PMID(sorted ascending)
studies on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in soil and rhizosphere of different plants. i. occurrence of bacteria, acid producers, and phosphate dissolvers.occurrence of bacteria (total), acid producing and phosphate dissolving micro-organisms in soil, rhizosphere, and rizoplane of egyptian cotton, peas, or maize during their different growth phases was studied. the rhizosphere effects were generally positive and differed according to type of plant, growth phase of each special plant, and type of micro-organism under study. the high densities of bacteria, acid-producers, and phosphate-dissolvers in the rhizoplane samples suggest the conclusion that ...197722209
the feeding response of the larva of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis boisd., to sugars and related compounds--iv. ingestion and excretion of some phagostimulatory weak or inactive carbohydrates. 1975236862
filter columns for preparation of leukocyte-poor blood for transfusion.filter columns (imugard filters) packed with cotton wool prepared from gossypium barbadense cotton removed 95--100% of leukocytes from packed red cell suspensions. recovery of red cells was about 95%. the efficacy was similar for acd and heparinized blood. blood was filtered below 10 degrees c within 30 min under pressures of less than 0.2 kg/cm2. the shape and functions of the red cells were not altered by filtration. no pyrogenic or toxic substances, and little particulate matter were eluted f ...1978580125
chromatin and dna synthesis associated with nuclear membrane in germinating cotton.the synthesis of nuclear dna and possible attachment sites of chromatin in the cells of cotton (gossypium barbadense) radicles during germination was investigated. biochemical analysis of nuclear membrane fragments or sarkosyl-magnesium-membrane complexes indicates that the dna, including newly replicated dna, is attached to the nuclear membranes during periods of active synthesis. electron micrographs of nuclear membrane fragments indicate a physical association between chromatin fibers and the ...19751059099
effects of an aqueous extract of cotton seed (gossypium barbadense linn.) on adult male rats.twenty adult male rats per group in 4 treatment groups were injected intraperitoneally at 08.00 hours with 0.1 ml of an aqueous cotton seed extract (gossypium barbadense linn.) (malvaceae) in concentrations of (a) 105.25, (b) 21.21, (c) 4.65, (d) 2.325 mg ml-1 (kg body weight)-1, respectively. a fifth group (control) was given 0.1 ml of pyrogen free distilled water per rat. five rats per treatment group were sacrificed at 2, 8, 24 and 168 hours respectively after treatment. plasma follicle stimu ...19911776560
survey of the mycoflora and mycotoxins of cotton seeds and cotton seed products in egypt.thirty-nine species and 16 fungal genera were isolated from egyptian cotton seeds, cotton seed meal and cotton seed cake on 1% glucose-czapek's agar medium incubated at 28 degrees c. aspergillus was the most frequent genus and it emerged in 87-100% of the samples contributing 70-98% of total fungi in the three substrates tested. the most common species were a. niger, a. flavus, a. fumigatus, a. terreus and rhizopus stolonifer; a. niger, a. fumigatus and penicillium corylophilum; and a. niger, a. ...19902388680
cloning and expression of the lepidopteran toxin produced by bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis in escherichia coli.the bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis strain 3a produces a proteinaceous parasporal crystal toxic to larvae of a variety of lepidopteran pests including spodoptera littoralis (egyptian cotton leaf worm), heliothis zeae, h. virescens and boarmia selenaria. by cloning of individual plasmids of b. thuringiensis in escherichia coli, we localized a gene coding for the delta-endotoxin on the b. thuringiensis plasmid of about 17 kb designated ptn4. following partial digestion of the b. thuringi ...19863013729
isolation of (-)-gossypol from natural plant.(-)-gossypol has been isolated from cottonseed of g. barbadense l. three gossypium species were studied for the isolation. the study has also revealed a correlation between the optical activity of gossypol isolated and the species of cottonseed used. gossypol isolated from the species g. barbadense is always found to be levorotatory caused by an excess of (-)-gossypol, whereas that from the species g. hirsutum is always dextrorotatory caused by an excess of (+)-gossypol. results of most samples ...20123370996
the feeding response of the larva of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis boisd., to sugars and related compounds. 3. biochemical and enzymological aspects of sucrose consumption. 19734145425
cytological effects of pesticides. vi. effect of the insecticide "rogor" on the mitosis of vicia faba and gossypium barbadense. 19744442286
the inheritance of gossypol level in gossypium. ii. inheritance of seed gosypol in two trains of cultivated gossypoium barbadense l.two strains of cultivated gossypium barbadense l., sea island as-2 and pima s-4, were used to study the effects of alleles at two loci on the production and/or storage of gossypol in mature embryos. the normal alleles, gl(2) and gl(3), are "native" to g. barbadense, whereas the mutant alleles, gl(2) and gl(3), were introduced from gossypium hirsutum l. through backcrossing. each strain was grown in three replications per trial, and one, sea island as-2, was grown in three environments. each expe ...19734769299
antagonism between rhizoctonia solani causing damping-off and selected rhizospheric microflora of some egyptian cotton varieties. 19654961247
status of carbaryl and ddt resistance in laboratory-reared egyptian cotton leafworm. 19715122315
the amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from abutilon theophrasti medic. and gossypium barbadense l. (cotton).the amino acid sequences of abutilon and gossypium cytochromes c were determined on 1mumol of protein. the molecules consist of 111 residues and are homologous with other mitochondrial plant cytochromes c. experimental details are given in a supplementary paper that has been deposited as supplementary publication sup 50005 at the national lending library for science and technology, boston spa, yorks. ls23 7bq, u.k., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in biochem. j. (1971), 1 ...19715131735
the herbicide eptam 6-e: a selective female chemosterilant for the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis. 19715139501
egyptian cotton suture. 19655828274
reduced sensitivity of cholinesterase as a factor of resistance in leptophos selected strain in the egyptian cotton leafworm.larvae of a leptophos resistant strain of the egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis (boisd) showed varying levels of cross resistance to several organophosphorus insecticides and to the carbamate matacil. enzymatic determinations revealed that levels of cholinesterase activity were almost identical in larvae of susceptible and resistant strains. resistant larvae, which remained susceptible to the carbamate methomyl possessed cholinesterase of nearly normal sensitivity to this compound. ...19806154073
