a tandem kunitz protease inhibitor (kpi106)-serine carboxypeptidase (scp1) controls mycorrhiza establishment and arbuscule development in medicago truncatula.plant proteases and protease inhibitors are involved in plant developmental processes including those involving interactions with microbes. here we show that a tandem between a kunitz protease inhibitor (kpi106) and a serine carboxypeptidase (scp1) controls arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the root cortex of medicago truncatula. both proteins are only induced during mycorrhiza formation and belong to large families whose members are also mycorrhiza-specific. furthermore, the interaction betw ...201323662629
evidence for participation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase repair system in plant seed longevity.seeds are in a natural oxidative context leading to protein oxidation. although inevitable for proper progression from maturation to germination, protein oxidation at high levels is detrimental and associated with seed aging. oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide is a common form of damage observed during aging in all organisms. this damage is reversible through the action of methionine sulfoxide reductases (msrs), which play key roles in lifespan control in yeast and animal cells. to ...201323401556
combinatorial biosynthesis of legume natural and rare triterpenoids in engineered yeast.triterpenoid saponins are a diverse group of specialized (secondary) metabolites with many biological properties. the model legume medicago truncatula has an interesting profile of triterpenoid saponins from which sapogenins are differentiated into hemolytic and non-hemolytic types according to the position of their functional groups and hemolytic properties. gene co-expression analysis confirmed the presence of candidate p450s whose gene expression correlated highly with that of β-amyrin syntha ...201323378447
the medicago truncatula sucrose transporter family: characterization and implication of key members in carbon partitioning towards arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.we identified de novo sucrose transporter (sut) genes involved in long-distance transport of sucrose from photosynthetic source leaves towards sink organs in the model leguminous species medicago truncatula. the identification and functional analysis of sugar transporters provide key information on mechanisms that underlie carbon partitioning in plant-microorganism interactions. in that way, full-length sequences of the m. truncatula sut (mtsut) family were retrieved and biochemical characteriza ...201222930732
overexpression of mtcas31 enhances drought tolerance in transgenic arabidopsis by reducing stomatal density.• dehydrins are a type of late embryogenesis abundant protein. some dehydrins are involved in the response to various abiotic stresses. accumulation of dehydrins enhances the drought, cold and salt tolerances of transgenic plants, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. mtcas31 (medicago truncatula cold-acclimation specific protein 31) is a y(2)k(4)-type dehydrin that was isolated from medicago truncatula. • we analyzed the subcellular and histochemical localization of mtcas31, and the exp ...201222510066
response of medicago truncatula seedlings to colonization by salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7.disease outbreaks due to the consumption of legume seedlings contaminated with human enteric bacterial pathogens like escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella enterica are reported every year. besides contaminations occurring during food processing, pathogens present on the surface or interior of plant tissues are also responsible for such outbreaks. in the present study, surface and internal colonization of medicago truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, by salmonella enterica and escherichia ...201424551073
evidence for a rhizobia-induced drought stress response strategy in medicago truncatula.drought stress hampers plant energy and biomass production; however it is still unknown how internal c:n balance and rhizobial symbiosis impact on plant response to water limitation. here, the effect of differential optimal nitrogen nutrition and root nodule symbiosis on drought stress and rehydration responses of medicago truncatula was assessed. two groups of plants were nodulated with sinorhizobium medicae or sinorhizobium meliloti--differing in the performance of n fixation; the third group ...201626812498
identification of nodule-specific cysteine-rich plant peptides in endosymbiotic bacteria.the symbiosis of medicago truncatula with sinorhizobium meliloti or sinorhizobium medicae soil bacteria results in the formation of root nodules where bacteria inside the plant cells are irreversibly converted to polyploid, nondividing nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. bacteroid differentiation is host-controlled and the plant effectors are symbiosis-specific secreted plant peptides. in the m. truncatula genome there are more than 600 symbiotic peptide genes including 500 small genes coding for nodule ...201525690539
enhanced nodulation and nodule development by nolr mutants of sinorhizobium medicae on specific medicago host genotypes.the nolr gene encodes a negatively acting, transcriptional regulatory protein of core nod-factor biosynthetic genes in the sinorhizobia. although previous reports showed that nolr modulates nod-factor production and enhances nodulation speed of sinorhizobium meliloti on alfalfa, there have been no reports for the symbiotic function of this gene in the s. medicae-medicago truncatula symbiosis. here, we constructed an nolr mutant of s. medicae wsm419 and evaluated mutant and wild-type strains for ...201424283939
regulation of differentiation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria by microsymbiont targeting of plant thioredoxin s1.legumes associate with rhizobia to form nitrogen (n2)-fixing nodules, which is important for plant fitness [1, 2]. medicago truncatula controls the terminal differentiation of sinorhizobium meliloti into n2-fixing bacteroids by producing defensin-like nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides (ncrs) [3, 4]. the redox state of ncrs influences some biological activities in free-living bacteria, but the relevance of redox regulation of ncrs in planta is unknown [5, 6], although redox regulation plays ...201728017611
dna double-strand break repair is involved in desiccation resistance of sinorhizobium meliloti, but is not essential for its symbiotic interaction with medicago truncatula.the soil bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti, a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of legume plants, is exposed to numerous stress conditions in nature, some of which cause the formation of harmful dna double-strand breaks (dsbs). in particular, the reactive oxygen species (ros) and the reactive nitrogen species (rns) produced during symbiosis, and the desiccation occurring in dry soils, are conditions which induce dsbs. two major systems of dsb repair are known in s. meliloti: homologous recombination (hr) ...201727902438
the evolution of symbiont preference traits in the model legume medicago truncatula.many hosts preferentially associate with or reward better symbionts, but how these symbiont preference traits evolve is an open question. legumes often form more nodules with or provide more resources to rhizobia that fix more nitrogen (n), but they also acquire n from soil via root foraging. it is unclear whether root responses to abiotically and symbiotically derived n evolve independently. here, we measured root foraging and both preferential allocation of root resources to and preferential a ...201727864973
