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peptide-n4-(n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase f cannot release glycans with fucose attached alpha 1----3 to the asparagine-linked n-acetylglucosamine residue.the ability of peptide-n4-(n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase f (pngase f) from flavobacterium meningosepticum and pngase a from sweet almonds to deglycosylate n-glycopeptides and n-glycoproteins from plants was compared. bromelain glycopeptide and horseradish peroxidase-c glycoprotein, which contain xylose linked beta 1----2 to beta-mannose and fucose linked alpha 1----3 to the innermost n-acetylglucosamine, were used as substrates. in contrast to pngase a, the enzyme from f. meningo ...19911868849
scope and mechanism of carbohydrase action: stereospecific hydration of d-glucal catalyzed by alpha- and beta-glucosidase.a unique demonstration is presented of the capacity of glycosidases to create anomeric configuration de novo. purifed candida tropicalis alpha-glucosidase and sweet almond beta-glucosidase have been found to attack the same substrate, d-glucal, and to convert this unusual glycosyl substrate (which lacks alpha or beta anomeric configuration) to 2-deoxy-alpha-(or beta-) d-glucose, respectively. the stereospecificity of the hydration reaction catalyzed by each enzyme in d2o was revealed by the use ...1977870025
[correlation of cyanogenic glycosides with content of benzyl alcohol in cherry brandies (author's transl)].a clear correlation between cyanogenic glycosides and the content of benzyl alcohol in fermented mash of cherries was indicated by model experiments with amygdalin and fermenting yeast, cherry-stones with and without fermenting yeasts as well as bitter and sweet almonds. these correlations proofed that benzyl alcohol has to be regarded as a metabolic product of mandelonitrileglycosides.1977855501
laetrile toxicity studies in dogs.dogs were fed laetrile and fresh, sweet almonds under various conditions. the doses of laetrile were similar to those prescribed for patients with cancer and ranged on a basis of gram to square meter from an equivalent of the oral dose for man to five times this dose. six of the ten dogs died of cyanide poisoning. one dog recovered, and three dogs, at the time of sacrifice, demonstrated various levels of neurologic impairment, ranging from difficulty in walking to coma. these studies demonstrate ...1978203726
the interaction of 1-fluoro-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride with glucosidases.1. 1-fluoro-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride undergoes ph-independent loss of f- ion at a rate of 1 x 10(-8) s-1 at 50.0 degrees c, some 10(3)-fold slower than alpha-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride and 4 x 10(4)-fold slower than beta-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride. 2. the (inverting) amyloglucosidase ii of aspergillus niger hydrolyses the difluoride according to michaelis-menten kinetics (km 34 mm and kcat. 0.27 s-1), by apparently the same (simple) mechanism by which it hydrolyses alpha-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride ...19911953653
histidines, histamines and imidazoles as glycosidase inhibitors.this present study reports the ability of a range of derivatives of l-histidine, histamine and imidazole to act as inhibitors of sweet-almond beta-glucosidase, yeast alpha-glucosidase and escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. the addition of a hydrophobic group to the basic imidazole nucleus greatly enhances binding to both the alpha- and beta-glucosidases. l-histidine (beta-naphthylamide (ki 17 microm) is a potent competitive inhibitor of sweet-almond beta-glucosidase as is omega-n-acetylhistami ...19912012615
[subchronic toxicity of viscum cruciatum sieber].the subchronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of viscum cruciatum sieber, a parasite of prunus amygdalus stokes, was studied in wistar rats. the extract at dosage-levels of 30, 120 and 480 mg/kg body weight/day was administered in the drinking water during 12 weeks; checks being carried out after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. no apparent symptoms of toxicity were observed, except for a slight apathy and reduced mobility in the batch receiving the highest dose. a slight leukopenia and a moderate in ...19902080835
the enzymatic synthesis of beta 1-2 glucans.incubation of labeled uridine diphosphate glucose with an enzyme preparation from rhizobium meliloti or agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the formation of a glucan which appears to be identical to the beta 1-2 cyclic glucan described by several workers. this conclusion is based on the molecular size, the formation of sophorose and higher homologs by partial acid hydrolysis, the liberation of only glucose by total acid hydrolysis, and the release of only 3,4,6-tri-o-methylglucose after methylati ...19853994379
enzyme therapy: ii. effect of covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol on biochemical parameters and immunological determinants of beta-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase.the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (peg) to beta-glucosidase from sweet almonds and alpha-galactosidase from green coffee beans results in alterations of their catalytic properties and masking of specific determinant sites on the enzymes. both enzymes have increased km and decreased vmax values against their respective p-nitrophenyl substrate analogs after peg attachment. when peg is attached to 30% of alpha-galactosidase epsilon-amino groups, 12% activity remains against ceramide tr ...19836207160
[effect of sweet almonds on the stress ulcer in rats]. 19853899582
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase is conserved among different phylogenic kingdoms.we have previously demonstrated that maize (zea mays) 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (pgam-i) is not related to 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase. with the aid of specific anti-maize pgam-i antibodies, we demonstrate here the presence of a closely related pgam-i in other plants. we also describe the isolation and sequencing of a cdna-encoding almond (prunus amygdalus) pgam-i that further demonstrates this relationship among plant pgam-i. a sea ...19957584858
suicide-substrate inactivation of beta-galactosidase by diazomethyl beta-d-galactopyranosyl ketone.diazomethyl beta-d-galactopyranosyl ketone (1) has been proven to be a mechanism-based, irreversible (suicide-substrate) inactivator of aspergillus oryzae beta-d-galactosidase, but not an inactivator of e. coli lacz beta-d-galactosidase. compound 1 is stable in buffers of normal physiological ph. it is decomposed by h+, but not by nucleophiles. inactivation of a. oryzae beta-d-galactopyranosyl ketone (2) nor diazomethyl alpha-d-galactopyranosyl ketone inactivated the enzyme and therefore inactiv ...19938143286
