modification of the colonic is becoming clear that the ecology and functionality of the human gut microbiota are extremely diverse and complex. the microbiota have coevolved with us metabolically to live symbiotically and to share the workload of extracting nutrients and energy from the diet. it is also clear that a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals is good for general health and gut health and that this is due partly to the phytochemicals and partly to the nondigestible carbohydrates (or dietary f ...201323394989
digestion of kiwifruit fiber.dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. the digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. ...201323394988
kiwifruit, mucins, and the gut barrier.kiwifruit has long been regarded in china, where it originated from, for its health properties and particularly in relation to digestion and general gut health. there are a number of physical and chemical properties of the fruit, including its dietary fiber content, the presence of raphides, its high water holding capacity and actinidin content, that suggest that kiwifruit may be effective in influencing gut mucin production and thus enhancing the integrity of the gut barrier. the mucous layer, ...201323394987
influence of kiwifruit on protein kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. this chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on the gastro- and small-intestinal digestion of a range of common food proteins and protein-rich foods including milk, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, and cereal proteins. clear evidence is provided that g ...201323394986
the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit.vitamin c is an essential component of the diet for humans, and an adequate intake is important not only for the prevention of scurvy but also to limit the risk of developing chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. to achieve a regular and adequate intake, daily consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is recommended. the vitamin c content of food varies widely, however, and plasma levels generally reflect the amount consumed, regardless of its origin. kiwifruit are one of the premie ...201323394985
secondary metabolite components of kiwifruit.both green and gold kiwifruit contain high concentrations of vitamin c, and much of the "health story" of kiwifruit involves this vitamin. kiwifruit also contain other compounds that are bioactive and beneficial to health. in this chapter, the secondary metabolite composition of kiwifruit is presented. although there are limited compositional data for kiwifruit published in the scientific literature, the concentrations of 42 compounds have been documented. included are compounds that are often a ...201323394984
fiber: composition, structures, and functional properties.kiwifruit dietary fiber consists of cell-wall polysaccharides that are typical of the cell walls of many dicotyledonous fruits, being composed of pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose. the kiwifruit pectic polysaccharides consist of homo- and rhamnogalacturonans with various neutral, (arabino)-galactan side chains, while the hemicelluloses are mostly xyloglucan and xylan. the proportions of pectic polysaccharide, hemicellulose, and cellulose in both green 'hayward' and 'zespri® g ...201323394983
in silico identification of ige-binding epitopes of osmotin protein.the identification of b-cell epitopes is an important step to study the antigen- antibody interactions for diagnosis and therapy. the present study aimed to identify b- cell epitopes of osmotin using bioinformatic tools and further modify these regions to study the allergenic property. b-cell epitopes were predicted based on amino acid physicochemical properties. three single point mutations m1, m2, and m3 and a multiple point mutant (m123) were selected to disrupt the ige binding. these mutants ...201323349964
effect of acid fruit juices combined with electric or sonic toothbrushing on root dentin permeability--an in vitro study.the purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify the alterations on human root dentin permeability after exposure to different acid fruit juices and to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing with electric or sonic toothbrush after acid exposure. the root dentin of 50 extracted third molars was exposed with a high speed bur. crowns were sectioned above the cementoenamel junction and root fragments were used to prepare dentin specimens. specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the ...201223338258
maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genomes and complex inheritance of chloroplast genomes in actinidia lind.: evidences from interspecific crosses.the inheritance pattern of chloroplast and mitochondria is a critical determinant in studying plant phylogenetics, biogeography and hybridization. to better understand chloroplast and mitochondrial inheritance patterns in actinidia (traditionally called kiwifruit), we performed 11 artificial interspecific crosses and studied the ploidy levels, morphology, and sequence polymorphisms of chloroplast dna (cpdna) and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of parents and progenies. sequence analysis showed that th ...201323337924
mood improvement in young adult males following supplementation with gold kiwifruit, a high-vitamin c food.enhanced intakes of fruit and vegetables have been associated with improved psychological well-being. we investigated the potential mood-enhancing effects of kiwifruit, a fruit rich in vitamin c and a number of other important micronutrients. young adult males (n 35) were supplemented with either half or two kiwifruit/d for 6 weeks. profile of mood states questionnaires were completed at baseline and following the intervention. no effect on overall mood was observed in the half a kiwifruit/d gro ...201325191573
topical effectiveness of kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin ointment on removal of necrotic tissue of full-thickness burns in male rats.formation of necrotic tissues is a major issue affecting treatment of full-thickness burns. this study was designed to compare topical effectiveness of applying kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin on removal of necrotic tissue of burns. ten adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. for group 1, the right-side wounds were treated with kiwifruit and the other side with fibrinolysin. for group 2, the wounds on the right side were treated with kiwifruit or fibrinolysin, and the left s ...201223210763
changes in the bound aroma profiles of 'hayward' and 'hort16a' kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) during ripening and gc-olfactometry analysis.bound volatiles are recognised as a potential source of aroma compounds in fruits. in this study, the bound volatiles of actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and a. chinensis 'hort16a' were studied at three different ripening stages. the bound volatile content tended to increase as the fruit ripened from under-ripe to ripe, and then decreased in over-ripe fruit. glycosides of (z)-3-hexen-1-ol and hexanol (green-note volatiles) were present in considerable amounts. β-glucosidase activity in 'hayward' an ...201323199989
