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cloning and expression of the gene encoding acacia confusa trypsin inhibitor that is active without post-translational proteolysis.a recombinant plasmid containing the coding regions for acacia confusa trypsin inhibitor (acti) has been constructed and expressed in escherichia coli cells, as a fusion protein between acti and glutathione s-transferase (gst). the gst-fusion was produced as a soluble protein which did not require denaturing agents such as urea to solubilize it. the recombinant acti (reacti) was obtained by treating the gst-fusion protein with thrombin. both the reacti and fusion protein have a strong inhibitory ...19938500764
acafusin, a dimeric antifungal protein from acacia confusa seeds.a dimeric 34-kda antifungal protein, designated as acafusin, was purified from acacia confusa seeds using q-sepharose, deae-cellulose, mono s and superdex s75. it demonstrated antifungal activity toward rhizoctonia solani with an ic(50) of 28 microm. acafusin inhibited the activity of hiv-1 reverse transcriptase mildly with an ic(50) of 80 microm.201019958279
nucleotide sequence of cdna for acacia confusa trypsin inhibitor and implication of post-translation processing.synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to all possible sequences of n-terminal and c-terminal region of acacia confusa trypsin inhibitor were used to generate acti-related sequences using the polymerase chain reaction on the cdnas encoding acti of the seeds of legume, a. confusa. the deduced amino acid sequence agreed with that determined by the peptide analysis except an extra amino acid residue, serine, was found at the junction of a and b chain, which was removed by post-translation process ...19921375466
protective effect of acacia confusa bark extract and its active compound gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver injury in rats.acacia confusa merr. (leguminosae), a species native to taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of taiwan, and has been traditionally used as a medicine. the hepatoprotective effects of a. confusa bark extract (acbe) and its active constituent gallic acid were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (ccl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. ccl(4)-induced hepatic pathological damage and significantly increased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ast), alanine aminotransferase ...200919327382
inactivation of acacia confusa trypsin inhibitor by site-specific mutagenesis.native acacia confusa trypsin inhibitor (acti) contains two disulphide bonds; one is an intrachain disulphide bond (cys40-cys86), located in the a-chain, while the other is an interchain disulphide bond (cys133-cys141) connecting the a- and b-chain; the inhibitor consists of 175 amino acid residues, 136 residues in the a-chain and 39 residues in the b-chain. the putative reactive site of acti is located at lys64, while for all other kunitz family trypsin inhibitors it is at arg64. when the lys64 ...19947957882
ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from acacia confusa flowers and buds.acacia confusa merr. (leguminosae), a species native to taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of taiwan, and has been used in traditional medicines. in this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to extract the phenolic compounds from a. confusa flowers and buds for the first time. among the extraction methods, it can significantly enhance the contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in a. confusa flower and bud extracts using ultraso ...201121374811
antioxidant activities of fractions of polymeric procyanidins from stem bark of acacia confusa.the polymeric procyanidins extracted from acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a sephadex lh-20 column. the antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (frap) assays. all fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction f9. the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ioni ...201121541049
the complete amino acid sequence of a kunitz family trypsin inhibitor from seeds of acacia confusa.the complete amino acid sequence of a kunitz-type two-chain trypsin inhibitor was determined for the first time. the sequence of the inhibitor from acacia confusa (acti) was determined by analysis of peptides obtained from the reduced and s-carboxymethylated protein by digestion with endopeptidase lys-c, endopeptidase arg-c, and v8 endopeptidase. acti is comprised of two chains, namely a and b chains linked by the disulfide bridge between cys(133) and cys(141), and the inhibitor consists of 175 ...19938468333
biochemical characterization of acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.one of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. an extract of acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. it was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrop ...201424090421
a novel strain d5 isolated from acacia confusa.we isolated a novel strain d5 from nodules of acacia confusa. under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate acacia confusa, a. crassicarpa and a. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g(-1)·min(-1). in the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16s rrna gene sequence, the sequence of strain d5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus pseudomonas. the 685 bp noda fragment amplified from strain d5 shared 95% homology with the noda ...201223166618