isolation of trehalamine, the aglycon of trehazolin, from microbial broths and characterization of trehazolin related compounds.trehalamine, (3ar,4r,5s,6s,6as)-2-amino-4-(hydroxymethyl)-3a,5,6,6a- tetrahydro-4h-cyclo-pent[d]oxazole-4,5,6-triol (1) and d-glucose were obtained by acid hydrolysis of trehazolin (3), a trehalase inhibitor produced by actinomycetes. more vigorous hydrolytic treatment of trehazolin afforded an aminocyclitol, (1r,2s,3r,4s,5r)-5-amino-1- (hydroxymethyl)cyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetraol (2). trehalamine, the aglycon of trehazolin, was also found in the culture broths of two trehazolin producing strains ...19938360108
the carbohydrate moiety of the bermuda grass antigen bg60. new oligosaccharides of plant origin.bg60 is an important allergen of bermuda grass (cynodon dactylon) pollen, which causes allergic responses in human. it was suggested that its carbohydrate moiety may be relevant to allergic reaction (su, s. n., lau, g. x., shu, p., yang, s. y., huang, s. w., and lee, y. c. (1996) j. allergy clin. immunol., in press). therefore, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety in bg60 was investigated. the n-linked oligosaccharides were released from the glycopeptides of bg60 by digesting with a glycoami ...19968900140
production of bcg alginate-pll microcapsules by emulsification/internal gelation.a biocompatible emulsification method for microencapsulation of live cells and enzymes within a calcium alginate matrix applied to bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) has been developed. small-diameter alginate beads (microcapsules) were formed via internal gelation of an alginate solution emulsified within vegetable oil. five different oils (sesame, sweet almond, perhydrosqualene, camomile and jojoba) were used. the rheological analysis of the oils showed a newtonian behaviour, with viscosities = 30 ...19979292438
differential n-glycan patterns of secreted and intracellular igg produced in trichoplusia ni cells.structures of the n-linked oligosaccharide attached to the heavy chain of a heterologous murine igg2a produced from trichoplusia ni (tn-5b1-4, high five) insect cells were characterized. coexpression of the chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (bip) in the baculovirus-infected insect cells increased the soluble intracellular and secreted igg level. this facilitated the detailed analysis of n-glycans from both intracellular and secreted igg. following purification of the immunoglo ...19979083032
comparative abilities and optimal conditions for beta-glycosidase enzymes to hydrolyse the glucuronide, glucoside, and n-acetylglucosaminide conjugates of bile acids.enzymatic hydrolyses were described for three variants of glycosidic conjugated bile acids with one beta-glucuronidase (helix pomatia), three beta-glucosidase (almonds, sweet almonds, and escherichia coli), and four beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase (jack beans, bovine kidney, human placenta, and diplococcus pneumoniae) preparations. the substrates include the beta-glucuronide, beta-glucoside, and beta-n-acetylglucosaminide conjugates of bile acids related to hyodeoxycholic, murideoxycholic, chenodeo ...19979300125
hypoglycemic effect of prunus amygdalus seeds in albino rabbits.on administration of 2.5 g almond seed and its proportionate fractions, viz. 1.22 g defatted seed and 1.28 g oil to three groups of albino rabbits, they showed a definite hypoglycemic action during a two months study. the active factor seems to be a non oil fraction which is only partly soluble in ethyl ether.19979332176
n-glycan structures of a recombinant mouse soluble fcgamma receptor ii.n-glycans of a recombinant mouse soluble fcgamma receptor ii (sfcgammarii) expressed in baby hamster kidney cells were released from glycopeptides by digestion with glycoamidase a (from sweet almond), and the reducing ends of the oligosaccharides were reductively aminated with 2-aminopyridine. the derivatized n-glycans were separated and structurally identified by a three-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) mapping technique on three kinds of hplc columns [takahashi, et al. ...199810052594
antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.the antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. however, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. in the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against acinetobacter baumanii, aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, candida albicans, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia col, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella enterica subsp. enterica s ...199910438227
effect of prunus amygdalus seeds on lipid profile.the effect of prunus amygdalus, which is rich in unsaturated fat, fibre diet and low cholesterol was studied in 36 normolipidemic male albino rabbits for 60 days. three different doses i.e. whole seeds defatted and oil showed a decrease in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, ldl cholesterol, vldl cholesterol and an increase in phospholipid, faecal sterol and hdl cholesterol. the maximum effects where shown by whole seeds followed by oil and defatted.199710235661
production and characterization of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to almond (prunus dulcis l.) major storage protein.rabbits were immunized with purified almond major protein (amp), the primary storage protein in almonds. rabbit anti-amp polyclonal antibodies (pa) could detect amp when as little as 1-10 ng/ml were used to coat microtiter plates in a noncompetitive enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa). competitive inhibition elisa assays detected the amp down to 300 ng/ml. pa recognized the amp in protein extracts from all u.s. major marketing cultivars of almonds (mission, neplus, peerless, carmel, and no ...199910552764
assay of glycoamidases and endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidases by lectin capture and dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay.we have developed an assay system for endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase and glycoamidase (pngase), using eu(3+)-labeled man(9)glcnac(2) glycopeptides as substrates in combination with lectin capture. two glycopeptides of different peptide lengths, derived from soybean agglutinin, were labeled with eu(3+) via a diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (dtpa) chelating linker and served as substrates for two types of enzymes: one with (man(9)glcnac(2))asn for endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase and the other ...200010660465
n-glycan structures of an osteopontin from human bone.n-glycan structures of osteopontin (a bone matrix protein) from human bone (lumbar vertabrate) are reported in detail. asn-linked glycan portion was released from 100 microg of osteopontin by digestion with glycoamidase a (from sweet almond), and the reducing ends of the n-glycans were reductively aminated with 2-aminopyridine. the derivatized n-glycans were separated and structurally identified by a multidimensional mapping technique on hplc columns. two major n-glycan structures were also conf ...200010679288
n-glycan structures of murine hippocampus serine protease, neuropsin, produced in trichoplusia ni cells.n-glycans of neuropsin (serine protease in the murine hippocampus) expressed in trichoplusia ni cells were released from the glycopeptides by digestion with glycoamidase a (from sweet almond), and the reducing ends of the oligosaccharides were reductively aminated with 2-aminopyridine. the derivatized n-glycans were separated and structurally identified by a two dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) mapping technique on two kinds of hplc columns. fourteen different major n-gl ...199910737326