a proteomic atlas of the legume medicago truncatula and its nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont sinorhizobium meliloti.legumes are essential components of agricultural systems because they enrich the soil in nitrogen and require little environmentally deleterious fertilizers. a complex symbiotic association between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia culminates in the development of root nodules, where rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer it to their plant host. here we describe a quantitative proteomic atlas of the model legume medicago truncatula and its rhizobial symbiont sinor ...201627748755
24-epibrassinolide ameliorates salt stress effects in the symbiosis medicago truncatula-sinorhizobium meliloti and regulates the nodulation in cross-talk with polyamines.brassinosteroids (brs) are steroid plant hormones that have been shown to be involved in the response to salt stress in cross-talk with other plant growth regulators such as polyamines (pas). in addition, brs are involved in the regulation of the nodulation in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis through the alteration of the pas content in leaves. in this work, we have studied the effect of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (ebl) in the response to salinity of nitrogen fixation in the symbiosis medicago t ...201627448795
interkingdom responses to bacterial quorum sensing signals regulate frequency and rate of nodulation in legume-rhizobia symbiosis.density-dependent phenotypic switching in bacteria, the phenomenon of quorum sensing (qs), is instrumental in many pathogenic and mutualistic behaviors. in many gram-negative bacteria, qs is regulated by n-acylated-l-homoserine lactones (ahls). synthetic analogues of these ahls hold significant promise for regulating qs at the host-symbiont interface. regulation depends on refined temporal and spatial models of quorums under native conditions. critical to this is an understanding of how the pres ...201627739645
disulfide cross-linking influences symbiotic activities of nodule peptide ncr247.interactions of rhizobia with legumes establish the chronic intracellular infection that underlies symbiosis. within nodules of inverted repeat-lacking clade (irlc) legumes, rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. this terminal differentiation is driven by host nodule-specific cysteine-rich (ncr) peptides that orchestrate the adaptation of free-living bacteria into intracellular residents. medicago truncatula encodes a family of >700 ncr peptides that have conserved cysteine moti ...201627551097
copper-induced modifications in early symbiotic signaling factors of ensifer (sinorhizobium)-medicago is an essential micronutrient required during nitrogen fixation, but above threshold concentrations it becomes toxic. the present study was aimed at studying the effect of high cu concentrations on the early plant-microbe interactions between ensifer (sinorhizobium) meliloti 1021, a symbiotic diazotrophic bacterium belonging to α-proteobacteria, and its plant host medicago truncatula. e. meliloti exhibited pleomorphism with elongated and branched growth at 100 µm cu which brought about 50 % r ...201627207673
sinorhizobium meliloti controls nitric oxide-mediated post-translational modification of a medicago truncatula nodule protein.nitric oxide (no) is involved in various plant-microbe interactions. in the symbiosis between soil bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti and model legume medicago truncatula, no is required for an optimal establishment of the interaction but is also a signal for nodule senescence. little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for no effects in the legume-rhizobium interaction. here, we investigate the contribution of the bacterial no response to the modulation of a plant protein post-tra ...201526422404
identification and analysis of medicago truncatula auxin transporter gene families uncover their roles in responses to sinorhizobium meliloti infection.auxin transport plays a pivotal role in the interaction between legume species and nitrogen-fixing bacteria to form symbioses. auxin influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux 1 (aux/lax), efflux carriers pin-formed (pin) and efflux/conditional p-glycoprotein (pgp/abcb) are three major protein families participating in auxin polar transport. we used the latest medicago truncatula genome sequence to characterize and analyze the m. truncatula lax (mtlax), m. truncatula pin (mtpin) and m. truncatul ...201526228273
toxicogenomic responses of the model legume medicago truncatula to aged biosolids containing a mixture of nanomaterials (tio₂, ag, and zno) from a pilot wastewater treatment plant.toxicogenomic responses in medicago truncatula a17 were monitored following exposure to biosolids-amended soils. treatments included biosolids produced using a pilot wastewater treatment plant with either no metal introduced into the influent (control); bulk/ionic tio2, zno, and agno3 added to influent (bulk/dissolved treatment); or ag, zno, and tio2 engineered nanomaterials added to influent (enm treatment) and then added to soil, which was aged in the field for 6 months. in our companion study ...201526065335
nanomaterials in biosolids inhibit nodulation, shift microbial community composition, and result in increased metal uptake relative to bulk/dissolved metals.we examined the effects of amending soil with biosolids produced from a pilot-scale wastewater treatment plant containing a mixture of metal-based engineered nanomaterials (enms) on the growth of medicago truncatula, its symbiosis with sinorhizobium meliloti, and on soil microbial community structure. treatments consisted of soils amended with biosolids generated with (1) ag, zno, and tio2 enms introduced into the influent wastewater (enm biosolids), (2) agno3, zn(so4)2, and micron-sized tio2 (d ...201526061863
transcriptomic analysis of sinorhizobium meliloti and medicago truncatula symbiosis using nitrogen fixation-deficient nodules.the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti interacts symbiotically with legume plant hosts such as medicago truncatula to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. during symbiosis, plant and bacterial cells differentiate in a coordinated manner, resulting in specialized plant cells that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. both plant and bacterial genes are required at each developmental stage of symbiosis. we analyzed gene expression in nodules formed by wild-type bacteria on six plant mutants with defects ...201525844838
[influence of salt stress on the genetically polymorphic system of sinorhizobium meliloti-medicago truncatula].the impacts of salt stress (75 mm nac1) on the ecological efficiency of the genetically polymorphic sinorhizobium meliloti-medicago truncatula system were studied. its impact on a symbiotic system results in an increase of the partners' variability for symbiotic traits and of the symbiosis integrity as indicated by: a) the specificity of the partners' interactions--the nonadditive inputs of their genotypes into the variation of symbiotic parameters; and b) the correlative links between these par ...201425720135
genome-wide identification, expression analysis of gh3 family genes in medicago truncatula under stress-related hormones and sinorhizobium meliloti infection.auxin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of plant growth and development by controlling the expression of auxin response genes rapidly. as one of the major auxin early response gene families, gretchen hagen 3 (gh3) genes are involved in auxin homeostasis by conjugating excess auxins to amino acids. however, how gh3 genes function in environmental stresses and rhizobial infection responses in medicago truncatula are largely unknown. here, based on the latest updated m. truncatula genome, a co ...201525529315