mirna control of vegetative phase change in trees.after germination, plants enter juvenile vegetative phase and then transition to an adult vegetative phase before producing reproductive structures. the character and timing of the juvenile-to-adult transition vary widely between species. in annual plants, this transition occurs soon after germination and usually involves relatively minor morphological changes, whereas in trees and other perennial woody plants it occurs after months or years and can involve major changes in shoot architecture. w ...201121383862
anti-hepatitis c virus activity of acacia confusa extract via suppressing cyclooxygenase-2.chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality by chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) throughout the world. it is of tremendous importance to discover more effective and safer agents to improve the clinical treatment on hcv carriers. here we report that the n-butanol-methanol extract obtained from acacia confusa plant, referred as acsb-m4, exhibited the inhibition of hcv rna replication in the hcv replicon assay ...201021075144
phytochemicals from acacia confusa heartwood extracts reduce serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice: their potential use as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.in this study, the antihyperuricemic effect of acacia confusa heartwood extracts and their phytochemicals on potassium oxonate (po)-induced acute hyperuricemia was investigated for the first time. all treatments at the same dosage (100 mmol/kg) were administered to the abdominal cavity of po-induced hyperuricemic mice, and serum uric acid level was measured at 3 h after administration. in experimental mice, serum uric acid level was significantly suppressed by the administration of a. confusa he ...201020806936
acaconin, a chitinase-like antifungal protein with cytotoxic and anti-hiv-1 reverse transcriptase activities from acacia confusa seeds.from the seeds of acacia confusa, a chitinase-like antifungal protein designated as acaconin that demonstrated antifungal activity toward rhizoctonia solani with an ic₅₀ of 30±4 µm was isolated. acaconin demonstrated an n-terminal sequence with pronounced similarity to chitinases and a molecular mass of 32 kda. it was isolated by chromatography on q-sepharose, sp-sepharose and superdex 75 and was not bound by either ion exchanger. acaconin was devoid of chitinase activity. the antifungal activit ...201020725649
a dimeric high-molecular-weight chymotrypsin inhibitor with antitumor and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from seeds of acacia confusa.a dimeric 70-kda chymotrypsin inhibitor with substantial n-terminal sequence homology to serine protease inhibitors was isolated from acacia confusa seeds. the chymotrypsin inhibitor was purified using a protocol that entailed ion exchange chromatography on q-sepharose, sp-sepharose and fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on superdex 75. the chymotrypsin inhibitor was unadsorbed on both q-sepharose and sp-sepharose. its chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was stable from ph 3 to 10 an ...201019962287
antioxidant activity of extracts from acacia confusa bark and heartwood.the antioxidant activity of extracts from bark and heartwood of acacia confusa was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical and superoxide radical scavenging assays and lipid peroxidation assay as well as hydroxyl radical-induced dna strand scission assay. in addition, an ex vivo antioxidant assay using a flow cytometric technique was also employed in this study. the results indicate that both bark and heartwood extracts clearly have strong antioxidant effects. similar inh ...200111453785
phenolic antioxidants from the heartwood of acacia confusa.in the present study, the ethanolic extracts from the heartwood of acacia confusa, a species indigenous to taiwan, exhibit strong antioxidant effects. among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of heartwood, the etoac soluble fraction exhibits the best antioxidant activity. the 80% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibitory activity by the etoac extract was observed at a concentration of 5 mug/ml, and at the same dosage there was a similar free radical scavenging activity for (-)-asco ...200516028974
properties of resorcinol-tannin-formaldehyde copolymer resins prepared from the bark extracts of taiwan acacia and china fir.resorcinol-tannin-formaldehyde copolymer resins (rtf) were prepared by using the bark extracts of taiwan acacia (acacia confusa) and china fir (cunninghamia lanceolata) to substitute part of the resorcinol. from the results, the content of reactive phenolic materials in taiwan acacia and china fir bark extracts were 51.6% and 46.5%, respectively. aromatic compounds were the main components in the bark extracts showed by ft-ir analysis. the conventional synthesis condition used for rf resin was c ...200616171683
antioxidant activities of natural phenolic compounds from acacia confusa bark.the present study showed that the ethanolic extracts from the bark of acacia confusa exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of bark, the etoac soluble fraction exhibited the best antioxidant performance. furthermore, following by cc and hplc, 11 pure phenolic compounds were isolated and identified from the ethanolic extracts.200716766181
