highly syntenic regions in the genomes of soybean, medicago truncatula, and arabidopsis thaliana.recent genome sequencing enables mega-base scale comparisons between related genomes. comparisons between animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria demonstrate extensive synteny tempered by rearrangements. within the legume plant family, glimpses of synteny have also been observed. characterizing syntenic relationships in legumes is important in transferring knowledge from model legumes to crops that are important sources of protein, fixed nitrogen, and health-promoting compounds.200516102170
placing paleopolyploidy in relation to taxon divergence: a phylogenetic analysis in legumes using 39 gene families.young polyploid events are easily diagnosed by various methods, but older polyploid events become increasingly difficult to identify as chromosomal rearrangements, tandem gene or partial chromosome duplications, changes in substitution rates among duplicated genes, pseudogenization or locus loss, and interlocus interactions complicate the means of inferring past genetic events. genomic data have provided valuable information about the polyploid history of numerous species, but on their own fail ...200516012110
mustang is a novel family of domesticated transposase genes found in diverse angiosperms.while transposons have traditionally been viewed as genomic parasites or "junk dna," the discovery of transposon-derived host genes has fueled an ongoing debate over the evolutionary role of transposons. in particular, while mobility-related open reading frames have been known to acquire host functions, the contribution of these types of events to the evolution of genes is not well understood. here we report that genome-wide searches for mutator transposase-derived host genes in arabidopsis thal ...200515987878
genome organization of more than 300 defensin-like genes in arabidopsis.defensins represent an ancient and diverse set of small, cysteine-rich, antimicrobial peptides in mammals, insects, and plants. according to published accounts, most species' genomes contain 15 to 50 defensins. starting with a set of largely nodule-specific defensin-like sequences (defls) from the model legume medicago truncatula, we built motif models to search the near-complete arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) genome. we identified 317 defls, yet 80% were unannotated at the arabidopsis infor ...200515955924
occurrence and characterization of pend proteins in angiosperms.the pend protein is a dna-binding protein in the inner envelope membrane of the developing chloroplast. it consists of a short pre-sequence, an n-terminal dna-binding domain (cbzip), a central repeat domain, and a c-terminal transmembrane domain. pend homologs have been detected in various angiosperms, including arabidopsis thaliana, brassica napus, medicago truncatula, cucumber and cherry. monocot homologs have also been detected in barley and rice, but sequence conservation was low in monocots ...200515834640
floral patterning in lotus japonicus.floral patterning in papilionoideae plants, such as pea (pisum sativum) and medicago truncatula, is unique in terms of floral organ number, arrangement, and initiation timing as compared to other well-studied eudicots. to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the floral patterning in legumes, we have analyzed two mutants, proliferating floral meristem and proliferating floral organ-2 (pfo-2), obtained by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of lotus japonicus. these two mutants showed s ...200515824286
conservation of arabidopsis flowering genes in model legumes.the model plants arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (oryza sativa) have provided a wealth of information about genes and genetic pathways controlling the flowering process, but little is known about the corresponding pathways in legumes. the garden pea (pisum sativum) has been used for several decades as a model system for physiological genetics of flowering, but the lack of molecular information about pea flowering genes has prevented direct comparison with other systems. to address th ...200515778459
system, trends and perspectives of proteomics in dicot plants part ii: proteomes of the complex developmental stages.this review is devoted to the proteomes of the complex developmental stages of dicotyledoneous (dicot) plant materials. the two core technologies, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-dge) and mass spectrometry (ms), independently or in combination with each other, are propelling dicot plant proteomics to new discoveries and functions, with the establishment of tissue-specific and organelle proteomes, mostly in arabidopsis thaliana and medicago truncatula, revealing their complexity and specif ...200515652803
system, trends and perspectives of proteomics in dicot plants part i: technologies in proteome establishment.the first 3 years of the 21st century have seen the impact of plant proteomics on functional genomics that has enhanced our understanding, not only on the plant genome(s), but also more importantly, on the functional aspect of proteins. this is mainly due to availability of the complete genome sequence of the arabidopsis thaliana-a dicotyledoneous (dicot) model plant-and technological advancements in proteomics. proteomic analyses of a variety of dicot plants, including both arabidopsis and the ...200515652802
the legume information system (lis): an integrated information resource for comparative legume biology.the legume information system (lis) (, developed by the national center for genome resources in cooperation with the usda agricultural research service (ars), is a comparative legume resource that integrates genetic and molecular data from multiple legume species enabling cross-species genomic and transcript comparisons. the lis virtual plant interface allows simplified and intuitive navigation of transcript data from medicago truncatula, lotus japonicus, glyci ...200515608283
widespread paleopolyploidy in model plant species inferred from age distributions of duplicate is often anticipated that many of today's diploid plant species are in fact paleopolyploids. given that an ancient large-scale duplication will result in an excess of relatively old duplicated genes with similar ages, we analyzed the timing of duplication of pairs of paralogous genes in 14 model plant species. using est contigs (unigenes), we identified pairs of paralogous genes in each species and used the level of synonymous nucleotide substitution to estimate the relative ages of gene dupl ...200415208399
comparative physical mapping reveals features of microsynteny between glycine max, medicago truncatula, and arabidopsis gain insight into genomic relationships between soybean (glycine max) and medicago truncatula, eight groups of bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) contigs, together spanning 2.60 million base pairs (mb) in g. max and 1.56 mb in m. truncatula, were compared through high-resolution physical mapping combined with sequence and hybridization analysis of low-copy bac ends. cross-hybridization among g. max and m. truncatula contigs uncovered microsynteny in six of the contig groups and extensive m ...200415060611
anthocyanidin reductases from medicago truncatula and arabidopsis thaliana.anthocyanidin reductase (anr), encoded by the banyuls gene, is a newly discovered enzyme of the flavonoid pathway involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins. anr functions immediately downstream of anthocyanidin synthase to convert anthocyanidins into the corresponding 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols. we report the biochemical properties of anrs from the model legume medicago truncatula (mtanr) and the model crucifer arabidopsis thaliana (atanr). both enzymes have high temperature optima. mtanr uses ...200414725861
