contractile apparatus in aortic endothelium of hypertensive week after hypertension was produced in male wistar rats (150 g body weight) by a complete aortic ligature placed between renal arteries, electron microscopic studies showed a striking increase of cytoplasmic microfilaments in the endothelial cells of the aortic segment above coarctation (mean blood pressure 160 mm hg). these microfilaments measured 40-70 a in diameter and were located particularly close to the endothelial clefts. in "en face" preparation of aortic endothelial cells treated ...19751209006
acute lead encephalopathy in the guinea pig.acute lead encephalopathy was induced in adult guinea pigs with daily oral doses of lead carbonate. cerebral capillaries were examined by electron microscopy, and the blood-brain barrier (b-bb) evaluated with evans blue and horseradish peroxidase. brain lead levels were also determined during the developing encephalopathy. there was no cerebral capillary alteration or demonstrable b-bb dysfunction. brain lead concentrations increased over the 5-day period. the encephalopathy in the absence of an ...19751211109
some enzymes present in the walls of mesophyll cells of tobacco leaves.cell-wall enzymes were assayed by the difference between enzyme activities in the whole cell and the protoplast. both peroxidase (85.2%) and acid phosphatase (21.9%) were located in the wall. however, malate dehydrogenase was found only in the protoplast. a study of the time-course of the release of peroxidase and malate dehydrogenase into the incubation medium from cells either treated with cellulase or untreated, also indicated that peroxidase and not malate dehydrogenase was located in the wa ...19751212211
rabbit homocytotropic antibody response to horseradish peroxidase: the role of contaminating antigens. 19751218893
electron microscopic study on permeability of coronary artery wall of normotensive rabbits using horseradish peroxidase as a order to study the pathways in the coronary artery vessel wall horseradish peroxidase (hrp) was used as a tracer. hrp was injected directly in the left ventricle of rabbit hearts. 30 seconds after intracardial injection of hrp in normotensive rabbits, peroxidase reaction products could be located in random areas of the coronary arterial system and could then be observed in all three layers of the coronary walls at these locations. hrp reaches the subendothelial space of the coronary arteries ...19751220671
blood-brain barrier dysfunction in acute lead encephalopathy: a reappraisal.acute lead encephalopathy was induced in adult guinea pigs by administering daily oral doses of lead carbonate. during the development of the encephalopathy, the structural and functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier was evaluated with electron microscopy and tracer probes. blood, cerebral gray matter, liver, and kidney were analyzed for lead, calcium, and magnesium content. the animals regularly developed an encephalopathy after four doses of lead. there were no discernible pathomorphol ...19751227864
absorption of horseradish peroxidase by the small intestinal epithelium in postnatal developing rats.after an intraluminal injection of horseradish peroxidase into the small intestine, the localization of peroxidase was studied in neonatal developing and adult rats by means of electron microscopy. until around the 14th day of the neonatal period absorbed peroxidase granules in the duodenal and jejunal epithelium were abundant in the microvillous membrane, the apical tubulo-vacuolar system, and the golgi apparatus, and on the lateral cell and basal membranes, and the luminal surfaces of the capi ...19751234392
dorsal column nuclei projections to the cerebellar cortex in cats as revealed by the use of the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase.the existence of a cerebellar projection from the dorsal column nuclei (gracile and cuneate nuclei, dcn) has been proposed on electrophysiological grounds but questioned when studied with neuroanatomical techniques. the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) has been used for the present study and provides anatomical evidence of a dcn-cerebellar pathway. in adult cats, 1 to 6 mul of 30% hrp were injected in pars intermedia of the anterior lobe (lobules iv-v), in paramedial lobule a ...19751236873
[exogenous peroxidase in the eggs of rats during cleavage].the presence of exogenous peroxidase of the rat's eggs during cleavage at the 1-, 2-, 8-cellular stages and the blastocysts were studied after 30 minute incubation with horseradish peroxidase (molecular weight 40.000, approximate size of the molecule 40 a). the activity of exogenous peroxidase in the area of zona pellucida was established in the perivitelline space, in the cytoplasm - in the pinocytosis vesicles, in certain greater vacuoles and in certain secondary lysosomes. at the stage of bla ...19751241658
in vitro studies on peroxidase movement in the epithelium of prostaglandin-treated rabbit ciliary bodies.the movement of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) in the epithelium of isolated rabbit iris/ciliary body preparations, has been studied with the electron microscope. hrp was applied at the stromal side of the epithelium, and was left for 60 and 120 min. the distribution pattern of hrp found in the epithelium of the iridial and ciliary processes is consistent with in vivo studies, i.e. the progression of hrp is blocked at the site of the zonula occludens of the superficial epithelium. the hrp distribu ...19751242593
electron microscopic studies on the blood-aqueous barrier of prostaglandin-treated rabbit eyes. i. iridial and ciliary processes.prostaglandins e1 and e2 were applied topically to rabbit eyes. structures related to the blood-aqueous barrier in the iridial and ciliary processes, as well as the permeability of the ciliary epithelium to the protein tracer horseradish peroxidase, were studied with the electron microscope. marked morphological changes, including dilations of the intercellular spaces and separation of the two epithelial cell layers, were found in the epithelium of the iridial processes. only minor structural ch ...19751242594
electron microscopic studies on the blood-aqueous barrier of prostaglandin-treated rabbit eyes. ii. iris.the distribution of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase in the iris of prostaglandin (e1 and e2)-treated rabbit eyes, has been studied with the electron microscope. peroxidase was demonstrated in the stroma of all parts of the iris. the tracer was found throughout interendothelial clefts of iris vessels, indicating that these vessels had become permeable to peroxidase. the distribution of peroxidase in the iris epithelium indicates that the posteroir epithelial cells are girdled by zon ...19751242595
organization of thalamocortical auditory system in the cat studied with horseradish peroxidase. 19761244977
peroxidase activity of alveolar macrophages.peroxidase activity was studied in alveolar macrophages and compared to the peroxidase activity in polymorphonuclear leukocytes using cytochemical techniques. a dense reaction product for peroxidase was observed in the primary lysosomes of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but no significant peroxidase or peroxidative enzymes could be detected in rabbit alveolar macrophages. furthermore, following vigorous phagocytosis of zymosan particles by alveolar macrophages in vitro, no peroxidase could be det ...19761246123