from lateral root density to nodule number, the strigolactone analogue gr24 shapes the root architecture of medicago the rhizosphere, strigolactones not only act as crucial signalling molecules in the communication of plants with parasitic weeds and arbuscular mycorrhiza, but they also play a key role in regulating different aspects of the root system. here we investigated how strigolactones influence the root architecture of medicago truncatula. we provide evidence that addition of the synthetic strigolactone analogue gr24 has an inhibitory effect on the lateral root density. moreover, treatment with gr24 ...201525371499
involvement of papain and legumain proteinase in the senescence process of medicago truncatula nodules.the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobiaceae leads to the formation of new root organs called nodules. within the nodule, rhizobiaceae differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. however, this symbiotic interaction is time-limited as a result of the initiation of a senescence process, leading to a complete degradation of bacteroids and host plant cells. the increase in proteolytic activity is one of the key features of this process. in this study, we analysed the involvement of ...201424527680
an integrated analysis of plant and bacterial gene expression in symbiotic root nodules using laser-capture microdissection coupled to rna sequencing.rhizobium-induced root nodules are specialized organs for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. indeterminate-type nodules are formed from an apical meristem and exhibit a spatial zonation which corresponds to successive developmental stages. to get a dynamic and integrated view of plant and bacterial gene expression associated with nodule development, we used a sensitive and comprehensive approach based upon oriented high-depth rna sequencing coupled to laser microdissection of nodule regions. this stud ...201424483147
local and systemic proteomic changes in medicago truncatula at an early phase of sinorhizobium meliloti infection.a symbiotic association with n-fixing bacteria facilitates the growth of leguminous plants under nitrogen-limiting conditions. the establishment of the symbiosis requires signal exchange between the host and the bacterium, which leads to the formation of root nodules, inside which bacteria are hosted. the formation of nodules is controlled through local and systemic mechanisms, which involves root-shoot communication. our study was aimed at investigating the proteomic changes occurring in shoots ...201424350862
mtzr1, a praf protein, is involved in the development of roots and symbiotic root nodules in medicago truncatula.praf proteins are present in all plants, but their functions remain unclear. we investigated the role of one member of the praf family, mtzr1, on the development of roots and nitrogen-fixing nodules in medicago truncatula. we found that mtzr1 was expressed in all m. truncatula organs. spatiotemporal analysis showed that mtzr1 expression in m. truncatula roots was mostly limited to the root meristem and the vascular bundles of mature nodules. mtzr1 expression in root nodules was down-regulated in ...201423961805
definition and evolution of a new symbiovar, sv. rigiduloides, among ensifer meliloti efficiently nodulating medicago species.understanding functional diversity is one of the main goals of microbial ecology, and definition of new bacterial ecotypes contributes significantly to this objective. nitrogen-fixing bacteria provide a good system for investigation of ecotypes/biovars/symbiovars, as they present different specific associations with several host plants. this specific symbiosis is reflected both in the nodulation and fixation efficiency and in genetic characters of the bacteria, and several biovars have already b ...201323871297
the succinoglycan endoglycanase encoded by exok is required for efficient symbiosis of sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 with the host plants medicago truncatula and medicago sativa (alfalfa).the acidic polysaccharide succinoglycan produced by the nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbiont sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 is required for this bacterium to invade the host plant medicago truncatula and to efficiently invade the host plant m. sativa (alfalfa). the β-glucanase enzyme encoded by exok has previously been demonstrated to cleave succinoglycan and participate in producing the low molecular weight form of this polysaccharide. here, we show that exok is required for efficient s. meliloti in ...201323656330
medicago truncatula esn1 defines a genetic locus involved in nodule senescence and symbiotic nitrogen fixation.symbiotic interaction between medicago truncatula and sinorhizobium meliloti results in the formation on the host roots of new organs, nodules, in which biological nitrogen fixation takes place. in infected cells, rhizobia enclosed in a plant-derived membrane, the symbiosome membrane, differentiate to nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. the symbiosome membrane serves as an interface for metabolite and signal exchanges between the host cells and endosymbionts. at some point during symbiosis, symbiosomes ...201323634841
peribacteroid space acidification: a marker of mature bacteroid functioning in medicago truncatula nodules.legumes form a symbiotic interaction with rhizobiaceae bacteria, which differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids within nodules. here, we investigated in vivo the ph of the peribacteroid space (pbs) surrounding the bacteroid and ph variation throughout symbiosis. in vivo confocal microscopy investigations, using acidotropic probes, demonstrated the acidic state of the pbs. in planta analysis of nodule senescence induced by distinct biological processes drastically increased pbs ph in the n2 ...201323586685
medicago truncatula increases its iron-uptake mechanisms in response to volatile organic compounds produced by sinorhizobium meliloti.medicago truncatula represents a model plant species for understanding legume-bacteria interactions. m. truncatula roots form a specific root-nodule symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti. symbiotic nitrogen fixation generates high iron (fe) demands for bacterial nitrogenase holoenzyme and plant leghemoglobin proteins. leguminous plants acquire fe via "strategy i," which includes mechanisms such as rhizosphere acidification and enhanced ferric reductase activity. in ...201323564626
maldi mass spectrometry-assisted molecular imaging of metabolites during nitrogen fixation in the medicago truncatula-sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.symbiotic associations between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia culminate in the formation of specialized organs called root nodules, in which the rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer it to the plant. efficient biological nitrogen fixation depends on metabolites produced by and exchanged between both partners. the medicago truncatula-sinorhizobium meliloti association is an excellent model for dissecting this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis because of the availability of geneti ...201323551619
failure of self-control: defense-like reactions during legume/rhizobia symbiosis.medicago truncatula and sinorhizobium meliloti form a symbiotic association resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. in this organ, symbiotic cells contain large numbers of bacteroids. remarkably, this chronic infection does not trigger visible defense reactions. despite the importance of this phenomenon for potential transfer of the symbiotic capacity to non-legume plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tolerance are not understood. we have characterized the dnf2 m. trun ...201323425859