characterization of soybean genomic features by analysis of its expressed sequence tags.we analyzed 314,254 soybean expressed sequence tags (ests), including 29,540 from our laboratory and 284,714 from genbank. these ests were assembled into 56,147 unigenes. about 76.92% of the unigenes were homologous to genes from arabidopsis thaliana ( arabidopsis). the putative products of these unigenes were annotated according to their homology with the categorized proteins of arabidopsis. genes corresponding to cell growth and/or maintenance, enzymes and cell communication belonged to the sl ...200414624337
evolution and microsynteny of the apyrase gene family in three legume genomes.apyrases have been suggested to play important roles in plant nutrition, photomorphogenesis, and nodulation. to help trace the evolution of these genes in the legumes--and possibly, the acquisition of new functions for nodulation--apyrase-containing bacs were sequenced from three legume genomes. genomic sequences from medicago truncatula, glycine max and lotus japonicus were compared to one another and to corresponding regions in arabidopsis thaliana. a phylogenetic analysis of apyrase homologs ...200314598165
identification of putative genes in bean (phaseolus vulgaris) genomic (bng) rflp clones and their conversion to stss.a set of 79 previously mapped bean (phaseolus vulgaris) genomic (bng) clones were partially sequenced. blast database searches detected homologies between 59 of these clones and genes from a variety of plants, especially arabidopsis thaliana. some matches in the database to the bng clones included a putative p-glycoprotein-abc transporter from arabidopsis, an early nodulin-binding protein (enbpi) from medicago truncatula, a lon-protease protein from spinach, a branched-chain amino-acid aminotran ...200212502245
soybean genomic survey: bac-end sequences near rflp and ssr markers.we are building a framework physical infrastructure across the soybean genome by using ssr (simple sequence repeat) and rflp (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers to identify bacs (bacterial artificial chromosomes) from two soybean bac libraries. the libraries were prepared from two genotypes, each digested with a different restriction enzyme. the bacs identified by each marker were grouped into contigs. we have obtained bac- end sequence from bacs within each contig. the sequences ...200111550890
integrated consensus map of cultivated peanut and wild relatives reveals structures of the a and b genomes of arachis and divergence of the legume genomes.the complex, tetraploid genome structure of peanut (arachis hypogaea) has obstructed advances in genetics and genomics in the species. the aim of this study is to understand the genome structure of arachis by developing a high-density integrated consensus map. three recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between the a genome diploid species, arachis duranensis and arachis stenosperma; the b genome diploid species, arachis ipaënsis and arachis magna; and between the ab genome te ...201323315685
a linkage map for the b-genome of arachis (fabaceae) and its synteny to the a-genome.arachis hypogaea (peanut) is an important crop worldwide, being mostly used for edible oil production, direct consumption and animal feed. cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid species with two different genome components, a and b. genetic linkage maps can greatly assist molecular breeding and genomic studies. however, the development of linkage maps for a. hypogaea is difficult because it has very low levels of polymorphism. this can be overcome by the utilization of wild species of arachis, w ...200919351409
exploring the nuclear proteome of medicago truncatula at the switch towards seed filling.despite its importance in determining seed composition, and hence quality, regulation of the development of legume seeds is incompletely understood. because of the cardinal role played by the nucleus in gene expression and regulation, we have characterized the nuclear proteome of medicago truncatula at the 12 days after pollination (dap) stage that marks the switch towards seed filling. nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of nuclear protein bands excised from one-dimensi ...200818643982
plant species, atmospheric co2 and soil n interactively or additively control c allocation within plant-soil systems.two plant species, medicago truncatula (legume) and avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-n soils under two co2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether c allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil n and atmospheric co2 is dependent upon plant species. the results showed the interaction between plant species and soil n had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. the interaction between co2 and soil n had a signi ...200617313000
mitochondrial genome sequence of the legume vicia faba.the number of plant mitochondrial genomes sequenced exceeds two dozen. however, for a detailed comparative study of different phylogenetic branches more plant mitochondrial genomes should be sequenced. this article presents sequencing data and comparative analysis of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of the legume vicia faba. the size of the v. faba circular mitochondrial master chromosome of cultivar broad windsor was estimated as 588,000 bp with a genome complexity of 387,745 bp and 52 conservative mi ...201323675376
insights into the insect salivary gland proteome: diet-associated changes in caterpillar labial salivary proteins.the primary function of salivary glands is fluid and protein secretion during feeding. compared to mammalian systems, little is known about salivary protein secretion processes and the effect of diet on the salivary proteome in insect models. therefore, the effect of diet nutritional quality on caterpillar labial salivary gland proteins was investigated using an unbiased global proteomic approach by nanolc/esi/tandem ms. caterpillars of the beet armyworm, spodoptera exigua hübner, were fed one o ...201323353727
conserved microsynteny of npr1 with genes encoding a signal calmodulin-binding protein and a ck1-class protein kinase in beta vulgaris and two other eudicots.npr1 is a gene of central importance in enabling plants to resist microbial attack. therefore, knowledge of nearby genes is important for genome analysis and possibly for improving disease resistance. in this study, systematic dna sequence analysis, gene annotation, and protein blasts were performed to determine genes near the npr1 gene in beta vulgaris l., medicago truncatula gaertn, and populus trichocarpa torr. & gray, and to access predicted function. microsynteny was discovered for npr1 wit ...200818989375
molecular cloning of a bifunctional beta-xylosidase/alpha-l-arabinosidase from alfalfa roots: heterologous expression in medicago truncatula and substrate specificity of the purified enzyme.glycoside hydrolases are often members of a multigene family, suggesting individual roles for each isoenzyme. various extracellular glycoside hydrolases have an important but poorly understood function in remodelling the cell wall during plant growth. here, msxyl1, a concanavalin a-binding protein from alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 (beta-d-xylosidase branch) is characterized. transcripts of msxyl1 were detected in roots (particularly root tips), root ...200717615411
