identification of differentially expressed genes associated with cotton fiber development in a chromosomal substitution line (cs-b22sh).one of the impediments in the genetic improvement of cotton fiber is the paucity of information about genes associated with fiber development. availability of chromosome arm substitution line cs-b22sh (chromosome 22 short arm substitution from 3-79 (gossypium barbadense) into a tm-1 (gossypium hirsutum) background) provides a novel opportunity to study fiber-associated genes because previous studies revealed this line was associated with some superior fiber quality traits compared to tm-1. we us ...200818043952
construction and characterization of the first bacterial artificial chromosome library for the cotton species gossypium barbadense the second most widely cultivated cotton, gossypium barbadense is well known for its superior fiber properties and its high levels of resistance to fusarium and verticillium wilts. to enhance our ability to exploit these properties in breeding programs, we constructed the first bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library for this species. the library contains 167 424 clones (49 920 bamhi and 117 504 hindiii clones), with an estimated average insert size of 130 kb. about 94.0% of the clones ...200617426754
effect of exogenous ecdysteroids on growth, development, and fertility of the egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis boisd. (lepidoptera: noctuidae). 201617425056
genes expression analyses of sea-island cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) during fiber development.sea-island cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) is one of the most valuable cotton species due to its silkiness, luster, long staples, and high strength, but its fiber development mechanism has not been surveyed comprehensively. we constructed a normalized fiber cdna library (from -2 to 25 dpa) of g. barbadense cv. pima 3-79 (the genetic standard line) by saturation hybridization with genomic dna. we screened pima 3-79 fiber rna from five developmental stages using a cdna array including 9,126 plasm ...200717377794
isolation and characterization of a class iii homeodomain-leucine zipper-like gene from gossypium barbadense.class iii homeodomain-leucine zipper (hd-zip iii) genes are important plant-specific transcription factors which have key roles in different stages of vascular and interfascicular fiber differentiation. a novel hd-zip iii gene, designated gbhb1, was isolated by suppression subtraction hybridization and race (rapid amplification of cdna ends) from gossypium barbadense (sea-island cotton). the gbhb1 cdna has a total length of 3061 bp with an open reading frame of 2508 bp, encoding a predicated pol ...200617343206
complete nucleotide sequence of the cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) chloroplast genome with a comparative analysis of sequences among 9 dicot plants.recently, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of many important crop plants were determined, and this can be considered a major step forward toward exploiting the usefulness of chloroplast genetic engineering technology. economically, cotton is one of the most important crop plants for many countries. to further our understanding of this important crop, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from cotton (gossypium barbadense l.). the chloroplast genome of ...200617159292
effects of potato plants expressing a barley cystatin on the predatory bug podisus maculiventris via herbivorous prey feeding on the plant.the aim of this study was to assess the effects of potato plants expressing a barley cystatin on a potentially cystatin-susceptible natural enemy by predation on susceptible and non-susceptible preys feeding on the plant. we have focussed on the impact of the variant hvcpi-1 c68 --> g, in which the only cysteine residue was changed by a glycine, on the growth and digestive physiology of the colorado potato beetle (cpb), leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the egyptian cotton leafworm (ecw), spodopter ...200717072562
genetic analysis for f1 yield traits with conditional approach in island cotton (gossypium barbadense l.).a genetic model with additive, dominance and genotype x environment interaction effect was employed to analyze the 3-year data of f(1) hybrids from 5 x 4 diallel cross, whose parents were island cotton and had different fruit branch types. unconditional and conditional genetic variances were conducted for analyze genetic impacts of yield components on yield. results of unconditional genetic variances showed that there were no additive variance of total lint yield. but conditional additive effect ...200616980131
isolation of 6-methoxy gossypol and 6,6'-dimethoxy gossypol from gossypium barbadense sea island cotton.6-methoxy gossypol and 6,6'-dimethoxy gossypol were isolated from the seeds and root bark of a st. vincent sea island variety of cotton (azk-267, grin# pi 528406). crude mixtures of gossypol and the methoxy compounds were obtained by extraction of the tissue with acetone and precipitation with acetic acid. after recrystallization, the preparations were treated with 3-amino-1-propanol to form gossypol schiff's bases, which were separated by preparative reverse phase chromatography. the separated ...200616637683
an additive-dominance model to determine chromosomal effects in chromosome substitution lines and other gemplasms.when using chromosome substitution (cs) lines in a crop breeding improvement program, one needs to separate the effects of the substituted chromosome from the remaining chromosomes. this cannot be done with the traditional additive-dominance (ad) model where cs lines, recurrent parent, and their hybrids are used. in this study, we develop a new genetic model and software, called a modified ad model with genotype x environment interactions, which can predict additive and dominance genetic effects ...200616341682
genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using est-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population.there is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted selection (mas) for improved fiber traits. with this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers [comprising both simple (ssr) and complex (csr) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (rils) developed from the progeny of the interspecific cross gossypium hirsutum l. cv. tm1 x gossypium barbadense l. pima 3-79. micro ...200516187061