immunostimulant activity of dry fruits and plant materials used in indian traditional medical system for mothers after child birth and invalids.products of certain plants given to mothers after child birth or to invalids were studied for immunostimulant activity using the macrophage migration index (mmi) as a parameter of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity and haemagglutinating antibody (ha) titres and plaque-forming cell (pfc) counts as parameters of humoral immunity. feeding of prunus amygdalus (almond(1)) and buchanania lanzan (chirronji(1)) significantly stimulated both cmi and humoral immunity in balb/c mice as eviden ...200010904150
the rnase pd2 gene of almond (prunus dulcis) represents an evolutionarily distinct class of s-like rnase genes.a cdna for an s-like rnase (rnase pd2) has been isolated from a pistil cdna library of prunus dulcis cv. ferragnés. the cdna encodes an acidic protein of 226 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 25 kda. a potential n-glycosylation site is present at the n-terminus in rnase pd2. a signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues and a transmembrane domain are predicted. the two active-site histidines present in enzymes of the t2/s rnase superfamily were detected in rnase pd2. its amino acid seq ...200010954077
new syntheses of 1d- and 1l-1,2-anhydro-myo-inositol and assessment of their glycosidase inhibitory activities.the 1d and 1l enantiomers of 1,2-anhydro-myo-inositol (conduritol b epoxide) were synthesised from 1d-pinitol and 1l-quebrachitol, respectively, and their activities were compared in selected glycosidase inhibition assays. the 1d enantiomer was found to be the active isomer, functioning as an irreversible inhibitor of sweet almond beta-d-glucosidase. neither isomer was active against the alpha-d-glucosidase from bacillus stearothermophilus or the beta-d-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae.200011117313
pesticide applications of copper on perennial crops in california, 1993 to 1998.inorganic copper is used as a broad-spectrum fungicide and bacteriocide on a variety of agricultural crops. after application, the copper residue typically accumulates in the upper 15 cm of soil. data from the california pesticide use reports were used to estimate the augmentation of copper in the soil that resulted from pesticide applications for the six years from 1993 to 1998 on 12 crops that are grown without rotation. the estimated mean mg cu kg(-1) soil added to the upper 15 cm during the ...200111577894
preparation and stability of agarose microcapsules containing bcg.an emulsification/internal gelation method of preparing small-sized agarose microcapsules containing bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) is reported. agarose microcapsules have been prepared by the emulsification of the hydrogel within a vegetable oil followed by its gelation due to the cooling of the system. four different oils (sesame, sweet almonds, camomile and jojoba) were assayed. the rheological analysis of the oils showed a newtonian behaviour, with viscosity values of 37.7, 51.2, 59.3 and 67 ...200211837978
an expanded genetic linkage map of prunus based on an interspecific cross between almond and peach.the genetic linkage map of prunus constructed earlier and based on an interspecific f2 population resulting from a cross between almond (prunus dulcis d.a. webb) and peach (prunus persica l. batsch) was extended to include 8 isozyme loci, 102 peach mesocarp cdnas, 11 plum genomic clones, 19 almond genomic clones, 7 resistance gene analogs (rgas), 1 rga-related sequence marker, 4 morphological trait loci, 3 genes with known function, 4 simple sequence repeat (ssr) loci, 1 rapd, and 1 cleaved ampl ...200212033621
development of microsatellite markers in peach [ prunus persica (l.) batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( prunus avium l.).we report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a ct-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'merrill o'henry'. ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. for microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two prunus f(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate mendelian inheritance. microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet che ...200212582570
effects of roasting, blanching, autoclaving, and microwave heating on antigenicity of almond (prunus dulcis l.) proteins.whole, unprocessed nonpareil almonds were subjected to a variety of heat processing methods that included roasting (280, 300, and 320 degrees f for 20 and 30 min each; and 335 and 350 degrees f for 8, 10, and 12 min each), autoclaving (121 degrees c, 15 psi, for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min), blanching (100 degrees c for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 min), and microwave heating (1, 2, and 3 min). proteins were extracted from defatted almond flour in borate saline buffer, and immunoreactivity of the sol ...200212033826
cloning, expression, and characterization of sorbitol transporters from developing sour cherry fruit and leaf sink tissues.the acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family rosaceace (e.g. almond [prunus dulcis (p. mill.) d.a. webber], apple [malus pumila p. mill.], cherry [prunus spp.], peach [prunus persica l. batsch], and pear [pyrus communis]). to understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbit ...200312692316
'candidatus phytoplasma phoenicium' sp. nov., a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in lebanon and iran.almonds (prunus amygdalus) represent an important crop in most mediterranean countries. a new and devastating disease of almond trees in lebanon was recently reported, characterized by the development of severe witches'-brooms on which no flowers or fruits developed, and leading to tree death within a few years. a phytoplasma was detected in diseased trees by pcr amplification of rrna operon sequences, and rflp patterns of amplified dna indicated that the phytoplasma belonged to the pigeon pea w ...200312807209
studies on almonds. iii. the serotonin content of dried sweet almonds. 196314060866
genetic relatedness of portuguese almond cultivars assessed by rapd and issr markers.randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers were used to analyse the genetic diversity of portuguese prunus dulcis cultivars and their relationship to important foreign cultivars. of the primers tested, 6 (out of 60) rapd and 5 (out of 18) issr primers were selected for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. out of 124 polymerase chain reaction fragments that were scored, 120 (96.8%) were polymorphic. all the plants could be discriminated and c ...200312827440
comparison of elisa and rt-pcr for the detection of prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (prunus dulcis).a technique based on the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) has been developed to detect the presence of prunus necrotic ringspot virus (pnrsv) and prune dwarf virus (pdv) simultaneously in almond. this paper presents the results of a 3-year study comparing both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and rt-pcr for the detection of pnrsv and pdv using 175 almond leaf samples. multiplex rt-pcr was found to be more sensitive than elisa, especially when followed by nested p ...200314599680