nmr spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from acacia confusa.a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid, n-chloromethyl-n,n-dimethyltryptamine, was isolated from a methanol extract of the chinese shrub acacia confusa merr., together with its known hallucinogenic analogues, n-methyltryptamine, n,n-dimethyltryptamine and n,n-dimethyltryptamine-n-oxide. the new compound was an artefact of the isolation conditions. the complete (1)h and (13)c nmr assignments for these compounds were carried out using (1)h, (13)c, dept, gcosy, ghsqc and ghmbc nmr experiments.200717310474
online rp-hplc-dpph screening method for detection of radical-scavenging phytochemicals from flowers of acacia confusa.acacia confusa is traditionally used as a medicinal plant in taiwan. in this study, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of extracts from flowers of a. confusa were investigated for the first time. in addition, a rapid screening method, online rp-hplc-dpph system, for individual antioxidants in complex matrices was developed. accordingly, six antioxidants including gallic acid ( 1), myricetin 3-rhamnoside ( 2), quercetin 3-rhamnoside ( 3), kaempferol 3-rhamnoside ( 4), europetin 3-rhamnosid ...200818163556
effect of phytocompounds from the heartwood of acacia confusa on inflammatory mediator production.acacia confusa merr. (leguminosae) is traditionally used as a medicinal plant in taiwan. in the present study, anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the heartwood of a. confusa were investigated for the first time. results demonstrated that ethanolic extracts of a. confusa heartwood strongly suppressed no production in lipopolysaccharide (lps)-activated raw 264.7 macrophages. among all fractions derived from ethanolic extracts, the etoac fraction exhibited the best inhibitory activity. fol ...200818254591
antioxidant activities and phytochemical characteristics of extracts from acacia confusa bark.the present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of bark extract of acacia confusa and some of the isolated constituents from its ethyl acetate (etoac) fraction in various in vitro systems to gain mechanistic insights. results from antioxidant assays together with authentic antioxidant standards revealed that etoac fraction showed strong superoxide radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. following an in vitro antioxidant activity-gu ...200918280147
antioxidant activities and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of phenolic phytochemicals from acacia confusa twigs and branches.this study investigates bioactivities and active phytochemicals of the extracts of twigs and branches from the indigenous taiwanese tree acacia confusa merr. the bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 8 potent antioxidative phytochemicals. catechins are the major components in the extract of 5 cm branch bark, including catechin, catechin-3-o-rhamnopyranoside, epi-catechin, and quercetin-3-o-rhamnopyranoside, while flavonol glycosides are the major components in twig extract, namely, myricetin-3-o ...201020030403
inhibition of xanthine oxidase by acacia confusa extracts and their phytochemicals.acacia confusa merr. (leguminosae) is traditionally used as a medicinal plant in taiwan. in the present study, the xod-inhibitory activity of ethanolic extracts from a. confusa was investigated for the first time. results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of a. confusa heartwood had a strong xod-inhibitory activity. among all fractions derived from heartwood extracts, the etoac fraction exhibited the best inhibitory activity. following column chromatography and reverse-phase high-performan ...201020047272
variation in antioxidant activity of extracts of acacia confusa of different ages.the antioxidant activity of extracts of acacia confusa of different ages has been evaluated. ethanolic extracts of bark, twigs, branches (2- and 5 cm-diameter branch-bark, 2- and 5 cm-diameter branch-wood), and leaves of 15-, 25-, and 35-year-old a. confusa were examined. results indicate that the ethanolic extracts of 5 cm-diameter branch-bark and bark of a. confusa exhibited stronger antioxidant activities, and higher phenolic and proanthocyanidin contents than the other plant parts. furthermo ...201020184025
maldi-tof ms analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of acacia confusa.the structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (frap) assays. the results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, ...201020657447
three new flavonol galloylglycosides from leaves of acacia confusa.myricetin 3-o-(2"-o-galloyl)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside 7-methyl ether (1), myricetin 3-o-(3"-galloyl)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside 7-methyl ether (2), and myricetin 3-o-(2",3" -di-o-galloyl)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3), three new flavonol galloylglycosides, were isolated from leaves of acacia confusa sampled from chaoushi in the north of taiwan. their structures were established by analysis of spectroscopic data, and the compounds were evaluated for anti-hatch activity against brine shrimp.200010843598
trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of acacia confusa.a trypsin inhibitor (acti) was isolated and purified from the seeds of acacia confusa by gel filtration, and trypsin-sepharose 4b column affinity chromatography. the molecular weight of acti was found to be 21,000 +/- 1,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and amino acid composition analysis. acti contained four half-cystine and no methionine residues, and was rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, and lysine residues. the native trypsin inhibitor was ...19911794977
decontamination of landfill leachate by soils with different textures.soils with different textures (sandy, loamy, and clay soils) were used as filters to attenuate leachate from the gin drinkers' bay landfill. they were used to pack columns of different depths: 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 m. eight millimeters of leachate was drained into the soil columns each day for 56 days. the percolated leachates were collected weekly and their properties analyzed. it was revealed that the properties became rather stable at day 28 and therefore only the data from day 28 are presented. ...19902096848
host-species-dependent physiological characteristics of hemiparasite santalum album in association with n2-fixing and non-n2-fixing hosts native to southern china.understanding the interactions between the hemiparasite santalum album l. and its hosts has theoretical and practical significance in sandalwood plantations. in a pot study, we tested the effects of two non-n2-fixing (bischofia polycarpa (levl.) airy shaw and dracontomelon duperreranum pierre) and two n2-fixing hosts (acacia confusa merr. and dalbergia odorifera t. chen) on the growth characteristics and nitrogen (n) nutrition of s. album. biomass production of shoot, root and haustoria, n and t ...201425216726
comparison of dilute acid and sulfite pretreatments on acacia confusa for biofuel application and the influence of its extractives.chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass may impede biofuel processing efficiency. to understand whether the heartwood of acacia confusa is suitable for biofuel application, extractive-free heartwood of a. confusa was subjected to dilute acid (da) or sulfite pretreatments. sugar recoveries were used to evaluate the performance of different pretreatments. cell wall properties, such as 4-o-alkylated lignin structures, s/g ratios, and xylan contents, of the pretreated samples showed significa ...201425318692
chimeric protein: abrin b chain-trypsin inhibitor conjugate as a new antitumor agent.abrin b chain and trypsin inhibitor isolated from acacia confusa (acti) were covalently linked to form a chimeric protein (anb-acti) with n-succinimidyl-3-(-2-pyridyldithio)propionate. the chimeric protein had 31% of trypsin inhibitory activity of acti and 7% of hemagglutinating activity of abrin b chain, but no inhibition on protein biosynthesis. anb-acti had strong inhibitory effects on the growth of sarcoma 180 cells and hela cell culture while the mixture of an equivalent amount of free abri ...19892818599
allelopathic research of subtropical vegetation in taiwan : iii. allelopathic exclusion of understory byleucaena leucocephala (lam.) de wit.leucaena leucocephala plantations in kaoshu, southern taiwan, exhibit, after several years of growth, a unique pattern of weed exclusion beneathleucaena canopy. the pattern has been observed in manyleucaena plantations in taiwan and is particularly pronounced in the area where a substantial amount ofleucaena litter has accumulated on the ground. field data showed that the phenomenon was primarily not due to physical competition involving light, soil moisture, ph, and nutrients. instead, aqueous ...198624307122
antitumor lectin-trypsin inhibitor conjugate.concanavalin a (con a) and trypsin inhibitor isolated from acacia confusa were covalently linked with n-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate. con a-a. confusa trypsin inhibitor (acti) conjugate covalently bound (con a-acti) retained about 42% of the trypsin inhibitory activity present in the native acti and had a higher hemagglutinating activity than did the native con a. con a-acti had a greater resistance to tryptic digestion than did the mixture of con a and acti. the conjugate entered ...19853889455
isolation and properties of a kunitz-type protein inhibitor obtained from pithecellobium dulce seeds.we report for the first time the isolation and characterization of a protease inhibitor from the seeds of pithecellobium dulce, which is a leguminosae tree native to mexico. the purification of the p. dulce trypsin inhibitor (pdti) was a direct process. after its extraction (ph 8.0) and precipitation (80% (nh(4))(2)so(4)), the ph was adjusted to 4.0, the supernatant was loaded onto a cm-sepharose column, and a single peak of trypsin inhibitory activity was eluted (cm-tia). the main component of ...200415453675
can differences in root responses to soil drying and compaction explain differences in performance of trees growing on landfill sites?two tropical woody species, acacia confusa merrill and litsea glutinosa (lour.) c.b. robinson, were grown under controlled conditions in pvc pipes filled with john innes no. 2 soil. to investigate root distribution, physiological characteristics and hydraulic conductivity, four soil treatments were imposed-well-watered and noncompacted (control), well-watered and compacted; unwatered and noncompacted, and unwatered and compacted. in l. glutinosa, rooting depth and root elongation were severely r ...199912651537
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