the penetration of fluorescein-conjugated and electrondense tracer proteins into xenopus tadpole optic nerves following perineural injection.the permeability of xenopus tadpole optic nerves to macromolecules was studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of this system for studying mechanisms of serum-induced cns demyelination in vivo. single injections of either horseradish peroxidase (hrp), ferritin or fluorescein-conjugated human igg were injected around the right optic nerve and tadpoles were then sacrificed between 15 min and 48 h. each of the tracers had penetrated the nerve parenchyma by 30 min. entry of hrp and ferritin occu ...19761247883
[experience with the use of horseradish peroxidase for light and electron microscope studies of interneuronal connections].by the method based on a retrograde axonal transport of exogenous horseradish peroxidase (hrp), the origins of afferentation of the motor cortex of adult cats, kittens and albino rats were studied. hrp-positive neurons were found by light and electron microscopy in the somatosensory cortex (c1) of the ipsilateral hemisphere and in the portions of the cortex of the contralateral hemisphere which were symmetrical to the site of injection of hrp. the disposition of neurons, marked by hrp, in the vt ...19761252130
simultaneous visualization by light microscopy of two pituitary hormones in a single tissue section using a combination of indirect immunohistochemical methods.two indirect methods involving enzyme-labeled antibodies were used to demonstrate simultaneously two distinct tissue antigens in the same histologic section without a need for antigen-antibody dissociative procedures. sections of rat pituitary gland were incubated with rabbit anti-rat luteinizing hormone followed by goat anti-rabbit gamma-globulin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. the same sections were then further incubated with monkey anti-rat growth hormone followed by goat anti-monkey g ...19761254941
intracellular application of horseradish peroxidase and its light and electron microscopical appearance in spinocervical tract cells. 19761260464
ultrastructural studies of mouse leucocytes showing surface binding of peroxidase-conjugated lectins.examination in the electron microscope of mouse spleen cells treated with conjugates of wheatgerm agglutinin and horseradish peroxidase has shown the surface of myeloid cells to be heavily stained. resting lymphocytes were unstained but became positive after stimulation by phytohaemagglutinin or concanavalin a, suggesting a relationship between the presence of this surface component and the functional state of the cell and providing a further point of similarity between myeloid and lymphoblastoi ...19761261094
afferents to the cerebellar lateral nucleus. evidence from retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase after pressure injections through micropipettes.hrp was injected by pressure from glass capillary micropipettes unilaterally into the lateral nucleus of rat so as to encompass the entire nucleus, but without spread into the interpositus nuclei. the cells of origin of the afferents to the lateral nucleus were studied after retrograde transport of the hrp. the reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons was labelled bilaterally and is the major source of crossed and uncrossed reticular imputs. the pontine nuclei also provide extensive crossed and unc ...19761262557
glomerular permeability to proteins. effects of hemodynamic factors on the distribution of endogenous immunoglobulin g and exogenous catalase in the rat glomerulus.the distribution of endogenous immunoglobulin g (igg) and exogenous catalase was delineated in the rat glomerulus under normal and abnormal hemodynamic conditions. igg was identified by an ultrastructural immunoperoxidase technique using antirat igg fab fragments conjugated to horseradish peroxidase; catalase was identified by a cytochemical reaction. when superficial glomeruli in anesthetized munich-wistar rats were rapidly fixed in situ by dripping glutaraldehyde onto the renal surface, igg an ...19761263444
transendothelial vesicular transport of protein following compression injury to the spinal cord.routes of vascular leakage resulting in trauma-induced edema have not been clarified. to explore the problem we followed the fate of intravascular horseradish peroxidase (hrp) after compression injury to the thoracic cord (cats). at 90 seconds and 15 minutes, hrp was confined to the gray matter, occupying perivascular spaces, unexpanded extracellular channels, and cytoplasmic compartments of injured cells. adjoining segments contained similar but lesser deposits. at 4 hours, tracer occupied the ...19761263445
acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the rabbit. i. an animal model with horseradish peroxidase as experimental model of acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis was developed in rabbits using horseradish peroxidase as antigen. the lesion, produced by aerosol challenge with horseradish peroxidase 21 days after a single parenteral immunization with horseradish peroxidase and complete freund adjuvant, was characterized by diffuse infiltration of respiratory bronchioles and of alveolar ducts and walls with approxomately equal numbers of mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) and polymorph ...19761267257
immunohistochemical localization of lh-producing cells in the adenohypophysis of the japanese quail, coturnix coturnix japonica.the cells that produce luteinizing hormone (lh) in the adenohypophysis of the japanese quail were identified immunohistochemically using anti-chicken lh serum and horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin serum. the lh cells are localized in the caudal lobe of the pars distalis. they are elongate in shape shape and are polarized toward the sinusoids, especially in their active states. alterations in size of lh cells are directly related to changes in circulating lh levels as ...19761268921
nmr studies of hemoproteins: ph dependence of ferric horseradish peroxidase and horse heart myoglobin. 19761269749
the structure of lymphatic capillaries in lymph formation.the lymphatic vascular system consists of endothelial lined vessels which begin as blind-end tubes or saccules that are located within the connective tissue areas. this system serves as a one-way drainage apparatus for the removal of diffusible substances as well as plasma proteins that escape the blood capillaries. if permitted to accumulate, these escaped components would deplete the circulatory system of its plasma colloids and disrupt the balance of forces responsible for the control of flui ...19761269772
projections of the locus coeruleus and adjacent pontine tegmentum in the cat.the projections of the locus coeruleus and adjacent pontine tegmentum have been studied using anatomical and physiological methods in the cat. axonal trajectories were traced using either the fink-heimer i method following electrolytic lesions, or the autoradiographic method after injection of tritiated proline into the nucleus. results with both methods were similar. axons of locus noeruleus neurons ascended ipsilaterally through the mesencephalon lateral to the medial longitudinal fasiculus, v ...19761270609
