weak extremely high frequency microwaves affect pollen-tube emergence and growth in kiwifruit: pollen grain irradiation and water-mediated effects.this study was designed to evaluate the effects of weak-intensity extremely high frequency (ehf) microwaves in a model system-the plant organism pollen grain-lacking the placebo effect, available in large populations, to ensure accurate statistical analysis, and whose sensitivity is closely relevant to animal and human biology.200312804075
the blocking effects of chinese actinidia sinensis juice on n-nitrosamine formation in vitro and in vivo.chinese gooseberry juice has been found to be an efficient inhibitor of nitrosation both in vitro and in vivo. this activity appears to be due partly to high concentrations of ascorbic acid and partly to an unidentified nitrite scavenger.19846533012
transformation of apple ( malus domestica borkh.) with the stilbene synthase gene from grapevine ( vitis vinifera l.) and a pgip gene from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa).the objective of the present research was to introduce genes with antifungal potential into the commercially important apple cvs. elstar and holsteiner cox in order to establish resistance against fungal diseases. the gene encoding the stilbene synthase (vst1) from vitis vinifera l., responsible for the synthesis of the phytoalexin resveratrol in grapevine, and the gene for a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa) were transferred into holsteiner cox and els ...200314504909
nutritional modulation of dna repair in a human intervention study.dna oxidation is a potential cause of cancer in humans. it is well-known that fruits and vegetables protect against cancer, and this may be in part because they contain antioxidants, which decrease the level of oxidation of dna. however, there are other possible mechanisms, such as an enhancement of cellular repair of this damage. a randomized cross-over study was carried out on healthy human subjects, who were given kiwifruit as a supplement to their normal diet, for 3-week periods at different ...200312663512
identification of an emergent and atypical pseudomonas viridiflava lineage causing bacteriosis in plants of agronomic importance in a spanish region.pseudomonas strains with an atypical lopat profile (where lopat is a series of determinative tests: l, levan production; o, oxidase production; p, pectinolitic activity; a, arginine dihydrolase production; and t, tobacco hypersensibility) can be regarded as emergent pathogens in the principality of asturias (spain), where they have been causing, since 1999, severe damage in at least three taxonomically unrelated orchard plants of agronomic importance: common bean (phaseolus vulgaris), kiwifruit ...200312732569
canopy photosynthesis and respiration of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines growing in the co(2) assimilation (a) for canopies of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines enclosed in a whole-canopy cuvette was measured continuously for three periods of 15-20 days during late summer, near hamilton, new zealand (latitude 38.2 degrees s). canopy a showed an asymptotic response to incident radiation (par), saturating at about 1300 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for one vine and about 800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for two other vines. radiation interception at low solar angles and low lea ...199214969971
purification and characterization of phytocystatins from kiwifruit cortex and seeds.kiwifruit cysteine proteinase inhibitors (kcpis) were purified from the cortex and seeds of kiwifruit after inactivation of the abundant cortex cysteine proteinase actinidain. one major (kcpi1) and four minor cystatins were identified from actinidia deliciosa ripe mature kiwifruit cortex as well as a seed kcpi from a. chinensis. the predominant cortex cystatin, kcpi1, inhibited clan ca, family c1 (papain family) cysteine proteinases (papain, chymopapain, bromelain, ficin, human cathepsins b, h a ...200414697268
dietary cancer and prevention using antimutagens.many of the cancers common in the western world, including colon, prostate and breast cancers, are thought to relate to dietary habits. of the known risk factors, many will act through increasing the probability of mutation. recognised dietary mutagens include cooked meat compounds, n-nitroso compounds and fungal toxins, while high meat and saturated fat consumption, increasing rates of obesity, and regular consumption of alcohol and tobacco are all dietary trends that could indirectly enhance t ...200415138038
correct processing of the kiwifruit protease actinidin in transgenic tobacco requires the presence of the c-terminal propeptide.a 355 cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and a tapetum-specific promoter were used to direct the synthesis in tobacco of preproactinidin and a derivative that lacked a c-terminal extension. preproactinidin was processed into a form that migrated identically on protein gels with mature actinidin extracted from kiwifruit. this protein was proteolytically active in vitro, and high-level accumulation of this protein appeared to be detrimental to plant growth. plants expressing an actinidin cdna const ...19957784505
hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit (chinese gooseberry, actinidia chinensis).this report describes a hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit in a patient who developed moderately severe generalized symptoms after handling the fruit. a search of the literature did not reveal any previous reference to kiwi-fruit sensitivity. it is suggested that ige antibody is an important factor in the reaction.19817264104
direct gene transfer into actinidia deliciosa protoplasts: analysis of transient expression of the cat gene using tlc autoradiography and a gc-ms-based method.chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene was used as a reporter gene to assess the conditions for polyethylene glycol (peg)-mediated transfection of kiwifruit protoplasts. the effect of plasmid concentration and the presence of carrier dna were each assessed by analysing cat activity in transfected protoplasts using thin-layer chromatography (tlc) autoradiographic detection of acetylated chloramphenicol. a gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) non-radioact ...19911863775
dna markers for identification of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.the specific dna fragment was screened by rapd analysis of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, as well as similar strains that were isolated from kiwifruits. the primer c24 detected a fragment that is specific in p. syringae pv. actinidiae. this fragment was cloned. the pathovar-specific fragment was detected from a southern blot analysis of the genomic dnas of p. syringae pv. actinidiae using the cloned fragment as a probe. the sequence size of the cloned fragment was determined as 675 bp. a d ...200212018854