cleaved aflp (caflp), a modified amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis for certain plant species including cotton (gossypium hirsutum l. or gossypium barbadense l.), the level of amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) is relatively low, limiting its utilization in the development of genome-wide linkage maps. we propose the use of frequent restriction enzymes in combination with aflp to cleave the aflp fragments, called cleaved aflp analysis (caflp). using four upland cotton genotypes (g. hirsutum) and three pima cotton (g. barbadense), we demonstrated that ca ...200516133304
a comparison of genetic maps constructed from haploid and bc1 mapping populations from the same crossing between gossypium hirsutum l. and gossypium barbadense l.simple sequence repeat (ssr) genetic maps have been separately constructed based on doubled haploid (dh) and (or) haploid and bc1 populations from the same cross between gossypium hirsutum l. 'tm-1' and gossypium barbadense l. 'hai7124'. the bc1 population was produced by pollinating individual plants of the 'tm-1' x 'hai7124' f1 with 'tm-1', whereas the dh and (or) haploid population developed from the offspring of vsg x ('tm-1' x 'hai7124'). vsg is a virescently marked semigamy line of gossypi ...200516121235
occurrence of (+)- and (-)-gossypol in wild species of cotton and in gossypium hirsutum var. marie-galante (watt) hutchinson.gossypol occurs as a mixture of enantiomers in cottonseed. these enantiomers exhibit different biological activities. the (-)-enantiomer is toxic to animals, but it has potential medicinal uses. therefore, cottonseed with >95% (-)-gossypol could have biopharmaceutical applications. the (+)-enantiomer shows little, if any, toxicity to nonruminant animals. thus, cottonseed with >95% (+)-gossypol could be more readily utilized as a feed for nonruminants. the (+)- to (-)-gossypol ratio in commercial ...200516076104
molecular dissection of phenotypic variation between gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense (cotton) by a backcross-self approach: iii. fiber length.a backcross-self population from a cross between gossypium hirsutum and g. barbadense was used to dissect the molecular basis of genetic variation governing 15 parameters that reflect fiber length. applying a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) map to 3,662 bc(3)f(2) plants from 24 independently derived bc(3) families, we detected 28, nine, and eight quantitative trait loci (qtls) for fiber length, length uniformity, and short fiber content, respectively. for eight, six, and ...200515983757
molecular dissection of interspecific variation between gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense (cotton) by a backcross-self approach: i. fiber elongation.the current study is the first installment of an effort to explore the secondary gene pool for the enhancement of upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) germplasm. we developed advanced-generation backcross populations by first crossing g. hirsutum cv. tamcot 2111 and g. barbadense cv. pima s6, then independently backcrossing f(1) plants to the g. hirsutum parent for three cycles. genome-wide mapping revealed introgressed alleles at an average of 7.3% of loci in each bc(3)f(1) plant, collectively ...200515983756
genetic diversity and geographic pattern in early south american cotton domestication.amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting was applied to survey the genetic diversity of primitive south american gossypium barbadense cotton for establishing a possible link to its pre-columbian expansion. new germplasm was collected along coastal peru and over an andean transect in areas where most of the archaeological evidence relating to cotton domestication has been recorded. gene bank material of three diploid (g. raimondii, g. arboreum, and g. herbaceum) and four allotetraplo ...200515580473
genotypic and developmental evidence for the role of plasmodesmatal regulation in cotton fiber elongation mediated by callose turnover.cotton fibers are single-celled hairs that elongate to several centimeters long from the seed coat epidermis of the tetraploid species (gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense). thus, cotton fiber is a unique system to study the mechanisms of rapid cell expansion. previous work has shown a transient closure of plasmodesmata during fiber elongation (y.-l. ruan, d.j. llewellyn, r.t. furbank [2001] plant cell 13: 47-60). to examine the importance of this closure in fiber elongation, we compared ...200415557097
the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril reduces oviposition and ecdysteroid levels in lepidoptera.the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ace, peptidyl dipeptidase a) in metamorphic- and reproductive-related events in the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis (lepidoptera, noctuidae) was studied by using the selective ace inhibitor captopril. although oral administration of captopril had no effect on larval growth, topical administration to new pupae resulted in a large decrease of successful adult formation. oviposition and overall appearance of adults emerging from treated lar ...200415484260
isolation and characterization of an iaa-responsive gene from gossypium barbadense l.the full-length cdna of an iaa-responsive gene was cloned from gossypium barbadense l. (designated as gbiaa-re) by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). gbiaa-re gene was 1043-bp long and contained a 573-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 190 amino acid residues. homology analysis revealed that gbiaa-re strongly resembled known plant iaa-responsive genes. the conserved integrated domain "aux_iaa, aux/iaa family" resided within the region from l11, to v190 of gbiaa-re, and the 4 t ...200415354358
costs of resistance: genetic correlations and potential trade-offs in an insect immune system.theory predicts that natural selection will erode additive genetic variation in fitness-related traits. however, numerous studies have found considerable heritable variation in traits related to immune function, which should be closely linked to fitness. this could be due to trade-offs maintaining variation in these traits. we used the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis, as a model system to examine the quantitative genetics of insect immune function. we estimated the heritabilities ...200415009275
genetic mapping and qtl analysis of fiber-related traits in cotton ( gossypium).cotton, the leading natural fiber crop, is largely produced by two primary cultivated allotetraploid species known as upland or american cotton ( gossypium hirsutum l.) and pima or egyptian cotton ( g. barbadense l.). the allotetraploid species diverged from each other and from their diploid progenitors (a or d genome) through selection and domestication after polyploidization. to analyze cotton ad genomes and dissect agronomic traits, we have developed a genetic map in an f2 population derived ...200414513220