convergent thalamic and mesencephalic projections to the anterior medial cortex in the rat.small microelectrophoretic deposits of horseradish-peroxidase (hrp) were placed at various loci within the gray matter of the rat's anterior medial cortex. a comparison of the patterns of retrograde cell-labeling charted in 26 such cases confirmed earlier findings in fiber-degeneration studies according to which the respective thalamocortical projections of the mediodorsal (md) and anteromedial nucleus (am) overlap each other over a wide region of the anterior medial cortex. this region of thala ...19761270614
the olivocerebellar projection in the cat as studied with the method of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. ii. the projection to the uvula.following injections of small quantities of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) suspension in the uvula of the cat, the distribution of labeled cells in the inferior olive has been mapped. the findings confirm the conclusion made on the basis of studies of retrograde cell loss in the olive following ablations of the uvula (brodal, '40b) that two small olivary subdivisions, the nucleus beta and the dorsomedial cell column project heavily to the uvula. in addition the hrp-study shows that the uvula recei ...19761270615
scanning electron microscopy of the subarachnoid space in the dog. iv. subarachnoid macrophages.young dogs of both sexes were used in this study. transmission and scanning electron microscopy were utilized for the examination of the spinal cord and choroid plexus with emphasis on the study of free cells. these procedures were modified so that, in certain cases, the same cells observed in scanning electron microscopy could be analyzed internally by transmission electron microscopy. one half of the animals were injected under anesthesia with horseradish peroxidase for observation of phagocyt ...19761270624
development of an enzyme immunoassay for human placental lactogen using labelled immunoassay for the determination of human placental lactogen (hpl) has been developed using specific antibodies labelled with horseradish peroxidase. a method is presented in which the enzyme : antibody conjugate is purified with an antigenic solid phase to ensure the production of conjugates with intact immunological activity. serum components interfere with the assay but this problem can only be avoided at the expense of a precise and practical assay for the determination of hpl.19761270811
permeability alteration of sarcolemmal membrane in catecholamine-induced cardiac muscle cell injury. in vivo studies with fine structural diffusion tracer horse radish peroxidase.cardiac muscle cell injury was produced in male sprague-dawley rats weighing 300 to 450 gm. with catecholamines, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol; sarcolemmal membrane alteration was tested in vivo using the extracellular macromolecular tracer, horseradish peroxidase. norepinephrine was administered in continuous intravenous infusion in a dose of 4 to 6 mug. per 100 gm. of body weight per minute, whereas isoproterenol was given as a single subcutaneous injection in a dose of 8.5 mg. per 100 gm. ...19761271749
endocytosis by vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. roles or vesicles and lysosomes.overloading of lysosomes of smooth muscle cells with excess substrate may be a key event in the development of hypertensive and atherosclerotic vascular disease. cellular uptake of materials and its relation to lysosomal function were studied by ultrastructural cytochemistry in aortic smooth muscle cells grown in vitro and in the intact animal. injection of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) into hypertensive rats resulted in rapid insudation of the material into the environs of medial smooth muscle c ...19761275059
direct projections from hypothalamus to hippocampus in the rat demonstrated by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. 19761276883
an improved technique for the microinjection of horseradish peroxidase. 19761276885
changes in the distribution of the dentate gyrus associational system following unilateral or bilateral entorhinal lesions in the adult rat.the distribution of the dentate gyrus associational system was analyzed in naive adult rats and in those with either unilateral or bilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex. horseradish peroxidase histochemistry was used to trace the origin and course of this intrinsic fiber system. the fibers originated in the ca3-4 pyramidal cell field, apparently medial to the origin of the schaffer collateral system, and followed a trajectory which was essentially identical to that described for this system ...19761276951
ultrastructure and permeability of lymph node microvasculature in the mouse.the microvasculature of lymph nodes and peyer's patches consists of arterioles, capillaries and venules. the postcapillary segment comprises high-endothelial venules (he venules) as well as ordinary venules. in order to study the ultrastructure of the microvasculature, particularly with respect to the nature of intercellular junctions, lanthanum and ruthenium red were used as tracers. furthermore, to evaluate the permeability properties of the different segments of the microvasculature, intraven ...19761277282
cooperative binding of concanavalin a to thymocytes at 4 degrees c and micro-redistribution of concanavalin a receptors.the mode of binding of 125i-labelled concanavalin a and succinyl-concanavalin a to rat thymocytes at 4 degrees c was investigated. simultaneously, the free binding sites of the cell-bound lectin molecules were quantified by horseradish peroxidase binding. concanavalin a showed cooperative binding while succinyl-concanavalin a did not. the number of molecules of concanavalin a bound to the cell surface when it was saturated was twice the number of molecules of succinyl-concanavalin a. we interpre ...19761278183
regeneration of adult rat cns axons into peripheral nerve autografts: ultrastructural studies of the early stages of axonal sprouting and regenerative axonal growth.if one end of a segment of peripheral nerve is inserted into the brain or spinal cord, neuronal perikarya in the vicinity of the graft tip can be labelled with retrogradely transported tracers applied to the distal end of the graft several weeks later, showing that cns axons can regenerate into and along such grafts. we have used transmission em to examine some of the cellular responses that underlie this regenerative phenomenon, particularly its early stages. segments of autologous peroneal or ...19921279130
electrophysiology of the mammillary complex in vitro. i. tuberomammillary and lateral mammillary neurons.1. the electrophysiological properties of the tuberomammillary and lateral mammillary neurons in the guinea pig mammillary body were studied using an in vitro brain slice preparation. 2. tuberomammillary (n = 79) neurons were recorded mainly ventral to the lateral mammillary body as well as ventromedially to the fornix within the rostral part of the medial mammillary nucleus. intracellular staining with horseradish peroxidase (n = 9) and lucifer yellow (n = 3) revealed that these cells have seve ...19921279134
pathways of macromolecular tracer transport across venules and small veins. structural basis for the hyperpermeability of tumor blood vessels.blood vessels supplying tumors are hyperpermeable to macromolecules, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood.19921279271