the selective increase or decrease of organellar dna in generative cells just after pollen mitosis one controls cytoplasmic inheritance.organellar dna in mature pollen grains of eight angiosperm species (actinidia deliciosa lindl., antirrhinum majus l., arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh., medicago sativa l., musa acuminata colla, pelargonium zonale (l.) l'hér, petunia hybrida vilm. and rhododendron mucronatum (blume) g. don, in which the modes of organellar inheritance have been determined genetically, was observed by fluorescence microscopy using technovit 7100 resin sections double-stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (dap ...199910467031
enumerative and binomial sampling plans for armored scale (homoptera: diaspididae) on kiwifruit leaves.the spatial dispersion of armored scale insects; greedy scale, hemiberlesia rapax (comstock); and latania scale, hemiberlesia lataniae (signoret), was investigated on kiwifruit, actinidia deliciosa (a. chevalier) c. f. liang et a. r. ferguson, leaves in new zealand. a universal description for dispersion was determined using taylor's power law, which encompassed a wide range of different orchards, blocks, block sizes, sampling times, scale control practices, regions and seasons. scale density si ...200011142309
purification and characterisation of a galactoglucomannan from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).a galactoglucomannan (ggm) has been purified from the primary cell walls of ripe kiwifruit. a combination of barium hydroxide precipitation, anion exchange- and gel-permeation chromatography gave a chemically homogeneous polymer with a 1:2:2 galactose-glucose-mannose ratio and a molecular weight range of 16-42 kda. complete hydrolysis of the polymer with endo-1,4-beta-mannanase (ec from aspergillus niger gave a mixture of oligosaccharides, three of which (ii, iii, iv) accounted for mor ...200111383899
cancer prevention and therapy with kiwifruit in chinese folklore medicine: a study of kiwifruit gold fruits were extracted successively with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and further fractionated by silica gel and ods column chromatographies for the assays of various biological activities. five fractions h1, h2 (hexane extract), al, a2 (acetone extract) and m2 (methanol extract) showed selective cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines, which was more sensitive than human gingival fibroblasts. more hydrophilic fractions [70m3, 70m4, 70m5] of 70% methanol ex ...200212127237
[prevalent forecast of kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae].the prevalent analysis of kiwifruit bacterial canker for several years showed that the effective ecological factors of severe degree were the precipitation (x1) in the second and last ten-days of march, and the average temperature (x2) of january. the model was y = 2.1359 + 0.0107x1 - 0.6061x2. the main factor of the prevalence was the relative variation of ten-days average temperature and precipitation in winter and in early spring, and the regression equation was y = -8.127 + 22.739x - 13.254x ...200111758412
[ecological factors affecting prevalence of kiwifruit bacterial canker and bacteriostatic action of bacteriocides on pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidae].according to the systematic study for 5 years, this paper dealt with the ecological factors affecting prevalence of kiwifruit bacterial canker. the disease was more serious in the orchards with above 750 m in elevation, and more serious at mountain slope facing south than facing north. incidence differed significantly among cultivars, with easy disease infection for jinfeng, and strong disease resistance for jinkui. the older the trees, the more the diseased plants. the one year old twigs had hi ...200111758413
kiwifruit protects against oxidative dna damage in human cells and in vitro.antioxidant micronutrients may account for the beneficial effects of fruits on human health. a direct demonstration that consumption of fruit decreases oxidative dna damage in human cells would support this hypothesis. kiwifruit was taken as an example of a food with putative antioxidant properties, and its effectiveness at decreasing oxidative dna damage was assessed in ex vivo as well as in vitro tests. the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) was used to measure dna damage in lymphoc ...200111588897
biological activity of kiwifruit peel extracts.various bioactive substances in kiwifruit extracts were fractionated by organic solvent extractions, followed by silica gel and ods chromatographies. both cytotoxic activity and multi-drug resistance reversal activity were found in the less polar fractions. cytotoxic activity was not always parallel the radical intensity. antibacterial activity was distributed into various fractions and all fractions were inactive against candida albicans and h. pylori. only 70% methanol extracts showed anti-hum ...200111406859
comparative analysis of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argk) and 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer sequences.pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (roct) which confers resistance to the toxin. we confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses roct, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the roct gene and the intergeni ...19978979356
[antimutagenic mechanism of kiwifruit juice].to observe the effects of kiwifruit juice on the mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide (cp) and the effects of biotransformation enzymes in rats.199810322770
identification of a chloroplast coenzyme a-binding protein related to the peroxisomal thiolases.a 30-kd coenzyme a (coa)-binding protein was isolated from spinach (spinacea oleracea) chloroplast soluble extracts using affinity chromatography under conditions in which 95% of the total protein was excluded. the 30-kd protein contains an eight-amino-acid sequence, dvrlyyga, that is identical to a region in a 36-kd protein of unknown function that is encoded by a kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) cdna. southern blotting also detected a spinach gene that is related to the kiwifruit cdna. the kiwi ...19968972603
enzymatic properties, substrate specificities and ph-activity profiles of two kiwifruit proteases.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) contains abundant protease, actinidin, and two possible components which were named a1 and a2. however, a comparison of the two components has not been thoroughly conducted. we have previously shown the presence of six proteases named kp1, kp2, kp3, kp4, kp5 and kp6 in kiwifruit, and that each purified kiwifruit protease was chromatographically pure. it was also indicated that the two representative components, kp4 and kp6, must be a1 and a2. to establish whether ...19979505243
the isolation of a novel metallothionein-related cdna expressed in somatic and zygotic embryos of douglas-fir: regulation by aba, osmoticum, and metal isolate genes which are expressed preferentially during embryogenesis, a douglas-fir embryogenesis cdna library was constructed and differentially screened with cdna probes made with mrna from developing and mature embryos, respectively. the cdna clone pm 2.1 was isolated based on its abundance in developing seeds and absence in mature seeds, and its predicted amino acid sequence was shown to have structural features characteristic of plant mt-like proteins. alignment of the pm 2.1 predicted ...19979207840