metabolism and excretion of leptophos and its phenol in s and r larvae of the egyptian cotton leafworm.the metabolism and excretion of leptophos, 0-(4-bromo-2,5 dichlorophenyl) 0-methyl phenylphosphonothioate, and its phenol, 4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenol, were examined in susceptible (s) and leptophos resistant (r) strains of the egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis (boisd.). leptophos injected into the larvae is converted in vivo into at least five chloroform-soluble and two water-soluble products. minor qualitative differences were observed between s and r larvae. quantitatively, the di ...19826178375
mutagenic effects of aflatoxin b-1 and g-1 on the egyptian cotton leaf-worm, spodoptera littoralis (boisd.).the aim of this study was to test infertility of the egyptian cotton leaf-worm, spodoptera littoralis. three concentrations, 0.8, 1.6 and 2.0 micrograms/larva of aflatoxin b-1 and g-1 were applied to the final instar of the larval period. both b-1 and g-1 induced mutagenic effects on spermatogenesis and morphogenesis which consequently reflected in infertility of spodoptera littoralis. the phenomenon of mutagenicity was more obvious in larvae treated with g-1 rather than in those treated with b- ...19846440019
an environmental and medical study of byssinosis and other respiratory conditions in the cotton textile industry in egypt.this study was conducted in a typical egyptian textile plant located in alexandria. male workers from all operations (n = 506) were examined and their dust exposures were assessed. results showed that airborne dust concentrations were very high and that the plant fraction is mostly concentrated in respirable dust. byssinosis prevailed in 21% of workers in opening and cleaning sections and in 13% in carding and combing rooms, but was found in none of the workers in drawing, twisting, and spinning ...19846475964
enhanced unscheduled dna synthesis in the cotyledons of gossypium barbadense l. by ethyl methanesulfonate (ems). 19827159432
a detailed rflp map of cotton, gossypium hirsutum x gossypium barbadense: chromosome organization and evolution in a disomic polyploid genome.we employ a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) map to investigate chromosome organization and evolution in cotton, a disomic polyploid. about 46.2% of nuclear dna probes detect rflps distinguishing gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense; and 705 rflp loci are assembled into 41 linkage groups and 4675 cm. the subgenomic origin (a vs. d) of most, and chromosomal identity of 14 (of 26), linkage groups is shown. the a and d subgenomes show similar recombinational length, s ...19947851778
cell wall synthesis in cotton roots after infection with fusarium oxysporum. the deposition of callose, arabinogalactans, xyloglucans, and pectic components into walls, wall appositions, cell plates and plasmodesmata.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum penetration hyphae infect living cells in the meristematic zone of cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) roots. we characterized wall modifications induced by the fungus during infection of the protodermis using antibodies against callose, arabinogalactan-proteins, xyloglucan, pectin, polygalacturonic acid and rhamnogalacturonan i in high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted root tissue. using quantitative immunogold labelling we compared the cell walls before and ...19958580765
cloning and characterization of the majority of repetitive dna in cotton (gossypium l.).repetitive dna elements representing 60-70% of the total repetitive dna in tetraploid cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) and comprising 30-36% of the tetraploid cotton genome were isolated from a genomic library of dna digested with a mixture of four blunt-end cutting restriction enzymes. a total of 313 clones putatively containing nuclear repetitive sequences were classified into 1103 families, based on cross hybridization and southern blot analysis. the 103 families were characterized in terms o ...19958654914
differential induction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coa reductase in two cotton species following inoculation with verticillium.gossypium barbadense cottons are typically more resistant to wilt pathogens than are gossypium hirsutum cultivars. both species make terpenoid phytoalexins in response to infection, implicating isoprenoid biosynthesis as a factor in resistance. conserved regions in plant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase (hmgr), the first enzyme in the terpene biosynthesis pathway, were used to design polymerase chain reaction primers for cloning a fragment of a cotton hmgr gene. the clone was used ...19958664497
tissue-specific and developmental regulation of cotton gene fbl2a. demonstration of promoter activity in transgenic plants.a gene (fbl2a) that is preferentially expressed in cotton (gossypium barbadense l. cv sea island) fiber was isolated and characterized. genomic and cdna analyses suggest multiple fbl2a genes in cotton. the gene is developmentally regulated and is activated during late primary and early secondary wall synthesis stages. fbl2a encodes a polypeptide of 43.4 kd and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.97. the nucleotide-derived protein is highly hydrophilic except for a hydrophobic n terminus and has a ...19968938423
a synthetic cryic gene, encoding a bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin, confers spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco.spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryic gene by a novel template directed ligation-pcr method. this simple and economical method to construct large synthetic genes can be used when routine resynthesis of genes is required. chemically phosphorylated adjacent oligonucleotides of the gene to be synthesized are a ...19968986755
a rapid stain-clearing method for video based cytological analysis of cotton megagametophytes.optical "clearing" is a cost saving method for preparing large numbers of whole, dissected or thickly sectioned cytological specimens such as plant ovules and ovaries. minimal labor is required and specimens retain three-dimensional integrity. previous development of high contrast stain-clearing methods using hemalum to impart contrast has facilitated analysis and photography under bright field illumination for small ovules. the deep stain intensity of hemalum, however, often precludes adequate ...19979062705
identification and biosynthesis of (e,e)-10,12-tetradecadienyl acetate in spodoptera littoralis female sex pheromone gland.a minor component of the sex pheromone gland of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis, has been identified as (e,e)-10,12-tetradecadienyl acetate. structural elucidation has been carried out by isobutane-chemical ionization mass spectrometry of the fatty acyl biosynthetic precursor-derived methyl ester. to assign the stereochemistry of the double bonds, the four isomers of both 10,12-tetradecadienyl acetates and methyl 10,12-tetradecadienoates have been synthesized and their gas ch ...19979377086