identification and thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins in aqueous solutions with various ph values and fruit juices.thirteen anthocyanins were identified in the purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivar jihei no. 1. the main anthocyanins were 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside derivatives from cyanidin and peonidin, acylated with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, or caffeic acid. a unique anthocyanin, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside was also found. the thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins (pspas) followed a first-order kinetics model. aqueous solutions with various ph (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) and fruit j ...201323194545
kiwifruit consumption favourably affects plasma lipids in a randomised controlled trial in hypercholesterolaemic men.the unique composition of green kiwifruit has the potential to benefit cvd risk. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruits daily in conjunction with a healthy diet on plasma lipids and other metabolic markers and to examine response according to apoe genotype in hypercholesterolaemic men. after undergoing a 4-week healthy diet, eighty-five hypercholesterolaemic men (ldl-cholesterol (ldl-c) > 3.0 mmol/l and tag < 3 mmol/l) completed an 8-week ran ...201323151354
kiwifruit allergy across europe: clinical manifestation and ige recognition patterns to kiwifruit allergens.kiwifruit is a common cause of food allergy. symptoms range from mild to anaphylactic reactions.201323141741
lc-ms-ms determination and pharmacokinetic study of the novel anti-tumor candidate drug teoa in rats.2α, 3α, 24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (teoa) is a prominent ursane-type triterpenoid isolated from the root of actinidia deliciosa, which has numerous pharmacological activities. to date, there is no report on the pharmacokinetic characterization of teoa in biological samples. a specific, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms-ms) method is reported for the fast assay of teoa in rat plasma. plasma sample preparation was based on liquid-liquid extraction w ...201323139245
fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. a causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather →(i)→ fruit transpiration →( ...201223136639
characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.two plant enzyme extracts from kiwifruit and asparagus were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse commercially available substrates and proteins present in both beef connective tissue and topside myofibrillar extracts. the results show significant differences in protease activity depending on the assay used. protease assays with connective tissue and meat myofibrillar extracts provide a more realistic evaluation of the potential of the enzymes for application in meat tenderization. overall, t ...201323122154
characterisation of bound volatile compounds of a low flavour kiwifruit species: actinidia eriantha.aroma compounds in fruit are known to occur in free and glycosidically bound forms. the bound volatile fraction of a low flavour kiwifruit species, actinidia eriantha, was studied. the fruit have a bland and grassy flavour. glycosidic precursors were isolated from juice by adsorption onto an amberlite xad-2 column. after enzymatic hydrolysis with rapidase ar2000, the released aglycones were analysed by gc-ms. alcohols, terpenoids and phenolics were the most numerously represented compound classe ...201223107675
characterizing kiwifruit carbohydrate utilization in vitro and its consequences for human faecal is well accepted that our gut bacteria have coevolved with us in relation to our genetics, diet and lifestyle and are integrated metabolically with us to affect our gut health adversely or beneficially. "who is there" may vary quite widely between individuals, as might "how they do it", but "what they make" may be less variable. many different individual species of bacteria can perform the same saccharolytic functions and so the availability of substrate (host or diet-derived) along with the ...201223072625
clonal differences in antioxidant activity and bioactive constituents of hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) and its year-to-year variability.hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) is a new species, commercially grown in recent years. total phenolics (tpc), vitamin c (taa) content, antioxidant activity (aa) and their year-to-year variability in seven hardy kiwifruit clones were evaluated. tpc was determined using the folin-ciocalteu reagent assay. taa was estimated by determination of l-ascorbic acid and l-dehydroascorbic acid levels using high-performance liquid chromatography. aa was measured using diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (dpph), 2,2 ...201323070974
expression patterns and promoter characteristics of the gene encoding actinidia deliciosa l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase involved in the response to light and abiotic stresses.the gene encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (gpp) plays a central role in ascorbic acid (asa) biosynthesis in plants. here, we report asa contents, gpp expression, and functioning of its promoter in response to light, exogenous stress-signalling hormones, or abiotic stresses in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). to identify the upstream region of gpp required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of promoter deletion derivatives. each construct was analyzed by agrobacterium-medi ...201323070919
molecular cloning and characterization of a cdna encoding kiwifruit l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, a key gene of inositol formation.l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mips; ec is the key enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of myo-inositol, leading to numerous cellular functions. we isolated an open reading frame of actinidia deliciosa mips (admips), which is 1,533 bp long and codes for 510 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 56.3 kda. sequence analysis revealed its high similarity with mips proteins from other organisms. gene expression and enzyme activity were highest in flower and young fruit. tra ...201323065229