short-chain chitin oligomers from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi trigger nuclear ca2+ spiking in medicago truncatula roots and their production is enhanced by strigolactone.the primary objective of this study was to identify the molecular signals present in arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) germinated spore exudates (gses) responsible for activating nuclear ca(2+) spiking in the medicago truncatula root epidermis. medicago truncatula root organ cultures (rocs) expressing a nuclear-localized cameleon reporter were used as a bioassay to detect am-associated ca(2+) spiking responses and lc-ms to characterize targeted molecules in gses. this approach has revealed that short- ...201323384011
hydrogen peroxide-regulated genes in the medicago truncatula-sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.reactive oxygen species (ros), particularly hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)), play an important role in signalling in various cellular processes. the involvement of h(2)o(2) in the medicago truncatula-sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction raises questions about its effect on gene expression. a transcriptome analysis was performed on inoculated roots of m. truncatula in which ros production was inhibited with diphenylene iodonium (dpi). in total, 301 genes potentially regulated by ros content ...201323347006
medicago truncatula dnf2 is a pi-plc-xd-containing protein required for bacteroid persistence and prevention of nodule early senescence and defense-like reactions.medicago truncatula and sinorhizobium meliloti form a symbiotic association resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. nodule cells contain large numbers of bacteroids which are differentiated, nitrogen-fixing forms of the symbiotic bacteria. in the nodules, symbiotic plant cells home and maintain hundreds of viable bacteria. in order to better understand the molecular mechanism sustaining the phenomenon, we searched for new plant genes required for effective symbiosis. we used a com ...201323278348
selective recruitment of mrnas and mirnas to polyribosomes in response to rhizobia infection in medicago truncatula.translation of mrnas is a key regulatory step that contributes to the coordination and modulation of eukaryotic gene expression during development or adaptation to the environment. mrna stability or translatability can be regulated by the action of small regulatory rnas (srnas), which control diverse biological processes. under low nitrogen conditions, leguminous plants associate with soil bacteria and develop a new organ specialized in nitrogen fixation: the nodule. to gain insight into the tra ...201323050939
transcriptomic insights into mechanisms of symbiotic cooperation.intraspecific genetic variation can affect community structure and ecosystem processes (bolnick et al. 2011). it can also influence phenotypic expression by genotypes within other species to produce genotype-by-genotype (g × g) interaction (falconer & mackay 1996). evolution of one species drives correlated evolution of others when it causes g × g for fitness (thompson 2005). however, the mechanisms by which species interact also influence evolutionary outcomes (kummel & salant 2006; golubski & ...201223009647
nitric oxide (no): a key player in the senescence of medicago truncatula root nodules.nitric oxide (no) is a signalling and defence molecule involved in diverse plant developmental processes, as well as in the plant response to pathogens. no has also been detected at different steps of the symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. no is required for an optimal establishment of the medicago truncatula-sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction, but little is known about the role of no in mature nodules. here, we investigate the role of no in the late steps of symbiosis. genetic an ...201222937888
sulfenylated proteins in the medicago truncatula-sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)), play a crucial role as signaling molecules in the establishment and functioning of the nitrogen-fixing legume-rhizobium symbiosis. the regulation of protein function through oxidative modification has emerged as an important molecular mechanism modulating various biological processes. protein cysteine residues are known to be sensitive targets of h(2)o(2), in a posttranslational modification called sulfenylation. we trapped and identi ...201222634402
repeated leaf wounding alters the colonization of medicago truncatula roots by beneficial and pathogenic nature, plants are subject to various stresses that are often accompanied by wounding of the aboveground tissues. as wounding affects plants locally and systemically, we investigated the impact of leaf wounding on interactions of medicago truncatula with root-colonizing microorganisms, such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus glomus intraradices, the pathogenic oomycete aphanomyces euteiches and the nitrogen-fixing bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti. to obtain a long-lasting wound respons ...201222329418
gate crashing arbuscular mycorrhizas: in vivo imaging shows the extensive colonization of both symbionts by trichoderma atroviride.plant growth-promoting fungi include strains of trichoderma species that are used in biocontrol, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi, that enhance plant nutrition and stress resistance. the concurrent interaction of plants with these two groups of fungi affects crop performance but has only been occasionally studied so far. using in vivo imaging of green fluorescent protein-tagged lines, we investigated the cellular interactions occurring between trichoderma atroviride pki1, medicago truncatul ...201525346536
identification of a molecular dialogue between developing seeds of medicago truncatula and seedborne xanthomonads.plant pathogenic bacteria disseminate and survive mainly in association with seeds. this study addresses whether seeds are passive carriers or engage a molecular dialogue with pathogens during their development. we developed two pathosystems using medicago truncatula with xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. alfalfae (xaa), the natural medicago sp. pathogen and xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (xcc), a brassicaceae pathogen. three days after flower inoculation, the transcriptome of xcc-infected pods ...201525922487
high-quality draft genome sequence of xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. alfalfae strain cfbp 3836.we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. alfalfae strain cfbp 3836, the causal agent of bacterial leaf and stem spot in lucerne (medicago sativa). comparative genomics will help to decipher the mechanisms provoking disease and triggering the defense responses of this pathogen of the model legume medicago truncatula.201324336373
expression of apoplast-targeted plant defensin mtdef4.2 confers resistance to leaf rust pathogen puccinia triticina but does not affect mycorrhizal symbiosis in transgenic wheat.rust fungi of the order pucciniales are destructive pathogens of wheat worldwide. leaf rust caused by the obligate, biotrophic basidiomycete fungus puccinia triticina (pt) is an economically important disease capable of causing up to 50 % yield losses. historically, resistant wheat cultivars have been used to control leaf rust, but genetic resistance is ephemeral and breaks down with the emergence of new virulent pt races. there is a need to develop alternative measures for control of leaf rust ...201727582300