localization of qtls for yield and fiber quality traits of tetraploid cotton cultivar.using ssr and rapd as molecular markers, and the 69 f2 families from a cross between handan208 (gossypium hirsutum) and pima90 (gossypium barbadense) as a mapping population, a linkage map comprising 126 markers was constructed. with an average spacing 13.7 cm between markers, the linkage map spanned 1,717.0 cm, which covers approximately 34.34% of the total recombinational length of cotton genome. based on the linkage map and the f2:3 phenotypic data, overall genome qtl screening was conducted ...200312924159
a combined rflp-ssr-aflp map of tetraploid cotton based on a gossypium hirsutum x gossypium barbadense backcross interspecific gossypium hirsutum x gossypium barbadense backcross population of 75 bc1 plants was evaluated for 1014 markers. the map consists of 888 loci, including 465 aflps, 229 ssrs, 192 rflps, and 2 morphological markers, ordered in 37 linkage groups that represent most if not all of the 26 chromosomes, altogether spanning 4400 cm. loci were not evenly distributed over linkage groups, and 18 of the 26 long groups had a single dense region. this paper proposes a partially revised list of ...200312897870
molecular linkage map of allotetraploid cotton ( gossypium hirsutum l. x gossypium barbadense l.) with a haploid the present study, a haploid population from the cross of the two cultivated allotetraploid cottons, gossypium hirsutum l. and gossypium barbadense l., was developed by means of vsg, a virescently marked semigamous line of sea island cotton, and some target haploids were successfully doubled with colchicine. a molecular linkage map was constructed with 58 doubled and haploid plants. among the total of 624 marker loci (510 ssrs and 114 rapds), 489 loci were assembled into 43 linkage groups and ...200212582895
the maize gene terpene synthase 1 encodes a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (e)-beta-farnesene, (e)-nerolidol, and (e,e)-farnesol after herbivore damage.maize (zea mays) emits a mixture of volatile compounds upon attack by the egyptian cotton leafworm (spodoptera littoralis). these substances, primarily mono- and sesquiterpenes, are used by parasitic wasps to locate the lepidopteran larvae, which are their natural hosts. this interaction among plant, lepidopteran larvae, and hymenopteran parasitoids benefits the plant and has been termed indirect defense. the committed step in the biosynthesis of the different skeletal types of mono- and sesquit ...200212481088
heritability of immune function in the caterpillar spodoptera littoralis.phenoloxidase (po) is believed to be a key mediator of immune function in insects and has been implicated both in non-self recognition and in resistance to a variety of parasites and pathogens, including baculoviruses and parasitoids. using larvae of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis, we found that despite its apparent importance, haemolymph po activity varied markedly between individuals, even amongst insects reared under apparently identical conditions. sib-analysis methods w ...200211920128
evaluation of synergism in the feeding deterrence of some furanocoumarins on spodoptera littoralis.the phagodepression activity of five furanocoumarins (fc), bergapten, xanthotoxin, psoralen, imperatorin, and angelicin, has been studied against larvae of egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis (boisduval) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) using a leaf-disk choice bioassay. the dose range used was 0-10 microg/cm2 for linear furocoumarins and 0-30 microg/cm2 for angelicin, the angular furanocoumarin. dose-feeding deterrency activity correlations were governed by various sigmoidal functions, excep ...200211868673
[studies of fish and karyotype of gossypium barbadense].based on the fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) of somatic chromosome of gossypium barbadense with the probe of genomic dna (gdna) of gossypium arboreum, two sets of chromosomes were easily distinguished by signals hybridized or not. the fish directly proved that g. barbadense originated from two different diploid species, but was not in concordance with the former point that every chromosome of a sub-genome of tetraploid species was bigger than that of other sub-genome (d genome). the kar ...200111209715
ozone impacts on allometry and root hydraulic conductance are not mediated by source limitation nor developmental age.o(3)could reduce growth and carbohydrate allocation to roots by direct inhibition of photosynthesis and source strength. alternatively, o(3) could reduce growth indirectly by inhibition of root hydraulic development through a primary lesion in carbohydrate translocation. another alternative is that o(3) could slow the rate of plant development, only apparently altering carbohydrate allocation at a given plant age. pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) is used to address these possibilities, and ...200010948218
effect of kinetin concentration and methods of application on seed germination, yield components, yield and fiber properties of the egyptian cotton (gossypium barbadense).two field experiments in 1993 and 1994 as well as a laboratory germination experiment were conducted on the egyptian cotton cultivar giza 75 (gossypium barbadense) to determine the effect of six concentrations of kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) ranging from 0 to 10.0 mg l(-1) and three different methods of application: (a) seeds were soaked for 24 h before germination (laboratory experiment) or sowing (field experiment) in solutions of different kinetin concentration, (b) cotton plants were spra ...200010927129
historic background of egyptian cotton (2600 bc-ad 1910). 199919348086
macromolecular organization and genetic mapping of a rapidly evolving chromosome-specific tandem repeat family (b77) in cotton (gossypium).isolation and characterization of the most prominent repetitive element families in the genome of tetraploid cotton (gossypium barbadense l; [39]) revealed a small subset of families that showed very different properties in tetraploids than in their diploid progenitors, separated by 1-2 million years. one element, b77, was characterized in detail, and compared to the well-conserved 5s and 45s rrna genes. the 572 bp b77 repeat was found to be concentrated in several discontinuous tandem arrays co ...19989869409