caterpillar herbivory and salivary enzymes decrease transcript levels of medicago truncatula genes encoding early enzymes in terpenoid response to caterpillar herbivory, alfalfa and related plant species defend themselves through the induction of saponin and volatile terpenoid biosynthesis. both these types of defensive compounds are derived from the metabolic intermediate, isopentenyl diphosphate (ipp). in plants, two distinct biosynthetic pathways can generate ipp; the cytosolic mevalonate pathway and the plastid-associated 2c-methyl erythritol 4-phosphate (mep) pathway. in medicago truncatula, transcript levels of key reg ...200616525889
genetic variation and pathogenicity of anastomosis group 2 isolates of rhizoctonia solani in australia.a collection of isolates of rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (ag) 2 was examined for genetic diversity and pathogenicity. anastomosis reactions classified the majority of isolates into the known subgroups of ag 2-1 and ag 2-2 but the classification of several isolates was ambiguous. morphological characters were consistent with the species, with no discriminating characters existing between subgroups. vertical page of pectic enzymes enabled the separation of zymogram group (zg) 5 and 6 withi ...200717707626
genome-wide analysis of the basic leucine zipper (bzip) transcription factor gene family in six legume genomes.plant bzip proteins characteristically harbor a highly conserved bzip domain with two structural features: a dna-binding basic region and a leucine (leu) zipper dimerization region. they have been shown to be diverse transcriptional regulators, playing crucial roles in plant development, physiological processes, and biotic/abiotic stress responses. despite the availability of six completely sequenced legume genomes, a comprehensive investigation of bzip family members in legumes has yet to be pr ...201526651343
remnants of the legume ancestral genome preserved in gene-rich regions: insights from lupinus angustifolius physical, genetic, and comparative mapping.the narrow-leafed lupin (lupinus angustifolius) was recently considered as a legume reference species. genetic resources have been developed, including a draft genome sequence, linkage maps, nuclear dna libraries, and cytogenetic chromosome-specific landmarks. here, we used a complex approach, involving dna fingerprinting, sequencing, genetic mapping, and molecular cytogenetics, to localize and analyze l. angustifolius gene-rich regions (grrs). a l. angustifolius genomic bacterial artificial chr ...201725620837
genome duplication and gene loss affect the evolution of heat shock transcription factor genes in legumes.whole-genome duplication events (polyploidy events) and gene loss events have played important roles in the evolution of legumes. here we show that the vast majority of hsf gene duplications resulted from whole genome duplication events rather than tandem duplication, and significant differences in gene retention exist between species. by searching for intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found that genome duplications accounted fo ...201425047803
snp marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of qtls for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (pisum sativum l.).field pea (pisum sativum l.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (qtls) associated with traits of interest. genetic markers in clos ...201324134188
molecular evolution of the hd-zip i gene family in legume genomes.homeodomain leucine zipper i (hd-zip i) genes were used to increase the plasticity of plants by mediating external signals and regulating growth in response to environmental conditions. the way genomic histories drove the evolution of the hd-zip i family in legume species was described; hd-zip i genes were searched in lotus japonicus, medicago truncatula, cajanus cajan and phaseolus vulgaris, and then divided into five clades through phylogenetic analysis. microsynteny analysis was made based on ...201424095777
comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes.legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (nf) by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, nf-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. to understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary p ...201323986765
large-scale development of cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism marker assays for genetic mapping in pigeonpea and comparative mapping in legumes.single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps, >2000) were discovered by using rna-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (cajanus cajan). for making the snp genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (kaspar) assays were developed for 1616 snps and referred to as pkams (pigeonpea kaspar assay markers). screening of pkams on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polym ...201223103470
advances in development of transgenic pulse is three decades since the first transgenic pulse crop has been developed. todate, genetic transformation has been reported in all the major pulse crops like vigna species, cicer arietinum, cajanus cajan, phaseolus spp, lupinus spp, vicia spp and pisum sativum, but transgenic pulse crops have not yet been commercially released. despite the crucial role played by pulse crops in tropical agriculture, transgenic pulse crops have not moved out from laboratories to large farm lands compared to the ...200818055156
clade iva basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors form part of a conserved jasmonate signaling circuit for the regulation of bioactive plant terpenoid biosynthesis.plants produce many bioactive, specialized metabolites to defend themselves when facing various stress situations. their biosynthesis is directed by a tightly controlled regulatory circuit that is elicited by phytohormones such as jasmonate (ja). the basic helix-loop-helix (bhlh) transcription factors (tfs) bhlh iridoid synthesis 1 (bis1) and triterpene saponin activating regulator (tsar) 1 and 2, from catharanthus roseus and medicago truncatula, respectively, all belong to clade iva of the bhlh ...201627694525
iridoid synthase activity is common among the plant progesterone 5β-reductase family.catharanthus roseus, the madagascar periwinkle, synthesizes bioactive monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. the monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway leads to the secoiridoid secologanin and involves the enzyme iridoid synthase (is), a member of the progesterone 5β-reductase (p5βr) family. is reduces 8-oxogeranial to iridodial. through transcriptome mining, we show that is belongs to a family of six c. roseus p5βr genes. characterizat ...201525578278
iridoid synthase activity is common among the plant progesterone 5β-reductase family.catharanthus roseus, the madagascar periwinkle, synthesizes bioactive monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, among which the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. the monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway leads to the secoiridoid secologanin and involves the enzyme iridoid synthase (is), a member of the progesterone 5β-reductase (p5βr) family. is reduces 8-oxogeranial to iridodial. through transcriptome mining, we show that is belongs to a family of six c. roseus p5βr genes. characteris ...201425239067