subcellular targeting of an evolutionarily conserved plant defensin mtdef4.2 determines the outcome of plant-pathogen interaction in transgenic arabidopsis.the medicago truncatula gene encoding an evolutionarily conserved antifungal defensin mtdef4.2 was cloned and characterized. in silico expression analysis indicated that mtdef4.2 is expressed in many tissues during the normal growth and development of m. truncatula. mtdef4.2 exhibits potent broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various fusarium spp. transgenic arabidopsis thaliana lines in which mtdef4.2 was targeted to three different subcellular compartments were generated. these lines we ...201222776629
assessment of ustilago maydis as a fungal model for root infection studies.ustilago maydis is a fungus infecting aerial parts of maize to form smutted galls. due to its interest as a genetic tool in plant pathology, we evaluated its ability to penetrate into plant roots. the fungus can penetrate between epidermic root cells, forming inter and intracellular pseudohyphae. root infection didn't provoke gall formation on the maize lines tested, and targeted pcr detection showed that u. maydis, unlike the other maize smut fungus sporisorium reilianum, has a weak aptitude to ...201525749366
loss of abaxial leaf epicuticular wax in medicago truncatula irg1/palm1 mutants results in reduced spore differentiation of anthracnose and nonhost rust identify genes that confer nonhost resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogens, we did a forward-genetics screen using medicago truncatula tnt1 retrotransposon insertion lines. from this screen, we identified an inhibitor of rust germ tube differentation1 (irg1) mutant that failed to promote preinfection structure differentiation of two rust pathogens, phakopsora pachyrhizi and puccinia emaculata, and one anthracnose pathogen, colletotrichum trifolii, on the abaxial leaf surface. cytological an ...201222294617
alternative splicing is required for rct1-mediated disease resistance in medicago truncatula.rct1 is a tir-nbs-lrr-type resistance (r) gene in medicago truncatula that confers resistance to multiple races of colletotrichum trifolii, a hemi-biotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in medicago and other closely related legumes. rct1 undergoes alternative splicing at both coding and 3'-untranslated regions, thereby producing multiple transcript variants in its expression profile. alternative splicing of rct1 in the coding region results from the retention of intron 4. bec ...201323657790
nfp, a lysm protein controlling nod factor perception, also intervenes in medicago truncatula resistance to pathogens.plant lysm proteins control the perception of microbial-derived n-acetylglucosamine compounds for the establishment of symbiosis or activation of plant immunity. this raises questions about how plants, and notably legumes, can differentiate friends and foes using similar molecular actors and whether any receptors can intervene in both symbiosis and resistance. to study this question, nfp and lyk3 lysm-receptor like kinase mutants of medicago truncatula that are affected in the early steps of nod ...201323432463
structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin mtdef4: identification of an rgfrrr motif governing fungal cell entry.mtdef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume medicago truncatula. it is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. little is known about the mechanisms by which mtdef4 mediates its antifungal activity. in this study, we show that mtdef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where it ...201324324798
development of high-throughput snp-based genotyping in acacia auriculiformis x a. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome generation sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput dna sequences for single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) discovery in acacia auriculiformis and acacia mangium. like other non-model species, snp detection and genotyping in acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. the main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput snp genotyping assay for linkage map construction of a. auriculiformis x a. mangium hybrids.201223265623
identification of potential early regulators of aphid resistance in medicago truncatula via transcription factor expression profiling.*resistance to aphids has been identified in a number of plant species, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying aphid resistance remain largely unknown. *using high-throughput quantitative real-time pcr technology, the transcription profiles of 752 putative medicago truncatula transcription factor genes were analysed in a pair of susceptible and resistant closely related lines of m. truncatula following 6 and 12 h of bluegreen aphid (acyrthosiphon kondoi) infestation. *eighty-two transcription f ...201020345634
a single gene, ain, in medicago truncatula mediates a hypersensitive response to both bluegreen aphid and pea aphid, but confers resistance only to bluegreen aphid.biotic stress in plants frequently induces a hypersensitive response (hr). this distinctive reaction has been studied intensively in several pathosystems and has shed light on the biology of defence signalling. compared with microbial pathogens, relatively little is known about the role of the hr in defence against insects. reference genotype a17 of medicago truncatula gaertn., a model legume, responds to aphids of the genus acyrthosiphon with necrotic lesions resembling a hr. in this study, the ...200919690018
characterization of pea aphid resistance in medicago achieve a thorough understanding of plant-aphid interactions, it is necessary to investigate in detail both the plant and insect side of the interaction. the pea aphid (pa; acyrthosiphon pisum) has been selected by an international consortium as the model species for genetics and genomics studies, and the model legume medicago truncatula is a host of this aphid. in this study, we identified resistance to pa in a m. truncatula line, 'jester', with well-characterized resistance to a closely rel ...200818184733
characterization of resistance to multiple aphid species (hemiptera: aphididae) in medicago truncatula.aphids are phloem-feeding insects that damage many important crops throughout the world yet, compared to plant-pathogen interactions, little is known about the mechanisms by which plants become resistant to aphids. medicago truncatula (barrel medic) is widely considered as the pre-eminent model legume for genetic and biological research and in australia is an important pasture species. six cultivars of m. truncatula with varying levels of resistance to two pests of pasture and forage legumes, th ...200717298680
involvement of the octadecanoid pathway in bluegreen aphid resistance in medicago truncatula.aphids are major insect pests of plants that feed directly from the phloem. we used the model legume medicago truncatula gaert. (barrel medic) to elucidate host resistance to aphids and identified a single dominant gene which confers resistance to acyrthosiphon kondoi shinji (bluegreen aphid). to understand how this gene conditions resistance to bluegreen aphid, transcription profiling of 23 defense-related genes representing various signaling pathways was undertaken using a pair of near-isogeni ...200717249425
independent action and contrasting phenotypes of resistance genes against spotted alfalfa aphid and bluegreen aphid in medicago resistance to aphids is poorly understood. medicago truncatula, a model legume and cultivated pasture species, was used to elucidate defense against two aphid species, therioaphis trifolii f. maculata (spotted alfalfa aphid, saa) and acyrthosiphon kondoi (bluegreen aphid, bga). aphid performance and plant damage were compared between near-isogenic cultivars, mogul and borung, that differ in resistance to both aphids. analyses of aphid resistance in mogul x borung f2 plants and their progeny ...200717244058