dispersed repetitive dna has spread to new genomes since polyploid formation in cotton.polyploid formation has played a major role in the evolution of many plant and animal genomes; however, surprisingly little is known regarding the subsequent evolution of dna sequences that become newly united in a common nucleus. of particular interest is the repetitive dna fraction, which accounts for most nuclear dna in higher plants and animals and which can be remarkably different, even in closely related taxa. in one recently formed polyploid, cotton (gossypium barbadense l.; ad genome), 8 ...19989582192
polyploid formation created unique avenues for response to selection in gossypium (cotton).a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism map was used to determine the chromosomal locations and subgenomic distributions of quantitative trait loci (qtls) segregating in a cross between cultivars of allotetraploid (aadd) gossypium hirsutum ("upland" cotton) and gossypium barbadense ("sea island," "pima," or "egyptian" cotton) that differ markedly in the quality and quantity of seed epidermal fibers. most qtls influencing fiber quality and yield are located on the "d" subgenome, deriv ...19989539752
the okra leaf shape mutation in cotton is active in all cell layers of the leaf.okra (l2o) is a semidominant mutation of cotton (gossypium barbadense) that alters leaf shape by increasing the length of lobes and decreasing lamina expansion. chimeras containing l2o and wild-type tissue were generated using semigamy (se), a mutation that blocks syngamy during fertilization and produces haploid maternal/paternal chimeral progeny at low frequency. in sectorial chimeras, changes in leaf morphology coincide with the boundary between mutant and wild-type tissues, suggesting that l ...199821684914
identification and biosynthesis of (e,e)-10,12-tetradecadienyl acetate in spodoptera littoralis female sex pheromone gland.a minor component of the sex pheromone gland of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis, has been identified as (e,e)-10,12-tetradecadienyl acetate. structural elucidation has been carried out by isobutane-chemical ionization mass spectrometry of the fatty acyl biosynthetic precursor-derived methyl ester. to assign the stereochemistry of the double bonds, the four isomers of both 10,12-tetradecadienyl acetates and methyl 10,12-tetradecadienoates have been synthesized and their gas ch ...19979377086
a rapid stain-clearing method for video based cytological analysis of cotton megagametophytes.optical "clearing" is a cost saving method for preparing large numbers of whole, dissected or thickly sectioned cytological specimens such as plant ovules and ovaries. minimal labor is required and specimens retain three-dimensional integrity. previous development of high contrast stain-clearing methods using hemalum to impart contrast has facilitated analysis and photography under bright field illumination for small ovules. the deep stain intensity of hemalum, however, often precludes adequate ...19979062705
tissue-specific and developmental regulation of cotton gene fbl2a. demonstration of promoter activity in transgenic plants.a gene (fbl2a) that is preferentially expressed in cotton (gossypium barbadense l. cv sea island) fiber was isolated and characterized. genomic and cdna analyses suggest multiple fbl2a genes in cotton. the gene is developmentally regulated and is activated during late primary and early secondary wall synthesis stages. fbl2a encodes a polypeptide of 43.4 kd and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.97. the nucleotide-derived protein is highly hydrophilic except for a hydrophobic n terminus and has a ...19968938423
close correspondence between the action spectra for the blue light responses of the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts, and the spectra for blue light-dependent stomatal opening and coleoptile phototropism.fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize blue light responses from chloroplasts of adaxial guard cells from pima cotton (gossypium barbadense) and coleoptile tips from corn (zea mays). the chloroplast response to blue light was quantified by measurements of the blue light-induced enhancement of a red light-stimulated quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. in adaxial (upper) guard cells, low fluence rates of blue light applied under saturating fluence rates of red light enhanced the r ...199611607640
cloning and characterization of the majority of repetitive dna in cotton (gossypium l.).repetitive dna elements representing 60-70% of the total repetitive dna in tetraploid cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) and comprising 30-36% of the tetraploid cotton genome were isolated from a genomic library of dna digested with a mixture of four blunt-end cutting restriction enzymes. a total of 313 clones putatively containing nuclear repetitive sequences were classified into 1103 families, based on cross hybridization and southern blot analysis. the 103 families were characterized in terms o ...19958654914
the distribution of gossypium hirsutum chromatin in g. barbadense germ plasm: molecular analysis of introgressive plant breeding.cotton is unusual among major crop plants in that two cross-fertile species are widely cultivated for a common economic product, fiber. both historical evidence and classical genetic studies suggest that many improved forms of gossypium barbadense ("sea island", "egyptian", and "pima" cottons) may include chromatin derived from g. hirsutum. using 106 restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) loci well distributed across the cotton genome, we revealed the amount and genomic distribution of ...199524170011
a detailed rflp map of cotton, gossypium hirsutum x gossypium barbadense: chromosome organization and evolution in a disomic polyploid genome.we employ a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) map to investigate chromosome organization and evolution in cotton, a disomic polyploid. about 46.2% of nuclear dna probes detect rflps distinguishing gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense; and 705 rflp loci are assembled into 41 linkage groups and 4675 cm. the subgenomic origin (a vs. d) of most, and chromosomal identity of 14 (of 26), linkage groups is shown. the a and d subgenomes show similar recombinational length, s ...19947851778
genetic variability for stomatal conductance in pima cotton and its relation to improvements of heat adaptation.responses of stomata to environment have been intensively studied, but little is known of genetic effects on stomatal conductance or their consequences. in pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.), a crop that is bred for irrigated production in very hot environments, stomatal conductance varies genetically over a wide range and has increased with each release of new higher-yielding cultivars. a cross between heat-adapted (high-yielding) and unadapted genotypes produced f2 progeny cosegregating for ...199411607487