studies related to norway spruce galactoglucomannans: chemical synthesis, conformation analysis, nmr spectroscopic characterization, and molecular recognition of model compounds.galactoglucomannan (ggm) is a polysaccharide mainly consisting of mannose, glucose, and galactose. ggm is the most abundant hemicellulose in the norway spruce (picea abies), but is also found in the cell wall of flax seeds, tobacco plants, and kiwifruit. although several applications for ggm polysaccharides have been developed in pulp and paper manufacturing and the food and medical industries, attempts to synthesize and study distinct fragments of this polysaccharide have not been reported prev ...201223008171
an efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsltp(1) (9 kda) and nsltp(2) (7 kda). ltps have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. many efforts have been made for purification of different nsltps from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. we have developed a relatively simple and efficient ...201222987614
kiwifruit remnants from digestion in vitro have functional attributes of potential importance to health.the physicochemical properties of plant cell walls in the gut are important in modulating processes that influence health. we investigated the physicochemical properties of kiwifruit cell walls digested under gastric and gastroileal conditions in vitro. soluble and insoluble undigested polymer fractions were measured, the hydration properties of the digested pulp, and the capacity to retard diffusion and mixing in a simulated small intestinal segment. undigested polymer (dietary fibre) fractions ...201222980789
hplc-msn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. more than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with hplc-ms(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog ...201222980782
influence of cultivation parameters on the composition of volatile compounds and physico-chemical characteristics of kiwi fruit.the effect of four cultivation parameters (post-maturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °c and input of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers) on the physico-chemical characteristics and composition of volatile compounds in kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated. five physico-chemical parameters were selected, namely, ph, total acidity, dry matter, conductivity and refractive index. to our knowledge, no published data are available concerning the influence of nitrogen or potassium fertil ...201322936621
composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species.sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic content in fruit of 25 wild and cultivated berry species were identified and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatograph. the composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic compounds in various species of vaccinium, rubus, ribes, and fragaria genus was evaluated. additonally, total phenolics of less known berry species of the morus, amelanchier, sorbus, sambucus, rosa, lycium, actinidia, and aronia genus were determined in wild growin ...201222924969
immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines.herbs/botanical plants are considered as god's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "sanjeevani booti" described in hindu mythology. the traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional ...201224175417
applications of nmr metabolomics to the study of foodstuffs: truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea this review, four examples of the nmr metabolomic approach to foodstuff investigation are reported. different types of foodstuff of different origin (namely truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea bass), with different metabolite composition, processing, and storage procedures have been chosen to demonstrate the versatility and potentiality of nmr in the foodstuff analysis. fundamental aspects of nmr methodology such as sample preparation, metabolites extraction, quantitative elaboration of spec ...201222887151
digested and fermented green kiwifruit increases human β-defensin 1 and 2 production in vitro.the intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to a variety of microbial species including commensals and pathogens, the latter leaving the host susceptible to infection. antimicrobial peptides (amp) are an important part of the first line of defense at mucosal surfaces. human β-defensins (hbd) are amp expressed by colonic epithelial cells, which act as broad spectrum antimicrobials. this study explored the direct and indirect effects of green kiwifruit (kf) on human β-defensin 1 and 2 (hbd-1 and 2 ...201222872469
the control of chlorophyll levels in maturing kiwifruit.chlorophyll is present in many plant organs, including immature fruit where it is usually degraded during ripening. mature green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) are an exception, with high concentrations of chlorophyll remaining in the fruit flesh. in gold-fleshed kiwifruit (a. chinensis), chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites upon fruit ripening, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. we have identified candidate genes for the control of chlorophyll degradation in kiwifruit and examine ...201222843245
the effects of fruit maturation, delayed storage and ethylene treatment on the incidence of low-temperature breakdown of 'hayward' kiwifruit.low-temperature breakdown (ltb), a disorder inducing quality loss, during and after cold storage of 'hayward' kiwifruit was investigated. harvested kiwifruits during fruit maturation or after delayed storage (ds) at 20 °c for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and 1 µl l⁻¹ ethylene treatment for 24 h were stored at -0.5 °c for 24 weeks and additional ripening at 20 °c for 5 days. fruit quality indices and ltb incidence and severity were determined before and after treatments.201322777890
measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation for in vivo monitoring of 14c tracer distribution between fruit and roots of kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) vivo measurements of (14)c tracer distribution have usually involved monitoring the β(-) particles produced as (14)c decays. these particles are only detectable over short distances, limiting the use of this technique to thin plant material. in the present experiments, x-ray detectors were used to monitor the bremsstrahlung radiation emitted since β(-) particles were absorbed in plant tissues. bremsstrahlung radiation is detectable through larger tissue depths. the aim of these experiments wa ...201222729822
organic and conventional kiwifruit, myths versus reality: antioxidant, antiproliferative, and health effects.comparison between organic and conventional kiwifruit cultivars 'hayward' and 'bidan', which was done by four radical scavenging assays, esi-ms, and dsc measurements, showed significant differences between the cultivars. such results were not estimated in kiwifruit growing under organic and conventional conditions. the extraction of bioactive compounds was done by two different methods: sequential extraction with ethyl acetate followed by methanol and maceration with methanol and ethyl acetate. ...201222712722
evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.this research was carried out to determine the effects of pre-rigor injection of beef semimembranosus muscle with nine proteases from plant and microbial sources, on the volatile profile of cooked beef after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem (pm) storage using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. a total of 23 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 3 furans, 8 nitrogen and sulphur compounds, 4 alkanes, 7 alcohols and 6 terpenes were detected. eleven volatile compounds characteri ...201222682685
a functional pectin methylesterase inhibitor protein (solypmei) is expressed during tomato fruit ripening and interacts with pme-1.a pectin methylesterase inhibitor (solypmei) from tomato has been identified and characterised by a functional genomics approach. solypmei is a cell wall protein sharing high similarity with actinidia deliciosa pmei (adpmei), the best characterised inhibitor from kiwi. it typically affects the activity of plant pectin methylesterases (pmes) and is inactive against a microbial pme. solypmei transcripts were mainly expressed in flower, pollen and ripe fruit where the protein accumulated at breaker ...201222610346
development and validation of a direct competitive monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay for the sensitive and selective analysis of the phytoregulator forchlorfenuron.forchlorfenuron is a synthetic phytohormone with cytokinin-like activity used worldwide as a plant growth regulator to increase fruit size in a number of crops, mostly in kiwifruit and grape vines. a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the determination of forchlorfenuron has been characterized and optimized. the selected immunoreagents afforded a highly selective assay with a limit of detection of 10 ng l(-1) in buffer. this direct competitive elisa was valid ...201222526663
the evaluation of chinese therapeutic food for the treatment of moderate dyslipidemia.the clinical efficacy of the chinese therapeutic food (specifically hawthorn fruit and chinese kiwifruit-extract compound) on dyslipidemia was evaluated in this placebo-controlled, double blind, paired clinical trial conducted in melbourne, australia. forty-three participants diagnosed with moderate dyslipidemia and met the study criteria were randomly assigned to group a or b, with baseline characteristics matched. twenty-seven participants completed all the tests, the blood lipid profile inclu ...201222474507
anaphylactic shock due to kiwifruit.a 44-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency department (ed) with an episode of severe anaphylaxis displaying generalized urticaria and dyspnea 1 hour after consuming a kiwifruit. initially, the patient reported discrete itching of his abdominal skin and was in moderate respiratory distress. the patient's wheal response and itch were attenuated 30 minutes after emergency treatment with intravenous antianaphylaxis drugs. however, he had symptoms of the chest distress, dizzy, and dysph ...201222386357
a report from the american heart association scientific sessions 2011 (november 12-16, 2011, orlando, florida, usa).diet and lifestyle have a direct impact on cardiovascular health and may help improve the condition in many patients suffering from or at risk for cardiac diseases, and remote and in-person behavioral interventions were shown to prompt weight loss in obese individuals (appel, l.j., late-breaking clinical trial presentation), thus helping reduce the cardiovascular risk. in that regard, and as an example, kiwifruit was noted to lower 24-hour blood pressure (svendsen, m. et al., abst 16175), wherea ...201222384460
modelling chlorophyll fluorescence of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa).kiwi fruit displays chlorophyll fluorescence. a physical model was developed to reproduce the observed original fluorescence for the whole fruit, from the emission of the different parts of the kiwi fruit. the spectral distribution of fluorescence in each part of the fruit, was corrected to eliminate distortions due to light re-absorption and it was analyzed in relation to photosystem ii-photosystem i ratio. kiwi fruit also displays variable chlorophyll-fluorescence, similar to that observed fro ...201222337099
cupressus arizonica pollen: a new pollen involved in the lipid transfer protein syndrome?lipid transfer proteins (ltp) are responsible for systemic manifestations in food allergy. their relationship with pollinosis is not clear. in our area, many patients allergic to multiple ltp-containing foods present pollinosis due to cupressus arizonica.201122312935
kiwifruit floral gene apetala2 is alternatively spliced and accumulates in aberrant indeterminate flowers in the absence of arabidopsis, the identity of perianth and reproductive organs are specified by antagonistic action of two floral homeotic genes, apetala2 (ap2) and agamous (ag). ap2 is also negatively regulated by an evolutionary conserved interaction with a microrna, mir172, and has additional roles in general plant development. a kiwifruit gene with high levels of homology to ap2 and ap2-like genes from other plant species was identified. the transcript was abundant in the kiwifruit flower, particularly pe ...201222290408
physiological and proteomic approaches to address the active role of ozone in kiwifruit post-harvest ozone application has recently been shown to inhibit the onset of senescence symptoms on fleshy fruit and vegetables; however, the exact mechanism of action is yet unknown. to characterize the impact of ozone on the post-harvest performance of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. 'hayward'), fruits were cold stored (0 °c, 95% relative humidity) in a commercial ethylene-free room for 1, 3, or 5 months in the absence (control) or presence of ozone (0.3 μl l(-1)) and subsequently were al ...201222268155
actinidin, a protease from kiwifruit, induces changes in morphology and adhesion of t84 intestinal epithelial cells.actinidin belongs to the papain-like family of cysteine proteases and is a major kiwifruit allergen. in this study, the effect of actinidin on cellular morphology and adhesion of t84 intestinal cells was investigated. both rounding and detachment of t84 cells were observed upon actinidin treatment. the morphological changes and cell desquamation was protease-dependent, as well as time- and concentration-dependent. changes of intercellular adhesion and adhesion of epithelial cells to collagen upo ...201222257750
evaluation of ige reactivity of active and thermally inactivated actinidin, a biomarker of kiwifruit allergy.actinidin, an abundant cysteine protease from kiwifruit, is a specific biomarker of isolated allergy to kiwifruit. this study evaluates the ige-binding properties of biologically active and thermally inactivated actinidin. employing two different activity assays (caseinolytic assay and zymogram with gelatin) we showed that actinidin obtained from kiwifruit extract under native conditions represents a mixture of inactive and active enzyme. the structural integrity of actinidin was confirmed by sd ...201222227218
kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) changes intestinal microbial profile.kiwifruit is high in pectic polysaccharides and dietary fiber. this study aimed to find out how the ingestion of kiwifruit will affect intestinal microbiota populations, namely lactobacillus, bacteroides, clostridium, bifidobacterium, and enterococcus.201223990838
glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in taiwan: healthy and type 2 diabetes subjects compared.the aim of this study was to evaluate the glycemic index and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in taiwan, comparing healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 17). the six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas. glycemic index values were tested according to the standard glycemic index testing protocol. the glycemic index and peak incremental indices were calculated according to published formulas. in type ...201122128219
effect of celluclast 1.5l on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin.the effects of celluclast 1.5l concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. the viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. celluclast 1.5l with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. high molecular weight (m(w)) pect ...201122072895
conservation and divergence of four kiwifruit svp-like mads-box genes suggest distinct roles in kiwifruit bud dormancy and flowering.mads-box genes similar to arabidopsis short vegetative phase (svp) have been implicated in the regulation of flowering in annual species and bud dormancy in perennial species. kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) are woody perennial vines where bud dormancy and out-growth affect flower development. to determine the role of svp-like genes in dormancy and flowering of kiwifruit, four mads-box genes with homology to arabidopsis svp, designated svp1, svp2, svp3, and svp4, have been identified and analysed in ...201222071267
cutin plays a role in differentiation of endosperm-derived callus of kiwifruit.cutin fluorescence, after auramine o treatment, was detected on the surface of organogenic areas (protuberances) of endosperm derived callus induced on murashige and skoog medium with thidiazuron (0.5 mg l(-1)) in darkness. electron micrographs of the protuberances revealed cuticle, visible as a dark-staining layer, and amorphous waxes on the cell wall. in some cases the cells of the epidermis-like layer and shoot buds at early stages of development showed thick and characteristically wavy cutin ...201121750903
towards aspect-oriented functional--structural plant modelling.functional-structural plant models (fspms) are used to integrate knowledge and test hypotheses of plant behaviour, and to aid in the development of decision support systems. a significant amount of effort is being put into providing a sound methodology for building them. standard techniques, such as procedural or object-oriented programming, are not suited for clearly separating aspects of plant function that criss-cross between different components of plant structure, which makes it difficult t ...201121724653
proteomic changes and molecular effects associated with cr(iii) and cr(vi) treatments on germinating kiwifruit pollen.the present study is aimed at identifying molecular changes elicited by cr(iii) and cr(vi) on germinating kiwifruit pollen. to address this question, comparative proteomic and dna laddering analyses were performed. while no genotoxic effect was detected, a number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered by treatments were identified. in particular, the upregulation of some proteins involved in the scavenging response, cell redox homeostasis and lipid synthesis could be interpreted as a ...201121708391
effect of kiwifruit consumption on sleep quality in adults with sleep problems.numerous studies have revealed that kiwifruit contains many medicinally useful compounds, among which antioxidants and serotonin may be beneficial in the treatment of the sleep disorders. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kiwifruit on sleep patterns, including sleep onset, duration, and quality. in this study, we applied a free-living, self-controlled diet design. twenty-four subjects (2 males, 22 females) 20 to 55 years of age consumed 2 kiwifruits 1 hour before bedtime night ...201121669584
physicochemical properties of bread dough and finished bread with added pectin fiber and phenolic antioxidants.comparative studies were conducted in this paper to investigate the effects of added dietary fiber (df) and/or phenolic antioxidants on the properties of bread dough and finished bread. breads were developed in the absence (control bread), or presence of apple pectin and/or fruit phenolic extracts (treated breads), and subjected to quality evaluation (attributes including color, weight, and volume) and characterization of chemical and rheological properties. chemical analyses revealed that bread ...201121535837
identification and characterization of flowering genes in kiwifruit: sequence conservation and role in kiwifruit flower development.flower development in kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is initiated in the first growing season, when undifferentiated primordia are established in latent shoot buds. these primordia can differentiate into flowers in the second growing season, after the winter dormancy period and upon accumulation of adequate winter chilling. kiwifruit is an important horticultural crop, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of flower development.201121521532
weak static and extremely low frequency magnetic fields affect in vitro pollen germination.this study concerns the effects of a weak static magnetic field (mf) at 10 µt oriented downward, combined with a 16-hz sinusoidal mf (10 µt), on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). extremely low frequency magnetic field (elf-mf) exposure was carried out by a signal generator unit connected to a copper wire solenoid, inside which samples where placed. two different kinds of treatment were performed: direct and indirect. in the direct treatment, pollen samples were dire ...201121516284
biosynthesis and enantioselectivity in the production of the lilac compounds in actinidia arguta flowers.biosynthesis of the lilac alcohols and alcohol epoxides from linalool in 'hortgem tahi' kiwifruit (actinidiaarguta) flowers was investigated by incubating flowers with rac-linalool, rac-[4,4,10,10,10-(2)h(5)]linalool, (r)-8-hydroxylinalool and (r)-8-oxolinalool. all substrates were incorporated into the lilac alcohols although the (r)-configured compounds are not normally present in flowers. biosynthesis of the lilac alcohol epoxides from rac-1,2-epoxy[4,4,10,10,10-(2)h(5)]linalool and rac-[4',4 ...201121377706
