alpha-euphorbol) and Euphorbia officinarum (obtusifoliol and 31-norlanosterol). Leishmaniasis and Chagas' disease are major worldwide health problems. The drugs of choice for their treatment are still problematic in ...201121950160
the protein kinase c agonist pep005 (ingenol 3-angelate) in the treatment of human cancer: a balance between efficacy and toxicity.the diterpene ester ingenol-3-angelate (referred to as pep005) is derived from the plant euphorbia peplus. crude euphorbia extract causes local toxicity and transient inflammation when applied topically and has been used in the treatment of warts, skin keratoses and skin cancer. pep005 is a broad range activator of the classical (a, ß, ?) and novel (d, e, ?, ?) protein kinase c isoenzymes. direct pro-apoptotic effects of this drug have been demonstrated in several malignant cells, including mela ...201022069553
latex of euphorbia antiquorum induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells via c-jun n-terminal kinase activation and reactive oxygen species production.latex of euphorbia antiquorum (ea) has inhibitory effects on several different cancer cell lines. however, the molecular mechanism of ea inhibitory effects on human cervical cancer hela cell growth has not been explored. ea induced apoptosis, which was characterized by morphological change, dna fragmentation, increased sub-g1 population, and alterations in levels of apoptosis-associated proteins. treatment with ea increased cell death and expression levels of caspase-8, -9, and -3. ea suppressed ...201122044063
analysis of euphornin in euphorbia helioscopia l. and its cytotoxicity to mice lung adenocarcinoma cells (la795).euphorbia helioscopia l. has been used as a herbal remedy for cancer in mainland china. euphornin is one of the main bioactive constituents with the maximal content of euphorbia helioscopia l. a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection (elsd) was developed for the analysis of euphornin for better quality control of e. helioscopia l. a good calibration curve in double logarithmic coordinator for euphornin was obtained. the validation ...201121958384
Fearful symmetry in aposematic plants.Symmetry has been proposed to increase the efficiency of visual aposematic displays in animals, and I suggest that it may also be true for many aposematic spiny or poisonous plants. For instance, in the very spiny plant taxa cacti, Aloe sp., Agave sp. and Euphorbia sp., which have been proposed to be aposematic because of their colorful spine system, the shoots, and in cacti, the spiny fruits as well, are usually radially symmetric. Moreover, in the radial symmetric shoots of Agave and Aloe thei ...201122067106
Anticancer Potential of Euphorbia helioscopia L Extracts Against Human Cancer Cells.Euphorbia helioscopia L is considered a traditional Chinese herb which is widely distributed in China. The active anticancer fractions and anticancer mechanism of the herb are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effects of Euphorbia helioscopia L extracts on five different human cancer cell lines for screening the main active fraction with antitumor effect. In this regard, the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in ...201122190452
molecular authentication of the medicinal herb ruta graveolens (rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast dna markers.dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with euphorbia dracunculoides. the genomic dna was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified ctab method. internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal dna (nrdna-its), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpob and rpoc1) are regarded as potential genes for plant dna ba ...201122095605
New tigliane-type diterpenoids from Euphorbia aellenii Rech. f. with immunomodulatory activity.The cytotoxic chloroform fraction of Euphorbia aellenii Rech. F. (Euphorbiaceae) afforded two new phorbol diterpenoids: 4-deoxy-4a-phorbol-12-(2,3-dimethyl) butyrate-13-isobutyrate and 17-hydroxy-4-deoxy-4a-phorbol-12-(2,3-dimethyl) butyrate-13-isobutyrate. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and other spectroscopic methods. The immunomodulating potentials of the isolated compounds were tested using standard proliferation and chemiluminescence assays. Compound 2 showed moderate inhibitory ac ...201122049276
Jolkinolide B from Euphorbia fischeriana Steud induces apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells through PI3K/Akt and XIAP pathways.Jolkinolide B, a bioactive diterpene isolated from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, is known to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer activity has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that Jolkinolide B reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose- and timedependent manner in human leukemic U937. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by the downregulation of PI3K/Akt and the inhibitor of apoptosis p ...201122083305
bioseparation of four proteins from euphorbia characias latex: amine oxidase, peroxidase, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, and purple acid phosphatase.this paper deals with the purification of four proteins from euphorbia characias latex, a copper amine oxidase, a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, a peroxidase, and a purple acid phosphatase. these proteins, very different in molecular weight, in primary structure, and in the catalyzed reaction, are purified using identical preliminary steps of purification and by chromatographic methods. in particular, the deae-cellulose chromatography is used as a useful purification step for all ...201122013530
