TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
preparation and promotion of fruit growth in kiwifruit of fluorinated n-phenyl-n'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl ureas.seventeen phenyl-fluorinated analogues of thidiazuron [n-phenyl-n'-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea, tdz] have been prepared and characterized. the effects of each fluorinated urea on growth and quality of kiwifruits (actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated by comparison with untreated (control) and tdz-treated fruits. the results obtained showed a clear dependence of the growth-promoting activity of these fluorinated ureas on the pattern and degree of fluorine substitution in the phenyl ring. the most e ...200415264899
programmed cell death induces male sterility in actinidia deliciosa female flowers.the importance of programmed cell death (pcd) during the life cycle of plants is well established, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly defined. an emerging system for the study of pcd during development in plants is that of sex organ abortion. in this work we investigate the degeneration of microspores in the anthers of actinidia deliciosa female flowers. the kiwifruit, a. deliciosa, is a dioecious species native to china. pollen development in female flowers is equival ...200415246067
mannan transglycosylase: a novel enzyme activity in cell walls of higher plants.mannan transglycosylase is a novel cell wall enzyme activity acting on mannan-based plant polysaccharides in primary cell walls of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. the enzyme activity was detected by its ability to transfer galactoglucomannan (ggm) polysaccharides to tritium-labelled ggm-derived oligosaccharides generating tritium-labelled ggm polysaccharides. mannan transglycosylase was found in a range of plant species and tissues. high levels of the enzyme activity were present in flowers of ...200415118857
preparation and structural analysis of actinidain-processed atelocollagen of yellowfin tuna (thunnus albacares).pepsin-hydrolyzed collagen (atelocollagen) is a trimer, consisting of alpha 1 and alpha 2 monomers, and shows molecular species corresponding to a monomer, dimer (beta chain), and trimer (gamma chain) by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. atelocollagen was purified from yellowfin tuna (thunnus albacares) by salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography. enzymatic hydrolysis of the atelocollagen by actinidain, a cysteine protease purified from kiwifruit, was analyzed by sds-polyacryl ...200415118315
reticulate evolution in kiwifruit (actinidia, actinidiaceae) identified by comparing their maternal and paternal phylogenies.evolutionary relationships within actinidia, a genus known for the contrasting mode of inheritance of its plastids and mitochondria, were studied. the phylogenetic analysis is based on chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) restriction site and sequence data (matk, psbc-trns, rbcl, and trnl-trnf for cpdna; nad1-2/3 and nad4-1/2 for mtdna). the analysis of cp sequence data confirms the hypothesis that the four currently recognized sections are not monophyletic. the detection of incongruences amo ...200421653428
effect of mating delay on the reproductive performance of cnephasia jactatana (lepidoptera: tortricidae).the leafroller species, cnephasia jactatana walker, is an important pest of kiwifruit in new zealand. the effect of mating delay on its reproductive performance was investigated in the laboratory to provide information for the development of pheromonal pest control measures such as mating disruption. reproductive performance of both sexes is adversely affected by mating delay. females are more severely affected by mating delay than males in terms of reproductive potential. delaying mating in fem ...200312852593
a one-step organelle capture: gynogenetic kiwifruits with paternal chloroplasts.androgenesis, the development of a haploid embryo from a male nucleus, has been shown to result in the instantaneous uncoupling of the transmission of the organelle and nuclear genomes (with the nuclear genome originating from the male parent only and the organelle genomes from the female parent). we report, for the first time, uncoupling resulting from gynogenesis, in actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit), a plant species known for its paternal mode of chloroplast inheritance. after pollen irradiatio ...200312737655
nutritional modulation of dna repair in a human intervention study.dna oxidation is a potential cause of cancer in humans. it is well-known that fruits and vegetables protect against cancer, and this may be in part because they contain antioxidants, which decrease the level of oxidation of dna. however, there are other possible mechanisms, such as an enhancement of cellular repair of this damage. a randomized cross-over study was carried out on healthy human subjects, who were given kiwifruit as a supplement to their normal diet, for 3-week periods at different ...200312663512
identification of an emergent and atypical pseudomonas viridiflava lineage causing bacteriosis in plants of agronomic importance in a spanish region.pseudomonas strains with an atypical lopat profile (where lopat is a series of determinative tests: l, levan production; o, oxidase production; p, pectinolitic activity; a, arginine dihydrolase production; and t, tobacco hypersensibility) can be regarded as emergent pathogens in the principality of asturias (spain), where they have been causing, since 1999, severe damage in at least three taxonomically unrelated orchard plants of agronomic importance: common bean (phaseolus vulgaris), kiwifruit ...200312732569