polyploid formation created unique avenues for response to selection in gossypium (cotton).a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism map was used to determine the chromosomal locations and subgenomic distributions of quantitative trait loci (qtls) segregating in a cross between cultivars of allotetraploid (aadd) gossypium hirsutum ("upland" cotton) and gossypium barbadense ("sea island," "pima," or "egyptian" cotton) that differ markedly in the quality and quantity of seed epidermal fibers. most qtls influencing fiber quality and yield are located on the "d" subgenome, deriv ...19989539752
dispersed repetitive dna has spread to new genomes since polyploid formation in cotton.polyploid formation has played a major role in the evolution of many plant and animal genomes; however, surprisingly little is known regarding the subsequent evolution of dna sequences that become newly united in a common nucleus. of particular interest is the repetitive dna fraction, which accounts for most nuclear dna in higher plants and animals and which can be remarkably different, even in closely related taxa. in one recently formed polyploid, cotton (gossypium barbadense l.; ad genome), 8 ...19989582192
the in vivo production of spodoptera littoralis nuclear polyhedrosis virus.the in vivo production of the nucleopolyhedrovirus (npv) of the egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis was studied experimentally. larvae (7 days old) of 30-50 mg were experimentally infected with a range of npv doses then harvested alive at various times after dosing to determine the effect of dose and incubation time on npv productivity. maximum npv production achieved after 7 days incubation was 1.86 x 10(9) polyhedral inclusion bodies (pibs) per larvae using an inoculum of 1 x 10(4) ...19989628227
opposite effects on spodoptera littoralis larvae of high expression level of a trypsin proteinase inhibitor in transgenic plantsthis work illustrates potential adverse effects linked with the expression of proteinase inhibitor (pi) in plants used as a strategy to enhance pest resistance. tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. cv xanthi) and arabidopsis [heynh.] ecotype wassilewskija) transgenic plants expressing the mustard trypsin pi 2 (mti-2) at different levels were obtained. first-instar larvae of the egyptian cotton worm (spodoptera littoralis boisd.) were fed on detached leaves of these plants. the high level of mti-2 expre ...19989808744
macromolecular organization and genetic mapping of a rapidly evolving chromosome-specific tandem repeat family (b77) in cotton (gossypium).isolation and characterization of the most prominent repetitive element families in the genome of tetraploid cotton (gossypium barbadense l; [39]) revealed a small subset of families that showed very different properties in tetraploids than in their diploid progenitors, separated by 1-2 million years. one element, b77, was characterized in detail, and compared to the well-conserved 5s and 45s rrna genes. the 572 bp b77 repeat was found to be concentrated in several discontinuous tandem arrays co ...19989869409
development and field performance of a broad-spectrum nonviable asporogenic recombinant strain of bacillus thuringiensis with greater potency and uv resistance.the main problems with bacillus thuringiensis products for pest control are their often narrow activity spectrum, high sensitivity to uv degradation, and low cost effectiveness (high potency required). we constructed a sporulation-deficient sigk(-) b. thuringiensis strain that expressed a chimeric cry1c/ab gene, the product of which had high activity against various lepidopteran pests, including spodoptera littoralis (egyptian cotton leaf worm) and spodoptera exigua (lesser [beet] armyworm), whi ...199910473413
induction of delta-cadinene synthase and sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins in cotton by verticillium dahliae.phytoalexin biosynthesis occurred earlier in the resistant cotton cultivar seabrook sea island 12b2 (sbsi) (gossypium barbadense) than in the susceptible cotton cultivar rowden (g. hirsutum) after inoculation with a defoliating isolate of the pathogen verticillium dahliae. this was demonstrated by significantly higher levels of phytoalexins in sbsi 12 h after inoculation. furthermore, by 48 h after inoculation of sbsi, the phytoalexins hemigossypol and desoxyhemigossypol achieved levels (23.9 an ...199910552825
effect of kinetin concentration and methods of application on seed germination, yield components, yield and fiber properties of the egyptian cotton (gossypium barbadense).two field experiments in 1993 and 1994 as well as a laboratory germination experiment were conducted on the egyptian cotton cultivar giza 75 (gossypium barbadense) to determine the effect of six concentrations of kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) ranging from 0 to 10.0 mg l(-1) and three different methods of application: (a) seeds were soaked for 24 h before germination (laboratory experiment) or sowing (field experiment) in solutions of different kinetin concentration, (b) cotton plants were spra ...200010927129
ozone impacts on allometry and root hydraulic conductance are not mediated by source limitation nor developmental age.o(3)could reduce growth and carbohydrate allocation to roots by direct inhibition of photosynthesis and source strength. alternatively, o(3) could reduce growth indirectly by inhibition of root hydraulic development through a primary lesion in carbohydrate translocation. another alternative is that o(3) could slow the rate of plant development, only apparently altering carbohydrate allocation at a given plant age. pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) is used to address these possibilities, and ...200010948218
induced plant defense responses against chewing insects. ethylene signaling reduces resistance of arabidopsis against egyptian cotton worm but not diamondback moth.the induction of plant defenses by insect feeding is regulated via multiple signaling cascades. one of them, ethylene signaling, increases susceptibility of arabidopsis to the generalist herbivore egyptian cotton worm (spodoptera littoralis; lepidoptera: noctuidae). the hookless1 mutation, which affects a downstream component of ethylene signaling, conferred resistance to egyptian cotton worm as compared with wild-type plants. likewise, ein2, a mutant in a central component of the ethylene signa ...200011080278