iminosugar glycosidase inhibitors: structural and thermodynamic dissection of the binding of isofagomine and 1-deoxynojirimycin to beta-glucosidases.the design and synthesis of transition-state mimics reflects the growing need both to understand enzymatic catalysis and to influence strategies for therapeutic intervention. iminosugars are among the most potent inhibitors of glycosidases. here, the binding of 1-deoxynojirimycin and (+)-isofagomine to the "family gh-1" beta-glucosidase of thermotoga maritima is investigated by kinetic analysis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and x-ray crystallography. the binding of both of these iminosugar ...200314624580
a new hplc-elsd method to quantify indican in polygonum tinctorium l. and to evaluate beta-glucosidase hydrolysis of indican for indigo production.a method to quantify the indigo precursor indican (indoxyl-beta-d-glucoside) in polygonum tinctorium l. has been developed. plant material was extracted in deionized water, and indican was identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (elsd). results confirmed that with this method it is possible to measure indican content in a short time, obtaining reliable and reproducible data. using this method, leaf indican ...200314656158
a simple method to estimate photosynthetic radiation use efficiency of canopies.photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (phrue) over the course of a day has been shown to be constant for leaves throughout a general canopy where nitrogen content (and thus photosynthetic properties) of leaves is distributed in relation to the light gradient. it has been suggested that this daily phrue can be calculated simply from the photosynthetic properties of a leaf at the top of the canopy and from the par incident on the canopy, which can be obtained from weather-station data. the objec ...200415044212
microsatellite genetic linkage maps of myrobalan plum and an almond-peach hybrid--location of root-knot nematode resistance genes.inheritance and linkage studies were carried out with microsatellite [or simple sequence repeat (ssr)] markers in a f(1) progeny including 101 individuals of a cross between myrobalan plum ( prunus cerasifera ehrh) clone p.2175 and the almond (prunus dulcis mill.)-peach ( prunus persica l. batsch) hybrid clone gn22 ["garfi" (g) almond x "nemared" (n) peach]. this three-way interspecific prunus progeny was produced in order to associate high root-knot nematode (rkn) resistances from myrobalan and ...200415241595
influence of selected fruit tree pollen on life history of euseius stipulatus (acari: phytoseiidae).euseius stipulatus (athias-henriot) is a predatory mite widespread in the mediterranean region considered to be important for the biological control of spider mites in citrus orchards. development, survival and reproduction of this phytoseiid mite feeding on seven commercially obtained pollen were studied under constant laboratory conditions (20 +/- 1 degrees c, rh 65 +/- 5%, photoperiod 16l: 8d h). mites were kept individually at rearing units with ample quantity of almond (prunus amygdalus bat ...200516082919
a single-blinded, randomized pilot study evaluating the aroma of lavandula augustifolia as a treatment for mild insomnia.insomnia is the most common of all sleep complaints and is under-researched. the current treatments of choice are conventional hypnotics agents, but these have potential for serious adverse reactions. uncontrolled and anecdotal evidence suggests that lavender oil is an effective treatment for insomnia, but this has not been formally investigated.200516131287
antiproliferative terpenoids from almond hulls (prunus dulcis): identification and structure-activity relationships.bioassay-guided fractionation of the etoac crude extract from sicilian almond hulls, a waste material from prunus dulcis crop, allowed identification of 10 constituents, isolated as pure compounds (1-5, 7, and 10) or unseparable mixtures (5 + 6 and 8 + 9). all compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide bioassay on mcf-7 human breast cancer cells. in addition to the main components oleanolic (1), ursolic (2), and betulinic ...200616448187
physiological effects of kaolin applications in well-irrigated and water-stressed walnut and almond trees.kaolin applications have been used to mitigate the negative effects of water and heat stress on plant physiology and productivity with variable results, ranging from increased to decreased yields and photosynthetic rates. the mechanisms of action of kaolin applications are not clear: although the increased albedo reduces leaf temperature and the consequent heat stress, it also reduces the light available for photosynthesis, possibly offsetting benefits of lower temperature. the objective of this ...200616735404
environmental influences on flight activity of usda-ars russian and italian stocks of honey bees (hymenoptera: apidae) during almond pollination.differences in flight activity and in the percentages of pollen foragers between commercially managed honey bees, apis mellifera l. (hymenoptera: apidae), of two stocks (usda-ars russian, n = 41 colonies; and italian, n = 43 colonies) were evaluated in an almond, prunus dulcis (miller) d. a. webb, orchard in kern co., ca, during february and march 2002. flight activity was measured by taking 1-min counts of bees exiting colonies on each of 9 d. flight activity was best predicted with a model con ...200617066783
improved methods in agrobacterium-mediated transformation of almond using positive (mannose/pmi) or negative (kanamycin resistance) selection-based protocols.a protocol for agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either kanamycin or mannose selection was developed for leaf explants of the cultivar prunus dulcis cv. ne plus ultra. regenerating shoots were selected on medium containing 15 mum kanamycin (negative selection), while in the positive selection strategy, shoots were selected on 2.5 g/l mannose supplemented with 15 g/l sucrose. transformation efficiencies based on pcr analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent line ...200616534597
effects of kaolin application on light absorption and distribution, radiation use efficiency and photosynthesis of almond and walnut canopies.kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. this may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. the objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution ...200717138580
a novel screening assay for hydroxynitrile lyases suitable for high-throughput screening.hydroxynitrile lyases (hnls) are important biocatalysts for the synthesis of optically pure cyanohydrins, which are used as precursors and building blocks for a wide range of high price fine chemicals. although two hnl enzymes, from the tropical rubber tree hevea brasiliensis and from the almond tree prunus amygdalus, are already used for large scale industrial applications, the enzymes still need to be improved and adapted to the special demands of industrial processes. in many cases directed e ...200717157404