kiwifruit act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen.kiwifruit is an important cause of food allergy. a high amount of a protein with a molecular mass compatible with that of bet v 1 was observed in the kiwifruit extract.201121309790
dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel actinidia deliciosa genotypes.previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (dm) is more liked by consumers. a unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low dm × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate dm affects fruit flavour and texture. in the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory pan ...201121302330
sensitization profiles to purified plant food allergens among pediatric patients with allergy to banana.banana fruit allergy is well known, but neither immunoglobulin e recognition patterns to purified plant food allergens nor true prevalences of putative banana allergens have been established. this study aimed to characterize β-1,3-glucanase and thaumatin-like protein (tlp) as banana allergens, testing them, together with other plant food allergens, in 51 children with allergic reactions after banana ingestion and both positive specific ige and skin prick test (spt) to banana. banana β-1,3-glucan ...201121284746
ascorbate biosynthesis during early fruit development is the main reason for its accumulation in kiwi.ascorbic acid (asa) is a unique antioxidant as well as an enzyme cofactor. although it has multiple roles in plants, it is unclear how its accumulation is controlled at the expression level, especially in sink tissues. kiwifruit (actinidia) is well-known for its high ascorbate content. our objective was to determine whether asa accumulates in the fruits primarily through biosynthesis or because it is imported from the foliage.201021151561
kiwifruit improves bowel function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal system, and is characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea (ibs/d), constipation (ibs/c), and alternating diarrhea and constipation (ibsc/a). the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a four week kiwifruit intervention on bowel function in patients diagnosed with ibs/c. fifty-four patients with ibs/c and 16 healthy adults participated in this study. all subjects participated in the 6 week, three pha ...201021147704
temporal sensitivity of the wavelength calibration of a photodiode array spectrometer.subtle differences in the relationship between wavelength and pixel on photodiode array spectrometers contribute to difficulties in transferring calibrations from one instrument to another and may even introduce errors on a single instrument over time. to quantify the level of drift that might be expected in photodiode instruments, we calibrated the wavelength scale of two zeiss mms-1 photodiode spectrometers weekly over a 12-month period. we found no evidence of drift in the wavelength calibrat ...201021144148
the environmental endocrine disruptor, bisphenol a, affects germination, elicits stress response and alters steroid hormone production in kiwifruit vitro toxicity of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol a (bpa) to pollen, the male haploid generation of higher plants, was studied. bpa caused significant inhibition of both tube emergence and elongation of kiwifruit pollen in a dose-dependent manner, beginning at 10 mg · l(-1); morphological changes to tubes were also detected. despite strong inhibition of pollen tube production and growth, a large percentage of treated cells remained viable. immunoblotting experiments indicated that levels of ...201121143743
differences in the allergenicity of 6 different kiwifruit cultivars analyzed by prick-to-prick testing, open food challenges, and elisa. 201121094995
the performance of a component-based allergen microarray for the diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy.allergy to kiwifruit is increasingly reported across europe. currently, the reliability of its diagnosis by the measurement of allergen-specific ige with extracts or by skin testing with fresh fruits is unsatisfying.201121083775
characterization of activity of a potential food-grade leucine aminopeptidase from kiwifruit.aminopeptidase (ap) activity in ripe but firm fruit of actinidia deliciosa was characterized using l-leucine-p-nitroanilide as a substrate. the enzyme activity was the highest under alkaline conditions and was thermolabile. edta, 1,10-phenanthroline, iodoacetamide, and zn(2+) had inhibitory effect while a low concentration of dithiothreitol (dtt) had stimulatory effect on kiwifruit ap activity. however, dtt was not essential for the enzyme activity. the results obtained indicated that the kiwifr ...201021076540
monitoring of metabolic profiling and water status of hayward kiwifruits by nuclear magnetic resonance.the metabolic profiling of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa, hayward cultivar) aqueous extracts and the water status of entire kiwifruits were monitored over the season (june-december) using nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) methodologies. the metabolic profiling of aqueous kiwifruit extracts was investigated by means of high field nmr spectroscopy. a large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1d and 2d nmr experiments. the change in the metabolic profiles monitored over th ...201020875584
a functional-structural kiwifruit vine model integrating architecture, carbon dynamics and effects of the environment.functional-structural modelling can be used to increase our understanding of how different aspects of plant structure and function interact, identify knowledge gaps and guide priorities for future experimentation. by integrating existing knowledge of the different aspects of the kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) vine's architecture and physiology, our aim is to develop conceptual and mathematical hypotheses on several of the vine's features: (a) plasticity of the vine's architecture; (b) effects o ...201120855486
physico-chemical features of the environment affect the protein conformation and the immunoglobulin e reactivity of kiwellin (act d 5).allergy diagnostic systems sometimes give false positive or negative results. in this respect, the influence of protein conformational changes on the allergen-ige interaction sites is worthy to be investigated.201020825426
gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial.ascorbic acid, and more recently, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to enhance fe absorption. however, it is not clear whether fe status improves when foods high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids are consumed with fe-fortified meals. the present study aimed to investigate whether consuming high v. low ascorbic acid-, lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit (gold kiwifruit v. banana) with fe-fortified breakfast cereal and milk improved fe status in women with low fe stores. healthy w ...201120727238