comparative analysis of the granulin regions of the phthorimaea operculella and spodoptera littoralis granuloviruses.the nucleotide sequence of two cloned restriction fragments encompassing the granulin genes from the granuloviruses of the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella, phopgv, and the egyptian cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis, spligv, have been determined. although both viruses are able to infect the same ph. operculella cell line, their granulins do not cluster in the same phylogenetic branches. phopgv ganulin is closely related to cydia pomonella gv (cpgv) and cryptophlebia leucotreta gv ...200011129630
[studies of fish and karyotype of gossypium barbadense].based on the fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) of somatic chromosome of gossypium barbadense with the probe of genomic dna (gdna) of gossypium arboreum, two sets of chromosomes were easily distinguished by signals hybridized or not. the fish directly proved that g. barbadense originated from two different diploid species, but was not in concordance with the former point that every chromosome of a sub-genome of tetraploid species was bigger than that of other sub-genome (d genome). the kar ...200111209715
the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate and nerolidyl diphosphate by a purified recombinant delta-cadinene synthase.the first step in the conversion of the isoprenoid intermediate, farnesyl diphosphate (fdp), to sesquiterpene phytoalexins in cotton (gossypium barbadense) plants is catalyzed by delta-cadinene (cdn) synthase. cdn is the precursor of desoxyhemigossypol and hemigossypol defense sesquiterpenes. in this paper we have studied the mechanism for the cyclization of fdp and the putative intermediate, nerolidyl diphosphate, to cdn. a purified recombinant cdn synthase (cdn1-c1) expressed in escherichia co ...200111299356
genetic variability for stomatal conductance in pima cotton and its relation to improvements of heat adaptation.responses of stomata to environment have been intensively studied, but little is known of genetic effects on stomatal conductance or their consequences. in pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.), a crop that is bred for irrigated production in very hot environments, stomatal conductance varies genetically over a wide range and has increased with each release of new higher-yielding cultivars. a cross between heat-adapted (high-yielding) and unadapted genotypes produced f2 progeny cosegregating for ...199411607487
close correspondence between the action spectra for the blue light responses of the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts, and the spectra for blue light-dependent stomatal opening and coleoptile phototropism.fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize blue light responses from chloroplasts of adaxial guard cells from pima cotton (gossypium barbadense) and coleoptile tips from corn (zea mays). the chloroplast response to blue light was quantified by measurements of the blue light-induced enhancement of a red light-stimulated quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. in adaxial (upper) guard cells, low fluence rates of blue light applied under saturating fluence rates of red light enhanced the r ...199611607640
evaluation of synergism in the feeding deterrence of some furanocoumarins on spodoptera littoralis.the phagodepression activity of five furanocoumarins (fc), bergapten, xanthotoxin, psoralen, imperatorin, and angelicin, has been studied against larvae of egyptian cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis (boisduval) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) using a leaf-disk choice bioassay. the dose range used was 0-10 microg/cm2 for linear furocoumarins and 0-30 microg/cm2 for angelicin, the angular furanocoumarin. dose-feeding deterrency activity correlations were governed by various sigmoidal functions, excep ...200211868673
heritability of immune function in the caterpillar spodoptera littoralis.phenoloxidase (po) is believed to be a key mediator of immune function in insects and has been implicated both in non-self recognition and in resistance to a variety of parasites and pathogens, including baculoviruses and parasitoids. using larvae of the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis, we found that despite its apparent importance, haemolymph po activity varied markedly between individuals, even amongst insects reared under apparently identical conditions. sib-analysis methods w ...200211920128
evidence for regulation of resistance in arabidopsis to egyptian cotton worm by salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling pathways.signaling cross-talk between wound- and pathogen-response pathways influences resistance of plants to insects and disease. to elucidate potential interactions between salicylic acid (sa) and jasmonic acid (ja) defense pathways, we exploited the availability of characterized mutants of arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh. and monitored resistance to egyptian cotton worm (spodoptera littoralis boisd.; lepidoptera: noctuidae). this generalist herbivore is sensitive to induced plant defense pathways and ...200211925049
local and differential control of vegetative storage protein expression in response to herbivore damage in arabidopsis thaliana.vegetative storage proteins (vsps) are thought to fulfil important nutritional roles during plant development and stress adaptation. plant responses to mechanical wounding and herbivore damage include an activation of vsp expression. it was recently suggested that vsp is part of the systemic response of arabidopsis to wounding. to test this proposal, we monitored the spatial regulation of vsp mrnas and vsp proteins. arabidopsis contains two vsp genes and real-time quantitative pcr allowed us to ...200211982938
cloning and expression of desoxyhemigossypol-6-o-methyltransferase from cotton (gossypium barbadense).terpenoids play an important role in defense against insects and pathogens in cotton. these terpenoids contain phenolic groups. metabolites in which the phenolic group has been converted to a methoxy group are less toxic to most insects and pathogens and thus may alter resistance. here is reported the cloning of a gene from gossypium barbadense that encodes the enzyme that methylates the phenolic group of desoxyhemigossypol (dhg) exclusively at the 6-position, dhg-6-o-methyltransferase (dhg-6-om ...200212009981
insecticidal activity of selected actinomycete strains against the egyptian cotton leaf worm spodoptera littoralis (lepidoptera: noctuidae).actinomycete strains isolated from soil samples of saudi arabia and egypt were used in the present study to investigate the biological activity of their secondary metabolites on the cotton leaf worm spodoptera littoralis. secondary metabolites of 41 strains were given to the newly molted last instar larvae through the food plant (castor leaves). many actinomycete strains (58% of all) caused larval mortality ranging from 10-60%. treatments with strains no. 7, 36, 41 resulted in significant prolon ...200112425071