enhanced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) bred for increased yield.yield of pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) has tripled over the last 40 years with the development of new cultivars. six genetic lines representing successive stages in the breeding process (one primitive noncultivated accession, four cultivars with release dates from 1949 to 1983, and one unreleased breeding line) were grown in a greenhouse, and their gas exchange properties were compared. among the cultivated types, genetic advances were closely associated with increasing single-leaf photo ...199116668424
regeneration of gossypium hirsutum and g. barbadense from shoot apex tissues for transformation.a method of regenerating cotton plants from the shoot apical meristem of seedlings was developed for use with particle gun and agrobacterium-mediated transformation. this method was developed to circumvent the problems of genotype restriction and chromosomal damage frequently encountered in cotton regeneration in tissue culture through somatic embryogenesis. in this procedure, the cells of the shoot meristem are targeted for transformation. normal and fertile plants of gossypium barbadense pima ...199124226156
allozyme evidence for the origin and diversification of gossypium barbadense l.gossypium barbadense l. is a commercially important cotton species of tropical south american origin presently grownin many regions of the world. the species is morphologically diverse, consisting of a wide range of wild (or feral), commensal, landrace, and highly improvedcommercial forms. we performed allozyme analysis on 153 accessions representing the spectrum of g. barbadense diversityto ascertain the geographic origin of the species, its patterns of diffusion subsequent to domestication, an ...199024226459
investigation of oviposition deterrent in larval frass ofspodoptera littoralis (boisd.).previous experiments demonstrated an oviposition-deterring effect of larval frass in the egyptian cotton leaf worm,spodoptera littoralis (boisd.). in this study, females were shown to perceive the oviposition-deterring substance(s) with their antennae. during dark, airtight, and cold (-10 °c) storage, the deterrent was persistent for at least 395 days. on the other hand, larval frass retained its activity for only two days when applied to cotton leaves. the deterrent activity of frass was indepe ...198924271895
chemical protection of pheromones containing an internal conjugated diene system from isomerization and oxidation.conjugated diene systems are common in natural products, including pheromones. the systems are sensitive to heat, light, and oxygen, among other things. they can be protected by antioxidants and uv absorbers, which slow downcis-trans isomerization and oxidation. three sex pheromones (one as an analog) containingz,e, e,z, ande,e units were studied: (z,e)-9,11-c14oac, (e,z)-7,9-c12oac, and (e,e)-10,12-c16oac. the uv absorber 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and the antioxidants bht and bha were fou ...198824276497
insect antifeedant activity of clerodane diterpenoids against larvae ofspodoptera littoralis (boisd.) (lepidoptera).antifeedant activities of nine clerodane diterpenoids, isolated in this laboratory from different species ofajuga plants, have been studied against larvae of egyptian cotton leafwormspodoptera littoralis (boisd.) (lepidoptera) by application of the leaf disk method. evaluation of activity was carried out by calculating, at different time intervals, the feeding ratio (fr) from the relationship between the consumed areas of treated disks (ctd) and control disks (ccd); for comparison purposes a fr5 ...198524311185
mutagenic effects of aflatoxin b-1 and g-1 on the egyptian cotton leaf-worm, spodoptera littoralis (boisd.).the aim of this study was to test infertility of the egyptian cotton leaf-worm, spodoptera littoralis. three concentrations, 0.8, 1.6 and 2.0 micrograms/larva of aflatoxin b-1 and g-1 were applied to the final instar of the larval period. both b-1 and g-1 induced mutagenic effects on spermatogenesis and morphogenesis which consequently reflected in infertility of spodoptera littoralis. the phenomenon of mutagenicity was more obvious in larvae treated with g-1 rather than in those treated with b- ...19846440019
an environmental and medical study of byssinosis and other respiratory conditions in the cotton textile industry in egypt.this study was conducted in a typical egyptian textile plant located in alexandria. male workers from all operations (n = 506) were examined and their dust exposures were assessed. results showed that airborne dust concentrations were very high and that the plant fraction is mostly concentrated in respirable dust. byssinosis prevailed in 21% of workers in opening and cleaning sections and in 13% in carding and combing rooms, but was found in none of the workers in drawing, twisting, and spinning ...19846475964
enhanced unscheduled dna synthesis in the cotyledons of gossypium barbadense l. by ethyl methanesulfonate (ems). 19827159432
metabolism and excretion of leptophos and its phenol in s and r larvae of the egyptian cotton leafworm.the metabolism and excretion of leptophos, 0-(4-bromo-2,5 dichlorophenyl) 0-methyl phenylphosphonothioate, and its phenol, 4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenol, were examined in susceptible (s) and leptophos resistant (r) strains of the egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis (boisd.). leptophos injected into the larvae is converted in vivo into at least five chloroform-soluble and two water-soluble products. minor qualitative differences were observed between s and r larvae. quantitatively, the di ...19826178375
sex pheromone of egyptian cotton leafworm (spodoptera littoralis). its chemical transformation under field conditions. 198124420691
reduced sensitivity of cholinesterase as a factor of resistance in leptophos selected strain in the egyptian cotton leafworm.larvae of a leptophos resistant strain of the egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis (boisd) showed varying levels of cross resistance to several organophosphorus insecticides and to the carbamate matacil. enzymatic determinations revealed that levels of cholinesterase activity were almost identical in larvae of susceptible and resistant strains. resistant larvae, which remained susceptible to the carbamate methomyl possessed cholinesterase of nearly normal sensitivity to this compound. ...19806154073