inhibitory effects of constituents from euphorbia lunulata on differentiation of 3t3-l1 cells and nitric oxide production in raw264.7 cells.a new flavonol galactopyranoside, myricetin 3-o-(2'',3''-digalloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (1), and 23 known constituents, including myricetin 3-o-(2''-galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (2), myricitrin (3), myricetin (4), quercetin 3-o-(2'', 3''-digalloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (5), quercetin 3-o-(2''-galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoide (6), hyperin (7), isoquercetrin (8), quercetin (9), kaempferol (10), apigenin (11), luteolin (12), 3-o-methylquercetin (13), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavone (14), 1,3,4,6-tetra ...201121959301
phylogenetics of the chamaesyce clade (euphorbia, euphorbiaceae): reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent c4 lineage.• premise of the study: the chamaesyce clade of euphorbia is the largest lineage of c(4) plants among the eudicots, with 350 species including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds. we sampled this group worldwide to address questions about subclade relationships, the origin of c(4) photosynthesis, the evolution of weeds, and the role of hybridization and long-distance dispersal in the diversification of the group. • methods: two nuclear (its and exon 9 of emb2765) and three chloroplast ma ...201121875975
17-hydroxy-jolkinolide b, a diterpenoid from euphorbia fischeriana, inhibits inflammatory mediators but activates heme oxygenase-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages.jolkinolides are the main abietane-type diterpenoids isolated from the root of euphorbia fischeriana steud. in the present study, we investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of four structural analogs of jolkinolide in lipopolysaccharide (lps)-stimulated raw264 macrophages. among these jolkinolides, 17-hydroxy-jolkinolide b (hjb) exhibited the most potent inhibition of lps-induced production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin e(2) (pge(2)), nitric oxide (no), and pro-inflamm ...201122080918
antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of euphorbia hirta leaves extract studied in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats.euphorbia hirta, commonly known as asthma weed, is a popular folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments. recent studies have indicated that plant has potent antioxidant properties. as part of an ongoing programme to validate the use of some reputed herbs in indian traditional medicines, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of e. hirta leaves in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. oral administration of e. hirta leaves extrac ...201121952437
anthelmintic effect of euphorbia prostrata ait. extracts. 201122144794
folk medicine in the northern coast of colombia: an overview.traditional remedies are an integral part of colombian culture. here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the atlantic coast of colombia, specifically in department of bolívar. we collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed.201121939522
structure elucidation of two new unusual monoterpene glycosides from euphorbia decipiens, by 1d and 2d nmr experiments.two new unusual monoterpene glycosides, (z)-3,6-dimethyl-3-(β-d-o-glucosylmethylene)cyclohept-4-ene-1-one (1) and 3,6-dimethyl-3-(β-d-o-glucosylmethylene)cycloheptanone (2) have been isolated along with five known compounds, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, luteolin, apigenin 5-o-αl-l-rhamnoside, and pinocembrin-7-o-rutinoside from ethyl acetate extract of euphorbia decipiens. the structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive 1d- and 2d-nmr, and mass sp ...201121898586
evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from burkina faso.the aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from burkina faso. methanolic extracts were used for their glutathione-s-transferase (gst), acetylcholinesterase (ache), carboxylesterase (ces) and xanthine oxidase (xo) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using folin-ciocalteu, alcl3 and ammonium citrate iron ...201121916259
New species of Gondwanamyces from dying Euphorbia trees in South Africa.Gondwanamyces and its Custingophora anamorphs were first described from Protea infructescences in South Africa. Subsequently, these unusual fungi were also found on Cecropia in Central America. During the course of an investigation into the decline and death of native Euphorbia trees in South Africa, several fungal isolates resembling the anamorph state of Gondwanamyces were obtained from diseased tissues. In this study, these isolates are identified based on morphology and comparisons of DNA se ...201122086910
impact of taraxerol in combination with extract of euphorbia tirucalli plant on biological parameters of lymnaea acuminata.the present work was carried out to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of active ingredient taraxerol with the acetone extract of euphorbia tirucalli against lymnaea acuminata snail. the (fecundity, hatchability and survivability) of snail l. acuminata exposed to this extract was studied. the effects of the tested extracts on life-history traits of harmful snail l. acuminata have also been evaluated, and this study also expounds the inhibitory effects of these extracts singly as well as in bina ...201122012452
preventive and therapeutic euphol treatment attenuates experimental colitis in mice.the tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of euphorbia tirucalli. this plant is widely known in brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action.201122073270