calbindin d28k-containing nonpyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus: their immunoreactivity for gaba and projection to the medial septum.calbindin d28k-containing non-pyramidal cells were found in all layers and subfields of the hippocampus, with the highest frequency in stratum radiatum of the ca1-ca3 subfields. a large number of these neurons had a vertically oriented dendritic tree, often restricted to to stratum radiatum. in stratum oriens and near to the border of strata radiatum and lacunosum moleculare cells with horizontally running dendrites were also found. multipolar cells were most common in stratum radiatum of the ca ...19921279455
evidence that the masticatory muscles receive a direct innervation from cell group k in the rabbit.these experiments have shown that a group of neurons lateral to the trigeminal motor nucleus innervates the muscles of mastication. the work began to describe the location of digastric last-order interneurons, using the technique of transneuronal labeling with wheatgerm agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxide injected into the left digastric muscle of rabbits under general anaesthesia. four to eight days later, the animals were killed with an overdose of anaesthetic and perfused. coronal sect ...19921279458
afferent connections of the parvocellular reticular formation: a horseradish peroxidase study in the rat.the afferent connections of the parvocellular reticular formation were systematically investigated in the rat with the aid of retrograde and anterograde horseradish peroxidase tracer techniques. the results indicate that the parvocellular reticular formation receives its main input from several territories of the cerebral cortex (namely the first motor, primary somatosensory and granular insular areas), districts of the reticular formation (including its contralateral counterpart, the intermedia ...19921279462
synaptic organization of gabaergic inputs from the striatum and the globus pallidus onto neurons in the substantia nigra and retrorubral field which project to the medullary reticular formation.anatomical tract-tracing and immunohistochemical techniques involving correlated light and electron microscopy were used to determine whether the descending striatal and pallidal afferents to the substantia nigra pars reticulata converge onto individual neurons projecting to the pontomedullary and medullary reticular formation in the rat. injections of biocytin into the ventrolateral region of the striatum and phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin into the ventrolateral and caudal regions of the gl ...19921279463
topographical organization of the nigrotectal projection in rat: evidence for segregated channels.recent evidence suggests that projections from the superior colliculus to the brainstem in rat are organized into a series of anatomically segregated output channels. to understand how collicular function may be modified by the basal ganglia it is important to know whether particular output modules of the superior colliculus can be selectively influenced by input from substantia nigra. the purpose of the present study was, therefore, to examine in more detail topography within the nigrotectal sy ...19921279464
peripheral injury and anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horse radish peroxidase to the spinal cord.previous observations have revealed labeling in the extracellular space surrounding boutons and unmyelinated fibers in superficial laminae of the spinal cord after injection of the tracer wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase in dorsal root ganglia. the degree of extracellular labeling appeared related to the extent of the damage to the ganglia at the time of the injection. to determine whether injury might produce extracellular labeling, we investigated the effects of unila ...19921279465
long-range afferents in the rat spinal cord. ii. arborizations that penetrate grey matter.1. the caudal extent of the collateral arborizations of entering sensory fibres in rat spinal cord was investigated by two methods: bulk labelling of peripheral nerves by injection of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to cholera toxin (b-hrp) and by antidromic stimulation using small currents from microelectrodes in the spinal cord while recording from single units in peripheral nerve or dorsal root. 2. the results show that injection of b-hrp into the sural or sciatic nerve labelled sural affer ...19921279734
highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein in human determine alpha-fetoprotein (afp) in human saliva, a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for saliva afp was developed. afp standards and saliva samples were added into the wells of a polystyrene plate coated with goat igg antibody against human afp. after incubation, the wells were washed and horseradish peroxidase-labelled antibody was added. the enzyme activity specifically bound to the well was assayed using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and hydrogen peroxide as substrate. the re ...19921280027
monoclonal antibodies against salmonella porins: generation and characterization.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated against porins, one of the major outer membrane proteins of salmonella typhi. six clones, designated mp1, mp2, mp3 (igg2ak), mpn4, mpn6 (igg1k) and mpn5 (igg2bk) were characterized by enzyme immunoassay (elisa) for their reactivity to porins from s. typhi, salmonella paratyphi a, s. paratyphi b, s. paratyphi c, salmonella choleraesuis, salmonella enteritidis, salmonella krefeld, salmonella panama, salmonella typhimurium, escherichia coli b, shigella fl ...19921280248
immunocytochemistry of oculomotor afferents in the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus).attempts were made to co-define afferents of the oculomotor nuclear complex (omc) and their putative neurotransmitters in the squirrel monkey. wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (wga-hrp) and wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to enzymatically inactive hrp and coupled to colloidal gold (wgaapohrp-au) were used as retrograde tracers in combination with immunocytochemical methods. primarily unilateral injections were made into portions of the omc. stabilized tetramethylbenzid ...19921280294
loss of laminin epitopes during glomerular basement membrane assembly in developing mouse kidneys.kidney glomerular basement membranes (gmbs) originate in development from fusion of a dual basement membrane between endothelial cells and primitive epithelial podocytes. after fusion, segments of newly synthesized matrix, derived primarily from podocytes, appear as subepithelial outpockets and are spliced into gbms during glomerular capillary loop expansion. to investigate gbm assembly further, we examined newborn mouse kidneys with monoclonal rat anti-mouse laminin iggs (mab) conjugated to hor ...19921280666
[a light microscopic study of the axonal collaterals of the lumbar motoneurons in the spinal cord of the frog rana ridibunda].by using intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase into the lumbar motoneurones of the isolated spinal cord of the frog rana ridibunda the structure of axon collaterals was studied. it was shown that about 50% of the hrp-stained cells had mainly one axon collateral of the 1st order. the subsequent branching patterns of the collaterals showed considerable variations. the number of swellings in various collaterals was from 10 up 100. the mean diameter of swellings varied from 0.8 up 10.0 m ...19921280894