construction of genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant catharanthus integrated genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant catharanthus roseus, based on different types of molecular and morphological markers was constructed, using a f(2) population of 144 plants. the map defines 14 linkage groups (lgs) and consists of 131 marker loci, including 125 molecular dna markers (76 rapd, 3 rapd combinations; 7 issr; 2 est-ssr from medicago truncatula and 37 other pcr based dna markers), selected from a total of 472 primers or primer pairs, and six morph ...200718305345
reconstruction of a composite comparative map composed of ten legume genomes.the fabaceae (legume family) is the third largest and the second of agricultural importance among flowering plant groups. in this study, we report the reconstruction of a composite comparative map composed of ten legume genomes, including seven species from the galegoid clade (medicago truncatula, medicago sativa, lens culinaris, pisum sativum, lotus japonicus, cicer arietinum, vicia faba) and three species from the phaseoloid clade (vigna radiata, phaseolus vulgaris, glycine max). to accomplish ...201728090266
mining the cicer arietinum genome for the mildew locus o (mlo) gene family and comparative evolutionary analysis of the mlo genes from medicago truncatula and some other plant species.the mildew locus o (mlo) gene family is ubiquitous in land plants. some members of this gene family are involved in negative regulation of powdery mildew resistance, while others are involved in several other biological functions. mlo proteins have characteristic seven transmembrane domains and a calmodulin-binding domain at their c-termini, and are associated with plasma membrane. the mlo gene family has been studied in several economically important cereals, but little information is available ...201727900493
no evidence for fabaceae gametophytic self-incompatibility being determined by rosaceae, solanaceae, and plantaginaceae s-rnase lineage genes.fabaceae species are important in agronomy and livestock nourishment. they have a long breeding history, and most cultivars have lost self-incompatibility (si), a genetic barrier to self-fertilization. nevertheless, to improve legume crop breeding, crosses with wild si relatives of the cultivated varieties are often performed. therefore, it is fundamental to characterize fabaceae si system(s). we address the hypothesis of fabaceae gametophytic (g)si being rnase based, by recruiting the same s-rn ...201526032621
investigation of genes encoding calcineurin b-like protein family in legumes and their expression analyses in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).calcium ion (ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants' response process. calcineurin b-like proteins (cbls) are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic ca2+-concentration for response process. a search in four leguminous plant (soybean, medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea) genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode cbl ...201525853855
genetic mapping of legume orthologs reveals high conservation of synteny between lentil species and the sequenced genomes of medicago and chickpea.lentil (lens culinaris medik.) is a global food crop with increasing importance for food security in south asia and other regions. lens ervoides, a wild relative of cultivated lentil, is an important source of agronomic trait variation. lens is a member of the galegoid clade of the papilionoideae family, which includes other important dietary legumes such as chickpea (cicer arietinum) and pea (pisum sativum), and the sequenced model legume medicago truncatula. understanding the genetic structure ...201425538716
diverse functional evolution of serine decarboxylases: identification of two novel acetaldehyde synthases that uses hydrophobic amino acids as substrates.type ii pyridoxal 5'-phosphate decarboxylases are an important group of phylogenetically diverse enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism. within plants, this group of enzymes is represented by aromatic amino acid decarboxylases, glutamate decarboxylases and serine decarboxylases. additional evolutionary divergence of plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylases has resulted in further subcategories with distinct substrate specificities and enzymatic activities. despite shared homology, no such evo ...201425230835
the pgip family in soybean and three other legume species: evidence for a birth-and-death model of evolution.polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) are leucine-rich repeat (lrr) plant cell wall glycoproteins involved in plant immunity. they are typically encoded by gene families with a small number of gene copies whose evolutionary origin has been poorly investigated. here we report the complete characterization of the full complement of the pgip family in soybean (glycine max [l.] merr.) and the characterization of the genomic region surrounding the pgip family in four legume species.201425034494
mapping and identification of a cicer arietinum nsp2 gene involved in nodulation pathway.for the first time the putative nsp2 gene in chickpea has been identified using pairs of nils differing for the rn1 / rn1 nodulation gene that was located in lg5 of chickpea genetic map. an intraspecific cross between the mutant non-nodulating genotype pm233, carrying the recessive gene rn1, and the wild-type ca2139 was used to develop two pairs of near-isogenic lines (nils) for nodulation in chickpea. these pairs of nils were characterized using sequence tagged microsatellite site (stms) marker ...201424247237
large-scale development of cost-effective snp marker assays for diversity assessment and genetic mapping in chickpea and comparative mapping in legumes.a set of 2486 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) were compiled in chickpea using four approaches, namely (i) solexa/illumina sequencing (1409), (ii) amplicon sequencing of tentative orthologous genes (togs) (604), (iii) mining of expressed sequence tags (ests) (286) and (iv) sequencing of candidate genes (187). conversion of these snps to the cost-effective and flexible throughput competitive allele specific pcr (kaspar) assays generated successful assays for 2005 snps. these marker assays h ...201222703242
transcriptional responses to drought stress in root and leaf of chickpea seedling.chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) is an important pulse crop grown mainly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. due to its taxonomic proximity with the model legume medicago truncatula and its ability to grow in arid soil, chickpea has its unique advantage to understand how plant responds to drought stress. in this study, an oligonucleotide microarray was used for analyzing the transcriptomic profiles of unigenes in leaf and root of chickpea seedling under drought stress, respectively. mic ...201222562393
characterization and genetic analysis of an ein4-like sequence (caetr-1) located in qtl(ar1) implicated in ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea.two alleles of a chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) ethylene receptor-like sequence (caetr-1) were sequence-characterized using synteny analysis with genome sequences of medicago truncatula l. the full length of the sequence obtained in the accession flip84-92c resistant to ascochyta blight (caetr-1a) span 4,428 bp, including the polyadenylation signal in the 3'-untranslated region (utr), whereas it has a 730 bp deletion in the 3'-utr region in the susceptible accession pi359075 (caetr-1b). the deduc ...201222238063