weak extremely high frequency microwaves affect pollen-tube emergence and growth in kiwifruit: pollen grain irradiation and water-mediated effects.this study was designed to evaluate the effects of weak-intensity extremely high frequency (ehf) microwaves in a model system-the plant organism pollen grain-lacking the placebo effect, available in large populations, to ensure accurate statistical analysis, and whose sensitivity is closely relevant to animal and human biology.200312804075
transformation of apple ( malus domestica borkh.) with the stilbene synthase gene from grapevine ( vitis vinifera l.) and a pgip gene from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa).the objective of the present research was to introduce genes with antifungal potential into the commercially important apple cvs. elstar and holsteiner cox in order to establish resistance against fungal diseases. the gene encoding the stilbene synthase (vst1) from vitis vinifera l., responsible for the synthesis of the phytoalexin resveratrol in grapevine, and the gene for a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa) were transferred into holsteiner cox and els ...200314504909
characterization of elemental composition in kiwifruit grown in northern iran.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) has different varieties such as hayward, bruno, monty, and abbott. these varieties are different in taste, odor, shape, and some chemical compositions. this work reports the elemental analysis of cu, fe, mn, zn, ca, mg, k, and na in the different varieties of hayward, bruno, monty, and abbott grown in northern iran. results from elemental analysis were determined using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy. distributions and amounts of metals for different v ...200312720400
color in fruit of the genus actinidia: carotenoid and chlorophyll compositions.the carotenoid and chlorophyll contents in the fruit of four species of actinidia were measured to determine the chemical basis of color in kiwifruit and related actinidia species. the species studied were the two commercial fruits actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward and a yellow-fleshed genotype actinidia chinensis cv. hort16a (known commercially as zespri gold kiwifruit), the yellow fruit of actinida polygama, and the orange fruit of actinida macrosperma. as reported previously, ripe fruit of a. d ...200211754554
dna markers for identification of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.the specific dna fragment was screened by rapd analysis of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, as well as similar strains that were isolated from kiwifruits. the primer c24 detected a fragment that is specific in p. syringae pv. actinidiae. this fragment was cloned. the pathovar-specific fragment was detected from a southern blot analysis of the genomic dnas of p. syringae pv. actinidiae using the cloned fragment as a probe. the sequence size of the cloned fragment was determined as 675 bp. a d ...200212018854
cancer prevention and therapy with kiwifruit in chinese folklore medicine: a study of kiwifruit gold fruits were extracted successively with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and further fractionated by silica gel and ods column chromatographies for the assays of various biological activities. five fractions h1, h2 (hexane extract), al, a2 (acetone extract) and m2 (methanol extract) showed selective cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines, which was more sensitive than human gingival fibroblasts. more hydrophilic fractions [70m3, 70m4, 70m5] of 70% methanol ex ...200212127237
carvacrol and cinnamic acid inhibit microbial growth in fresh-cut melon and kiwifruit at 4 degrees and 8 degrees establish whether or not carvacrol and cinnamic acid delay microbial spoilage of fresh-cut fruit.200212390487
biochemical responses to iron deficiency in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).a comparative study of two kiwifruit genotypes (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa) with different tolerance to iron (fe) deficiency was conducted to identify biochemical features associated with tolerance to fe deficiency. after 14 days of growth in hydroponic culture under fe-deficient and fe-sufficient conditions, leaf chlorophyll concentration, activities of ferric chelate reductase (fcr), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) and citrate synthase in r ...200212184976
modelling kiwifruit budbreak as a function of temperature and bud interactions.this paper presents two models of budbreak on canes of 'hayward' kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). a conventional 'chill unit' (cu) type model is compared with an alternative 'loss of potential' (lop) approach, which assumes that the number of buds developing in spring depends on climate and node position-dependent bud-to-bud interactions that vary in duration and intensity. both models describe how temperature, and application of a dormancy-breaking chemical, determine the overall amount of budb ...200212102525
kiwifruit promotes laxation in the elderly.numerous anecdotal reports have suggested that kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) has laxative effects. this could be an acceptable dietary supplement, especially for elderly people who often present with constipation. we wished to obtain objective evidence as to whether or not kiwifruit eaten regularly could promote laxation in elderly people. thirty-eight healthy adults of age > 60 years consumed their normal diet, with or without one kiwifruit per 30 kg bodyweight for three weeks, followed by a ...200212074185
influence of co2 and sucrose on photosynthesis and transpiration of actinidia deliciosa explants cultured in vitro.explants of actinidia deliciosa chev. liang and ferguson var. hayward were cultured in controlled co2 atmospheres in the presence of different sucrose concentrations. organogenesis was measured after 45 days in explants from the different assays, and quantification of photosynthesis, transpiration, chlorophylls, rubisco and total soluble protein content was performed in leaves from the different treatments. the best results were those of explants cultured at 600 &mgr;mol co2 mol-1 on 20 g l-1 of ...200212010480