isolation and characterisation of new bio-active compounds from euphorbia cornigera: cytotoxic ingenol esters.the aerial parts of euphorbia cornigera boiss., on extraction with meoh, yielded new bio-active constituents (1, 2) and known compounds (3 and 4) after mtt cytotoxicity assay-guided fractionation and chromatographic separation were conducted. from the aerial parts of e. cornigera boiss., new bio-active constituents were extracted in methanol. the extract was partitioned in different organic solvents and the ethylacetate-soluble portion was subjected to craig's distribution. the mtt cytotoxicity ...201122007629
new anti-cancer characteristics of jatrophane diterpenes from euphorbia dendroides.jatrophane diterpenes were shown to be inhibitors of p-glycoprotein (p-gp). there are also evidences on their microtubule-interacting activity in cancer cells. we evaluated new anti-cancer characteristics of two jatrophane type compounds from euphorbia dendroides. for that purpose, the model system of sensitive non-small cell lung cancer cell line (nci-h460) and its resistant counterpart (nci-h460/r) was used. although both jatrophanes showed inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth, they were no ...201121996302
effects of chinese herbal cataplasm xiaozhang tie on cirrhotic ascites.conventional methods of treating cirrhotic ascites are inadequate. we sought to identify a novel, effective approach to relieve the suffering of patients with cirrhotic ascites.201122107835
molecular characterization of a new begomovirus that infects euphorbia heterophylla and solanum lycopersicum in venezuela.we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus isolate infecting euphorbia heterophylla and tomato (solanum lycopersicum) in central venezuela. based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus begomovirus, the isolate was shown to represent a novel species, tentatively named euphorbia mosaic venezuela virus (eumvv). its dna-a is most closely related to those of euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from the caribbean and central america. the dna b component forms a phylogenetic clu ...201122052541
an inventory of the ethnobotanicals used as anti-diabetic by a rural community of dhemaji district of assam, northeast india.traditional remedies used for treating diabetic ailments are very important in the primary health care of the people living in rural dhemaji district of assam, north-east india. novel information gathered from the current survey is important in preserving folk indigenous knowledge.201121871548
Bioactivity-guided Isolation of Antiproliferative Diterpenoids from Euphorbia kansui.Cytotoxic assay guided multistep separation on the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui resulted in the isolation of 10 ingenol-type diterpenoids (1-4 and 7-12), of which, 5-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (1) is a new compound, and two are jatrophane-type diterpenoids (13-14). Interconversion of two pairs of positional ester isomers (1-4) in aqueous alcoholic solution was observed, the transesterification mechanism of which was speculated and confirmed by acylatio ...201122095916
Bioactive components in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. against the inflammatory irritant action of Euphorbia plants.Chinese jujube (also known as Chinese date) is the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae). As a famous folk medicine, it is used as antidote in traditional Chinese formula, Shi Zao Decoction, to relieve the drastic inflammatory irritant nature of Euphorbia species. The irritant activities may cause serious adverse effects in clinical practices. This study aimed to investigate the active components of Z. jujuba through the inhibitory effects on the inflammatory cells activated by Euphorbia k ...201121982434
De novo assembly of Euphorbia fischeriana root transcriptome identifies prostratin pathway related genes.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Euphorbia fischeriana is an important medicinal plant found in Northeast China. The plant roots contain many medicinal compounds including 12-deoxyphorbol-13-acetate, commonly known as prostratin that is a phorbol ester from the tigliane diterpene series. Prostratin is a protein kinase C activator and is effective in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by acting as a latent HIV activator. Latent HIV is currently the biggest limitation for viral eradication. ...201122151917
meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruv ...201122192329
uptake of heavy metals by native species growing in a mining area in sardinia, italy: discovering native flora for phytoremediation.this study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of zn, pb, and cd present in an abandoned mine at ingurtosu, sardinia (italy). geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings, and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. mean values of total zn, pb and cd were respectively (mg kg(-1)) 7400, 1800, and 56 in tailings, 31000, 2900, and 100 in sediments, and 400, 200, and 8 in the pasture soil ...201121972566
Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The ...201121986363
bioactive myrsinol diterpenoids from the roots of euphorbia prolifera.ten myrsinol diterpenes, euphorbiaproliferins a-j (1-10), along with nine known analogues (11-19) were isolated from the roots of euphorbia prolifera. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis (ir, esims, hresims, 1d and 2d nmr), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. the diterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against mpp+-induced neuronal cell death in sh-sy5y cells.201121928782
Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Fl ...201121964921
amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb euphorbia hirta.euphorbia hirta (l.) (euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of e. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.201122022170
evaluation of nonpolar metabolites in plant extracts by 13c nmr spectroscopy.(13)c nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy was explored as a simple and efficient technique for the quantitative analysis of nonpolar metabolites in plants. the method was first optimized with a mixture of known metabolites and then applied to the nonpolar leaf extracts of plants harvested in the valencian community (eastern spain) belonging to three different genera: euphorbia (euphorbiaceae), araujia (apocynaceae), and morus (moraceae). furthermore, an exhaustive analysis of euphorbi ...201121955286
phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus euphorbia l. (euphorbiaceae).euphorbia is among the largest genera of angiosperms, with about 2000 species that are renowned for their remarkably diverse growth forms. to clarify phylogenetic relationships in the genus, we used maximum likelihood, bayesian, and parsimony analyses of dna sequence data from 10 markers representing all three plant genomes, averaging more than 16kbp for each accession. taxon sampling included 176 representatives from euphorbioideae (including 161 of euphorbia). analyses of these data robustly r ...201222273597
euphorbia hirta: its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities.the oldest remedies known to mankind are herbal medicines. india is known worldwide for its ayurvedic treatment. euphorbia hirta is often used traditionally for female disorders, respiratory ailments (cough, coryza, bronchitis, and asthma), worm infestations in children, dysentery, jaundice, pimples, gonorrhea, digestive problems, and tumors. it is reported to contain alkanes, triterpenes, phytosterols, tannins, polyphenols, and flavanoids. this review describes the medicinal properties, chemica ...201022228942
testing the directed dispersal hypothesis: are native ant mounds (formica sp.) favorable microhabitats for an invasive plant?ant-mediated seed dispersal may be a form of directed dispersal if collected seeds are placed in a favorable microhabitat (e.g., in or near an ant nest) that increases plant establishment, growth, and/or reproduction relative to random locations. we investigated whether the native ant community interacts with invasive leafy spurge (euphorbia esula) in a manner consistent with predictions of the directed dispersal hypothesis. resident ants quickly located and dispersed 60% of experimentally offer ...201222231374
diterpenoids from euphorbia neriifolia.nine diterpenoids were isolated from the stems of euphorbia neriifolia linn. with their structures established by 1d and 2d nmr techniques. relative stereochemistries were determined by roesy, and single-crystal x-ray experiments.201222226035
comparative characteristic of the inflammatory diterpenes in the roots of euphorbia fischeriana with different preparation method using hplc-elsd.a rapid and simple method was established for the simultaneous determination of ten diterpenes by reversed phase hplc coupled with evaporative light scattering detection. chromatographic separation was carried out in gradient mode by using a wondasil™ c(18) column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phases of methanol and water at 1ml/min. the drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detector was set to 65°c and nitrogen flow-rate was 2.7l/min. the method validated was shown to be speci ...201222266389
study on the diuretic activity of euphorbia fusiformis buch.-ham. in albino rats.the present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of euphorbia fusiformis root powder in wistar strain albino rats. randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. the root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (ted) and 180 mg/kg (ted × 02) to overnight fasted rats. the diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. ...201122529656
purification and physicochemical characterization of a serine protease with fibrinolytic activity from latex of a medicinal herb euphorbia hirta.a 34 kda serine protease, designated as hirtin, with fibrinolytic activity was purified to homogeneity from the latex of euphorbia hirta by the combination of ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. the n-terminal sequence of hirtin was found to be yavyigliletaa/nne. hirtin exhibited esterase and amidase activities along with azocaseinolytic, gelatinolytic, fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities. it preferentially hydrolyzed aα and α-chains, followed by bβ and β, and γ and γ-γ chai ...201122305073
a transmission electron microscopy study of the diversity of candida albicans cells induced by euphorbia hirta l. leaf extract in vitro.to determine the major changes in the microstructure of candida albicans (c. albicans) after treatment with euphorbia hirta (e. hirta) l. leaf extract.201123569719
accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. the main soil contaminants were as, pb, cu, and zn. sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that euphorbia prostrata aiton, parthenium incanum kunth, and zinnia acerosa (dc.) a. gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. the plants accumulated the metals in ...201223649544