aphid resistance in medicago truncatula involves antixenosis and phloem-specific, inducible antibiosis, and maps to a single locus flanked by nbs-lrr resistance gene analogs.aphids and related insects feed from a single cell type in plants: the phloem sieve element. genetic resistance to acyrthosiphon kondoi shinji (bluegreen aphid or blue alfalfa aphid) has been identified in medicago truncatula gaert. (barrel medic) and backcrossed into susceptible cultivars. the status of m. truncatula as a model legume allows an in-depth study of defense against this aphid at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. in this study, two closely related resistant and susce ...200515778464
genetic mapping of a major resistance gene to pea aphid (acyrthosipon pisum) in the model legume medicago truncatula.resistance to the australian pea aphid (pa; acyrthosiphon pisum) biotype in cultivar jester of the model legume medicago truncatula is mediated by a single dominant gene and is phloem-mediated. the genetic map position for this resistance gene, apr (acyrthosiphon pisum resistance), is provided and shows that apr maps 39 centimorgans (cm) distal of the a. kondoi resistance (akr) locus, which mediates resistance to a closely related species of the same genus bluegreen aphid (a. kondoi). the apr re ...201627483247
performances of survival, feeding behavior, and gene expression in aphids reveal their different fitness to host alteration.insect populations feeding on different plant species are under selection pressure to adapt to these differences. a study integrating elements of the ecology, behavior, and gene expression of aphids on different host plants has not yet been well-explored. the present study explores the relationship between host fitness and survival, feeding behavior, and salivary gland gene expression of a pea (pisum sativum) host race of acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on a common host vicia faba and on three genet ...201626758247
plant stomatal closure improves aphid feeding under elevated co2.stomata help plants regulate co2 absorption and water vapor release in response to various environmental changes, and plants decrease their stomatal apertures and enhance their water status under elevated co2 . although the bottom-up effect of elevated co2 on insect performance has been extensively studied, few reports have considered how insect fitness is altered by elevated co2 -induced changes in host plant water status. we tested the hypothesis that aphids induce stomatal closure and increas ...201525581722
cryptic virulence and avirulence alleles revealed by controlled sexual recombination in pea aphids.although aphids are worldwide crop pests, little is known about aphid effector genes underlying virulence and avirulence. here we show that controlling the genetics of both aphid and host can reveal novel recombinant genotypes with previously undetected allelic variation in both virulence and avirulence functions. clonal f1 progeny populations were derived from reciprocal crosses and self-matings between two parental genotypes of pea aphid (acyrthosiphon pisum) differing in virulence on a medica ...201525519896
pea aphid biotype performance on diverse medicago host genotypes indicates highly specific virulence and resistance functions.aphid-plant interactions depend on genotypes of both organisms, which determine the two-way molecular exchange that leads to compatible or incompatible outcomes. the underlying genes are mostly unknown, making it difficult to predict likelihood of aphid success or host resistance, and hampering crop genetic improvement. here we screened eight pea aphid clonal genotypes collected from diverse legume hosts, on a species-wide panel of medicago truncatula (mt) genotypes. aphid virulence was measured ...201425375216
elevated co2 alters the feeding behaviour of the pea aphid by modifying the physical and chemical resistance of medicago truncatula.elevated co(2) compromises the resistance of leguminous plants against chewing insects, but little is known about whether elevated co(2) modifies the resistance against phloem-sucking insects or whether it has contrasting effects on the resistance of legumes that differ in biological nitrogen fixation. we tested the hypothesis that the physical and chemical resistance against aphids would be increased in jemalong (a wild type of medicago truncatula) but would be decreased in dnf1 (a mutant witho ...201424697655
elevated co2 decreases the response of the ethylene signaling pathway in medicago truncatula and increases the abundance of the pea aphid.the performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance, which are likely to be altered by rising concentrations of atmospheric co2 . we previously reported that elevated co2 enhanced biological nitrogen (n) fixation of medicago truncatula, which could result in an increased supply of amino acids to the pea aphid (acyrthosiphon pisum). the current study examined the n nutritional quality and aphid resistance of sickle, an ethylene-insensitive mutant ...201424015892
does phloem-based resistance to aphid feeding affect host-plant acceptance for reproduction? parturition of the pea aphid, acyrthosiphon pisum, on two near-isogenic lines of medicago truncatula.probing behaviour (prior to parturition) and parturition of two clones (ps01 and n116) of the pea aphid, acyrthosiphon pisum on two genotypes (near-isogenic lines (nils)) (q174_5.13 and q174_9.10) of medicago truncatula were investigated using electrical penetration graph (epg) coupled with simultaneous visual monitoring for parturition. line q174_5.13 has been reported to show a phloem-based resistance to feeding in the clone ps01 but to be susceptible to the clone n116, whereas q174_9.10 has s ...201323823797
pea aphid promotes amino acid metabolism both in medicago truncatula and bacteriocytes to favor aphid population growth under elevated co2.rising atmospheric co(2) levels can dilute the nitrogen (n) resource in plant tissue, which is disadvantageous to many herbivorous insects. aphids appear to be an exception that warrants further study. the effects of elevated co(2) (750 ppm vs. 390 ppm) were evaluated on n assimilation and transamination by two medicago truncatula genotypes, a n-fixing-deficient mutant (dnf1) and its wild-type control (jemalong), with and without pea aphid (acyrthosiphon pisum) infestation. elevated co(2) increa ...201323686968
two independent resistance genes in the medicago truncatula cultivar jester confer resistance to two different aphid species of the genus acyrthosiphon. 200919794854
medicago truncatula mutants demonstrate the role of plant calcium oxalate crystals as an effective defense against chewing insects.calcium oxalate is the most abundant insoluble mineral found in plants and its crystals have been reported in more than 200 plant families. in the barrel medic medicago truncatula gaertn., these crystals accumulate predominantly in a sheath surrounding secondary veins of leaves. mutants of m. truncatula with decreased levels of calcium oxalate crystals were used to assess the defensive role of this mineral against insects. caterpillar larvae of the beet armyworm spodoptera exigua hübner show a c ...200616514014
are there benefits of simultaneous root colonization by different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (amf) communities were established in pots using fungal isolates from a single field in switzerland. it was tested whether multispecies mixtures provided more phosphorus and supported greater plant growth than single amf species. two host plants, medic (medicago truncatula) and leek (allium porrum), were inoculated with three amf species (glomus mosseae, g. claroideum and g. intraradices), either separately or in mixtures. the composition of the amf communities in t ...200818042204