afferent connections of the laterodorsal and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei in the rat: a retro- and antero-grade transport and immunohistochemical study.increasingly strong evidence suggests that cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine tegmentum play important roles in the control of wakefulness and sleep. to understand better how the activity of these neurons is regulated, the potential afferent connections of the laterodorsal (ldt) and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (ppt) were investigated in the rat. this was accomplished by using retrograde and anterograde axonal transport methods and nadph-diaphorase histochemistry. immunohistochemistry w ...19921281170
physiology and morphology of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the nucleus of the solitary tract that are sensitive to distension of the small intestine.we have recently shown that distension-sensitive vagal afferents are part of a neural circuit affecting absorption of water in the rat small intestine. our results indicated that vagal afferent activity directly or indirectly influences the activity of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmnv). in the present study we pursued this interaction by examining the structure and function of neurons in the dmnv and nucleus of the solitary tract (nst) that responded to moderate distension ...19921281172
evaluation of blood-brain barrier permeability and the effect of interferon in mouse glioma model.the aim of this study was to evaluate whether interferon [ifn] can affect intracerebrally grown glioma and how alteration of the blood-brain barrier [bbb] may influence this effect. an intracerebrally implanted glioma g-26 (g-26) mouse brain-tumor model was developed and used in these studies. histological characterization of this intracerebrally grown tumor revealed its anaplastic character. the astrocytic origin of g-26 was evidenced by glial fibrillary acidic protein staining and electron mic ...19921281226
gabaergic and catecholaminergic innervation of mediobasal hypothalamic beta-endorphin cells projecting to the medial preoptic the absence of cellular estrogen receptors or proven direct estrogen action in the rat, it is assumed that estrogen indirectly regulates the secretory activity of the preoptic area luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-producing cells. we have previously shown that pro-opiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the rat send axons rostrally to connect with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons of the preoptic area. an experiment combining retrograde tracing and double-immunosta ...19921281529
a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay for human matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysin-1) using monoclonal antibodies.a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay (eia) for matrix metalloproteinase 3 (mmp-3; stromelysin-1) was developed. the assay system used two simultaneous immunoreactions using a solid phase monoclonal antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody (fab'). the sensitivity of the assay system was 20 micrograms/l and linearity was obtained between 31 and 500 micrograms/l. the eia system was capable of measuring both precursor and active forms of mmp-3 as well as the forms of mmp-3 ...19921281763
giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular formation receive short latency acoustic input: an intracellular recording and hrp-study in the rat.the reticular formation is composed of heterogeneous cell populations with multiple functions. among these multiple functions is the processing of sensory information in the context of behavior. the purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize neurons in the reticular formation of the rat that receive auditory input. in order to do so, we combined intracellular electrophysiology in vivo with intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase, enabling us to correlate electrophysi ...19921281843
cortico-cortical connections and cytoarchitectonics of the primate vestibular cortex: a study in squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus).the cortical connections of two vestibular fields [parieto-insular vestibular cortex (pivc) and area 3av] were studied in the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus) by means of retrograde tracer techniques. small iontophoretic or pressure injections of horseradish peroxidase (hrp), wheat-germ-hrp, nuclear yellow, and fast blue were administered to the cytoarchitectonic areas ri (pivc), 3av, the parieto-temporal association area t3, the granular insula (ig), and the rostral part of area 7 (7ant). the ...19921281845
innervation from the claustrum of the frontal association and motor areas: axonal transport studies in the cat.the anatomical organization of the projections from the claustrum to the motor and prefrontal cortical areas of the cat's brain was investigated. both retrograde (single horseradish peroxidase or double fluorochrome deposits in the cortex) and anterograde (peroxidase-labeled wheat germ agglutinin deposits in the claustrum) tracing techniques were used. within the claustrum, the neurons projecting to each sector of the frontal cortex were found to be distributed according to specific patterns of ...19921281846
intraventricular infusion of n-methyl-d-aspartate. 2. acute neuronal consequences.this study documents the ultrastructural features of acute neuronal injury following n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) receptor activation. nmda (100 nmol/microliters) or vehicle was infused over a 15-min period into the lateral ventricle of adult rats. after perfusion fixation, specimens demonstrating normal and abnormal patterns of vascular permeability to horseradish peroxidase were sampled for ultrastructural analysis. in nmda-infused rats, brain regions exhibiting protein extravasation contained ...19921281955
time-dependent regenerative influence of predegenerated nerve grafts on hippocampus.our previous studies have revealed that the predegeneration facilitated the neurite outgrowth from hippocampus following the peripheral nerve grafts implantation. the aim of the present work is to find whether the stimulative power of peripheral nerve grafts depends on the time lapse after the transection. autologous predegenerated distal stumps of the rat sciatic nerves were implanted into the hippocampus on the 7th, 14th, 28th, and 35th day following the transection. six weeks later, horseradi ...19921282079
sources of noradrenergic afferents to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat.the sources of noradrenergic (na) innervation to the hypoglossal nucleus (nxii) in the rat were investigated with double-labeling histochemical/immunocytochemical and lesion/degeneration techniques. following injection of wheat germ-agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase into nxii, brain stem sections were reacted with tetramethylbenzidine, stabilized, and incubated in antiserum to tyrosine hydroxylase (th). double-labeled neurons were observed in three pontine sites bilaterally, althou ...19921282080
simultaneous visualization of cortical barrels and horseradish peroxidase-injected layer 5b vibrissa neurones in the rat.1. using diaminobenzidine (dab) as a chromagen, horseradish peroxidase-injected neurones and cytochrome oxidase-stained barrels were visualized simultaneously in the rat vibrissa cortex. neurones were initially tested during extracellular recording for responses to whisker deflections. this was followed by intracellular injection of the soma with horseradish peroxidase (hrp) and histological processing to visualize the hrp-stained neurone in an incubation solution which contained, in addition to ...19921282157