large-scale transcriptome analysis in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.), an orphan legume crop of the semi-arid tropics of asia and africa.chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) is an important legume crop in the semi-arid regions of asia and africa. gains in crop productivity have been low however, particularly because of biotic and abiotic stresses. to help enhance crop productivity using molecular breeding techniques, next generation sequencing technologies such as roche/454 and illumina/solexa were used to determine the sequence of most gene transcripts and to identify drought-responsive genes and gene-based molecular markers. a total o ...201121615673
development and use of genic molecular markers (gmms) for construction of a transcript map of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).a transcript map has been constructed by the development and integration of genic molecular markers (gmms) including single nucleotide polymorphism (snp), genic microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (ssr) and intron spanning region (isr)-based markers, on an inter-specific mapping population of chickpea, the third food legume crop of the world and the first food legume crop of india. for snp discovery through allele re-sequencing, primer pairs were designed for 688 genes/expressed sequence ta ...201121384113
assembling a puzzle of dispersed retrotransposable sequences in the genome of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).several repetitive elements are known to be present in the genome of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) including satellite dna and en/spm transposons as well as two dispersed, highly repetitive elements, carep1 and carep2. pcr was used to prove that carep1, carep2, and previously isolated carep3 of c. arietinum represent different segments of a highly repetitive ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposon (metaviridae) designated carep that makes up large parts of the intercalary heterochromatin. the full sequen ...201021164541
integration of novel ssr and gene-based snp marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with medicago truncatula genome.this study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (ssr) and single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) markers in chickpea. the mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (cicer arietinum icc 4958 x c. reticulatum pi 489777). this same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. we report a set of 311 novel ssr ma ...201020098978
analysis of genome organization, composition and microsynteny using 500 kb bac sequences in chickpea.the small genome size (740 mb), short life cycle (3 months) and high economic importance as a food crop legume make chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) an important system for genomics research. although several genetic linkage maps using various markers and genomic tools have become available, sequencing efforts and their use are limited in chickpea genomic research. in this study, we explored the genome organization of chickpea by sequencing approximately 500 kb from 11 bac clones (three representin ...200818504542
structural basis for dual functionality of isoflavonoid o-methyltransferases in the evolution of plant defense leguminous plants such as pea (pisum sativum), alfalfa (medicago sativa), barrel medic (medicago truncatula), and chickpea (cicer arietinum), 4'-o-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. however, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-o-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. in pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus ne ...200617172354
legumedb1 bioinformatics resource: comparative genomic analysis and novel cross-genera marker identification in lupin and pasture legume species.the identification of markers in legume pasture crops, which can be associated with traits such as protein and lipid production, disease resistance, and reduced pod shattering, is generally accepted as an important strategy for improving the agronomic performance of these crops. it has been demonstrated that many quantitative trait loci (qtls) identified in one species can be found in other plant species. detailed legume comparative genomic analyses can characterize the genome organization betwe ...200616936848
spectroscopic determination of the toxicity, absorption, reduction, and translocation of cr(vi) in two magnoliopsida species.hexavalent chromium is a contaminant highly mobile in the environment that is toxic for plants at low concentrations. in this work, the physiological response of convolvulus arvensis and medicago truncatula plants to cr(vi) treatments was compared. c. arvensis is a potential cr hyperaccumulator well adapted to semiarid conditions that biotransform cr(vi) to the less toxic cr(iii). m. truncatula is a model plant well adapted to semiarid conditions with a well studied genetic response to heavy met ...201323487994
genetic diversity of crotalaria germplasm assessed through phylogenetic analysis of est-ssr markers.the genetic diversity of the genus crotalaria is unknown even though many species in this genus are economically valuable. we report the first study in which polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (est-ssr) markers derived from medicago and soybean were used to assess the genetic diversity of the crotalaria germplasm collection. this collection consisted of 26 accessions representing 4 morphologically characterized species. phylogenetic analysis partitioned accessions into 4 m ...200616936850
synteny analysis in rosids with a walnut physical map reveals slow genome evolution in long-lived woody perennials.mutations often accompany dna replication. since there may be fewer cell cycles per year in the germlines of long-lived than short-lived angiosperms, the genomes of long-lived angiosperms may be diverging more slowly than those of short-lived angiosperms. here we test this hypothesis.201526383694
metabolic and genetic perturbations accompany the modification of galactomannan in seeds of medicago truncatula expressing mannan synthase from guar (cyamopsis tetragonoloba l.).galactomannan gums are widely used in the food and oil industries, and there is considerable interest in applying biotechnological approaches to improve their physical properties. a mannan synthase from guar (cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was expressed under the control of a bean beta-phaseolin promoter in transgenic medicago truncatula. although the expression of exogenous mannan synthase caused a slight decrease in galactomannan levels in medicago, the molecular weight and viscosity of the polymer ...200818433421
arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphopodia and germinated spore exudates trigger ca2+ spiking in the legume and nonlegume root epidermis.• the aim of this study was to investigate ca(2+) responses to endosymbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi in the host root epidermis following pre-infection hyphopodium formation in both legumes and nonlegumes, and to determine to what extent these responses could be mimicked by germinated fungal spore exudate. • root organ cultures of both medicago truncatula and daucus carota, expressing the nuclear-localized cameleon reporter nupyc2.1, were used to monitor am-elicited ca(2+) responses in ...201120880223