biochemical and molecular characterisation of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase from ripe kiwifruit.xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (xet) from the core tissue of ripe kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. hayward) was purified 3000-fold to homogeneity. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 34 kda, is n-glycosylated, and is active between ph 5.0 and 8.0, with an optimum between 5.5 and 5.8. the km was 0.6 for kiwifruit xyloglucan and 100 microm for [3h]xxxg-ol, a reduced heptasaccharide derived from kiwifruit xyloglucan. kiwifruit core x ...19989487728
complete amino acid sequence of ananain and a comparison with stem bromelain and other plant cysteine proteases.the amino acid sequences of ananain (ec3.4.22.31) and stem bromelain (, two cysteine proteases from pineapple stem, are similar yet ananain and stem bromelain possess distinct specificities towards synthetic peptide substrates and different reactivities towards the cysteine protease inhibitors e-64 and chicken egg white cystatin. we present here the complete amino acid sequence of ananain and compare it with the reported sequences of pineapple stem bromelain, papain and chymopapain fro ...19979355753
dynamic object individuation in rhesus macaques: a study of the tunnel effect.a manual-search experiment with rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) explored dynamic object individuation in the tunnel effect: subjects watched as a lemon rolled down a ramp and came to rest behind a tunnel (occluder 1) and then as a kiwifruit emerged and became occluded at the end of its path behind a screen (occluder 2). when the kiwifruit emerged at about the time that the lemon should have (had it continued its motion), subjects searched for food only behind occluder 2-apparently perceiving the ...200415563323
a novel acidic allergen, hev b 5, in latex. purification, cloning and characterization.latex allergy is recognized as a serious health problem among health care workers and children with spina bifida. a number of ige-reactive proteins have been identified in natural and processed latex products. one of the most acidic proteins in the cytoplasm of lacticifer cells of rubber trees (hevea brasiliensis) is demonstrated to be a potent allergen in eliciting allergic reactions in humans. this protein, with pi = 3.5, has a molecular mass of 16 kda with a blocked n terminus and an unusual ...19968810305
feedback inhibition of spinach l-galactose dehydrogenase by l-ascorbate.we have studied the enzymological properties of l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-galdh), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of l-ascorbate (asa) in plants. l-galdh was purified approximately 560-fold from spinach leaves. the enzyme was a homodimer with a subunit mass of 36 kda. we also cloned the full-length cdna of spinach l-galdh, which contained an open reading frame encoding 322 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 35,261 da. the deduced amino acid sequence of the cdna s ...200415509850
cardiovascular protective properties of kiwifruit extracts in is currently accepted that the consumption of fruit-derived antioxidants such as vitamin c, carotenoids, and flavonoids provides a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease. the purpose of the present study was to investigate potential cardiovascular protective properties of aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts from kiwifruit by analyzing the antioxidative, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, and fibrinolytic activities in vitro. aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts at 50 mg/ml showed dpph- ...200516141561
occurrence of the stra-strb streptomycin resistance genes in pseudomonas species isolated from kiwifruit plants.the occurrence of stra-strb streptomycin-resistance genes within transposon tn5393 was examined in pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, p. syringae pv. syringae, and p. marginalis, isolated from kiwifruit plants in korea and japan. pcr amplification with primers specific to stra-strb revealed that three of the tested pseudomonas species harbored these genes for a streptomycin-resistance determinant. tn5393, containing stra-strb, was also identified with pcr primers designed to amplify parts of t ...200415650697
in vitro pollen tube growth reveals the cytotoxic potential of the flavonols, quercetin and rutin.flavonols are phytochemicals widely found in commonly consumed foods. in spite of their beneficial effects on human health, however, cytotoxicity and even suspected genotoxicity have also been reported for the flavonol, quercetin. this points to the need for preventive studies to identify any cytotoxic effects associated with pure flavonol intake. this work was performed with the aim of verifying whether a plant-based in vitro system, the pollen tube, could be used to evaluate the cytotoxic pote ...200415601236
the adverse effects of hydrogen cyanamide on human health: an evaluation of inquiries to the new zealand national poisons centre.hydrogen cyanamide is used in new zealand to induce bud break in kiwifruit vines. the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the calls received by the new zealand national poisons centre (nznpc) attributed to acute hydrogen cyanamide exposure, and to ascertain the clinical effects of such exposures.200918951270
[study on anti-tumor effect of extractions from roots of actinidia deliciosa].to study the anti-tumor effect of adee and adbe in mice.200718300504
feeding zespri gold kiwifruit puree to mice enhances serum immunoglobulins specific for ovalbumin and stimulates ovalbumin-specific mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation in response to orally administered ovalbumin.the health benefits of fruits have been recognized for some time, but only recently have their effects on the immune system been investigated. kiwifruit contains vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that are known to be important for normal functioning of the immune system. in this work, the influence of feeding 2 zespri gold kiwifruit processed products (tauranga, new zealand) on immune function in mice was investigated. using a model to demonstrate adaptive immune responses in the gut, mice ...200819083416
construction of physical map and mapping of chromosomal virulence genes of the biovar 3 agrobacterium (rhizobium vitis) strain k-ag-1.most plant pathogenic agrobacterium strains have been classified into three biovars, "biovar 1 (a. tumefaciens; rhizobium radiobacter), biovar 2 (a. rhizogenes; r. rhizogenes) and biovar 3 (a. vitis; r. vitis)". the bacteria possess diverse types of genomic organization depending on the biovar. previous genomic physical maps indicated difference in location of rdna and chromosomally-coded virulence genes between biovar 1 and 2 genomes. in order to understand biovar 3 genome and its evolution in ...200617283382