transmitter substances contained in the petrosal ganglion cells determined by a double-labeling method in the rat.the presence of glutamate (glu), aspartate (asp) and substance p (sp) in the petrosal ganglion of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium was studied using retrograde labeling of the carotid sinus nerve (csn) with horseradish peroxidase (hrp) in combination with immunohistochemistry. (i) the incidence of hrp/glu-labeled cells was the highest (32%, n = 3), followed in order by hrp/asp-labeled cells (23%, n = 3) and hrp/sp-labeled cells (6%, n = 3). (ii) no significant difference was observed ...19921282228
temporomandibular joint innervation in rats: a horseradish peroxidase the present study, we have used the horseradish peroxidase (hrp) retrograde transport technique to map the trigeminal primary afferent and motor neurons that innervate the temporomandibular joint (tmj) and the lateral pterygoid muscle (lpm). one to 3.0 microl of 4% wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (hrp-wga) solution was introduced unilaterally into the joint cavity of twelve sprague-dawley rats. injections were made from the above, following trephining of the zygomatic a ...19921282407
postnatal development of area 17 callosal connections in tupaia.the goal of the present study was to investigate the pattern of maturation of callosal projecting neurons in a well-studied mammalian visual system with unique structural and functional properties. studies of the distribution pattern of interhemispheric connections in the adult tree shrew primary visual cortex reveal not only a high concentration of labeled neurons along the area 17/18 border, as in standard experimental animals such as the cat and monkey, but also numerous callosal projecting n ...19921282524
evidence for the existence of a projection from the dorsal column nuclei to the substantia nigra in the cat.discrete injections of horseradish peroxidase in the substantia nigra of cats resulted in moderate to scant retrograde neuronal labeling of the contralateral dorsal column nuclei (nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus). a moderate number of degenerating synaptic boutons emanating from the axons of stereotaxically lesioned dorsal column nuclei were identified by electron microscopy in the neuropil of the contralateral substantia nigra zona compacta and its dorsal division-nucleus parabrachialis p ...19921282531
innervation of the feline eyelids.the innervation of the eyelids is incompletely understood. this is a particular problem for those who wish to develop animal models of eyelid dysfunction in humans. blepharospasm, for example, is a disease of uncontrolled eyelid spasm that is difficult to manage clinically because the aetiology is not understood. the anatomical literature on eyelid innervation is sparse and even conflicting. we attempted to study eyelid innervation, both sensory and motor, with injection of horseradish peroxidas ...19921282686
does a cytoplasmic bridge connect the cns axon with the inner loop of myelin?sarah luse (1959) reported over 30 years ago on the presence of a bridge connecting the axon to the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (cns). this notion has not been accepted in the literature. wolman (1992) found that the progress of demyelination in some viral diseases affecting the cns fits the concept of luse, as the process occurred primarily along the major dense line of myelin, which is in continuity with the cytoplasm of the oligodendroglial cell. injection of lucifer yellow (l ...19921282845
corticocortical connections of cat primary somatosensory cortex.the organization of corticocortical connections in the representation of the forepaw in cat primary somatosensory cortex (si) was studied following injections of various tracers into different cortical cytoarchitectonic areas. small injections of horseradish peroxidase, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated hrp, phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin, or fast blue were placed into the representation of the forepaw in areas 3b, 1, or 2. the positions of labeled neurons in si and the surrounding cortical a ...19921282890
direct projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra in the cat.employing both anterograde and retrograde axonal tracing, we investigated direct projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the basal ganglia in the cat. the anterograde axonal tracing of phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin revealed that projection fibers from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the basal ganglia ended in the globus pallidus (the feline homolog to the external segment of the globus pallidus of primates) and substantia nigra. the amygdalopallidal fibers terminated chiefly in ...19921283209
intra-axonal neurobiotin injection rapidly stains the long-range projections of identified trigeminal primary afferents in vivo: comparisons with hrp and pha-l.currently available methods for studying the morphology of physiologically characterized primary afferents are limited by difficulties inherent in impaling thin fibers and by the limited distances over which conventional tracers move during the course of a recording session. we have encountered an alternative method that overcomes these limitations. neurobiotin (nb; vector) injections into rat trigeminal (v) primary afferents in the brain stem or v ganglion provided rapid, long-range staining wi ...19921283434
synaptic connections of physiologically identified geniculocortical axons in kitten cortical area 17.single geniculocortical axons were recorded in the cortical white matter of kittens and adult cats by using micropipettes filled with horseradish peroxidase (hrp). of 41 axons recovered in 4-5 week old kittens, three well-filled axons arborized in area 17; the remainder were incomplete or arborized in area 18. one axon had y-like physiological properties, two were x-like. they were recovered from two 34-day-old kittens. all three axons formed clustered arborizations, mainly in layer 4a. electron ...19921283635
cerebellar connections of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus in the rat.the connections between the deep cerebellar nuclei and the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (lgv) were investigated in rats using orthograde and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. following injections into the deep cerebellar nuclei there was orthograde transport to the contralateral medial lgv and adjacent zona incerta. injections restricted to lgv consistently labelled a small cluster of cells in the contralateral posterior interposed nucleus. injections into regions surrounding ...19921284010
hrp reacted with the chromogen o-tolidine produces whole-cell reaction product at light and electron microscope levels: negative effects of sucrose and golgi staining on benzidine reactions.studies of pathway microcircuitry often require electron microscope analysis. to facilitate these analyses, methods for labeling cells in their entirety are extremely useful. furthermore, such a method would be most useful if the label would be completely confined by the cell membrane so that second labels for synapse identification could be used. no existing method reliably and repeatably produces this kind of a result. in seeking to develop such a method, a seldom-used chromogen for horseradis ...19921284166