thioglycoside hydrolysis catalyzed by beta-glucosidase.sweet almond beta-glucosidase (ec 3.2.1.21) has been shown to have significant thioglycohydrolase activity. while the km values for the s- and o-glycosides are similar, the k(cat) values are about 1000-times lower for the s-glycosides. remarkably, the ph-profile for k(cat)/km for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl thioglucoside (pnpsg) shows the identical dependence on a deprotonated carboxylate (pka 4.5) and a protonated group (pka 6.7) as does the ph-profile for hydrolysis of the corresponding o-glyc ...200717727815
salt effects on beta-glucosidase: ph-profile narrowing.salts inhibit the activity of sweet almond beta-glucosidase. for cations (cl(-) salts) the effectiveness follows the series: cu(+2), fe(+2)>zn(+2)>li(+)>ca(+2)>mg(+2)>cs(+)>nh(4)(+)>rb(+)>k(+)>na(+) and for anions (na(+) salts) the series is: i(-)>clo(4)(-)>(-)scn>br(-) approximately no(3)(-)>cl(-) approximately (-)oac>f(-) approximately so(4)(-2). the activity of the enzyme, like that of most glycohydrolases, depends on a deprotonated carboxylate (nucleophile) and a protonated carboxylic acid f ...200717997993
cellular location of prune dwarf virus in almond sections by in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.abstract in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was used in young leaves (from trees and in vitro shoots) and flower buds of almond (prunus dulcis), a stone fruit, for cellular location of prune dwarf virus (pdv, a member of the genus ilarvirus). sections obtained from samples fixed in formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin were refixed in formaldehyde to increase tissue preservation in the rt-pcr steps. the coat protein gene of pdv was used as the target to produce a cd ...200318944337
potential prebiotic properties of almond (amygdalus communis l.) seeds.almonds are known to have a number of nutritional benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects and protection against diabetes. they are also a good source of minerals and vitamin e, associated with promoting health and reducing the risk for chronic disease. for this study we investigated the potential prebiotic effect of almond seeds in vitro by using mixed fecal bacterial cultures. two almond products, finely ground almonds (fg) and defatted finely ground almonds (dg), were subjected to a ...200818502914
influence of stem diameter, water content, and freezing-thawing on bacterial canker development in excised stems of dormant stone fruit.abstract in excised dormant stems of peach (prunus persica), prune (prunus domestica), and almond (prunus dulcis), stem diameter, stem hydration, and freezing-thawing influenced the extent of infection caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. bacterial lesion length increased with increasing stem diameter, demonstrating the need to account for the effects of stem diameter when lesion length data are analyzed. lesion length increased or decreased with stem hydration or dehydration, respective ...199918944742
strain of fusarium oxysporum isolated from almond hulls produces styrene and 7-methyl-1,3,5-cyclooctatriene as the principal volatile components.an isolated strain of fusarium oxysporum from the hulls of prunus dulcis (sweet almond) was found to produce relatively large quantities of the hydrocarbons styrene and two isomers of 7-methyl-1,3,5- cyclooctatriene (mcot). production of styrene and mcot was reproduced on a small scale using potato dextrose agar as a growth medium and scaled up using 1 l of inoculated potato dextrose broth. the compounds were trapped as volatile organic compounds (vocs) onto solid-phase microextraction (spme) fo ...200818998704
evaluation expérimentale de l'hydratation et du pouvoir occlusif in vivo et in vitro d'excipients lipophiles et de leurs émulsions phase huile continue.synopsis a study was carried out on three water in oil emulsions and their respective oil-phases, petrolatum, liquid paraffin and sweet almond oil, in order to compare their occlusive properties and thus their influence on cutaneous hydration. an in vitro method using 'patel'cells in a water-saturated atmosphere at controlled temperature enabled, in the first instance, the various emulsions and their oil-phases to be classified according to their permeability to water vapour. the results are in ...199419250485
differential response to root-knot nematodes in prunus species and correlative genetic implications.responses of 17 prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of meloidogyne spp. including one m. arenaria, four m. incognita, four m. javanica, one m. hispanica, and an unclassified population from florida. characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated aga ...199719274170
survey of crop losses in response to phytoparasitic nematodes in the united states for 1994.previous reports of crop losses to plant-parasitic nematodes have relied on published results of survey data based on certain commodities, including tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and soybean. reports on crop-loss assessment by land-grant universities and many commodity groups generally are no longer available, with the exception of the university of georgia, the beltwide cotton conference, and selected groups concerned with soybean. the society of nematologists extension committee contacted extensio ...199919270925
effect of lime on criconemella xenoplax and bacterial canker in two california orchards.in a peach orchard with an initial soil ph of 4.9, preplant application of 0, 13.2, 18.2, 27.3, or 54.2 kg lime/tree site altered soil ph (range after 1 year = 4.8-7.3) but did not affect numbers of criconemella xenoplax or tree circumference. liming also failed to reduce the incidence of bacterial canker, which affected 17% of the trees by the sixth year after planting. four years after planting, numbers of c. xenoplax exceeded 400/100 cm(3) soil, regardless of treatment. trees with higher dens ...199419279934
antifungal activity of tea tree oil from melaleuca alternifolia against trichophyton equinum: an in vivo assay.dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. among them trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. the conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among the animals. nevertheless the popularity of phytotherapy is at an all-time peak, and the interest for natural alternatives or complements to convent ...200919403294
a study of skin and eye irritation in the rabbit due to different sources of some cosmetic raw materials (part ii).summary different lots of a number of oils used in cosmetics were subjected to different storage times, analysed and their effects on rabbit eye and skin were assessed following the official french methods. the scoring system diverged slightly from the official method and was described in part i (1). all products were tested pure in the eye test without rinsing and no corneal involvement was found. slight congestion of the iris and conjuctivae was noted. the products showing the worst (slightly ...197919467038