master: a novel family of pif/harbinger-like transposable elements identified in carrot (daucus carota l.).members of a novel master family of class ii transposons were identified in the carrot genome. two elements, 2.5 kb long dcmaster1 and 4.4 kb long dcmaster-a, are characterized by 22 bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats and by 3 bp target site duplications. genbank search revealed that related elements are also present in medicago truncatula, including a 5.1 kb element mtmaster-a. both dcmaster-a and mtmaster-a contain open reading frames encoding for putative transposases with the complete dd ...200616482474
auxin up-regulates mtserk1 expression in both medicago truncatula root-forming and embryogenic cultures.we have cloned a somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (serk) gene from medicago truncatula (mtserk1) and examined its expression in culture using real time pcr. in the presence of the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (naa) alone, root differentiation occurs from the proliferating calli in both the cultured highly embryogenic seed line (2ha) and a low to nonembryogenic seed line (m. truncatula cv jemalong). auxin stimulated mtserk1 expression in both 2ha and m. truncatula cv jemalong. embryo induc ...200312970488
[molecular evolution of orf1 gene in plant ltr-retrotransposons].ltr-retrotransposons are the major dna components in plant genomes. they usually contain gag and pol, two genes necessary for transpositinal process. our previous study on soybean genome annotation identified a sare ltr-retrotransposon family, which carries the third gene, orf1. using a bioinformatics approach, we here reported that 7 out of 33 sequenced genomes have some ltr-retrotransposons with an extra orf1 gene/gene fragment (approximately 1-2 kb) in the region between 5' ltr and gag gene, ...201324400486
quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal dna in roots: how important is material preservation?monitoring populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in roots is a pre-requisite for improving our understanding of amf ecology and functioning of the symbiosis in natural conditions. among other approaches, quantification of fungal dna in plant tissues by quantitative real-time pcr is one of the advanced techniques with a great potential to process large numbers of samples and to deliver truly quantitative information. its application potential would greatly increase if the samples coul ...201525186648
novel receptor-like kinases in cacao contain pr-1 extracellular domains.members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr-1) family are well-known markers of plant defence responses, forming part of the arsenal of the secreted proteins produced on pathogen recognition. here, we report the identification of two cacao (theobroma cacao l.) pr-1s that are fused to transmembrane regions and serine/threonine kinase domains, in a manner characteristic of receptor-like kinases (rlks). these proteins (tcpr-1f and tcpr-1g) were named pr-1 receptor kinases (pr-1rks). phylogene ...201323573899
fenpropimorph and fenhexamid impact phosphorus translocation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.fenpropimorph and fenhexamid are sterol biosynthesis inhibitor (sbi) molecules widely used to control diseases in agriculture. both molecules, at increasing concentrations, have been shown to impact on the non-target arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi. root colonization, spore production and mycelium architecture, including the branched absorbing structures which are thought to be involved in phosphorus (p) uptake, were affected. in the present study, we investigated the capacity of glomus sp. mu ...201121085999
the signal peptide of the medicago truncatula modular nodulin mtnod25 operates as an address label for the specific targeting of proteins to nitrogen-fixing symbiosomes.the nodule-specific mtnod25 gene of the model legume medicago truncatula encodes a modular nodulin composed of different repetitive modules flanked by distinct n- and c-termini. although similarities are low with respect to all repetitive modules, both the n-terminal signal peptide (sp) and the c-terminus are highly conserved in modular nodulins from different legumes. on the cellular level, mtnod25 is only transcribed in the infected cells of root nodules, and this activation is mediated by a 2 ...200919061403
insights into the function of the phasirna-triggering mir1514 in response to stress in legumes.we recently described the activity of mir1514a in response to water deficit in phaseolus vulgaris. pvu-mir1514a targets a nac transcription factor mrna for cleavage and subsequently triggers nac-derived phasirna formation. here we show that accumulation and activity of mir1514a are also conserved in the model legume medicago truncatula. consistently, we identified mtr-mir1514a and detected its increased accumulation in response to stress conditions, targeting a nac tf mrna for cleavage and trigg ...201728151043
increasing seed size and quality by manipulating big seeds1 in legume species.plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. here, we report a conserved role for the big seeds1 (bs1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (glycine max). bs1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator ...201627791139
molecular cloning and characterization of a novel freezing-inducible dreb1/cbf transcription factor gene in boreal plant iceland poppy (papaver nudicaule).dreb1 of the ap2/erf superfamily plays a key role in the regulation of plant response to low temperatures. in this study, a novel dreb1/cbf transcription factor, pndreb1, was isolated from iceland poppy (papaver nudicaule), a plant adaptive to low temperature environments. it is homologous to the known dreb1s of arabidopsis and other plant species. it also shares similar 3d structure, and conserved and functionally important motifs with dreb1s of arabidopsis. the phylogenetic analysis indicated ...201727560992
vamp721a and vamp721d are important for pectin dynamics and release of bacteria in soybean root nodules rhizobia enter host cells via infection threads. the release of bacteria to a host cell is possible from cell wall-free regions of the infection thread. we hypothesized that the vamp721d and vamp721e exocytotic pathway, identified before in medicago truncatula, has a role in the local modification of cell wall during the release of rhizobia. to clarify the role of vamp721d and vamp721e we used glycine max, a plant with a determinate type of nodule. the localization of the main po ...201626790563
genetic control of flowering time in legumes.the timing of flowering, and in particular the degree to which it is responsive to the environment, is a key factor in the adaptation of a given species to various eco-geographic locations and agricultural practices. flowering time variation has been documented in many crop legumes, and selection for specific variants has permitted significant expansion and improvement in cultivation, from prehistoric times to the present day. recent advances in legume genomics have accelerated the process of ge ...201525914700
non-plastidic, tyrosine-insensitive prephenate dehydrogenases from legumes.l-tyrosine (tyr) and its plant-derived natural products are essential in both plants and humans. in plants, tyr is generally assumed to be synthesized in the plastids via arogenate dehydrogenase (tyra(a), also known also adh), which is strictly inhibited by l-tyr. using phylogenetic and expression analyses, together with recombinant enzyme and endogenous activity assays, we identified prephenate dehydrogenases (tyra(p)s, also known as pdhs) from two legumes, glycine max (soybean) and medicago tr ...201525402771