malate synthase activity in cotton and other ungerminated oilseeds: a survey.extracts from several species and varieties of ungerminated cotton seeds plus homogenates from 18 other oilseeds (representing 11 different families) were examined for malate synthase and isocitrate lyase activity. malate synthase activities in the various cotton seeds ranged from 35 to 129% of the units per dry seed weight found in deltapine 16 cotton. for other oilseeds, the range was from 0.3 to 58% of deltapine 16 cotton. castor bean (ricinus communis l.) had the least activity per mg dry we ...197916660858
filter columns for preparation of leukocyte-poor blood for transfusion.filter columns (imugard filters) packed with cotton wool prepared from gossypium barbadense cotton removed 95--100% of leukocytes from packed red cell suspensions. recovery of red cells was about 95%. the efficacy was similar for acd and heparinized blood. blood was filtered below 10 degrees c within 30 min under pressures of less than 0.2 kg/cm2. the shape and functions of the red cells were not altered by filtration. no pyrogenic or toxic substances, and little particulate matter were eluted f ...1978580125
studies on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in soil and rhizosphere of different plants. i. occurrence of bacteria, acid producers, and phosphate dissolvers.occurrence of bacteria (total), acid producing and phosphate dissolving micro-organisms in soil, rhizosphere, and rizoplane of egyptian cotton, peas, or maize during their different growth phases was studied. the rhizosphere effects were generally positive and differed according to type of plant, growth phase of each special plant, and type of micro-organism under study. the high densities of bacteria, acid-producers, and phosphate-dissolvers in the rhizoplane samples suggest the conclusion that ...197722209
mechanism of nuclear dna replication in radicles of germinating cotton.the mechanism of nuclear dna replication in radicles of germinating cotton (gossypium barbadense) was investigated. pulse-labeling with [(3)h]thymidine indicates that replication intermediates are of small molecular weight (4-10s) and behave as if single-stranded. prolonged labeling indicates that intermediates are of discrete size, suggesting a mechanism of discontinuous replication. electron microscopy of nuclear dna demonstrates a complex architecture which may include "eye forms" and "forks" ...197616592350
size and specific radioactivity of the [h]thymidine triphosphate pool and dna synthesis in the radicles of germinating relating the specific radioactivity, size, and turnover of the labeled thymidine triphosphate pool to dna synthesis, it was shown that the 32- to 38-hour interval of cotton seedling (gossypium barbadense l.) germination was the peak period of dna synthesis within the radicle tip during a total germination time of 48 hours at 35 c.197516659336
chromatin and dna synthesis associated with nuclear membrane in germinating cotton.the synthesis of nuclear dna and possible attachment sites of chromatin in the cells of cotton (gossypium barbadense) radicles during germination was investigated. biochemical analysis of nuclear membrane fragments or sarkosyl-magnesium-membrane complexes indicates that the dna, including newly replicated dna, is attached to the nuclear membranes during periods of active synthesis. electron micrographs of nuclear membrane fragments indicate a physical association between chromatin fibers and the ...19751059099
the feeding response of the larva of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis boisd., to sugars and related compounds--iv. ingestion and excretion of some phagostimulatory weak or inactive carbohydrates. 1975236862
nucleic acid metabolism during germination of pima cotton (gossypium barbadense).the nucleic acid metabolism in long staple pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) was examined during the first 48 hours of germination at 34 c. specific activity analysis of pulselabeled nucleic acids indicated that the first significant incorporation of precursors into dna occurs at approximately 18 hours when the radicles are emerging with a peak of incorporation occurring at 36 hours. specific activity of total rna also indicate peak values at 18 hours and 36 hours of germination. sucrose gra ...197516659057
cytological effects of pesticides. vi. effect of the insecticide "rogor" on the mitosis of vicia faba and gossypium barbadense. 19744442286
the inheritance of gossypol level in gossypium. ii. inheritance of seed gosypol in two trains of cultivated gossypoium barbadense l.two strains of cultivated gossypium barbadense l., sea island as-2 and pima s-4, were used to study the effects of alleles at two loci on the production and/or storage of gossypol in mature embryos. the normal alleles, gl(2) and gl(3), are "native" to g. barbadense, whereas the mutant alleles, gl(2) and gl(3), were introduced from gossypium hirsutum l. through backcrossing. each strain was grown in three replications per trial, and one, sea island as-2, was grown in three environments. each expe ...19734769299
cotton remains from archeological sites in central coastal peru.cotton remains from four archeological sites in central coastal peru, representing a time sequence from about 2500 to 1000 b.c., were compared with similar materials obtained from living wild and cultivated forms of gossypium barbadense l. the comparison revealed that the archeological cotton samples were primitive forms of gossypium barbadense, differing little from present-day wild forms of the same species. although not the earliest cottons recorded for the new world, they appear to represent ...197317811658
the feeding response of the larva of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis boisd., to sugars and related compounds. 3. biochemical and enzymological aspects of sucrose consumption. 19734145425
penetration and biodegradation of carbaryl in susceptible and resistant strains of the egyptian cotton leafworm. 197120333837
status of carbaryl and ddt resistance in laboratory-reared egyptian cotton leafworm. 19715122315
the herbicide eptam 6-e: a selective female chemosterilant for the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis. 19715139501
transpiration, water absorption, and internal water balance of cotton plants as affected by light and changes in saturation controlled environment studies of cotton plants (gossypium barbadense l.) a light-induced acceleration of transpiration upset the water balance established in the dark because of a lag in water absorption. a plant-water deficit could be generated either by sudden illumination at a given saturation deficit (sd) of the air, or by raising the sd in conjunction with illumination, without different water balance measurements were confirmed in every experiment by beta ray gauge detec ...196616656235