immunocytochemical location of endogenous cytokinins in buds of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) during the first hours of in vitro immunocytochemical techniques using peroxidase-antiperoxidase as markers for light microscopy or immunoglobulin g-gold for electron microscopy respectively were used for the localization of cytokinins [9-beta-d-ribofuranosil-n6-(delta2-isopentenil) adenina ([9r]ip), 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-zeatin ([9r]z) and 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-dihydrozeatin ([9r](dih)z)] in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) meristematic cells of the second nodal segment. immunolocation at the cellular level was c ...200111858460
inhibition of proteasome activity strongly affects kiwifruit pollen germination. involvement of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway as a major regulator.the 26s proteasome is a multicatalytic complex that acts as primary protease of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway in eukaryotes. we provide here the first evidence that the proteasome plays a key role in regulating pollen tube growth. immunoblotting experiments revealed the presence of high levels of free ubiquitin and ubiquitin conjugates in rehydrated and germinating pollen of kiwifruit [actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa (a. chev) c. f. liang et a. r. ferguson]. proteasome activity, ...200111457965
bimodal patterns of floral gene expression over the two seasons that kiwifruit flowers develop.polymerase chain reaction fragments with homology to the arabidopsis floral meristem identity genes leafy and apetala1 have been isolated from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c. f. liang and a. r. ferguson) and have been named alf and aap1, respectively. northern hybridisation analyses have shown that alf and aap1 have bimodal patterns of annual expression in developing first-order axillary buds and their subsequent shoots. this pattern of expression is consistent with the 2-year cycle ...200111240925
nondestructive quantification of chemical and physical properties of fruits by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength range 650-1000 nm.time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy can be used to assess nondestructively the bulk (rather than the superficial) optical properties of highly diffusive media. a fully automated system for time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the absorption and the transport scattering spectra of fruits in the red and the near-infrared regions. in particular, data were collected in the range 650-1000 nm from three varieties of apples and from peaches, kiwifruits, and tomatoes. the absor ...200118357029
purification and characterisation of a galactoglucomannan from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).a galactoglucomannan (ggm) has been purified from the primary cell walls of ripe kiwifruit. a combination of barium hydroxide precipitation, anion exchange- and gel-permeation chromatography gave a chemically homogeneous polymer with a 1:2:2 galactose-glucose-mannose ratio and a molecular weight range of 16-42 kda. complete hydrolysis of the polymer with endo-1,4-beta-mannanase (ec from aspergillus niger gave a mixture of oligosaccharides, three of which (ii, iii, iv) accounted for mor ...200111383899
biological activity of kiwifruit peel extracts.various bioactive substances in kiwifruit extracts were fractionated by organic solvent extractions, followed by silica gel and ods chromatographies. both cytotoxic activity and multi-drug resistance reversal activity were found in the less polar fractions. cytotoxic activity was not always parallel the radical intensity. antibacterial activity was distributed into various fractions and all fractions were inactive against candida albicans and h. pylori. only 70% methanol extracts showed anti-hum ...200111406859
kiwifruit protects against oxidative dna damage in human cells and in vitro.antioxidant micronutrients may account for the beneficial effects of fruits on human health. a direct demonstration that consumption of fruit decreases oxidative dna damage in human cells would support this hypothesis. kiwifruit was taken as an example of a food with putative antioxidant properties, and its effectiveness at decreasing oxidative dna damage was assessed in ex vivo as well as in vitro tests. the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) was used to measure dna damage in lymphoc ...200111588897
[prevalent forecast of kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae].the prevalent analysis of kiwifruit bacterial canker for several years showed that the effective ecological factors of severe degree were the precipitation (x1) in the second and last ten-days of march, and the average temperature (x2) of january. the model was y = 2.1359 + 0.0107x1 - 0.6061x2. the main factor of the prevalence was the relative variation of ten-days average temperature and precipitation in winter and in early spring, and the regression equation was y = -8.127 + 22.739x - 13.254x ...200111758412
[ecological factors affecting prevalence of kiwifruit bacterial canker and bacteriostatic action of bacteriocides on pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidae].according to the systematic study for 5 years, this paper dealt with the ecological factors affecting prevalence of kiwifruit bacterial canker. the disease was more serious in the orchards with above 750 m in elevation, and more serious at mountain slope facing south than facing north. incidence differed significantly among cultivars, with easy disease infection for jinfeng, and strong disease resistance for jinkui. the older the trees, the more the diseased plants. the one year old twigs had hi ...200111758413