dkmyb2 wound-induced transcription factor of persimmon (diospyros kaki thunb.), contributes to proanthocyanidin regulation.proanthocyanidins (pas) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of a plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. persimmon (diospyros kaki) accumulates abundant pas in each plant organ, and some potential myb-like transcription factors (myb-tfs) involved in the production of pas have been isolated. in this study, we aimed to molecularly characterize one of them, dkmyb2, which was placed in a subclade including a pa regulator of arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana), transparent t ...201020690029
hapten synthesis and polyclonal antibody-based immunoassay development for the analysis of forchlorfenuron in kiwifruit.high-affinity polyclonal antibodies directed against the synthetic cytokinin forchlorfenuron (cppu) were produced from three immunizing haptens with equivalent spacer arms located at different positions. a competitive immunoassay was developed with a limit of detection in buffer of 12.42 +/- 3.06 ng/l. in addition, the ability of the produced antibodies to recognize a set of synthetic cppu analogues was studied. it was evidenced that the linker position had a strong impact on the specificity of ...201020681638
analysis of green kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) proteinases by two-dimensional zymography and direct identification of zymographic spots by mass spectrometry.proteinases present in kiwi fruits are potentially allergenic enzymes belonging to the papain family of cysteine proteinases. actinidin is a prominent kiwi enzyme. the study of kiwi proteinases is important for the follow-up of fruit maturation, a deeper insight in the allergenic properties of individual proteins, and the application of kiwi proteinases for meat tenderisation and other industrial purposes.201020672335
floral sesquiterpenes and their synthesis in dioecious kiwifruit.kiwifruit species are vigorously growing dioecious vines that rely on bees and other insects for pollen transfer between spatially separated male and female individuals. floral volatile terpene cues for insect pollinator attraction were characterized from flowers of the most widely grown and economically important kiwifruit cultivar actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and its male pollinator 'chieftain'. the sesquiterpenes alpha-farnesene and germacrene d dominated in all floral tissues and the emissi ...201020592812
ancient genome duplications during the evolution of kiwifruit (actinidia) and related assess the number and phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome duplications in the ancestry of actinidia, publicly available expressed sequenced tags (ests) for members of the actinidiaceae and related ericales, including tea (camellia sinensis), were analysed.201020576738
[study on fingerprints of the stems of actinidia deliciosa by hplc].to establish the fingerprint spectrum of the stems of actinidia deliciosa by hplc.201020518300
kiwifruit eil and erf genes involved in regulating fruit ripening.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) is a climacteric fruit sensitive to low concentrations of ethylene. to investigate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying kiwifruit ethylene response, transcription factors encoding four ein3-like (eils) and 14 ethylene response factors (erfs) were cloned from kiwifruit. expression of these transcription factors was examined during fruit development. the expression of transcripts of most aderfs was higher during early fruit development, with the exception of ad ...201020457803
extracellular matrix of plant callus tissue visualized by esem and sem.actinidia deliciosa endosperm-derived callus culture is stable over a long period of culture. this system was used to investigate the ultrastructure of extracellular matrix occurring in morphogenic tissue. specimens were prepared by different biological techniques (chemical fixation, liquid nitrogen fixation, glycerol substitution, critical-point drying, lyophilization) and observed by scanning electron microscopy (sem). fresh and wet samples were analyzed with the use of environmental scanning ...201020424873
effects of postharvest application of 1-mcp and postcutting dip treatment on the quality and nutritional properties of fresh-cut kiwifruit.consumption of minimally processed fruit and vegetables has increased significantly in the past few years due to the consumers' life style. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with ascorbic acid or calcium chloride on the quality parameters of fresh-cut kiwifruit prepared from fruit previously stored for 3 months, either treated or not treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) before storage. harvested fruit were treated with 1 microl l(-1) 1-mcp for 20 h at room temper ...201020411941
changes in vascular and transpiration flows affect the seasonal and daily growth of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berry.the kiwifruit berry is characterized by an early stage of rapid growth, followed by a relatively long stage of slow increase in size. vascular and transpiration flows are the main processes through which water and carbon enter/exit the fruit, determining the daily and seasonal changes in fruit size. this work investigates the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the change in fruit growth rate during the season.201020382641
polyamine biosynthesis and control of the development of functional pollen in kiwifruit.the role of polyamines (pas) in plant reproduction, especially pollen development and germination has been demonstrated in several higher plants. the aim of the present research was to investigate pa involvement in pollen development and germination in dioecious kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). differences in pa content, level and gene expression for pa biosynthetic enzymes, and the effect of pa biosynthetic inhibitors were found during pollen development (or abortion in female flowers). whereas ...201020359902
an ftir study of the induction and release of kiwifruit buds from dormancy.many deciduous, perennial fruit crops require winter chilling for adequate budbreak and flowering. recent research has shown that changes in sugar and amino acid profiles are associated with the release of buds from dormancy. this paper uses ftir spectrometry to provide an alternative mechanism for tracking metabolic changes in the meristems of kiwifruit buds during winter dormancy. the results suggest that the application of multivariate analysis to ftir spectra has the potential to be a reliab ...201020355149
actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.this paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach ph (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at smal ...201020232891