biochemical effects of unsaponifiable lipidic components of avocado and soya bean administered percutaneously on the connective tissue components of hairless rat skin.synopsis the unsaponifiable lipidic fractions of avocado and soya bean were administered percutaneously, on the dorsal skin of hairless rats for 15 days, in a 5% sweet almond oil solution. this treatment produced a modification of dermal connective tissue components. the biochemical analysis showed an increase of soluble proteins, especially of salt soluble collagen together with a decrease of proteins insoluble in neutral buffer. the ratio, soluble proteins:insoluble proteins, increases as well ...197919467069
effects of avocado and soya bean lipidic non-saponifiables on the components of skin connective tissue after topical application in the hairless rat: biophysical and biomechanical determination.synopsis the non-saponifiable lipidic fractions of avocado and soya bean applied percutaneously to hairless rats for 15 days had been shown to produce biochemical modifications of dermal connective tissue components: increases of soluble collagen and of the ratio soluble collagen/insoluble collagen. in this present study, we tried to show whether these biochemical modifications could be confirmed by biophysical analytical methods and could affect the biochemical properties of the skin. the exper ...198219469960
methyl glucoside hydrolysis catalyzed by beta-glucosidase.sweet almond beta-glucosidase is a retaining, family 1, glycohydrolase, catalyzing the highly efficient hydrolysis of a variety of glycosides. for example, the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl beta-d-glucopyranoside is approximately 4 x 10(15)-times faster than the spontaneous hydrolysis at 25 degrees c. as with most enzymes, the dependence of k(cat)/k(m) on ph is bell-shaped, indicating the importance of a protonated (acidic) residue and a deprotonated (nucleophilic) residue in its mechani ...200919651249
crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. however, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. the 11s globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and d ...200919694440
profile of plasma and urine metabolites after the intake of almond [prunus dulcis (mill.) d.a. webb] polyphenols in humans.nut skins are considered to be a rich source of polyphenols and may be partially responsible for the numerous health effects associated with nut consumption. however, more bioavailability studies of nut skin polyphenols are needed to understand the health effects derived from nut consumption. the aim of the present study was to determine the profiles of both phase ii and microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in plasma and urine samples before and after the intake of almond skin polyphenols by h ...200919839583
in vitro evaluation of the prebiotic properties of almond skins (amygdalus communis l.).in this study we investigated the potential prebiotic effect of natural (ns) and blanched (bs) almond skins, the latter being a byproduct of the almond-processing industry. a full model of the gastrointestinal tract, including in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion, followed by colonic fermentation using mixed faecal bacterial cultures, was used. both ns and bs significantly increased the population of bifidobacteria and clostridium coccoides/eubacterium rectale group, resulting in a prebiotic ...201020146750
ecology and behavior of pezothrips kellyanus (thysanoptera: thripidae) on citrus.the most common thrips species found in cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were pezothrips kellyanus (bagnall) (thysanoptera: thripidae), frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae), and thrips tabaci (lindeman) (thysanoptera: thripidae). only pezothrips kellyanus, kelly's citrus thrips (kct) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in cyprus. kct adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. the attractiv ...201020214367
synthesis and glycosidase inhibitory activity of noeurostegine-a new and potent inhibitor of beta-glucoside hydrolases.a new, stable hemi-aminal nor-tropane christened noeurostegine was synthesised in 22 steps from levoglucosan and tested for inhibitory activity against glycoside hydrolases. sweet almond and thermotoga maritimabeta-glucosidases, coffee bean alpha-galactosidase, and asp. oryzaebeta-galactosidase were inhibited in the low micromolar region but significant tightening of binding to k(i) 50 nm for almond beta-glucosidase was found to occur after pre-incubation. yeast alpha-glucosidase and e. colibeta ...201020066281
synthesis of alpha- and beta-d-glucopyranosyl triazoles by cuaac 'click chemistry': reactant tolerance, reaction rate, product structure and glucosidase inhibitory properties.cu(i)-catalysed azide alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (cuaac) 'click chemistry' was used to assemble a library of 21 alpha-d- and beta-d-glucopyranosyl triazoles, which were assessed as potential glycosidase inhibitors. in the course of this work, different reactivities of isomeric alpha- and beta-glucopyranosyl azides under cuaac conditions were noted. this difference was further investigated using competition reactions and rationalised on the basis of x-ray crystallographic data, which reveal ...201020427038
predicting unsaturated zone nitrogen mass balances in agricultural settings of the united states.unsaturated zone n fate and transport were evaluated at four sites to identify the predominant pathways of n cycling: an almond [prunus dulcis (mill.) d.a. webb] orchard and cornfield (zea mays l.) in the lower merced river study basin, california; and corn-soybean [glycine max (l.) merr.] rotations in study basins at maple creek, nebraska, and at morgan creek, maryland. we used inverse modeling with a new version of the root zone water quality model (rzwqm2) to estimate soil hydraulic and nitro ...201020400601
metabolomics study of human urinary metabolome modifications after intake of almond (prunus dulcis (mill.) d.a. webb) skin polyphenols.almond, as a part of the nut family, is an important source of biological compounds, and specifically, almond skins have been considered an important source of polyphenols, including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. polyphenol metabolism may produce several classes of metabolites that could often be more biologically active than their dietary precursor and could also become a robust new biomarker of almond polyphenol intake. in order to study urinary metabolome modifications during the 24 h after a s ...201020853910
efficacy study of prunus amygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and alzheimer's disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate) have several limitations. the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of prunus amygdalus (pa) nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (che) activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.201020871769
sex differences in the analgesic effects of ici 182,780 and flutamide on ureteral calculosis in rats.to better define the involvement of gonadal hormones in the sex differences observed in experimental visceral pain, we administered antagonists of estrogen receptors (ici 182,780 [ici]) or androgen receptors (flutamide [flu]) to adult male and female rats suffering from artificial ureteral calculosis. subjects were divided into groups and treated with one of the substances (ici, flu) or sweet almond oil (oil, vehicle) for 5 days, starting 2 days before surgery. on day 3, animals underwent surger ...201020920504