actinidic acid, a new triterpene phytoalexin from unripe kiwi phytoalexins (1-7), including a new compound, were isolated from the peel of unripe kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. golden king) that had been wounded and inoculated with colletotrichum musae. the new phytoalexin (1) was identified as 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxy-12,20(30)-ursadien-28-oic acid, and named actinidic acid. phytoalexins 2-6 are known triterpenes but have not previously been described as phytoalexins. phytoalexin 7 is the same triterpene as the phytoalexin of nectarine fruit.200111302196
polygalacturonase gene expression in kiwifruit: relationship to fruit softening and ethylene kiwifruit, much of the softening process occurs prior to the respiratory climacteric and production of ethylene. this fruit therefore represents an excellent model system for dissecting the process of softening in the absence of endogenous ethylene production. we have characterized the expression of three polygalacturonase (pg) cdna clones (ckpga, b and c) isolated from fruit of actinidia chinensis. expression of ckpga and b was detected by northern analysis only in fruit producing endogenous ...200010794531
enumerative and binomial sampling plans for armored scale (homoptera: diaspididae) on kiwifruit leaves.the spatial dispersion of armored scale insects; greedy scale, hemiberlesia rapax (comstock); and latania scale, hemiberlesia lataniae (signoret), was investigated on kiwifruit, actinidia deliciosa (a. chevalier) c. f. liang et a. r. ferguson, leaves in new zealand. a universal description for dispersion was determined using taylor's power law, which encompassed a wide range of different orchards, blocks, block sizes, sampling times, scale control practices, regions and seasons. scale density si ...200011142309
the selective increase or decrease of organellar dna in generative cells just after pollen mitosis one controls cytoplasmic inheritance.organellar dna in mature pollen grains of eight angiosperm species (actinidia deliciosa lindl., antirrhinum majus l., arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh., medicago sativa l., musa acuminata colla, pelargonium zonale (l.) l'hér, petunia hybrida vilm. and rhododendron mucronatum (blume) g. don, in which the modes of organellar inheritance have been determined genetically, was observed by fluorescence microscopy using technovit 7100 resin sections double-stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (dap ...199910467031
phenolic composition of kiwifruit juice.phenolic compounds in kiwifruit pulp were separated and characterized by reversed-phase hplc, and the effect of juice processing on the phenolic composition was studied. fractionation of phenolic compounds was achieved through selective elution from c-18 cartridges prior to preconcentration and subsequent separation by hplc. strongly acidic compounds were identified as derivatives of coumaric and caffeic acids, including chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and a derivative of 3,4-dihydroxyben ...199910794642
uptake, distribution, and metabolism of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid during callus initiation from actinidia deliciosa tissues.1-naphthaleneacetic acid (naa) and 6-benzyladenine (ba) were required for in vitro callus formation at the basal edge of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev] liang and ferguson, cv. hayward) petioles. the uptake, metabolism, and concentration of naa and indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) content were examined in the explants during the callus initiation period. after 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h of culture in the presence of [h(3)]naa, petioles were divided into apical, middle, and basal portions and ...199910552137
localization of cell wall polysaccharides during kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) ripening.the localization of pectin, cellulose, xyloglucan, and callose was compared in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c. f. liang and a. r. ferguson var. deliciosa "hayward") at harvest, at the end of the first phase of softening, and when ripe. pectin was visualized using three different methods: labeling of galacturonic acid residues, labeling of negatively charged groups, and labeling with jim 5 (nonesterified residues) and jim 7 (methyl-esterified) monoclonal antibodies. labeling of pecti ...199910568777
restriction-site variation of pcr-amplified chloroplast dna regions and its implication for the evolution and taxonomy of actinidia.twenty six restriction sites from five pcr-amplified chloroplast dna sequences (rbcl, psba, rpob, and two spacers flanking the trnl gene) were mapped and analysed in 20 actinidia taxa, encompassing all four sections into which the genus is divided. at least three species out of the 20 examined have been found to have originated through natural interspecific hybridisation on the basis of the discrepancy between morphological and biochemical traits and the cpdna profiles of pairs of species. a wid ...199824710877
[antimutagenic mechanism of kiwifruit juice].to observe the effects of kiwifruit juice on the mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide (cp) and the effects of biotransformation enzymes in rats.199810322770
biochemical and molecular characterisation of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase from ripe kiwifruit.xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (xet) from the core tissue of ripe kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. hayward) was purified 3000-fold to homogeneity. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 34 kda, is n-glycosylated, and is active between ph 5.0 and 8.0, with an optimum between 5.5 and 5.8. the km was 0.6 for kiwifruit xyloglucan and 100 microm for [3h]xxxg-ol, a reduced heptasaccharide derived from kiwifruit xyloglucan. kiwifruit core x ...19989487728