the genetics of flowering response in cotton. v. fruiting behavior of gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense in interspecific hybrids. 196517248253
egyptian cotton suture. 19655828274
byssinosis in the egyptian cotton industry: changes in ventilatory capacity during the day. 196414106129
haploids: high-frequency production from single-embryo seeds in a line of pima cotton.progenies of a doubled haploid from pima s-1, a commercial variety of gossypium barbadense l., contained a very high frequency of haploid plants. the haploid plants, in contrast with those previously reported in cotton, originated from single- rather than twin-embryo seeds. apparently the haploid-producing ability of this line of cotton is inherited.196317799847
recombination between supposedly homologous chromosomes of gossypium barbadense l. and g. hirsutum l. 196117248075
the genetics of flowering response in cotton. ii. inheritance of flowering response in a gossypium barbadense cross. 196017247909
studies on the development of the boll, and the formation of oil in the developing seed in some varieties of egyptian cotton. 195114806506
the genetics of blackarm resistance. viii. gossypium barbadense. 195024538925
ssr marker-assisted improvement of fiber qualities in gossypium hirsutum using g. barbadense introgression lines.this study demonstrates the first practical use of csils for the transfer of fiber quality qtls into upland cotton cultivars using ssr markers without detrimentally affecting desirable agronomic characteristics. gossypium hirsutum is characterized by its high lint production and medium fiber quality compared to extra-long staple cotton g. barbadense. transferring valuable traits or genes from g. barbadense into g. hirsutum is a promising but challenging approach through a traditional interspecif ...201424306319
characterization and expression analysis of a fiber differentially expressed fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein gene in sea island cotton fibers.fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (fla) protein is a cell-wall-associated protein playing crucial roles in regulating plant growth and development, and it was characterized in different plants including upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.). in cdna-aflp analysis of 25 dpa (days post anthesis) fiber mrna, two fla gene-related transcripts exhibit differential expression between sea island cotton (g. barbadense l.) and upland cotton. based on the transcript-derived fragment, race-pcr and realtime pcr ...201323875019
detoxification of fusaric acid by the soil microbe mucor rouxii.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 (vcg0114), which causes root rot and wilt of cotton (gossypium hirsutum and g. barbadense), has been identified recently for the first time in the western hemisphere in certain fields in the san joaquin valley of california. this pathotype produces copious quantities of the plant toxin fusaric acid (5-butyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) compared to other isolates of f. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (fov) that are indigenous to the united states. fusaric a ...201728538103
histochemical analyses reveal that stronger intrinsic defenses in gossypium barbadense than in g. hirsutum are associated with resistance to verticillium dahliae.verticillium wilt, caused by verticillium dahliae kleb., is a serious threat to cotton (gossypium spp.) crop production. to enhance our understanding of the plant's complex defensive mechanism, we examined colonization patterns and interactions between v. dahliae and two cotton species, the resistant g. barbadense and the susceptible g. hirsutum. microscopic examinations and grafting experiments showed that the progression of infection was restricted within g. barbadense. at all pre- and post-in ...201728850286
the ectopic overexpression of the cotton ve1 and ve2-homolog sequences leads to resistance response to verticillium wilt in arabidopsis.verticillium wilt, caused by the verticillium dahliae phytopathogen, is a devastating disease affecting many economically important crops. a receptor-like protein (rlp) gene, ve1, has been reported to confer resistance to v. dahliae in tomato plants, but few genes have been found to be involved in cotton verticillium wilt resistance. here, we cloned two rlp gene homologs, gossypium barbadense resistance gene to verticillium dahliae 1 (gbavd1) and gbavd2, from the verticillium wilt-resistant cult ...201728611793
analysis of sea-island cotton and upland cotton in response to verticillium dahliae infection by rna sequencing.cotton verticillium wilt is a serious soil-borne vascular disease that causes great economic loss each year. however, due to the lack of resistant varieties of upland cotton, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to this disease, especially to the pathogen verticillium dahliae, remain unclear.201324314117
genome-wide comparative analysis of nbs-encoding genes in four gossypium species.nucleotide binding site (nbs) genes encode a large family of disease resistance (r) proteins in plants. the availability of genomic data of the two diploid cotton species, gossypium arboreum and gossypium raimondii, and the two allotetraploid cotton species, gossypium hirsutum (tm-1) and gossypium barbadense allow for a more comprehensive and systematic comparative study of nbs-encoding genes to elucidate the mechanisms of cotton disease resistance.201728403834
hplc preparation of the chiral forms of 6-methoxy-gossypol and 6,6'-dimethoxy-gossypol.a concentrated mixture of gossypol, 6-methoxy-gossypol, and 6,6'-dimethoxy-gossypol was extracted from the root bark of st. vincent sea island cotton with acetone. this extract was derivatized with r-(-)-2-amino-1-propanol to form diastereomeric gossypol schiff's bases. analytical-scale reverse-phase chromatography of these schiff's bases produced six peaks, indicating separation of the enantiomeric forms of the three gossypol compounds. the elution order of the peaks was found to vary with the ...200818407810
gbtcp, a cotton tcp transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. a class i tcp transcription factor (designated gbtcp), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cdna library of sea-island cotton fibre (from -2 to 25 days post anthesis). gbtcp was preferentially expres ...201223105133
quantitative trait locus mapping for verticillium wilt resistance in an upland cotton recombinant inbred line using snp-based high density genetic map.verticillium wilt (vw) caused by verticillium dahlia kleb is one of the most destructive diseases of cotton. numerous efforts have been made to improve the resistance of upland cotton against vw, with little progress achieved due to the paucity of upland cotton breeding germplasms with high level of resistance to vw. gossypium barbadense was regarded as more resistant compared to upland cotton; however, it is difficult to apply the resistance from g. barbadense to upland cotton improvement becau ...201728424708