tylenchida associated with different crops in sennar state (sudan).a study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (tylenchida) found in sennar state (sudan). sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (mangifera indica; citrus limon; citrus aurantifolia; citrus paradisi; citrus sinensis, phoenix dactylifera, musa sapentium; cassia italica, cap ...200112425088
emamectin, a novel insecticide for controlling field crop pests.emamectin is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide with low toxicity to non-target organisms and the environment, and is considered an important component in pest-management programmes for controlling field crop pests. it is a powerful compound for controlling the cotton bollworm helicoverpa armigera (hübner). a spray concentration of 25 mg ai litre-1 in a cotton field resulted in over 90% suppression of h armigera larvae up to day 28 after treatment, while similar mortality of the egyptian cotton l ...200212449526
the maize gene terpene synthase 1 encodes a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (e)-beta-farnesene, (e)-nerolidol, and (e,e)-farnesol after herbivore damage.maize (zea mays) emits a mixture of volatile compounds upon attack by the egyptian cotton leafworm (spodoptera littoralis). these substances, primarily mono- and sesquiterpenes, are used by parasitic wasps to locate the lepidopteran larvae, which are their natural hosts. this interaction among plant, lepidopteran larvae, and hymenopteran parasitoids benefits the plant and has been termed indirect defense. the committed step in the biosynthesis of the different skeletal types of mono- and sesquit ...200212481088
enzymatic changes and cytotoxic effects of metarhizium anisopliae fungal extracts on the egyptian cotton leaf worm spodoptera littoralis (sl 96) cell line.the extra-and intra-cellular extracts of two metarhizium anisopliae isolates: ma23 and mr3, were introduced to a cell line of spodoptera littoralis. the cell line (sl96) was established in the entomovirology centre from s. littoralis ovaries. mr3 extracellular fluid-treated culture had an increase in the acid phosphatase (acp) level as compared either to the untreated cell line or to the fungal extract alone. moreover, the enzymatic tests showed that alpha and beta-glucosidases have been detecte ...200212512818
molecular linkage map of allotetraploid cotton ( gossypium hirsutum l. x gossypium barbadense l.) with a haploid the present study, a haploid population from the cross of the two cultivated allotetraploid cottons, gossypium hirsutum l. and gossypium barbadense l., was developed by means of vsg, a virescently marked semigamous line of sea island cotton, and some target haploids were successfully doubled with colchicine. a molecular linkage map was constructed with 58 doubled and haploid plants. among the total of 624 marker loci (510 ssrs and 114 rapds), 489 loci were assembled into 43 linkage groups and ...200212582895
a combined rflp-ssr-aflp map of tetraploid cotton based on a gossypium hirsutum x gossypium barbadense backcross interspecific gossypium hirsutum x gossypium barbadense backcross population of 75 bc1 plants was evaluated for 1014 markers. the map consists of 888 loci, including 465 aflps, 229 ssrs, 192 rflps, and 2 morphological markers, ordered in 37 linkage groups that represent most if not all of the 26 chromosomes, altogether spanning 4400 cm. loci were not evenly distributed over linkage groups, and 18 of the 26 long groups had a single dense region. this paper proposes a partially revised list of ...200312897870
localization of qtls for yield and fiber quality traits of tetraploid cotton cultivar.using ssr and rapd as molecular markers, and the 69 f2 families from a cross between handan208 (gossypium hirsutum) and pima90 (gossypium barbadense) as a mapping population, a linkage map comprising 126 markers was constructed. with an average spacing 13.7 cm between markers, the linkage map spanned 1,717.0 cm, which covers approximately 34.34% of the total recombinational length of cotton genome. based on the linkage map and the f2:3 phenotypic data, overall genome qtl screening was conducted ...200312924159
growth responses of fusarium oxysporum to metabolites of some rhizospheric microflora of egyptian cotton verieties. 195813517230
byssinosis in the egyptian cotton industry: changes in ventilatory capacity during the day. 196414106129
physiological and antioxidant responses of cotton and spurred anoda under interference and mild drought.the influence of plant interference and a mild drought on gas exchange and oxidative stress was investigated using potted plants of two cotton species (gossypium hirsutum l. cv. delta pine 5415, and gossypium barbadense l. cv. pima s-7) and spurred anoda (anoda cristata l. schlecht.) of the malvaceae. without interference, cotton and spurred anoda had similar net photosynthesis (pnet) but different pigment profiles. stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (e) were greater in spurred ano ...200314504299
genetic mapping and qtl analysis of fiber-related traits in cotton ( gossypium).cotton, the leading natural fiber crop, is largely produced by two primary cultivated allotetraploid species known as upland or american cotton ( gossypium hirsutum l.) and pima or egyptian cotton ( g. barbadense l.). the allotetraploid species diverged from each other and from their diploid progenitors (a or d genome) through selection and domestication after polyploidization. to analyze cotton ad genomes and dissect agronomic traits, we have developed a genetic map in an f2 population derived ...200414513220
cdna cloning and characterization of a cotton peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (cmsra).a full-length cdna clone with high homology with brassica napus peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (pmsr) gene (bnpmsr), which could reverse oxidation of methionine residues into metso in protein, was cloned by suppression subtraction hybridization and cdna library screening from gossypium barbadense. this gene (named as cmsra; accession number: ay224208) had a total length of 1059 bp with an open reading frame of 765 bp, and encoded a predicted polypeptide of 255 amino acids with a molecula ...200314631653
studies on the development of the boll, and the formation of oil in the developing seed in some varieties of egyptian cotton. 195114806506
costs of resistance: genetic correlations and potential trade-offs in an insect immune system.theory predicts that natural selection will erode additive genetic variation in fitness-related traits. however, numerous studies have found considerable heritable variation in traits related to immune function, which should be closely linked to fitness. this could be due to trade-offs maintaining variation in these traits. we used the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis, as a model system to examine the quantitative genetics of insect immune function. we estimated the heritabilities ...200415009275