effect of kiwifruit juice on beef collagen.the objective of this study is to clarify the difference in susceptibility to protease digestion by kiwifruit juice between collagen domains under different conditions. in addition, the effect of pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice on collagen in meat during cooking processes was examined. kiwifruit juice can degrade denatured collagen, but it can not cleave the triple helical domain of collagen. thus, kiwifruit juice does not have collagenase activity. on the other hand, the cross-linked subunit ...200515915665
dna base excision repair as a biomarker in molecular epidemiology studies.base excision repair can be measured in human lymphocytes by a variety of techniques, the most convenient of which are probably in vitro assays of the activity of a cell extract on a dna substrate containing specific lesions such as 8-oxoguanine. inter-individual variation in base excision repair ranges from about 3-fold to 10-fold in different studies. repair has been variously reported to decline or to increase with the age of the individual. few studies of environmental or occupational exposu ...200717659329
quantification of the thaumatin-like kiwi allergen by a monoclonal antibody-based elisa.thaumatin-like proteins (tlps) have been established as a new family of fruit and pollen allergens. the aim of this study was to develop a two-site elisa for the quantification of the thaumatin-like kiwi allergen (act d 2) in kiwifruit extracts and kiwifruit-containing food products. genomic dna (gdna) of act d 2 was amplified and the deduced amino acid sequence was determined to obtain a primary structure. act d 2 purified from kiwifruit extract by hplc was identified by edman degradation and m ...200818384094
some physical, pomological and nutritional properties of kiwifruit cv. this research, several physical, pomological and nutritional properties that are important for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separation and packaging of kiwifruit cv. hayward grown in the black sea region of turkey were determined. the fruit characteristics ranged from 72.28 g for average fruit weight, 59.41, 46.28 and 42.87 mm for fruit length, width and thickness, 49.03 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 0.825% for sphericity and 66.52 cm(3) ...200717710584
kissper, a kiwi fruit peptide with channel-like activity: structural and functional features.kissper is a 39-residue peptide isolated from kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa). its primary structure, elucidated by direct protein sequencing, is identical to the n-terminal region of kiwellin, a recently reported kiwi fruit allergenic protein, suggesting that kissper derives from the in vivo processing of kiwellin. the peptide does not show high sequence identity with any other polypeptide of known function. however, it displays a pattern of cysteines similar, but not identical, to those obser ...200818186145
inactivation of escherichia coli and listeria innocua in kiwifruit and pineapple juices by high hydrostatic pressure.escherichia coli and listeria innocua in kiwifruit and pineapple juices were exposed to high hydrostatic pressure (hhp) at 300 mpa for 5 min. both bacteria showed equal resistance to hhp. using low (0 degrees c) or sub-zero (-10 degrees c) temperatures instead of room temperature (20 degrees c) during pressurization did not change the effectiveness of hhp treatment on both bacteria in studied juices. pulse pressure treatment (multiple pulses for a total holding time of 5 min at 300 mpa) instead ...200818455820
anti-hyperglycemic activity of kiwifruit leaf (actinidia deliciosa) in mice.the methanol extract of kiwifruit leaf suppressed the postprandial blood glucose level after an oral administration of soluble starch or sucrose in mice. the mechanism of action is proposed to be due to the alpha-amylase-inhibiting activity in the 90% aqueous methanol fraction and alpha-glucosidase-inhibiting activity in the n-buthanol fraction, based on the results of in vitro experiments.200818391441
kiwifruit actinidin: a proper new collagenase for isolation of cells from different tissues.actinidin is a cysteine protease abundant in kiwifruit. this enzyme is known as a meat-tenderizing protease. in this project, actinidin was purified from kiwifruit by salt precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. collagenolytic effect of the purified enzyme was tested in four different buffer systems. thereafter, the enzyme was used for isolation and culture of cells from three different tissues: endothelial cells from human umbilical vein, hepatocytes from rat liver, and thymic epithelial ...200818456944
characterization of bet v 1-related allergens from kiwifruit relevant for patients with combined kiwifruit and birch pollen allergy.allergy to kiwifruit appears to have become more common in europe and elsewhere during the past several years. seven allergens have been identified from kiwifruit so far, with actinidin, kiwellin and the thaumatin-like protein as the most relevant ones. in contrast to other fruits, no bet v 1 homologues were characterized from kiwifruit so far. we cloned, purified, and characterized recombinant bet v 1-homologous allergens from green (actinidia deliciosa, act d 8) and gold (actinidia chinensis, ...200818925615
postharvest biological control of botrytis cinerea on kiwifruit by volatiles of [isabella] grapes.abstract the potential of volatile substances emitted by 'isabella' grapes (vitis labrusca) to control gray mold (botrytis cinerea) on 'hayward' kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) was studied. the closed mariotte system was used as a bioassay method to analyze quantitatively the biological action of these volatiles on b. cinerea growth. in vivo experiments compared the effects of volatiles from 'isabella' grapes versus volatiles from 'roditis' grapes (v. vinifera) and a b. cinerea control on the gr ...200418943697
transformation of actinidia eriantha: a potential species for functional genomics studies in actinidia.protocols were developed for regeneration and agrobacterium-mediated transformation of actinidia eriantha benth. a. eriantha has a number of features that make it a useful tool for functional genomics in actinidia: the vines are relatively small and non-vigorous in nature, flowers form all over the vine including on lower axillary branches and the species flowers prolifically in greenhouse conditions. flowering and fruiting of transgenic a. eriantha plants was obtained within 2 years of transfor ...200616404600
the past and present day of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa planch.) breeding in pazar watershed, this study, the problems of kiwifruit breeding in pazar watershed which is 37 km east of city of rize were investigated with public survey and the results of public survey were presented in two periods (1996-2002, 2002-2006). according to the results of questionnarie of the year 2002; 57.7% of total kiwifruit producers started to establish kiwifruit garden to gain additional income and 62.02% of total kiwifruit gardens were established less then 1000 m2 area, 24.05% of total kiwifruit produce ...200719069913