construction of an almond linkage map in an australian population nonpareil x lauranne.despite a high genetic similarity to peach, almonds (prunus dulcis) have a fleshless fruit and edible kernel, produced as a crop for human consumption. while the release of peach genome v1.0 provides an excellent opportunity for almond genetic and genomic studies, well-assessed segregating populations and the respective saturated genetic linkage maps lay the foundation for such studies to be completed in almond.201020932335
in vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).in the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of prunus amygdalus batsch seeds (semen amygdali), cimicifuga foetida l. rhizomes (rhizoma cimicifugae), peucedanum decursivum (miq.) maxim roots (radix peucedani), momordica cochinchinensis spreng. seeds (semen momordicae), and bupleurum chinense dc. roots (radix bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean dactylogyrus intermedius in goldf ...201021153837
first environmental isolations of cryptococcus neoformans and cryptococcus gattii in tunisia and review of published studies on environmental isolations in africa.cryptococcus neoformans and cryptococcus gattii are pathogenic yeasts that cause cryptococcosis. these fungi were commonly associated with pigeon droppings and plant materials. the habitat of these pathogens has not been yet studied in tunisia, although the ecology of these yeasts must be elucidated in order to establish surveillance programs and to prevent infections. the aim of this survey was to recover c. neoformans and c. gattii environmental isolates from pigeon droppings and plant materia ...201121197581
antioxidant potential of chestnut (castanea sativa l.) and almond (prunus dulcis l.) by-products.the antioxidant properties of almond green husks (cvs. duro italiano, ferraduel, ferranhês, ferrastar and orelha de mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (cvs. aveleira, boa ventura, judia and longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. all the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low ...201021339136
isolation and evaluation of a polysaccharide from prunus amygdalus as a carrier for transbuccosal delivery of losartan potassium.an oral buccoadhesive drug delivery system for losartan potassium using a hydrophilic polysaccharide, isolated from prunus amygdalaus (badam gum), was developed and evaluated for its potential to overcome the drawbacks associated with the conventional drug therapy. the results of the study indicate that the isolated polysaccharide has good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and is suitable for use as a mucoadhesive sustain release polymer in pharmaceutical dosage forms, to allevia ...201121392523
n-phenylglucosylamine hydrolysis: a mechanistic probe of +¦-glucosidase.the spontaneous hydrolysis of glycosylamines, where the aglycone is either a primary amine or ammonia, is over a hundred million-times faster than that of o- or s-glycosides. the reason for this (as pointed out by capon and connett in 1965) is that, in contrast to the mechanism for o- or s-glycoside hydrolysis, hydrolysis of these n-glycosides (e.g., glc-nhr) involves an endocyclic c-o bond cleavage resulting in formation of an imine (iminium ion) which then reacts with water. since ring-opening ...201121435675
identification and quantitation of volatile organic compounds emitted from dairy silages and other feedstuffs.high ground-level ozone continues to be an important human, animal, and plant health impediment in the united states and especially in california's san joaquin valley (sjv). according to california state and regional air quality agencies, dairies are one of the major sources of volatile organic compounds (vocs) in the sjv. a number of recently conducted studies reported emissions data from different dairy sources. however, limited data are currently available for silage and otherfeed storages on ...201121488490
effect of sweet almond oil on survival rate and plasma cholinesterase activity of aluminum phosphide-intoxicated rats.introduction: aluminum phosphide (alp), as an effective pesticide and a substance used for protecting rice during storage, has become one of the commonest causes of poisoning and even suicide in developing countries including iran and india. the authors aimed to study the efficacy of sweet almond oil as an antidote in alp toxicity. methods: the present experimental study was conducted over 35 rats. the animals were divided into four groups: one group as the control group and three other groups w ...201121508069
seasonal abundance of draeculacephala minerva and other xylella fastidiosa vectors in california almond orchards and vineyards.almond leaf scorch (als) disease is caused by the bacterium xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. reports of increased incidence of als-diseased trees in california prompted surveys in three almond [prunus dulcis (mill.) d. a. webb]-growing regions, from june 2003 to september 2005, to determine insect vector species composition and abundance. for comparison, sampling in and near vineyards in the san joaquin valley, california, also was completed. sampling in or near almon ...201121510181
headspace-single drop microextraction (hs-sdme) in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) to evaluate the content of alkyl- and methoxy-phenolic compounds in biomass smoke.the content of ten phenolic compounds present in four different biomass smoke materials: rock rose (cistus monpelienisis), prickly pear (opuntia ficus indica), pine needles (pinus canariensis), and almonds skin (prunus dulcis), have been evaluated. the sampling method mainly consisted of a trap alkaline solution to solubilize the phenols, and was optimized by an experimental design. average sampling efficiencies of 78.1% and an average precision value of 10.6% (as relative standard deviation, rs ...201121807181
characterization and expression profile of two udp-glucosyltransferases, ugt85k4 and ugt85k5, catalyzing the last step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava.manihot esculenta (cassava) contains two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, biosynthesized from l-valine and l-isoleucine, respectively. in this study, cdnas encoding two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (ugt) paralogs, assigned the names ugt85k4 and ugt85k5, have been isolated from cassava. the paralogs display 96% amino acid identity, and belong to a family containing cyanogenic glucoside-specific ugts from sorghum bicolor and prunus dulcis. recombinant ugt85k4 and ugt85 ...201121736650
acrylamide formation in almonds (prunus dulcis): influences of roasting time and temperature, precursors, varietal selection, and storage.acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is found in many roasted and baked foods. this paper describes two sensitive and reliable lc-(esi)ms/ms methods for the analysis of (1) acrylamide and (2) common acrylamide precursors (i.e., glucose, fructose, asparagine, and glutamine) in raw and roasted almonds. these methods were used to evaluate the impact of roasting temperatures (between 129 and 182 °c) and times on acrylamide formation. controlling the roasting temperature at or below 146 °c ...201121721575