[effects of grazing disturbance on leaf traits and their interrelationships of plants in desert steppe].this paper studied the effects of grazing disturbance on the specific leaf area (sla), leaf dry matter content (ldmc), leaf area, and leaf dry mass of dominant plant species cynanchum komarovii, euphorbia esula, glycyrrhiza uralensis, and lespedeza potaninii in desert steppe of ningxia, northwest china, aimed to approach the responses and adaptation strategies of different plant species in desert steppe to the environmental change. with the decrease of grazing intensity, the specific leaf area ( ...201223431780
biodiversity and land degradation in the lower euphrates subregion of turkey.atotal of 107 plant taxa were determined in this study, 24 being new records for the area. out of 813 plant taxa reported from the study area 100 species couldn't be verified. the number of endemics in the study area is around 46. the majorfamilies and genera are asteraceae, fabaceae, and poaceae and astragalus, euphorbia, allium and trigonella. the area shows a relatively rich and highly diverse fauna. for terrestrial vertebrate species peculiarly showing marginal distribution, this area forms ...201223424834
vegetation geography of western part of elmacik mountain, turkey.the study examines the western part of elmacik mountain from the perspective of vegetation geography. research area is within the phytogeographical region of euro-siberian that is among the flora and phytogeographical region of turkey. according to turkey's grid square system, the research area is located in the a3 square. the main elements of forest formation consist of fagus orientalis, abies nordmanniana subspp. bommuelleriana, pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, pinus sylvestris, quercus spp., pl ...201223424832
[preliminary study on molluscicidal effect of euphorbia helioscopia l ethanol extracts against oncomelania hupensis].to study the influences of euphorbia helioscopia l. on glycogen contents of oncomelania hupensis so as to explore its molluscicidal mechanism.201223373267
holiday plants with toxic misconceptions.several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. this review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (euphorbia pulcherrima), english holly (ilex aquifolium), american holly (ilex opaca), bittersweet (solanum dulcamara), jerusalem cherry (solanum pseudocapsicum), american mistletoe (phoradendron serotinum), and european mistletoe (viscum album).201223359840
antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from colombian biodiversity.on a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. in this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (asteraceae, euphorbiaceae, rubiaceae and solanaceae), collected at the natural regional park ucumari (risaralda, colombia), were evaluated for their antibacterial and ant ...201223342508
poisonous plants in new zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the national poisons centre.new zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. the new zealand national poisons centre (nznpc) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter.201223321887
effect of a supplementation of euphorbia heterophylla on nutritional meat quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus l.).the aim of the present work was to study the effect of dietary supplementation of euphorbia heterophylla on the quality of the guinea pig meat. forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups fed ad libitum during 46 days a panicum maximum diet (panicum diet) or a mixed diet (75% panicum maximum+25% euphorbia heterophylla) (paneuphorbia diet) to compare their effects on performances and on the composition of guinea pig tissues and carcass. daily weight gain, liver weight, carcass yield, and the l ...201223305832
phenols and flavonoids from the aerial part of euphorbia hirta.to investigate the chemical constituents of the aerial part of euphorbia hirta linn.201223302529
[effects of calcium fertilizer on the development, survival, and feeding of b-biotype bemisia tabaci on euphorbia pulcherrima].this paper studied the development, survival, and feeding of b-biotype bemisia tabaci on euphorbia pulcherrima under the conditions of 26 +/- 1 degrees c and 60% - 80% relative humidity after applying calcium fertilizer, taking applying fresh water as the control. there existed significant differences in the developmental duration of b. tabaci between treatment applying calcium fertilizer and the control. after applying calcium fertilizer, the egg stage of b. tabaci shortened significantly, and ...201223286011
anti-human coronavirus (anti-hcov) triterpenoids from the leaves of euphorbia neriifolia.euphorbia neriifolia l. is a spiny herb native to southeast asia and currently cultivated in southern taiwan. from the ethanolic extract of e. neriifolia leaves, 23 compounds were isolated, including 22 triterpenoids and one flavonoid glycoside. the anti-human coronavirus (hcov) activity of the separated triterpenoids was studied revealing the structure-activity relationship (sar) of these isolates. 3beta-friedelanol exhibited more potent anti-viral activity than the positive control, actinomyci ...201223285797
a metabonomic approach to a unique detoxification effect of co-use of euphorbia kansui and zizyphus jujuba.euphorbia kansui (ek) has been widely used in traditional chinese medicine (tcm); however, it possesses toxic effects. the fruits of zizyphus jujuba (zj) are frequently co-used with ek to reduce ek's toxicity. the present study is to clarify the toxicity of water extract of ek and explore the detox effect of zj using (1) h nmr-based metabonomic approach. the water extracts of zj, ek and the co-use of ek and zj (cez) were orally administered to sd rats at designed doses for 1 week, respectively, ...201223280778
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