differential expression within the lox gene family in ripening kiwifruit.real-time quantitative pcr was used to study lipoxygenase (lox) gene expression patterns in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. hayward) during fruit ripening, and in response to ethylene and low temperature during post-harvest storage. six lox genes were identified and cloned from a kiwifruit est database. all were expressed in vegetative tissues and in the fruit. expression of adlox1 and adlox5 increased markedly as fruit developed to the cl ...200617032731
a highly specific l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase on the path to ascorbate biosynthesis.ascorbate is a critical compound in plants and animals. humans are unable to synthesize ascorbate, and their main source of this essential vitamin are plants. however, the pathway of synthesis in plants is yet to be established, and several unknown enzymes are only postulated to exist. we describe a specific l-galactose-1-phosphate (l-gal-1-p) phosphatase that we partially purified from young kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berries. the enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 65 kda, ...200415550539
mri endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes.magnetic resonance imaging (mri) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (for). here a method for high-resolution mri that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 t. because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming mri from the lab ...200919378751
dna diagnostics of three armored scale species on kiwifruit in new zealand.three species of armored scale (hemiptera: diaspididae) are found on kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) in new zealand orchards: latania scale, hemiberlesia lataniae (signoret); greedy scale, hemiberlesia rapax (comstock); and oleander scale, aspidiotus nerii (bouché). each of them is a quarantine pest in some of the markets to which new zealand kiwifruit are exported. adult females of the three species can be distinguished morphologically; however, the task is laborious when large numbers must be ident ...200819133478
plasma antioxidant capacity changes following a meal as a measure of the ability of a food to alter in vivo antioxidant status.determine 1) if consumption of a meal of different fruits or berries increases plasma hydrophilic (h-) or lipophilic (l-) antioxidant capacity (aoc) measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (orac(fl)); 2) if including macronutrients in the meal alters postprandial changes in aoc; and 3) if preliminary recommendations can be developed for antioxidant intake.200717536129
the effect of dressing with fresh kiwifruit on burn wound healing.this study was designed to evaluate the wound healing effects of kiwifruit in the treatment of second-degree burn wounds in rats.201020381106
expression of sweet potato cysteine protease spcp2 altered developmental characteristics and stress responses in transgenic arabidopsis this report a full-length cdna, spcp2, which encoded a putative papain-like cysteine protease was isolated from senescent leaves of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas). spcp2 contained 1101 nucleotides (366 amino acids) in its open reading frame, and exhibited high amino acid sequence identities (ca. 68% to 83%) with plant cysteine proteases, including actinidia deliciosa, arabidopsis thaliana, brassica oleracea, phaseolus vulgaris, pisum sativa, vicia faba, vicia sativa and vigna mungo. rt-pcr an ...201020129700
a fraction of unripe kiwi fruit extract regulates adipocyte differentiation and function in 3t3-l1 cells.adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and diabetes, and regulation of adipogenesis is important in prevention of diabetes. we prepared a 100% methanol fraction of methanolic extract from unripe kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa), designated kmf (kiwi fruit methanol fraction). when applied to 3t3-l1 preadipocyte cells, kmf promoted adipocyte differentiation, increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdh) activity, and increased triglyceride (tg ...201020087882
larval survival of fuller's rose weevil, naupactus cervinus, on common groundcover species in orchards of new zealand kiwifruit.fuller's rose weevil, naupactus cervinus (boheman) (curculionidae: entiminae), is an important quarantine pest of new zealand kiwifruit exported to asian markets. both adults and larvae are considered to be polyphagous. in this study, the survival of larval n. cervinus was estimated on common groundcover species of kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) in the bay of plenty, the main region in new zealand where kiwifruit is grown. the botanical composition of groundcover in commercial kiwifruit orchards, ch ...200820298112
effect of urea on protein separation by ion-exchange chromatography.ion-exchange chromatography (iec) is the most frequently used chromatographic technique for the separation of proteins and peptides. in this article, the effects of urea on iec separation of kiwifruit actinidin, egg white and urinary proteins were examined. the purity and relative amount of each protein in different conditions (in the presence or absence of urea) were compared with each other. the three parameters, including resolution, selectivity and efficiency of column in the presence of ure ...201020139060
non-invasive lc-polscope imaging of biominerals and cell wall anisotropy changes.the formation of defined shapes by cells is one of the challenging questions in biology. due to the anisotropy of cell walls and of certain biominerals, the lc-polscope represents a promising tool for tracking dynamic structural changes in vivo non-invasively and, to some extent, quantitatively. a complex three-dimensional biogenic system, the in vitro precipitation of calcium oxalate induced by cellulose stalks produced by dictyostelium discoideum, was analyzed. although the retardance values a ...201020232089
quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: a fluorescence-based homogeneous assay.a high-throughput, homogeneous, fluorescence polarization, and fluorescence intensity assay has been developed for the measurement of folate in fruits and vegetables. this assay is based on the competitive displacement of the fluorescent folate ligands alexa fluor (alexa) 594-folate and alexa 660-folate from bovine milk folate-binding protein by folates in fruit and vegetable extracts. these fluorescent ligands are employed because their excitation and emission maxima are in regions of the spect ...201020361923
reactive oxygen species are involved in pollen tube initiation in kiwifruit.the role of reactive oxygen species (ros) during pollen tube growth has been well established, but its involvement in the early germination stage is poorly understood. ros production has been reported in germinating tobacco pollen, but evidence for a clear correlation between ros and germination success remains elusive. here, we show that ros are involved in germination and pollen tube formation in kiwifruit. using labelling with dihydrofluorescein diacetate (h(2) fda) and nitroblue tetrazolium ...201221973108