the variation in the rhizosphere microbiome of cotton with soil type, genotype and developmental stage.plant roots and soil microorganisms interact with each other mainly in the rhizosphere. changes in the community structure of the rhizosphere microbiome are influenced by many factors. in this study, we determined the community structure of rhizosphere bacteria in cotton, and studied the variation of rhizosphere bacterial community structure in different soil types and developmental stages using tm-1, an upland cotton cultivar (gossypium hirsutum l.) and hai 7124, a sea island cotton cultivar (g ...201728638057
regional association analysis-based fine mapping of three clustered qtl for verticillium wilt resistance in cotton (g. hirsutum. l).verticillium wilt is one of the most destructive diseases affecting global cotton production. the most effective way to control wilt disease has been the development of new cotton varieties that are resistant to vw. vw-resistant upland cotton cultivars have been created in both the usa and china by gossypium barbadense introgression. more than 100 vw resistance quantitative trait loci have been detected.201728841857
transcriptome analysis suggests that chromosome introgression fragments from sea island cotton (gossypium barbadense) increase fiber strength in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum).as high-strength cotton fibers are critical components of high quality cotton, developing cotton cultivars with high-strength fibers as well as high yield is a top priority for cotton development. recently, chromosome segment substitution lines (cssls) have been developed from high-yield upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) crossed with high-quality sea island cotton (g. barbadense). here, we constructed a cssl population by crossing ccri45, a high-yield upland cotton cultivar, with hai1, a sea is ...201728874383
comparative transcriptome analysis of cotton fiber development of upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) and chromosome segment substitution lines from g. hirsutum × g. to develop new cotton varieties possessing high yield traits of upland cotton and superior fiber quality traits of sea island cotton remains a key task for cotton breeders and researchers. while multiple attempts bring in little significant progresses, the development of chromosome segment substitution lines (cssls) from gossypium barbadense in g. hirsutum background provided ideal materials for aforementioned breeding purposes in upland cotton improvement. based on the excellent fiber perfo ...201728886694
genetic and phenotypic effects of chromosome segments introgressed from gossypium barbadense into gossypium hirsutum.mbi9915 is an introgression cotton line with excellent fiber quality. it was obtained by advanced backcrossing and continuous inbreeding from an interspecific cross between the upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) cultivar ccri36 as the recurrent parent and the sea island cotton (g. barbadense) cultivar hai1, as the donor parent. to study the genetic effects of the introgressed chromosome segments in g. hirsutum, an f2 secondary segregating population of 1537 individuals was created by crossing mb ...201728931074
the jasmonate zim-domain gene family mediates ja signaling and stress response in cotton.jasmonate zim-domain (jaz) family proteins are involved in regulating diverse biological processes in plants. however, their functions have not been well characterized in cotton (gossypium spp.). in the present study, 13, 15, 25 and 30 jaz genes were identified in gossypium arboretum, gossypium raimondii, gossypium barbadense and gossypium hirsutum, respectively, based on gene homology. selection and variation analyses showed that the single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) density of ghjaz genes i ...201729036515
the island cotton nbs-lrr gene gbana1 confers resistance to the non-race 1 verticillium dahliae isolate vd991.wilt caused by verticillium dahliae significantly reduces cotton yields, as host resistance in commercially cultivated gossypium species is lacking. understanding the molecular bases of disease resistance in non-commercial gossypium species could galvanize the development of verticillium wilt resistance in the cultivated species. nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (nbs-lrr) proteins play a central role in plant defense against pathogens. in this study, we focused on the relationship bet ...201729052967
comparative analysis of the cytology and transcriptomes of the cytoplasmic male sterility line h276a and its maintainer line h276b of cotton (gossypium barbadense l.).in this study, the tetrad stage of microspore development in a new cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) line, h276a, was identified using paraffin sections at the abortion stage. to explore the molecular mechanism underlying cms in cotton, a comparative transcriptome analysis between the cms line h276a and its maintainer line h276b at the tetrad stage was conducted using an illumina hiseq 4000 platform. the comparison of h276a with h276b revealed a total of 64,675 ge ...201729068396
genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping analyses of gossypium barbadense l. polymorphism and narrow genetic base, due to genetic bottleneck through historic domestication, highlight a need for comprehensive characterization and utilization of existing genetic diversity in cotton germplasm collections. in this study, 288 worldwide gossypium barbadense l. cotton germplasm accessions were evaluated in two diverse environments (uzbekistan and usa). these accessions were assessed for genetic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (ld), and ld-based a ...201729136656
long noncoding rnas involve in resistance to verticillium dahliae, a fungal disease in cotton.long noncoding rnas (lncrnas) have several known functions in plant development, but their possible roles in responding to plant disease remain largely unresolved. in this study, we described a comprehensive disease-responding lncrna profiles in defence against a cotton fungal disease verticillium dahliae. we further revealed the conserved and specific characters of disease-responding process between two cotton species. conservatively for two cotton species, we found the expression dominance of ...201729149461
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