medicinal plants in suriname: hypotensive effect of gossypium traditional medicine gossypium barbadense l. is used against hypertension. looking for a scientific basis for this use, the blood-pressure-lowering effect of the decoction of the leaves was confirmed. fraction ii (frii) of the crude extract of g. barbadense showed a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rats. in hexamethonium-treated rats, the blood-pressure-lowering effect of frii was almost abolished. a small decrease of the blood-pressure-lowering effect was followed by an inc ...200415025864
isolation and characterization of an iaa-responsive gene from gossypium barbadense l.the full-length cdna of an iaa-responsive gene was cloned from gossypium barbadense l. (designated as gbiaa-re) by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). gbiaa-re gene was 1043-bp long and contained a 573-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 190 amino acid residues. homology analysis revealed that gbiaa-re strongly resembled known plant iaa-responsive genes. the conserved integrated domain "aux_iaa, aux/iaa family" resided within the region from l11, to v190 of gbiaa-re, and the 4 t ...200415354358
the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril reduces oviposition and ecdysteroid levels in lepidoptera.the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ace, peptidyl dipeptidase a) in metamorphic- and reproductive-related events in the egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis (lepidoptera, noctuidae) was studied by using the selective ace inhibitor captopril. although oral administration of captopril had no effect on larval growth, topical administration to new pupae resulted in a large decrease of successful adult formation. oviposition and overall appearance of adults emerging from treated lar ...200415484260
genotypic and developmental evidence for the role of plasmodesmatal regulation in cotton fiber elongation mediated by callose turnover.cotton fibers are single-celled hairs that elongate to several centimeters long from the seed coat epidermis of the tetraploid species (gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense). thus, cotton fiber is a unique system to study the mechanisms of rapid cell expansion. previous work has shown a transient closure of plasmodesmata during fiber elongation (y.-l. ruan, d.j. llewellyn, r.t. furbank [2001] plant cell 13: 47-60). to examine the importance of this closure in fiber elongation, we compared ...200415557097
genetic diversity and geographic pattern in early south american cotton domestication.amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting was applied to survey the genetic diversity of primitive south american gossypium barbadense cotton for establishing a possible link to its pre-columbian expansion. new germplasm was collected along coastal peru and over an andean transect in areas where most of the archaeological evidence relating to cotton domestication has been recorded. gene bank material of three diploid (g. raimondii, g. arboreum, and g. herbaceum) and four allotetraplo ...200515580473
circadian mating activity and effect of pheromone pre-exposure on pheromone response rhythms in the moth spodoptera littoralis.mating in moths is generally mediated by female-produced sex pheromones. mating activity, female pheromone production/release and male pheromone responsiveness all show diurnal variations in many species. we found that the response of the male egyptian cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis, to sex pheromone gland extracts showed a diel rhythm in olfactometer tests, and the variation was persistent for at least 1 day in constant darkness. high male response to sex pheromone was correlated in tim ...200515749110
influence of the nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist, tebufenozide, on certain biological and physiological parameters of the cotton leaf-worm, spodoptera littoralis (boisd.) (noctuidae: lepidoptera) in egypt, cotton represents the most economical and important field crop. cotton plant is the target of different pest species from cultivation until harvest. the egyptian cotton leaf-worm, spodoptera littoralis (boisd.) (noctuidae: lepidoptera), is an important polyphagous insect pest attacking cotton, several cultivated crops and ornamentals worldwide. the integrated pest management (ipm) programs create the need for novel insecticides having more selective modes of action. so, the no steroida ...200415759403
[identification and characterization of differentially expressed ests of gossypium barbadense infected by verticillium dahliae with suppression subtractive hybridization].cotton wilt defense reaction is a complicated continuous process and involves a battery of genes. in this study, we adopted suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) technique to isolate differentially expressed ests from gossypium barbadense variety 7124 during verticillium wilt defense process. an array of 1165 clones from the subtractive library has been screened with reverse northern blotting, of which 131 ests were considered as over-expressed and 16 ests were down-regulated. sequence ana ...200515856944
molecular dissection of interspecific variation between gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense (cotton) by a backcross-self approach: i. fiber elongation.the current study is the first installment of an effort to explore the secondary gene pool for the enhancement of upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) germplasm. we developed advanced-generation backcross populations by first crossing g. hirsutum cv. tamcot 2111 and g. barbadense cv. pima s6, then independently backcrossing f(1) plants to the g. hirsutum parent for three cycles. genome-wide mapping revealed introgressed alleles at an average of 7.3% of loci in each bc(3)f(1) plant, collectively ...200515983756
molecular dissection of phenotypic variation between gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense (cotton) by a backcross-self approach: iii. fiber length.a backcross-self population from a cross between gossypium hirsutum and g. barbadense was used to dissect the molecular basis of genetic variation governing 15 parameters that reflect fiber length. applying a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) map to 3,662 bc(3)f(2) plants from 24 independently derived bc(3) families, we detected 28, nine, and eight quantitative trait loci (qtls) for fiber length, length uniformity, and short fiber content, respectively. for eight, six, and ...200515983757
[construction and analysis of ssh library of gossypium barbadense upon infection with verticillium dahliae].roots were collected from the seedlings inoculated with pathogen verticillium dahliae after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours for total rna extraction. the cdnas from the inoculated seedlings were used as the tester and those from the control seedlings as the driver. ssh method was employed to find the differently expressed cdnas responding to the pathogen. t/a clone library was constructed containing 534 clones. the cdna inserts were amplified from the bacterial clones directly with m13 prim ...200516018265