molecular cloning and characterization of a gene regulating flowering time from alfalfa (medicago sativa l.).genes that regulate flowering time play crucial roles in plant development and biomass formation. based on the cdna sequence of medicago truncatula (accession no. ay690425), the lfy gene of alfalfa was cloned. sequence similarity analysis revealed high homology with flo/lfy family genes of other plants. when fused to the green fluorescent protein, mslfy protein was localized in the nucleus of onion (allium cepa l.) epidermal cells. the rt-qpcr analysis of mslfy expression patterns showed that th ...201323670041
ancordin, the major rhizome protein of madeira-vine, with trypsin inhibitory and stimulatory activities in nitric oxide productions.anredera cordifolia (ten.) steenis, or the synonymous name of boussingaultia baselloides or boussingaultia gracilis var. pseudobaselloides, is a south american species of ornamental succulent vine, commonly known as the madeira-vine. the fresh leaves of madeira-vine are frequently used as vegetables. a. cordifolia is an evergreen climber that grows from fleshy rhizomes. the rhizome contained one major (23kda) protein band under non-reducing condition in the sds-page. the first 15 amino acids in ...200717499881
identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (aphis craccivora koch) in medicago truncatula.cowpea aphid (cpa; aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. in many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged cpa biotypes.201222759788
interface symbiotic membrane formation in root nodules of medicago truncatula: the role of synaptotagmins mtsyt1, mtsyt2 and mtsyt3.symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) are maintained and conditioned to fix atmospheric nitrogen in infected cells of legume root nodules. rhizobia are confined to the asymmetrical protrusions of plasma membrane (pm): infection threads (it), cell wall-free unwalled droplets and symbiosomes. these compartments rapidly increase in surface and volume due to the microsymbiont expansion, and remarkably, the membrane resources of the host cells are targeted to interface membrane quite precisely. we hypothesiz ...201728265280
evolution and structural diversification of nictaba-like lectin genes in food crops with a focus on soybean (glycine max).the nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to nictaba, the tobacco lectin. so far, nictaba and an arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. the availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of nictaba-like genes in 15 species, representing members of the fabaceae, poaceae, solanaceae, musaceae, arecaceae, malvaceae and rubiaceae. additionally, phylogenetic relations ...201728087663
cis-regulatory plethora promoter elements directing root and nodule expression are conserved between arabidopsis thaliana and medicago truncatula.nodules are unique organs formed on roots of legumes by soil-borne bacteria, collectively known as rhizobium. recently, we have shown that orthologs of the aintegumenta-like (ail) ap2 transcription factors plethora (plt) 1 to 4, that redundantly regulate arabidopsis thaliana root development are involved in root and nodule growth in medicago truncatula. hence, it is conceivable that rhizobium has co-opted these genes for nodule development. whether this co-option requires the presence of specifi ...201728067580
catchup: a web database for spatiotemporally regulated genes.for proper control of biological activity, some key genes are highly expressed in a particular spatiotemporal domain. mining of such spatiotemporally expressed genes using large-scale gene expression data derived from a broad range of experimental sources facilitates our understanding of genome-scale functional gene networks. however, comprehensive information on spatiotemporally expressed genes is lacking in plants. to collect such information, we devised a new index, δdmax, which is the maximu ...201728013273
negative gravitropism in plant roots.plants are capable of orienting their root growth towards gravity in a process termed gravitropism, which is necessary for roots to grow into soil, for water and nutrient acquisition and to anchor plants. here we show that root gravitropism depends on the novel protein, negative gravitropic response of roots (ngr). in both medicago truncatula and arabidopsis thaliana, loss of ngr reverses the direction of root gravitropism, resulting in roots growing upward.201627748769
a conserved cis-regulatory module determines germline fate through activation of the transcription factor duo1 promoter.the development of the male germline within pollen relies upon the activation of numerous target genes by the transcription factor duo pollen1 (duo1). the expression of duo1 is restricted to the male germline and is first detected shortly after the asymmetric division that segregates the germ cell lineage. transcriptional regulation is critical in controlling duo1 expression, since transcriptional and translational fusions show similar expression patterns. here, we identify key promoter sequence ...201727624837
comparison of effectiveness of 5'-regulatory sequences in transplastomic tobacco chloroplasts.the development of tools which ensure the desired level of transgene expression in plastids is a prerequisite for the effective utilization of these plant organelles for the deployment of bioactive proteins. high-level accumulation of target proteins is considered as a positive feature of transplastomic plants, but excessive accumulation of foreign proteins may have deleterious effects on host plants. on the other hand, expression at low levels can result in ineffective phenotypes. we compared t ...201727565642
comparative transcriptome investigation of global gene expression changes caused by mir156 overexpression in medicago sativa.medicago sativa (alfalfa) is a low-input forage and potential bioenergy crop, and improving its yield and quality has always been a focus of the alfalfa breeding industry. transgenic alfalfa plants overexpressing a precursor of alfalfa microrna156 (msmir156) were recently generated by our group. these plants (mir156oe) showed enhanced biomass yield, reduced internodal length, increased shoot branching and trichome density, and a delay in flowering time. transcripts of three squamosa-promoter bin ...201627542359
plantapa: a portal for visualization and analysis of alternative polyadenylation in plants.alternative polyadenylation (apa) is an important layer of gene regulation that produces mrnas that have different 3' ends and/or encode diverse protein isoforms. up to 70% of annotated genes in plants undergo apa. increasing numbers of poly(a) sites collected in various plant species demand new methods and tools to access and mine these data. we have created an open-access web service called plantapa ( to visualize and analyze genome-wide poly(a) sites in plants. ...201627446120
comparative sequence and expression analysis of tapetum specific male sterility related genes in medicago truncatula.heterosis, or enhancement through outbreeding, is one of the most promising approaches for increasing crop yield. male sterility (ms), which promotes heterosis, has been widely applied in hybrid crop production. medicago truncatula is a model legume species and is closely related to m. sativa, an important legume forage plant. although the molecular mechanisms of ms in m. truncatula and m. sativa remain unclear, several studies of ms have been conducted in arabidopsis thaliana. previous research ...201627421020