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from recent outbreaks of kiwifruit bacterial canker belong to different clones that originated in china.a recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa and a. chinensis), is caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa). the disease was first reported in china and japan in the 1980s. a severe outbreak of psa began in italy in 2008 and has spread to other european countries. psa was found in both new zealand and chile in 2010. to study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of psa between countries, genomes of strains from china and jap ...201323555547
quercetin, the active phenolic component in kiwifruit, prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication.we evaluated the effects of the two main kiwifruit cultivars (gold kiwifruit (gok) and green kiwifruit (grk)) and their active phenolic compound, quercetin, on h2o2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (gjic) in wb-f344 rat liver epithelial cells. we found that both gok and grk protect wb-f344 cells from h2o2-induced inhibition of gjic. the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (erk1/2)-connexin 43 (cx43) signalling pathway is crucial for the regulation of g ...201020302682
metabolomic analysis reveals differences in urinary excretion of kiwifruit-derived metabolites in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.the interleukin-10-deficient (il-10(-/-)) mouse, a model of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), develops intestinal inflammation unless raised in germ-free conditions. the metabolic effects of consuming extracts from the fruits of yellow (actinidia chinensis) or green-fleshed (a. deliciosa) kiwifruit that displayed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were investigated in il-10(-/-) mice by metabolomic analysis of urine samples. kiwifruit-derived metabolites were detected at significantly higher le ...201121957058
in vitro antibacterial activity of cysteine protease inhibitor from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).the need for replacing traditional pesticides with alternative agents for the management of agricultural pathogens is rising worldwide. in this study, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cpi), 11 kda in size, was purified from green kiwifruit to homogeneity. we examined the growth inhibition of three plant pathogenic gram-negative bacterial strains by kiwi cpi and attempted to elucidate the potential mechanism of the growth inhibition. cpi influenced the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria agrobacte ...201224426085
markers of oxidative dna damage in human interventions with fruit and berries.diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with a decreased risk of several cancers via numerous possible mechanisms. for example, phytochemicals may decrease oxidative dna damage and enhance dna repair. markers of oxidative dna damage in human dietary intervention trials used most frequently include oxidized nucleosides such as 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, which can be analyzed from isolated dna or urine. single-cell gel electrophoresis has been widely used to measure baseline or h2o ...200616800780
bactericidal compounds controlling growth of the plant pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, which forms biofilms composed of a novel exopolysaccharide.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. many aspects of the disease caused by p. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (epss), are still unknown. here, a highly virulent strain of p. syringae pv. actinidiae, nz v-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined w ...201525841017
kiwifruit decreases blood pressure and whole-blood platelet aggregation in male modifications to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as blood pressure (bp) and smoking have been emphasized. fruits and vegetables may modify such risk factors. the major aim of this randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the effects of (1) kiwifruits and (2) an antioxidant-rich diet compared with (3) a control group on bp and platelet aggregation (that is, whole-blood platelet aggregation) after 8 weeks in male smokers (age 44-74 years, n=102). the kiwifruit ...201222258209
analytical determination of bioactive compounds as an indication of fruit quality.the aim of this investigation was to determine the bioactive compounds in kiwifruit as an indication of quality after extraction using methanol and ethyl acetate. using ftir and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and electrospray ionization/ms, the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, and tannins, and the level of the antioxidant activity by 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing/ antioxidant p ...201223451390
characterisation of two alcohol acyltransferases from kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) reveals distinct substrate preferences.volatile esters are key compounds of kiwifruit flavour and are formed by alcohol acyltransferases that belong to the bahd acyltransferase superfamily. quantitative rt-pcr was used to screen kiwifruit-derived expressed sequence tags with proposed acyltransferase function in order to select ripening-specific sequences and test their involvement in alcohol acylation. the screening criterion was for at least 10-fold increased transcript accumulation in ripe compared with unripe kiwifruit and in resp ...201121450321
evolution of plant pathogenesis in pseudomonas syringae: a genomics perspective.the phytopathogenic bacterium pseudomonas syringae causes serious diseases in a wide range of important crop plants, with recent severe outbreaks on the new zealand kiwifruit crop and among british horse chestnut trees. next-generation genome sequencing of over 25 new strains has greatly broadened our understanding of how this species adapts to a diverse range of plant hosts. not unexpectedly, the genomes were found to be highly dynamic, and extensive polymorphism was found in the distribution o ...201021568703
actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit), a new drug for enzymatic debridement of acute burn wounds.actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) is used as a meat tenderizer. it acts rapidly and efficiently to soften meat, liquefying it if allowed to work for more than a few hours. observing this effect and the lack of studies addressing this subject in the literature, the authors sought to investigate the use of this natural remedy in an animal model for eschar separation and debridement.201019616384
biotransformation of (-)-ambrox by cell suspension cultures of actinidia deliciosa.biotransformation of (-)-ambrox (1) with cell suspension cultures of actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) yielded the regio- and stereospecific oxygenated products 3-oxoambrox (2), 3beta-hydroxyambrox (3), 1alpha-hydroxyambrox (4), 3beta,6beta-dihydroxyambrox (5), 1alpha,6beta-dihydroxyambrox (6), and 1alpha,3beta-dihydroxyambrox (7). metabolites 6 and 7 were found to be new compounds. these metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of spectroscopic studies. the structure of compound 6 ...200616792418