sucrose-phosphate synthase steady-state mrna increases in ripening kiwifruit.early during fruit ripening in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa [a. chev.], c.f. liang and a.r. ferguson cv. hayward), starch is broken down to sucrose and hexose sugars. concomitantly, sucrose-phosphate synthase (sps, ec activity measured with saturating substrate increased, suggesting that sps is induced in response to a higher requirement for sucrose synthesis. a 2584 bp long partial cdna clone encoding sps was isolated from ripening kiwifruit. cdna fragments encoding t ...19989520277
expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes in actinidia chinensis fruit.the fruit of actinidia chinensis, a diploid relative of kiwifruit, showed an increased rate of ripening in response to the application of exogenous ethylene. moreover, late in ripening the fruit produced a burst of ethylene biosynthesis. thus ripening is climacteric, and there is a clear temporal separation of ethylene sensitivity and ethylene production. rnase protection assays were used to monitor transcript levels of ethylene biosynthetic genes during fruit development and ethylene-induced ri ...19979177311
enzymatic properties, substrate specificities and ph-activity profiles of two kiwifruit proteases.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) contains abundant protease, actinidin, and two possible components which were named a1 and a2. however, a comparison of the two components has not been thoroughly conducted. we have previously shown the presence of six proteases named kp1, kp2, kp3, kp4, kp5 and kp6 in kiwifruit, and that each purified kiwifruit protease was chromatographically pure. it was also indicated that the two representative components, kp4 and kp6, must be a1 and a2. to establish whether ...19979505243
comparative analysis of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argk) and 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer sequences.pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (roct) which confers resistance to the toxin. we confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses roct, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the roct gene and the intergeni ...19978979356
the isolation of a novel metallothionein-related cdna expressed in somatic and zygotic embryos of douglas-fir: regulation by aba, osmoticum, and metal isolate genes which are expressed preferentially during embryogenesis, a douglas-fir embryogenesis cdna library was constructed and differentially screened with cdna probes made with mrna from developing and mature embryos, respectively. the cdna clone pm 2.1 was isolated based on its abundance in developing seeds and absence in mature seeds, and its predicted amino acid sequence was shown to have structural features characteristic of plant mt-like proteins. alignment of the pm 2.1 predicted ...19979207840
complete amino acid sequence of ananain and a comparison with stem bromelain and other plant cysteine proteases.the amino acid sequences of ananain (ec3.4.22.31) and stem bromelain (, two cysteine proteases from pineapple stem, are similar yet ananain and stem bromelain possess distinct specificities towards synthetic peptide substrates and different reactivities towards the cysteine protease inhibitors e-64 and chicken egg white cystatin. we present here the complete amino acid sequence of ananain and compare it with the reported sequences of pineapple stem bromelain, papain and chymopapain fro ...19979355753
a novel acidic allergen, hev b 5, in latex. purification, cloning and characterization.latex allergy is recognized as a serious health problem among health care workers and children with spina bifida. a number of ige-reactive proteins have been identified in natural and processed latex products. one of the most acidic proteins in the cytoplasm of lacticifer cells of rubber trees (hevea brasiliensis) is demonstrated to be a potent allergen in eliciting allergic reactions in humans. this protein, with pi = 3.5, has a molecular mass of 16 kda with a blocked n terminus and an unusual ...19968810305
identification of a chloroplast coenzyme a-binding protein related to the peroxisomal thiolases.a 30-kd coenzyme a (coa)-binding protein was isolated from spinach (spinacea oleracea) chloroplast soluble extracts using affinity chromatography under conditions in which 95% of the total protein was excluded. the 30-kd protein contains an eight-amino-acid sequence, dvrlyyga, that is identical to a region in a 36-kd protein of unknown function that is encoded by a kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) cdna. southern blotting also detected a spinach gene that is related to the kiwifruit cdna. the kiwi ...19968972603
hypolipidaemic foods in china.with the changes in dietary pattern in china, in recent years, hyperlipidaemia has become an important problem in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases, especially the cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. from studies on laboratory animals and people with hyperlipidaemia, a number of hypolipidaemic foods and beverages have been identified, of relevance to traditional chinese food culture. their absence from the diet may, in part account for the increasing prevalence of hyperlipidaemia i ...199624394619
oryzalin combined with adventitious regeneration for an efficient chromosome doubling of trihaploid kiwifruit.chromosome doubling of one parthenogenetic trihaploid from cultivar hayward ofactinidia deliciosa was investigated. two antimitotic agents, colchicine and oryzalin, appliedin vitro on shoots and leaves at different concentrations were compared with regard to their efficiency. survival and regeneration rates were determined and ploidy level of regenerated plantlets was evaluated by flow cytometry. differences were observed between the two antimitotic agents depending on whether shoots or leaves w ...199624178664