production and characterisation of a human monoclonal thyroid peroxidase autoantibody.a human-mouse hybridoma has been produced by fusion of hashimoto thyroid lymphocytes with the mouse myeloma line x63-ag8.653. the cloned hybridoma secreted 2.5 micrograms per 10(6) cells per day of an igg kappa thyroid peroxidase (tpo) autoantibody (2g4) with high affinity (2.5 x 10(9) molar-1) and specificity for human tpo. 2g4 did not react with lactoperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase or human myeloperoxidase or with porcine tpo or with human thyroglobulin. plastic tubes coated with 2g4 bound ...19921284377
ultrastructural studies of medullary synaptic inputs to vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat projections from the a1/c1 catecholaminergic cell group in the caudal ventrolateral medulla oblongata to neurons containing vasopressin (vp) in the supraoptic nucleus (son) were studied electron microscopically by a double-labeling technique which combines anterograde tracing after injection of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (wga-hrp) into the a1/c1 cell group with vp immunocytochemistry. wga-hrp-labeled axon terminals originating from neurons in the a1/c1 cell gr ...19921284440
[projections from lamina v of the cerebral cortex to the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus and neighboring nuclei].the laminar projections from the cerebral cortex to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and adjacent thalamic nuclei were studied by means of the horseradish peroxidase (hrp) retrograde axonal transport method. a possible correlation was found between the connectivity arising from layer v of the cerebral cortex, and the rich-acetylcholinesterase (ache) regions within the subcortical structures under study. this suggests the possibility that layer v of the cerebral cortex in alzheimer's disease is i ...19921284506
early ontogeny of the vagus nerve: an analysis of the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord of the postnatal rat.retrograde transport of cholera toxin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase in the postnatal rat has revealed remarkable features of dendritic fields of vagal motor neurons in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord during the period of early development (0-10 days). at birth, vagal motor neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, nucleus ambiguus, nucleus retroambigualis, nucleus dorsomedials and the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve are small with relatively few, unbranched ...19921284677
plasticity of the sympathetic nervous system innervating the cerebral arteries in order to investigate the neuroplasticity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system innervating the cerebral blood vessels, we observed and traced the sprouting nerve fibers originating in the contralateral superior cervical ganglion (scg) into the previously denervated cerebral arteries following unilateral excision of the scg and/or decentralization of the contralateral scg in young rats (4 weeks old). these nerve fibers were labeled anterogradely with wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish pe ...19921284862
organization of afferent projections to the ventral and dorsal regions of the cat lateral vestibular nucleus: an hrp study.topical organization of afferent projections to deiters' nucleus originating from cortical, subcortical, brainstem, and spinal cord structures has been revealed in the cat by microiontophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) into the ventral (nvlv) and dorsal (nvld) regions of the nucleus and subsequent study of retrograde axonal transport of the enzyme. differences between afferent inputs to the ventral and dorsal parts of the nucleus, considered as representative of the forelimb and ...19921285265
[the topical organization of the nuclear projections of the amygdaloid body, the ventral tegmental field and the substantia nigra into the striopallidum of the cat].the work has generalized and compared results of studying the topical organization of projections of the amygdaloid body, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra in the extrapyramidal system of the cat's brain. methods of retrograde axon transport of horseradish peroxidase and fluochrome were used. in the basal ganglia the limbic and motor areas were found with prevailing projections from structures belonging to the limbic system or from the formations bearing a relation to motor activity. p ...19921285292
light and electron microscopic studies of lectin binding to the glycocalyx of rat pancreatic cells. ii. light microscopic changes after induction of an olive-oil pancreatitis.using a battery of 7 horseradish peroxidase marked lectins (wga, rca i, pha, lca, pna, uea i, lpa) or 2 unmarked lectins (con a, vaa i) and hrp-marked antibodies, the binding to acinar cells with a postembedding technique on semithin sections of rat pancreatic tissue after olive-oil pancreatitis was studied light microscopically. the lectin binding of the normal healthy rat pancreatic tissue (jonas et al. 1991) changed remarkably. whereas the apical glycocalyx of acinar cells with the strong bin ...19921288045
[the segmental distribution of the afferent neurons of the "zusanli" point and the caecum in rabbits--a study with the horseradish peroxidase method].ten adult rabbits were used in this experiment. a solution of 10-20% hrp (sigma ix, rz = 3.2) was injected into the "zusanli" point and the subserosa of the caecum. the uptake and retrograde transmission of hrp in the afferent neurons of both the somatic and visceral nerves were traced to the spinal ganglia. the results showed that: 1. labelled afferent neurons from the region of "zusanli" point were found in the spinal ganglia t12-s2 with a higher concentration in l4-s2. 2. labelled afferent ne ...19921288924
determination of pancreatic lipase by immunoactivation technology. a rapid test system with high sensitivity and specificity.this paper describes the test characteristics and clinical relevance of a newly developed homogeneous enzyme immunoassay imac lipase test for the determination of serum pancreatic lipase. the method of determination is based on an immunoactivation technology and utilizes antibody fragments against human pancreatic lipase covalently bound to the marker enzyme horseradish peroxidase. the serum samples of 408 persons were investigated with this new assay. the within-run and day-to-day precision, th ...19921289419
leaching of hydrogen peroxide from bleached bovine enamel.accurately weighed bovine enamel slabs were individually immersed in 2 ml of 35% hydrogen peroxide for 1, 3, 5, 30, or 60 min. a control group was obtained by individual immersion of bovine enamel slabs in 2 ml of saline for 60 min. all samples were washed, dried, acid-etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s, then washed and dried again. two milliliters of double-distilled water were used for individual sample leaching. leaching was done for 1, 5, 10, 20 min, or 7 days for the experimental grou ...19921289473
comparative immunohistochemical identification and relative distribution of immunocompetent cells in sections of frozen or formalin-fixed tissue from human periapical inflammatory lesions.the presence of immunocompetent cells (b, th/i and ts/c cells and macrophages) and the ratios of these cell populations in periapical lesions (radicular granulomas, radicular cysts and apical scars) were demonstrated immunohistochemically using paraffin and cryo-sections. thirty-four human periapical lesions were examined for the presence of immunocompetent cells by monoclonal antibodies and the biotin-avidin-horseradish peroxidase method. the t/b cell ratio of radicular cysts was significantly ...19921291305