the soybean (glycine max) nodulation-suppressive cle peptide, gmric1, functions interspecifically in common white bean (phaseolus vulgaris), but not in a supernodulating line mutated in the receptor pvnark.legume plants regulate the number of nitrogen-fixing root nodules they form via a process called the autoregulation of nodulation (aon). despite being one of the most economically important and abundantly consumed legumes, little is known about the aon pathway of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris). we used comparative- and functional-genomic approaches to identify central components in the aon pathway of common bean. this includes identifying pvnark, which encodes a lrr receptor kinase that acts t ...201425040127
generation of expressed sequence tags under cadmium stress for gene discovery and development of molecular markers in chickpea.chickpea is the world's third most important legume crop and belongs to fabaceae family but suffered from severe yield loss due to various biotic and abiotic stresses. development of modern genomic tools such as molecular markers and identification of resistant genes associated with these stresses facilitate improvement in chickpea breeding towards abiotic stress tolerance. in this study, 1597 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ests) were generated from a cdna library of variety pusa 1105 roo ...201424414095
evolutionary history of mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) genes in lotus, medicago, and phaseolus.mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) genes encode proteins that mediate various signaling pathways associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses in eukaryotes. the mapk genes form a 3-tier signal transduction cascade between cellular stimuli and physiological responses. recent identification of soybean mapks and availability of genome sequences from other legume species allowed us to identify their mapk genes. the main objectives of this study were to identify mapks in 3 legume species, ...201324317362
transcriptional regulation of early embryo development in the model legume medicago truncatula.cultivated legumes account for more than a quarter of primary crop production worldwide. the protein- and oil-rich seed of cultivated legumes provides around one-third of the protein in the average human diet, with soybeans (glycine max (l.) merr) being the single largest source of vegetable oil. despite their critical importance to human and animal nutrition, we lack an understanding of how early seed development in legumes is orchestrated at the transcriptional level. we developed a method to ...201424258241
the phytochrome gene family in soybean and a dominant negative effect of a soybean phya transgene on endogenous arabidopsis phya.the evolutionary origin of the phytochrome genes in soybean was analyzed. the expression profiles of phya paralogs were characterized. the heterologous expression of gmphya1 in arabidopsis resulted in longer hypocotyls. the phytochromes (phy) are a small family of red/far-red light photoreceptors which regulate a number of important developmental responses in plants. so far, the members of the phy gene family in soybean (glycine max) remain unclear and an understanding of each member's physiolog ...201324013793
the model legume genomes.the primary model legumes to date have been medicago truncatula and lotus japonicus. both species are tractable both genetically and in the greenhouse, and for both, substantial sets of tools and resources for molecular genetic research have been assembled. as sequencing costs have declined, however, additional legume genomes have been sequenced, and the funding available to crops such as soybean has enabled these to be developed to the status of genetic models in their own right. this chapter, ...201323996304
legumegrn: a gene regulatory network prediction server for functional and comparative studies.building accurate gene regulatory networks (grns) from high-throughput gene expression data is a long-standing challenge. however, with the emergence of new algorithms combined with the increase of transcriptomic data availability, it is now reachable. to help biologists to investigate gene regulatory relationships, we developed a web-based computational service to build, analyze and visualize grns that govern various biological processes. the web server is preloaded with all available affymetri ...201323844010
impact of whole-genome and tandem duplications in the expansion and functional diversification of the f-box family in legumes (fabaceae).f-box proteins constitute a large gene family that regulates processes from hormone signaling to stress response. f-box proteins are the substrate recognition modules of scf e3 ubiquitin ligases. here we report very distinct trends in family size, duplication, synteny and transcription of f-box genes in two nitrogen-fixing legumes, glycine max (soybean) and medicago truncatula (alfafa). while the soybean fbx genes emerged mainly through segmental duplications (including whole-genome duplications ...201323390519
leaf morphology in cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l.) walp]: qtl analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species.cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l.) walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of africa.201222691139
genome-enabled insights into legume biology.legumes are the third-largest family of angiosperms, the second-most-important crop family, and a key source of biological nitrogen in agriculture. recently, the genome sequences of glycine max (soybean), medicago truncatula, and lotus japonicus were substantially completed. comparisons among legume genomes reveal a key role for duplication, especially a whole-genome duplication event approximately 58 mya that is shared by most agriculturally important legumes. a second and more recent genome du ...201222404476
the rice miniature inverted repeat transposable element mping is an effective insertional mutagen in soybean.insertional mutagenesis of legume genomes such as soybean (glycine max) should aid in identifying genes responsible for key traits such as nitrogen fixation and seed quality. the relatively low throughput of soybean transformation necessitates the use of a transposon-tagging strategy where a single transformation event will produce many mutations over a number of generations. however, existing transposon-tagging tools being used in legumes are of limited utility because of restricted transpositi ...201121844309
capturing cold-stress-related sequence diversity from a wild relative of common bean (phaseolus angustissimus).one restriction to the cultivation of common bean, phaseolus vulgaris l., is its limited tolerance to low temperatures. in the present study, subtraction suppression hybridization was employed to enrich for stress responsive genes in both a chilling-susceptible common bean and a relatively more chilling-tolerant wild bean species, phaseolus angustissimus. for each species, approximately 11 000 expressed sequence tags were generated. comparative sequence analysis of the est collection with the av ...201121797793