kiwifruit extracts inhibit cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cells isolated from il10 gene deficient mice.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract involving an inappropriate immune response to commensal microorganisms in a genetically susceptible host. this study examined the effects of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) or green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) using in vitro models of ibd. these models comprised primary macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells isolated from c57bl/5j and interleukin- ...201121600571
evaluation of the incidence of the g143a mutation and cytb intron presence in the cytochrome bc-1 gene conferring qoi resistance in botrytis cinerea populations from several hosts.previous studies have shown that resistance of botrytis cinerea to qoi fungicides has been attributed to the g143a mutation in the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, while, in a part of the fungal population, an intron has been detected at codon 143 of the gene, preventing qoi resistance. during 2005-2009, 304 grey mould isolates were collected from strawberry, tomato, grape, kiwifruit, cucumber and apple in greece and screened for resistance to pyraclostrobin and for the presence of the cytb intron, usi ...201121702077
multiple resistance of botrytis cinerea from kiwifruit to sdhis, qois and fungicides of other chemical groups.botrytis cinerea pers.: fr. is a high-risk pathogen for fungicide resistance development that has caused resistance problems on many crops throughout the world. this study investigated the fungicide sensitivity profile of isolates from kiwifruits originating from three greek locations with different fungicide use histories. sensitivity was measured by in vitro fungitoxicity tests on artificial nutrient media.201020730988
evaluation of penicillium expansum isolates for aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in usual and less common fruit hosts.experiments were carried out in vivo and in vitro with four isolates of penicillium expansum (i 1, e 11, c 28 and i 12) to evaluate their aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in both usual (pears and apples) and less common hosts (apricots, peaches, strawberries and kiwifruits) of the pathogen. the 75% of isolates showed the ability to cause blue mould in all tested hosts. in particular, c 28 and i 1 were the most and the least aggressive isolates, respectively (52.9 and 10.6% infecti ...201020800918
transformation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes using a micro-cross section method in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward).genetic transformation using a micro-cross section (mcs) technique was conducted to improve the carotenoid content in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward). the introduced carotenoid biosynthetic genes include geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (ggps), phytoene desaturase (pds), ζ-carotene desaturase (zds), β-carotene hydroxylase (chx), and phytoene synthase (psy). the transformed explants were selected on half-strength ms medium containing 0.001 mg l(-1) of 2,4-d and 0.1 mg l(-1) of zeat ...201020842364
blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers.plant-based diets rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent development of several chronic age-related diseases. however, the mechanisms behind this protective effect are not elucidated. we have tested the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant-rich foods can affect groups of genes associated with cellular stress defence in human blood cells. trial registration number: nct00520819
identification of bacteriophages for biocontrol of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia sp.). since 2008, a global outbreak of p. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in new zealand. the economic impact and the development of resistance in p. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. we isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active ...201424487530
development of a multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats analysis (mlva) to unravel the intra-pathovar structure of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae populations worldwide.the bacterial canker of kiwifruit by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an emblematic example of a catastrophic disease of fruit crops. in 2008 a new, extremely virulent form of the pathogen emerged and rapidly devastated many actinidia spp. orchards all over the world. in order to understand differences in populations within this pathovar and to elucidate their diffusion and movements on world scale, it is necessary to be able to quickly and on a routine basis compare new isolates with prev ...201526262683
dietary ascorbate intake affects steady state tissue concentrations in vitamin c-deficient mice: tissue deficiency after suboptimal intake and superior bioavailability from a food source (kiwifruit).humans acquire vitamin c (ascorbate) from their diet, and optimal tissue concentrations are required to maintain its enzyme cofactor and antioxidant activities. how dietary intake affects tissue concentrations is difficult to monitor and has generally been based on the measurement of plasma concentrations.201021123463
effectiveness of different solid-phase microextraction fibres for differentiation of selected madeira island fruits based on their volatile metabolite profile--identification of novel compounds.a headspace solid-phase microextraction (hs-spme) procedure based on five commercialised fibres (85 μm polyacrylate - pa, 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane - pdms, 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene - pdms/dvb, 70 μm carbowax/divinylbenzene - cw/dvb and 85 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane - car/pdms) is presented for the characterization of the volatile metabolite profile of four selected madeira island fruit species, lemon (citrus limon), kiwi (actinidia deliciosa), papaya (carica papaya l.) a ...201021147335
origin of the outbreak in france of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3, the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, revealed by a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis.the first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in france in 2010. p. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. in order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in france, we developed a multilocus variable-n ...201526209667
effect of lactic acid fermentation on antioxidant, texture, color and sensory properties of red and green smoothies.weissella cibaria, lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus sp. and lactobacillus pentosus were variously identified from blackberries, prunes, kiwifruits, papaya and fennels by partial 16s rrna gene sequence. representative isolates from each plant species were screened based on the kinetics of growth on fruit juices. a protocol for processing and storage of red and green smoothies (rs and gs) was set up, which included fermentation by selected lactic acid bacteria starters and exo-polysaccharide ...201121569953
supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (actinidia chinensis var.'hort 16a':) effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection.abstract: background: the health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products. methods: we carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, dna stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. our ...201121586177
green kiwifruit modulates the colonic microbiota in growing investigate whether green kiwifruit modulates the composition of colonic microbiota in growing pigs.201121255058
both base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair in humans are influenced by nutritional factors.lack of reliable assays for dna repair has largely prevented measurements of dna repair from being included in human biomonitoring studies. using newly developed modifications of the comet assay we tested whether a fruit- and antioxidant-rich plant-based intervention could affect base excision repair (ber) and nucleotide excision repair (ner) in a group of 102 male volunteers. ber and ner repair capacities were measured in lymphocytes before and after a dietary intervention lasting 8 weeks. the ...201021264888
gold kiwifruit ( actinidia chinensis 'hort16a') for immune support.kiwifruit is a good source of several vitamins and minerals and dietary fibre, and contains a number of phytochemicals; so kiwifruit potentially provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. consumption of green kiwifruit can have positive effects on cardiovascular health through antioxidant activity, inhibition of platelet aggregation and lowered tag levels, and gut health through improving laxation, aiding digestion and promoting a healthy gut microflora. the importance of nutrition on immu ...201121349229
complete dna sequence of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of kiwifruit canker disease.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. we have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid dna from p. syringae pv. actinidiae icmp 18884 using the pacbio rs ii platform.201526383666
the first complete chloroplast genome sequences in actinidiaceae: genome structure and comparative analysis.actinidia chinensis is an important economic plant belonging to the basal lineage of the asterids. availability of a complete actinidia chloroplast genome sequence is crucial to understanding phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms and facilitates kiwifruit genetic improvement. we report here the complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast genomes for actinidia chinensis and a. chinensis var deliciosa obtained through de novo assembly of illumina paired-end reads prod ...201526046631
genome, proteome and structure of a t7-like bacteriophage of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia sp.). bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. a variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect p. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to pro ...201526114474
reference gene selection for normalization of rt-qpcr gene expression data from actinidia deliciosa leaves infected with pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.normalization of data, by choosing the appropriate reference genes (rgs), is fundamental for obtaining reliable results in reverse transcription-quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr). in this study, we assessed actinidia deliciosa leaves inoculated with two doses of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae during a period of 13 days for the expression profile of nine candidate rgs. their expression stability was calculated using four algorithms: genorm, normfinder, bestkeeper and the deltact method. glyceraldeh ...201526581656
antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde and estragole extracted from plant essential oils against pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causing bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (peos) originating from 49 plant species were tested against psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. the five peos from pimenta racemosa, p. dioica, melaleuca linariifolia, m. cajuputii, and cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited psa growth by either assays. among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant ant ...201627493612
draft genome sequences of five pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in france.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of actinidia deliciosa and actinidia chinensis. p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in new zealand, australia, france and spain. four lineages were previously identified within the p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in france. the whole genomes of str ...201627237113
draft genome sequences of 18 strains of pseudomonas isolated from kiwifruit plants in new zealand and this paper, we present the draft sequences of 18 genetically diversepseudomonasstrains isolated from kiwifruit plants in new zealand and overseas, including a number that are currently not fully characterized. these sequences will aid in the diagnosis ofpseudomonason kiwifruit for future pest management and border security decision-making.201627056212
development of specific markers for identification of biovars 1 and 2 strains of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of canker in kiwifruit, can be divided into three biovars (biovars 1, 2, and 3). strains belonging to biovar 1 produce phaseolotoxin and were isolated in japan and italy before 2008. strains of biovar 2 produce coronatine instead of phaseolotoxin and have been isolated only in korea. strains belonging to biovar 3 produce neither phaseolotoxin nor coronatine and are responsible for the global outbreak of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in recent ...201627147936
studies on the infection, colonization, and movement of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit tissues using a gfpuv-labeled strain.kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. using a gfpuv-labeled strain of psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. the pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of psa is obtained in cut tissues. we determined that, following spray inoculat ...201626999596
genome analysis of the kiwifruit canker pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 5.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is a destructive pathogen of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease, causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit industry worldwide. biovar 5 is the most recently reported biovar of psa, and is found in only a local area of japan at present. there is not much information of genetic characteristics of biovar 5. thus, the genome of biovar 5 was sequenced and analyzed to clarify its detailed genetic characteristics. here, the genomes of strain maff 212056 and m ...201626891997
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