occurrence of (+)- and (-)-gossypol in wild species of cotton and in gossypium hirsutum var. marie-galante (watt) hutchinson.gossypol occurs as a mixture of enantiomers in cottonseed. these enantiomers exhibit different biological activities. the (-)-enantiomer is toxic to animals, but it has potential medicinal uses. therefore, cottonseed with >95% (-)-gossypol could have biopharmaceutical applications. the (+)-enantiomer shows little, if any, toxicity to nonruminant animals. thus, cottonseed with >95% (+)-gossypol could be more readily utilized as a feed for nonruminants. the (+)- to (-)-gossypol ratio in commercial ...200516076104
a comparison of genetic maps constructed from haploid and bc1 mapping populations from the same crossing between gossypium hirsutum l. and gossypium barbadense l.simple sequence repeat (ssr) genetic maps have been separately constructed based on doubled haploid (dh) and (or) haploid and bc1 populations from the same cross between gossypium hirsutum l. 'tm-1' and gossypium barbadense l. 'hai7124'. the bc1 population was produced by pollinating individual plants of the 'tm-1' x 'hai7124' f1 with 'tm-1', whereas the dh and (or) haploid population developed from the offspring of vsg x ('tm-1' x 'hai7124'). vsg is a virescently marked semigamy line of gossypi ...200516121235
cleaved aflp (caflp), a modified amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis for certain plant species including cotton (gossypium hirsutum l. or gossypium barbadense l.), the level of amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) is relatively low, limiting its utilization in the development of genome-wide linkage maps. we propose the use of frequent restriction enzymes in combination with aflp to cleave the aflp fragments, called cleaved aflp analysis (caflp). using four upland cotton genotypes (g. hirsutum) and three pima cotton (g. barbadense), we demonstrated that ca ...200516133304
genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using est-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population.there is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted selection (mas) for improved fiber traits. with this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers [comprising both simple (ssr) and complex (csr) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (rils) developed from the progeny of the interspecific cross gossypium hirsutum l. cv. tm1 x gossypium barbadense l. pima 3-79. micro ...200516187061
establishment and characterization of spodoptera littoralis cell line (sl 96), adapted at 19 degrees c permissive for different baculoviruses.cells from ovarioule tissues of the egyptian cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis (sl 96) were established, identified and characterized comparing with other lepidopteran cell lines using isozymes, karyotyping, rapd pcr, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide page profile. comparison of the number of chromosomes and page profiles; also the isozymes profiles demonstrate the possibility to distinguish the cell lines by those analyses and having a distinguishable finger print for eve ...200516333885
an additive-dominance model to determine chromosomal effects in chromosome substitution lines and other gemplasms.when using chromosome substitution (cs) lines in a crop breeding improvement program, one needs to separate the effects of the substituted chromosome from the remaining chromosomes. this cannot be done with the traditional additive-dominance (ad) model where cs lines, recurrent parent, and their hybrids are used. in this study, we develop a new genetic model and software, called a modified ad model with genotype x environment interactions, which can predict additive and dominance genetic effects ...200616341682
wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrid mapping of the cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) genome.whole-genome radiation hybrid mapping has been applied extensively to human and certain animal species, but little to plants. we recently demonstrated an alternative mapping approach in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), based on segmentation by 5-krad gamma-irradiation and derivation of wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrids (wwrhs). however, limitations observed at the 5-krad level suggested that higher doses might be advantageous. here, we describe the development of an improved second-genera ...200616362372
mechanism of nuclear dna replication in radicles of germinating cotton.the mechanism of nuclear dna replication in radicles of germinating cotton (gossypium barbadense) was investigated. pulse-labeling with [(3)h]thymidine indicates that replication intermediates are of small molecular weight (4-10s) and behave as if single-stranded. prolonged labeling indicates that intermediates are of discrete size, suggesting a mechanism of discontinuous replication. electron microscopy of nuclear dna demonstrates a complex architecture which may include "eye forms" and "forks" ...197616592350
isolation of 6-methoxy gossypol and 6,6'-dimethoxy gossypol from gossypium barbadense sea island cotton.6-methoxy gossypol and 6,6'-dimethoxy gossypol were isolated from the seeds and root bark of a st. vincent sea island variety of cotton (azk-267, grin# pi 528406). crude mixtures of gossypol and the methoxy compounds were obtained by extraction of the tissue with acetone and precipitation with acetic acid. after recrystallization, the preparations were treated with 3-amino-1-propanol to form gossypol schiff's bases, which were separated by preparative reverse phase chromatography. the separated ...200616637683
transpiration, water absorption, and internal water balance of cotton plants as affected by light and changes in saturation controlled environment studies of cotton plants (gossypium barbadense l.) a light-induced acceleration of transpiration upset the water balance established in the dark because of a lag in water absorption. a plant-water deficit could be generated either by sudden illumination at a given saturation deficit (sd) of the air, or by raising the sd in conjunction with illumination, without different water balance measurements were confirmed in every experiment by beta ray gauge detec ...196616656235
nucleic acid metabolism during germination of pima cotton (gossypium barbadense).the nucleic acid metabolism in long staple pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) was examined during the first 48 hours of germination at 34 c. specific activity analysis of pulselabeled nucleic acids indicated that the first significant incorporation of precursors into dna occurs at approximately 18 hours when the radicles are emerging with a peak of incorporation occurring at 36 hours. specific activity of total rna also indicate peak values at 18 hours and 36 hours of germination. sucrose gra ...197516659057