breakdown of the blood-brain barrier after fluid percussion brain injury in the rat: part 2: effect of hypoxia on permeability to plasma proteins.clinical studies have demonstrated that hypoxia after severe brain injury is common and significantly worsens neurologic outcome. we have, therefore, developed a rat model of posttraumatic hypoxic injury in order to identify the pathophysiologic responses after head injury that are worsened by this secondary insult. we examined the effect of hypoxia after brain injury on permeability of the blood-brain barrier to plasma proteins. animals were divided into two experimental groups: group i (impact ...19921291693
macrophages and other endocytic cells in the mouse uterus during the second half of pregnancy and into the postpartum period.the spatiotemporal distribution of macrophages in the uterine wall of mice in the second half of pregnancy and the early postpartum period has been studied. macrophages were identified using a combination of morphological criteria, the capacity to endocytose horseradish peroxidase and the expression of the mac-1 antigen. macrophages were a consistent feature of the myometrium. numerous endocytic cells were found in the decidua basalis and metrial gland of pregnant mice and in the 'scar' regions ...19921294560
demonstration of monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) antibody internalization by electron microscopy, western blotting and of the important factors affecting the action of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) or immunoconjugates on tumour sites depends on whether the mab is internalized by the cancer cells in question. the underexplored subject of internalization is discussed in this paper, and a number of in vitro techniques for investigating internalization are evaluated, using a model which consists of a well characterized anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-cea) mab and a number of cea expressing human cancer cell l ...19921295459
application of the golgi/electron microscopy technique for cell identification in immunocytochemical, retrograde labeling, and developmental studies of hippocampal this study the golgi/electron microscopy (em) technique has been used for an analysis of the fine structure, specific synaptic connections, and differentiation of neurons in the hippocampus and fascia dentata of rodents. in a first series of experiments the specific synaptic contacts formed between cholinergic terminals and identified hippocampal neurons were studied. by means of a variant of the section golgi impregnation procedure, vibratome sections immunostained for choline acetyltransfer ...19921295615
localization of the sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating cardiac coronary artery with horseradish peroxidase in monkeys.localization of the sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the cardiac coronary arteries in monkeys was investigated by using retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase (hrp). hrp was applied to the main trunk of the left and right coronary arteries, and to the terminal branches of the ventral and dorsal descending vessels of the left and right coronary arteries, respectively. the animals were sacrificed 84-96 hours later and perfused via the left ventricle. the paravertebral ...19921295719
exo-endocytosis in isolated peptidergic nerve terminals occurs in the sub-second range.exo- and endocytotic processes induced by depolarization of isolated neurosecretory nerve terminals show a close temporal correlation, which suggests a short time of integration of the neurosecretory granule membrane with the plasma membrane. in order to determine minimal time requirements for exocytosis-coupled endocytosis to occur, we have analyzed by electron microscopy uptake of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) as a fluid phase marker at the onset of depolarization. we have applied rapid mixing ...19921298439
electrical properties of neurons in the mediolateral part of the lateral septum: intracellular recordings from guinea-pig brain slices.membrane properties of 174 neurons were studied in the mediolateral part of the lateral septum (lsml) using an in vitro slice preparation of guinea-pig brain. intracellular recordings were correlated with morphological data obtained from 34 neurons intracellularly stained with horseradish peroxidase (hrp). neurons were divided into three classes according to their electrical responses. class a and b neurons displayed the common property of an overshooting of spikes in response to the direct appl ...19921301362
brain stem projections of rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia studied with choleragenoid conjugated horseradish peroxidase.brain stem projections from each of the l1-l6 lumbar dorsal root ganglia (drgs) were investigated in adult rats following drg injections of choleragenoid-horseradish peroxidase. all these drgs projected throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the gracile nucleus (gr). labeling from l1-l6 drgs was transported to successively more dorsomedial areas of gr. investigation of the gr projections from the drgs revealed a somatotopic organization which was most prominent in the middle part of gr. the cunea ...19921301364
differences in fm response correlate with morphology of neurons in the rat inferior colliculus.the response characteristics to linear frequency sweeps were studied in two groups of fm (frequency modulation) sensitive neurons in the rat inferior colliculus. 'fm specialized' cells responded to frequency sweeps but not to pure tones. 'mixed' cells responded to both frequency sweeps and pure tones. fm specialized cells preferred faster and broader sweeps of higher intensity than did mixed cells and were more directionally selective. in addition, fm specialized cells were more sharply tuned to ...19921301377
levocarnitine acetyl prevents cell death following long-term section of the vagus nerve in rats.levocarnitine acetyl has previously been found to significantly prevent axotomy-induced cell death in the spinal cord motor nucleus 9 and 12 months after section of the sciatic nerve in rats. in the present paper, the effects of levocarnitine acetyl on axotomy-induced cell death in the brain stem motor nuclei 90 days after section of the vagus nerve were studied. the right vagus nerve was cut at the neck. to prevent regeneration, a 5 mm-long segment of the vagus nerve was excised and the distal ...19921301408
[an immunoelectron microscopic study on the development of the antibody-producing cells in the guinea pig popliteal lymph nodes].the pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopic method was used to study the development of antibody-producing cells in the guinea pig popliteal lymph nodes of 2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 days after a second challenge with horseradish peroxidase. the results indicated that the antibody activity was located in the perinuclear space, the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi complex. according to the cellular developmental stages and the characteristics of distribution of the antibody activity, the antibody-producin ...19921303000
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