microcallus formation from leaf mesophyll protoplasts in the genus actinidia lindl.microcallus (more than 60 cells) formation was obtained from leaf mesophyll protoplasts of 6 species and varieties in the genus actinidia lindl. (kiwifruit). the best results were achieved by using liquid over agarose culture for a. arguta var. arguta, liquid and agarose disc type culture for a. arguta var. purpurea, agarose disc type culture for a. arguta cv. issaï and a. deliciosa and liquid agarose bead type- and disc type culture for a. kolomikta and a. polygama. several factors influencing ...199624178270
dietary fibre in spanish kiwifruit. 19958549547
paternal inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids of the genus actinidia revealed by pcr-amplification of chloroplast dna fragments.rflps (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) of pcr (polymerase chain reaction) -amplified fragments were used to trace the pattern of plastid dna inheritance in the genus actinidia. a total of 51 progeny originating from interspecific crosses between three a. arguta cultivars and a. deliciosa, the kiwifruit, and 12 progeny originating from the cross between a. kolomikta and a. chinensis were analysed together with their parents. no reciprocal crosses could be tested since they all failed t ...19957616960
dna dodecaploid plants detected among somaclones of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward.ninety two adventitious shoots (somaclones) were regenerated from leaf-derived callus of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward. each somaclone was multiplied in vitro through axillary bud culture to produce several individual clonal shoots. a total of 671 shoots were exflasked but only 223 (33%) resulted in rooted plants. these represented 46 of the original 92 somaclones. shoot apices from representative plants of each of the 46 somaclones were analysed by flow cytometry to detect chan ...199524186768
correct processing of the kiwifruit protease actinidin in transgenic tobacco requires the presence of the c-terminal propeptide.a 355 cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and a tapetum-specific promoter were used to direct the synthesis in tobacco of preproactinidin and a derivative that lacked a c-terminal extension. preproactinidin was processed into a form that migrated identically on protein gels with mature actinidin extracted from kiwifruit. this protein was proteolytically active in vitro, and high-level accumulation of this protein appeared to be detrimental to plant growth. plants expressing an actinidin cdna const ...19957784505
development of flat and fan-shaped fruit in actinidia chinensis var. chinensis and actinidia deliciosa.we describe and quantify development of flat and fan-shaped fruit of actinidia chinensis var. chinensis from inception to maturity. flat fruit arise from particularly large and flat floral meristems. after bract initiation, the terminal flower remains elliptic in cross section, produces elliptic whorls of floral organs, and forms a flat-shaped ovary. the allometry of the ovary does not change from inception to maturity. fan-shaped fruit develop from exceptionally flat floral meristems. they resu ...199419700463
cloning and characterization of five cdnas for genes differentially expressed during fruit development of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa).five cdnas for genes differentially expressed during fruit development of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward) were isolated from a library made from young fruit, 8-10 days after anthesis. one gene (pkiwi503) has low levels of expression in young fruit but is induced late in fruit development and during fruit ripening, and has some homology to plant metallothionein-like proteins. the other four genes are highly expressed in young fruit with reduced expression in the later s ...19948075403
use of static and dynamic nmr microscopy to investigate the origins of contrast in images of biological tissues.nmr imaging experiments have been carried out on a fruit (actinidia deliciosa) and plant stem (stachys sylvatica) using a wide range of image contrasts. these included t1, t2, t2*, diffusion, flow and chemical shift selection. in the case of fruit imaging we calculated relaxation time and diffusion maps and established that the imaged parameters varied significantly with fruit ripening. these changes we attribute to changes in water dynamics resulting from elevated sugar concentrations. for the ...19948011936
xyloglucan endotransglycosylase activity increases during kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) ripening (implications for fruit softening).the activity of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (xet) was as-sayed in three tissue zones of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var deliciosa cv hayward) at harvest and at several softening stages following a postharvest ethylene treatment. at harvest, extractable xet activity per unit fresh weight in the inner pericarp (ip) and core tissue was 4.5 and 42 times higher, respectively, than in the outer pericarp (op). within 24 h of ethylene treatment there was an ...199312232034
the use of transient gus expression to develop an agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer system for kiwifruit.we have monitored transient gus expression 4-5 days after cocultivation of leaf explants with agrobacterium, in order to optimise parameters of cocultivation and so develop an efficient, reproducible gene transfer system in kiwifruit. factors that were important included the health of the explant, the strain of agrobacterium, and the binary vector used. pre-culture of the leaf explants before cocultivation inhibited gene transfer at the cut edge. placing the explants on moist filter paper during ...199324196178