border sequences of medicago truncatula cle36 are specifically cleaved by endoproteases common to the extracellular fluids of medicago and soybean.cle (clavata3/esr-related) peptides are developmental regulators that are secreted into the apoplast. little is known about the role of the sequences that flank cle peptides in terms of their biological activity or how they are targeted by proteases that are known to liberate the final active cle peptides from their precursor sequences. the biological activity of medicago truncatula cle36, which possesses broadly conserved border sequences flanking the putative final active cle36 peptide product ...201121633083
characterisation of the legume serk-nik gene superfamily including splice variants: implications for development and defence.somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (serk) genes are part of the regulation of diverse signalling events in plants. current evidence shows serk proteins function both in developmental and defence signalling pathways, which occur in response to both peptide and steroid ligands. serks are generally present as small gene families in plants, with five serk genes in arabidopsis. knowledge gained primarily through work on arabidopsis serks indicates that these proteins probably interact with a ...201121385462
a legume specific protein database (legprot) improves the number of identified peptides, confidence scores and overall protein identification success rates for legume proteomics.a legume specific protein database (legprot) has been created containing sequences from seven legume species, i.e., glycine max, lotus japonicus, medicago sativa, medicago truncatula, lupinusalbus, phaseolus vulgaris, and pisum sativum. the database consists of amino acid sequences translated from predicted gene models and 6-frame translations of tentative consensus (tc) sequences assembled from expressed sequence tags (ests) and singleton ests. this database was queried using mass spectral data ...201121353266
a comparison of global, gene-specific, and relaxed clock methods in a comparative genomics framework: dating the polyploid history of soybean (glycine max).it is widely recognized that many genes and lineages do not adhere to a molecular clock, yet molecular clocks are commonly used to date divergences in comparative genomic studies. we test the application of a molecular clock across genes and lineages in a phylogenetic framework utilizing 12 genes linked in a 1-mb region on chromosome 13 of soybean (glycine max); homoeologous copies of these genes formed by polyploidy in glycine; and orthologous copies in g. tomentella, phaseolus vulgaris, and me ...201020705909
polyploidy did not predate the evolution of nodulation in all legumes.several lines of evidence indicate that polyploidy occurred by around 54 million years ago, early in the history of legume evolution, but it has not been known whether this event was confined to the papilionoid subfamily (papilionoideae; e.g. beans, medics, lupins) or occurred earlier. determining the timing of the polyploidy event is important for understanding whether polyploidy might have contributed to rapid diversification and radiation of the legumes near the origin of the family; and whet ...201020661290
a platform for functional prediction and comparative analyses of transcription factors of legumes and beyond.sequence-specific dna-binding transcription factors (tfs) are key molecular switches that control many of the biological processes in a cell or organism. recent completion of the genomic sequences of soybean (glycine max), locus japonicus and medicago truncatula has enabled us to carry out large-scale data mining to identify and annotate regulatory tfs for functional and comparative genomics of the tf repertoires of these three major legumes in themselves or with those of other species. the iden ...201020215877
[cloning and characterization of open reading frame encoding beta-amyrin synthase in glycyrrhiza uralensis].to clone and sequence the open reading frame of beta-amyrin synthase (bas) from glycyrrhiza uralensis.200920067007
inactivation of duplicated nod factor receptor 5 (nfr5) genes in recessive loss-of-function non-nodulation mutants of allotetraploid soybean (glycine max l. merr.).chemically induced non-nodulating nod139 and nn5 mutants of soybean (glycine max) show no visible symptoms in response to rhizobial inoculation. both exhibit recessive mendelian inheritance suggesting loss of function. by allele determination and genetic complementation in nod139 and nn5, two highly related lipo-oligochitin lysm-type receptor kinase genes in glycine max were cloned; they are presumed to be the critical nodulation-inducing (nod) factor receptor similar to those of lotus japonicus ...201020007291
legumetfdb: an integrative database of glycine max, lotus japonicus and medicago truncatula transcription factors.we have established a database named legumetfdb to provide access to transcription factor (tf) repertoires of three major legume species: soybean (glycine max), lotus japonicus and medicago truncatula. legumetfdb integrates unique information for each tf gene and family, including sequence features, gene promoters, domain alignments, gene ontology (go) assignment and sequence comparison data derived from comparative analysis with tfs found within legumes, in arabidopsis, rice and poplar as well ...201019933159
a consensus genetic map of cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l) walp.] and synteny based on est-derived snps.consensus genetic linkage maps provide a genomic framework for quantitative trait loci identification, map-based cloning, assessment of genetic diversity, association mapping, and applied breeding in marker-assisted selection schemes. among "orphan crops" with limited genomic resources such as cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l.) walp.] (2n = 2x = 22), the use of transcript-derived snps in genetic maps provides opportunities for automated genotyping and estimation of genome structure based on synteny ...200919826088
dynamic rearrangements determine genome organization and useful traits in soybean.soybean (glycine max) is a paleopolyploid whose genome has gone through at least two rounds of polyploidy and subsequent diploidization events. several studies have investigated the changes in genome structure produced by the relatively recent polyploidy event, but little is known about the ancient polyploidy due to the high frequency of gene loss after duplication. our previous study, regarding a region responsible for bacterial leaf pustule, reported two homeologous rxp regions produced by the ...200919684227
plantsups: a database of plants' ubiquitin proteasome system.the ubiquitin 26s/proteasome system (ups), a serial cascade process of protein ubiquitination and degradation, is the last step for most cellular proteins. there are many genes involved in this system, but are not identified in many species. the accumulating availability of genomic sequence data is generating more demands in data management and analysis. genomics data of plants such as populus trichocarpa, medicago truncatula, glycine max and others are now publicly accessible. it is time to int ...200919445698
the lipoxygenase gene family: a genomic fossil of shared polyploidy between glycine max and medicago truncatula.soybean lipoxygenases (lxs) play important roles in plant resistance and in conferring the distinct bean flavor. lxs comprise a multi-gene family that includes gmlx1, gmlx2 and gmlx3, and many of these genes have been characterized. we were interested in investigating the relationship between the soybean lipoxygenase isozymes from an evolutionary perspective, since soybean has undergone two rounds of polyploidy. here we report the tetrad genome structure of soybean lx regions produced by ancient ...200819105811
Displaying items 1001 - 1100 of 1111