actinidin enhances gastric protein digestion as assessed using an in vitro gastric digestion model.consumption of kiwifruit has long been claimed anecdotally to assist in gastric digestion. this has generally been assumed to be due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin; however, there is little published evidence supporting this assumption. this paper reports the findings of an in vitro study that examined the effect of kiwifruit proteases (actinidin) on the digestion of a range of common food proteins under simulated gastric conditions. an extract from green kiwifruit containin ...201020232890
one year sustainability of risk factor change from a 9-week workplace intervention.we examined the effect of a 9-week diet and physical activity intervention provided in the workplace by a group education session where personal dietary and physical activity goals were proposed. measurements of anthropometry, fasting blood lipids, glucose and insulin, assays for antioxidant activity (aoa) and questionnaires were completed at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks in 50 healthy workers (50% male, mean age 46y). followup measurements in 39 (56% male) were possible at 52 weeks. at week 3 a grou ...200920169118
dietary factors in chronic inflammation: food tolerances and intolerances of a new zealand caucasian crohn's disease is known to play a major role in the symptoms of the inflammatory bowel disease, crohn's disease (cd). although no single diet is appropriate to all individuals, most cd patients are aware of foods that provide adverse or beneficial effects. this study seeks to categorise foods in relation to their effects on symptoms of cd, in a new zealand caucasian population. four hundred and forty-six subjects from two different centres in new zealand were recruited into the study. an extensive dietary ...201020144628
an mri receiver coil produced by inkjet printing directly on to a flexible substrate.inkjet printing has been used to produce resonant radio frequency coils that are comparable to those produced by conventional printed circuit board (pcb) methods. the coils, which consist of a conductive loop and in-series capacitors, form part of a receiver circuit that is used for magnetic resonance imaging (mri). the resonant circuit is selective at the predetermined frequency of 400 mhz. the required electrical components (resistor, capacitor, and inductor) were produced by inkjet printing, ...201020129848
antioxidant activity and chemical difference in fruit of different actinidia sp.the present research aimed at evaluating the vitamin c, total phenolic content (tpc), phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll contents, as well as antioxidant activity (aac) of six actinidia species fruit. vitamin c, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and chlorophylls were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. tpc was determined using the folin-ciocalteau reagent, and aac using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (dpph) assay. the highest concentrations of vitamin c and tpc wer ...201020113214
the effect of gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal on iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16 week randomised controlled intervention study.dietary treatment is often recommended as the first line of treatment for women with mild iron deficiency. although it is well established that ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption, it is less clear whether the consumption of ascorbic acid rich foods (such as kiwifruit) with meals fortified with iron improves iron status. the aim of this study is to investigate whether the consumption of zespri(r) gold kiwifruit (a fruit high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids) with an iron fortified breakfast c ...201020102633
component-resolved diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy with purified natural and recombinant kiwifruit allergens.kiwifruit is one of the most common causes of food allergic reactions. component-resolved diagnostics may enable significantly improved detection of sensitization to kiwifruit.201020061012
[construction of cdna library of 'hongyang' kiwifruit and analysis of f3h expression].the smart switching mechanism at 5' end of the rna transcript technique was used to construct a cdna library from inner pericarp of the red flesh kiwifruit actinidia chinesis cv 'hongyang'. construction of cdna library facilitated cloning of the genes associated with the secondary metabolism, the specific genes in the course of anthocyanin biosynthesis. the titers of the primary library and the amplified library were 6.7x104 cfu/ml and 2.72x108 cfu/ml, respectively. the recom-bination rate was o ...200920042395
effects of kiwifruit consumption on serum lipid profiles and antioxidative status in hyperlipidemic subjects.cardiovascular disease (cvd) is the most important adult health problem in the world. epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments have shown that fruit and vegetable consumption has protective effects against cvd. the purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of consumption of two kiwifruit per day on the lipid profile, antioxidants and markers of lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic adult men and women in taiwan. forty-three subjects who had hyperlipidemia, including 13 males a ...200919919518
qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for detecting major food allergens (peanut, soybean, and wheat) by using internal transcribed spacer region.allergen detection methods for peanut, soybean, and wheat were developed by designing pcr primer pairs for specific amplification of a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (its) region reported for arachis spp. for peanut, glycine spp. for soybean, and triticum and aegilops spp. for wheat. the target species for detection included not only cultivated, but also wild and ancestor species, which were thought to be potentially allergenic. the ability of the resultant primer pairs to detect th ...201519916385
cysteine proteinase inhibitor act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.kiwifruit has become a frequent cause of fruit allergy in the recent years. the molecular basis of type i hypersensitivity to kiwifruit is attributed to 11 iuis allergens, with act d 1, act d 2 and act d 5 characterized in extenso. evaluation of the allergenic properties of act d 4, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) was performed in this study. identity of the purified glycoprotein was determined by edman degradation and by mass fingerprint whereby more t ...201019885843
pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble pd(ii).in the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. results showed pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble pd(ii). at particulate pd concentrations well below those of ...201019815321
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