different functions of the histone acetyltransferase hac1 gene traced in the model species medicago truncatula, lotus japonicus and arabidopsis eukaryotes, histone acetyltransferases regulate the acetylation of histones and transcription factors, affecting chromatin structural organization, transcriptional regulation, and gene activation. to assess the role of hac1, a gene encoding for a histone acetyltransferase in medicago truncatula, stable transgenic lines with modified hac1 expression in the model plants m. truncatula, lotus japonicus, and arabidopsis thaliana were generated by agrobacterium-mediated transformation and used for ...201727180194
structural investigations of n-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase from medicago truncatula: insights into the ultimate step of putrescine biosynthesis in plants.putrescine, 1,4-diaminobutane, is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of more complexed polyamines, spermidine and spermine. unlike other eukaryotes, plants have evolved a multistep pathway for putrescine biosynthesis that utilizes arginine. in the final reaction, n-carbamoylputrescine is hydrolyzed to putrescine by n-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (cpa, ec during the hydrolysis, consecutive nucleophilic attacks on the substrate by cys158 and water lead to formation of putrescine ...201627066023
an essential role of caffeoyl shikimate esterase in monolignol biosynthesis in medicago truncatula.biochemical and genetic analyses have previously identified caffeoyl shikimate esterase (cse) as an enzyme in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway in arabidopsis thaliana, although the generality of this finding has been questioned. here we show the presence of cse genes and associated enzyme activity in barrel medic (medicago truncatula, dicot, leguminosae), poplar (populus deltoides, dicot, salicaceae), and switchgrass (panicum virgatum, monocot, poaceae). loss of function of cse in transposon ...201627037613
structural studies of medicago truncatula histidinol phosphate phosphatase from inositol monophosphatase superfamily reveal details of penultimate step of histidine biosynthesis in plants.the penultimate enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway catalyzes dephosphorylation of l-histidinol 1-phosphate (holp) into l-histidinol. the recently discovered in arabidopsis thaliana plant-type histidinol phosphate phosphatase (hpp) shares no homology with the two other hpp superfamilies known previously in prokaryotes and resembles myo-inositol monophosphatases (impases). in this work, identification of an hpp enzyme from a model legume, medicago truncatula (mthpp) was based on the high ...201626994138
mtvrn2 is a polycomb vrn2-like gene which represses the transition to flowering in the model legume medicago truncatula.optimising the timing of flowering contributes to successful sexual reproduction and yield in agricultural plants. flowering locus t (ft) genes, first identified in arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis), promote flowering universally, but the upstream flowering regulatory pathways can differ markedly among plants. flowering in the model legume, medicago truncatula (medicago) is accelerated by winter cold (vernalisation) followed by long day (ld) photoperiods leading to elevated expression of the fl ...201626947149
bioinformatic identification and analysis of extensins in the plant kingdom.extensins (exts) are a family of plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (hrgps) that are implicated to play important roles in plant growth, development, and defense. structurally, exts are characterized by the repeated occurrence of serine (ser) followed by three to five prolines (pro) residues, which are hydroxylated as hydroxyproline (hyp) and glycosylated. some exts have tyrosine (tyr)-x-tyr (where x can be any amino acid) motifs that are responsible for intramolecular or intermol ...201626918442
a conserved role for the nam/mir164 developmental module reveals a common mechanism underlying carpel margin fusion in monocarpous and syncarpous eurosids.the majority of angiosperms are syncarpous- their gynoecium is composed of two or more fused carpels. in arabidopsis thaliana, this fusion is regulated through the balance of expression between cup shaped cotyledon (cuc) genes, which are orthologs of the petunia hybrida transcription factor no apical meristem (nam), and their post-transcriptional regulator mir164. accordingly, the expression of a mir164-insensitive form of a. thaliana cuc2 causes a radical breakdown of carpel fusion. here, we in ...201526793217
evolution by gene duplication of medicago truncatula pistillata-like transcription factors.pistillata (pi) is a member of the b-function mads-box gene family, which controls the identity of both petals and stamens in arabidopsis thaliana. in medicago truncatula (mt), there are two pi-like paralogs, known as mtpi and mtngl9. these genes differ in their expression patterns, but it is not known whether their functions have also diverged. describing the evolution of certain duplicated genes, such as transcription factors, remains a challenge owing to the complex expression patterns and fu ...201626773809
from stress to embryos: some of the problems for induction and maturation of somatic embryos.although somatic embryogenesis has been successfully achieved in numerous plant species, little is known about the mechanism(s) underlying this process. changes in the balance of growth regulators of the culture medium, osmolarity, or amino acids as well as the genotype and developmental stage of the tissue used as initial explant may have a pivotal influence on the induction of somatic embryogenic cultures. moreover, different stress agents (ethylene, activated charcoal, cold or heat or electri ...201626619886
development of primer pairs from diverse chloroplast genomes for use in plant phylogenetic research.variation in the chloroplast dna sequence is useful for plant phylogenetic studies. however, the number of variable sequences provided by chloroplast dna for suggested genes or genomic regions in plant phylogenetic analyses is often inadequate. to identify conserved regions that can be used to design primers and amplify variable sequences for use in plant phylogenetic studies, the complete chloroplast genomic sequences of six plant species (including oryza sativa, arabidopsis thaliana, glycine m ...201526600547
legumeip 2.0--a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes.the legumeip 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. our recent updates in legumeip 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: medicago truncatula, glycine max (soybean), lotus japonicus, phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), cicer arietinum (chickpea) and cajanus caj ...201626578557
an assessment of engineered calcium oxalate crystal formation on plant growth and development as a step toward evaluating its use to enhance plant defense.the establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. as a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulat ...201526517544
multiplex staining of 2-de gels for an initial phosphoproteome analysis of germinating seeds and early grown seedlings from a non-orthodox specie: quercus ilex l. subsp. ballota [desf.] a preliminary step in the phosphoproteome analysis of germinating seeds (0 and 24 h after seed imbibition) and early grown seedlings (216 h after seed imbibition) from a non-orthodox sp. quercus ilex, a multiplex (sypro-ruby and pro-q dps) staining of high-resolution 2-de gels was used. by using this protocol it was possible to detect changes in protein-abundance and/or phosphorylation status. this simple approach could be a good complementary alternative to the enrichment protocols used in t ...201526322061
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