size and specific radioactivity of the [h]thymidine triphosphate pool and dna synthesis in the radicles of germinating relating the specific radioactivity, size, and turnover of the labeled thymidine triphosphate pool to dna synthesis, it was shown that the 32- to 38-hour interval of cotton seedling (gossypium barbadense l.) germination was the peak period of dna synthesis within the radicle tip during a total germination time of 48 hours at 35 c.197516659336
malate synthase activity in cotton and other ungerminated oilseeds: a survey.extracts from several species and varieties of ungerminated cotton seeds plus homogenates from 18 other oilseeds (representing 11 different families) were examined for malate synthase and isocitrate lyase activity. malate synthase activities in the various cotton seeds ranged from 35 to 129% of the units per dry seed weight found in deltapine 16 cotton. for other oilseeds, the range was from 0.3 to 58% of deltapine 16 cotton. castor bean (ricinus communis l.) had the least activity per mg dry we ...197916660858
enhanced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) bred for increased yield.yield of pima cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) has tripled over the last 40 years with the development of new cultivars. six genetic lines representing successive stages in the breeding process (one primitive noncultivated accession, four cultivars with release dates from 1949 to 1983, and one unreleased breeding line) were grown in a greenhouse, and their gas exchange properties were compared. among the cultivated types, genetic advances were closely associated with increasing single-leaf photo ...199116668424
qtl mapping for resistance to root-knot nematodes in the m-120 rnr upland cotton line (gossypium hirsutum l.) of the auburn 623 rnr source.root-knot nematodes meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) can cause severe yield loss in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.). the objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance and genomic location of genes conferring root-knot nematode resistance in m-120 rnr, a highly resistant g. hirsutum line with the auburn 623 rnr source of resistance. utilizing two interspecific f(2) populations developed from the same m-120 rnr by gossypium barbadense (cv. pima s-6) cross, genome-wide scanning ...200616960714
genetic analysis for f1 yield traits with conditional approach in island cotton (gossypium barbadense l.).a genetic model with additive, dominance and genotype x environment interaction effect was employed to analyze the 3-year data of f(1) hybrids from 5 x 4 diallel cross, whose parents were island cotton and had different fruit branch types. unconditional and conditional genetic variances were conducted for analyze genetic impacts of yield components on yield. results of unconditional genetic variances showed that there were no additive variance of total lint yield. but conditional additive effect ...200616980131
a novel function for the cathepsin d inhibitor in tomato.proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature and are described in only a few plant species. one of them corresponds to a family of cathepsin d inhibitors (cdis) described in potato (solanum tuberosum), involving up to 15 isoforms with a high sequence similarity. in this work, we describe a tomato (solanum lycopersicum) wound-inducible protein called jasmonic-induced protein 21 (jip21). sequence analysis of its cdna predicted a putative function as a cdi. the jip21 gene, whose ...200617012408
effects of potato plants expressing a barley cystatin on the predatory bug podisus maculiventris via herbivorous prey feeding on the plant.the aim of this study was to assess the effects of potato plants expressing a barley cystatin on a potentially cystatin-susceptible natural enemy by predation on susceptible and non-susceptible preys feeding on the plant. we have focussed on the impact of the variant hvcpi-1 c68 --> g, in which the only cysteine residue was changed by a glycine, on the growth and digestive physiology of the colorado potato beetle (cpb), leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the egyptian cotton leafworm (ecw), spodopter ...200717072562
complete nucleotide sequence of the cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) chloroplast genome with a comparative analysis of sequences among 9 dicot plants.recently, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of many important crop plants were determined, and this can be considered a major step forward toward exploiting the usefulness of chloroplast genetic engineering technology. economically, cotton is one of the most important crop plants for many countries. to further our understanding of this important crop, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from cotton (gossypium barbadense l.). the chloroplast genome of ...200617159292
the genetics of flowering response in cotton. ii. inheritance of flowering response in a gossypium barbadense cross. 196017247909
recombination between supposedly homologous chromosomes of gossypium barbadense l. and g. hirsutum l. 196117248075
the genetics of flowering response in cotton. v. fruiting behavior of gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense in interspecific hybrids. 196517248253
isolation and characterization of resistance and defense gene analogs in cotton (gossypium barbadense l.).plant disease resistance gene (r gene) and defense response gene encode some conserved motifs. in the present work, a pcr strategy was used to clone resistance gene analogs (rgas) and defense gene analogs (dgas) from sea-island cotton variety hai7124 using oligonucleotide primers based on the nucleotide-binding site (nbs) and serine/threonine kinase (stk) in the r-gene and pathogenesis-related proteins of class 2 (pr2) of defense response gene. 79 nbs sequences, 21 stk sequences and 11 dgas were ...200617312991
over-expression gberf2 transcription factor in tobacco enhances brown spots disease resistance by activating expression of downstream genes.erf transcription factors can bind gcc boxes or non-gcc cis elements to regulate biotic and abiotic stress responses. here, we report that an erf transcription factor gene (gberf2) was cloned by suppression subtraction hybridization from sea-island cotton after verticillium dahliae attack. the gberf2 cdna has a total length of 1143 bp with an open reading frame of 597 bp. the genomic sequence of gberf2 contains an intron of 515 bp. the gene encodes a predicated polypeptide of 198 amino acids wit ...200717321073
isolation and characterization of a class iii homeodomain-leucine zipper-like gene from gossypium barbadense.class iii homeodomain-leucine zipper (hd-zip iii) genes are important plant-specific transcription factors which have key roles in different stages of vascular and interfascicular fiber differentiation. a novel hd-zip iii gene, designated gbhb1, was isolated by suppression subtraction hybridization and race (rapid amplification of cdna ends) from gossypium barbadense (sea-island cotton). the gbhb1 cdna has a total length of 3061 bp with an open reading frame of 2508 bp, encoding a predicated pol ...200617343206
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