nootropic and hypophagic effects following long term intake of almonds (prunus amygdalus) in rats.over a period of time researchers have become more interested in finding out the potential of various foods to maintain the general health and to treat diseases. almonds are a very good source of many nutrients which may help to sharpen the memory and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors.201223588464
physiological and biochemical parameters controlling waterlogging stress tolerance in prunus before and after drainage.waterlogging is associated with poor soil drainage. as a consequence oxygen levels decrease in the root environment inducing root asphyxia and affecting plant growth. some plants can survive under these conditions triggering complex anatomical and biochemical adaptations, mostly in the roots. long and short-term responses to waterlogging stress were compared in two trials using a set of two myrobalans (p. cerasifera erhr), 'p.2175' and 'p.2980', as tolerant rootstocks, and two almond ⊆ peach [p. ...201222221115
syntheses of homologous omega-aminated 1-methoxyalkyl beta-d-glucopyranosides as potential beta-d-glucosidase inhibitors.(r)- and (s)-2-azido-1-methoxyethyl beta-d-glucopyranosides (16) and (17), (r)- and (s)-3-azido-1-methoxypropyl beta-d-glucopyranosides (18) and (19), (r,s)-4-azido-1-methoxybutyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (20), and (r,s)-5-azido-1-methoxypentyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (22) were synthesized from omega-substituted dimethyl acetals of acetaldehyde, propanal, butanal, and pentanal by trimethylsilyl triflate-catalysed transacetalation using 1-o-trimethysilyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-beta-d-glucose (1) as ...20113123057
immunological and psychological benefits of aromatherapy massage.this preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (rbcs), white blood cells (wbcs), neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbls), cd4(+), cd8(+) and cd16(+) lymphocytes, cd4(+)/cd8(+) ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin a (iga). psychological measures including the state-trait anxiety inventory (stai) questionnaire and the self-rating depression scale (sds) bet ...200515937558
in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of some essential oils against feline isolates of microsporum canis.the treatment of dermatophytoses due to microsporum canis is cumbersome and relapses can occur. volatile essential oils (eos) obtained from plants would seem to represent suitable tools to contrast mycoses both in human and animals. the anti-m. canis activity of some eos chemically characterized was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. eleven feline isolates of m. canis were tested by microdilution against eos extracted from thymus serpillum, origanum vulgare, rosmarinus officinalis, illicium ve ...201223518021
do honeybees shape the bacterial community composition in floral nectar?floral nectar is considered the most important reward animal-pollinated plants offer to attract pollinators. here we explore whether honeybees, which act as pollinators, affect the composition of bacterial communities in the nectar. nectar and honeybees were sampled from two plant species: amygdalus communis and citrus paradisi. to prevent the contact of nectar with pollinators, c. paradisi flowers were covered with net bags before blooming (covered flowers). comparative analysis of bacterial co ...201323844027
genome sequence of ochrobactrum anthropi strain subg007, a plant pathogen and potential xenobiotic compounds degradation bacterium.ochrobactrum anthropi subg007 was isolated from the fruit of prunus dulcis in rajkot (22.30°n, 70.78°e), gujarat, india. here we present the 4.37 mb genome sequence strain subg007, which may provide the genetic information for the application in environment pollution degradation and agriculture field. the strain also posses many genes cluster which involved in production of important secondary metabolites. the nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into ncbi genbank under the accession ...201728119820
structures of almond hydroxynitrile lyase isoenzyme 5 provide a rationale for the lack of oxidoreductase activity in flavin dependent hnls.hydroxynitrile lyases (hnls) catalyze the asymmetric addition of hcn to aldehydes producing enantiomerically pure cyanohydrins. these enzymes can be heterologously expressed in large quantities making them interesting candidates for industrial applications. the hnls from rosaceae evolved from flavin dependent dehydrogenase/oxidase structures. here we report the high resolution x-ray structure of the highly glycosylated prunus amygdalus hnl isoenzyme5 (pahnl5 v317a) expressed in aspergillus niger ...201627067080
ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in jordan.a field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by ephedra alte in certain parts of jordan during 2008-2010. forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of e. alte. growth of host plants was adversely affected by e. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. in addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, s ...201222645486
peach (prunus persica l.).until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of gf677 rootstock (prunus persica × prunus amygdalus). the method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. this protocol has also been used ...201525416260
synthesis and evaluation of galacto-noeurostegine and its 2-deoxy analogue as glycosidase inhibitors.an epimer of the known glycosidase inhibitor noeurostegine, galacto-noeurostegine, was synthesised in 21 steps from levoglucosan and found to be a potent, competitive and highly selective galactosidase inhibitor of aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase. galacto-noeurostegine was not found to be an inhibitor of green coffee bean α-galactosidase, yeast α-glucosidase and e. coli β-galactosidase, whereas potent but non-competitive inhibition against sweet almond β-glucosidase was established. the 2-deo ...201526111992
reactive thioglucoside substrates for β-glucosidase.a new, very efficient, class of thioglycoside substrates has been found for β-glucosidase. while thioglycosides are usually resistant to hydrolysis, even in the presence of acids or most glycohydrolases, the β-d-glucopyranosides of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (glcsbiz) and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (glcsbox) have been found to be excellent substrates for β-glucosidase from both sweet almond (a family 1 glycohydrolase) and aspergillus niger (a family 3 glycohydrolase), reacting nearly as well as p-nitrop ...201323811198
in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds (prunus amygdalus).almonds contain considerable amounts of potential prebiotic components, and the roasting process may alter these components. the aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fermentation properties and in vivo prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds.201626749248
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