fruit developmental regulation of the kiwifruit actinidin promoter is conserved in transgenic petunia plants.we have examined the expression of actinidin, a cysteine protease found in kiwifruit, over the course of fruit development. protease activity was first seen in fruit that had reached about half their final weight, and rose to high levels at harvest. the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1301 to +58) of a kiwifruit actinidin gene was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gus)-coding region, and the chimaeric gene was introduced into transgenic petunia plants. induction of the gus gene was observed duri ...19938219084
a polygalacturonase gene from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). 19938029342
a cdna sequence from kiwifruit homologous to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. 19938278512
carbohydrate metabolism during postharvest ripening in kiwifruit.mature fruit (kiwifruit) of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa (a. chev.), (c.f.) liang and ferguson cv. haywood (chinese gooseberry) were harvested and allowed to ripen in the dark at 20° c. changes were recorded in metabolites, starch and sugars, adenine nucleotides, respiration, and sucrose and glycolytic enzymes during the initiation of starch degradation, net starch-to-sucrose conversion and the respiratory climacteric. the conversion of starch to sucrose was not accompanied by a consistent ...199224178320
somatic embryogenesis in leaves and leaf-derived protoplasts of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward (kiwifruit).the obtention of embryogenic competence in actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward is reported. axillary buds from shoots submitted to cold (4°c) and starvation for 1.5 months, developed leaves with embryogenic competence. these leaves, cultured in darkness for 1.5 months on a medium containing zeatin as a sole growth regulator, originated compact structures from which embryos developed. the plating orientation and sectioning of leaves strongly affected the expression of the embryogenic p ...199224203147
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: changes in susceptibility to photoinhibition and recovery during the growth season.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson) plants grown in an outdoor enclosure were exposed to the natural conditions of temperature and photon flux density (pfd) over the growing season (october to may). temperatures ranged from 14 to 21° c while the mean monthly maximum pfd varied from 1000 to 1700 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1), although the peak pfds exceeded 2100 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). at intervals, the daily variation in chlorophyll fluorescence at 692 nm and 77k and the ...199224186739
cell wall dissolution in ripening kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) : solubilization of the pectic polymers.pectic polysaccharides solubilized in vivo during ripening, were isolated using phenol, acetic acid, and water (paw) from the outer pericarp of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang and a.r. ferguson var deliciosa ;hayward') before and after postharvest ethylene treatment. insoluble polysaccharides of the cell wall materials (cwms) were solubilized in vitro by chemical extraction with 0.05 molar cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetraacetate (cdta), 0.05 molar na(2)co(3), 6 molar guan ...199216668651
canopy photosynthesis and respiration of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines growing in the co(2) assimilation (a) for canopies of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines enclosed in a whole-canopy cuvette was measured continuously for three periods of 15-20 days during late summer, near hamilton, new zealand (latitude 38.2 degrees s). canopy a showed an asymptotic response to incident radiation (par), saturating at about 1300 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for one vine and about 800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for two other vines. radiation interception at low solar angles and low lea ...199214969971
direct gene transfer into actinidia deliciosa protoplasts: analysis of transient expression of the cat gene using tlc autoradiography and a gc-ms-based method.chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene was used as a reporter gene to assess the conditions for polyethylene glycol (peg)-mediated transfection of kiwifruit protoplasts. the effect of plasmid concentration and the presence of carrier dna were each assessed by analysing cat activity in transfected protoplasts using thin-layer chromatography (tlc) autoradiographic detection of acetylated chloramphenicol. a gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) non-radioact ...19911863775
increase of rooting ability in the woody species kiwi (actinidia deliciosa a. chev.) by transformation with agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes.the woody species kiwi (actinidia deliciosa a. chev.), a male and late flowering clone of the cv hayward, has been transformed by a t-dna fragment encompassing rol a, b, c genes of a. rhizogenes. transgenic plants, regenerated from leaf disc callus, showed the typical "hairy root" phenotype as described in herbaceous species. explants from these plants (both leaf discs or 3 to 4 node leafy microcuttings) showed an increased ability to produce roots. since root formation is one of the limiting fa ...199124221659
agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of kiwi fruit.genetically transformed kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) plants were obtained from hypocotyl and stem segments co-cultured with agrobacterium tumefaciens strain eha101 harboring a binary vector, plan411 or plan421, which contained the neomycin phosphotransferase ii (nptii) gene and the β-glucuronidase (gus) gene. after co-culturing with the a. tumefaciens, the hypocotyl or stem segments were cultured on a selection medium containing 25μg/ml kanamycin and 500μg/ml claforan. after one month in cul ...199124221658
effect of hydrogen cyanamide on amino acid profiles in kiwifruit buds during budbreak.buds, and resultant shoots, were collected from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] cf liang et ar ferguson var deliciosa cv hayward) vines from late autumn until late spring with and without hydrogen cyanamide treatment. those samples were weighed and analyzed for total nitrogen and free amino acids. by 7 days after hydrogen cyanamide treatment, the amount of proline had risen to nearly one-quarter of the total amino acid pool in the treated buds and that proportion was maintained for at ...199116668518
plant regeneration from protoplasts of long-term callus cultures of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayword (kiwifruit).plant regeneration of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayword was obtained from protoplasts isolated from petiole derived long-term callus cultures. protoplasts were cultured in liquid medium over agarose gelled medium. regenerated green callus, plated on solid medium, could develop shoots that rooted spontaneously in hormone-less medium. the plants obtained are growing fast in soil and present a normal phenotype.199124213668
a genome-specific repeat sequence from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa).six members of a family of moderately repetitive dna sequences from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) have been cloned and characterized. the repeat family is composed of elements that have a unit length of 463 bp, are highly methylated, occur in tandem arrays of at least 50 kb in length, and constitute about 0.5% of the kiwifruit genome. individual elements diverge in nucleotide sequence by up to 5%, which suggests that the repeat sequence is evolving rapidly. homologous sequences ...199124221161
nucleotide sequence of the promoter region from kiwifruit actinidin genes. 19902102886
analysis of the pesticide flufenoxuron in apples and kiwifruit by high-performance liquid chromatography. 19902079497
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: effect of growth temperature on photoinhibition and recovery.intact leaves of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson) from plants grown in a range of controlled temperatures from 15/10 to 30/25°c were exposed to a photon flux density (pfd) of 1500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at leaf temperatures between 10 and 25°c. photoinhibition and recovery were followed at the same temperatures and at a pfd of 20 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1), by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence at 77 k and 692 nm, by measuring the photon yield of photosynthetic o2 evolution ...198924201841
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: effect of light during growth on photoinhibition and recovery.photoinhibition of photosynthesis was induced in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c. f. liang et a. r. ferguson) leaves grown at two photon flux densities (pfds) of 700 and 1300 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) in a controlled environment, by exposing the leaves to pfd between 1000 and 2000 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at temperatures between 10 and 25°c; recovery from photoinhibition was followed at the same range of temperatures and at a pfd between 0 and 500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). in either case the time-cour ...198824221873
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: recovery and its dependence on temperature.recovery of photoinhibition in intact leaves of shade-grown kiwifruit was followed at temperatures between 10° and 35° c. photoinhibition was initially induced by exposing the leaves for 240 min to a photon flux density (pfd) of 1 500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at 20° c. in additional experiments to determine the effect of extent of photoinhibition on recovery, this period of exposure was varied between 90 and 400 min. the kinetics of recovery were followed by chlorophyll fluorescence at 77k. recovery was ...198824221471
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: effect of temperature.photoinhibition of photosynthesis was induced in attached leaves of kiwifruit grown in natural light not exceeding a photon flux density (pfd) of 300 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1), by exposing them to a pfd of 1500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). the temperature was held constant, between 5 and 35° c, during the exposure to high light. the kinetics of photoinhibition were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence at 77k and the photon yield of photosynthetic o2 evolution. photoinhibition occurred at all temperatures but was gr ...198824221470
accumulation and partitioning of dry matter and mineral nutrients in developing kiwifruit vines.size, dry weight and mineral nutrient content of fruit, leaves, shoots, canes, leader, stem and roots of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa) vines, aged from one to five years, were measured. the distribution of fruit yield among single canes was examined in three of the vines. total dry weight increased from a mean of 1.29 kg vine(-1) for one-year-old vines to 29.2 kg vine(-1) for five-year-old vines. the proportion of total dry weight in roots ...198714975822
biosynthesis of zeatin from n-(delta-isopentenyl)adenine in actinidia: sites and seasonal changes in actinidia arguta (hardy kiwifruit) plants, the potential to accumulate the cytokinin zeatin (io(6)ade) during feeding with a precursor, n(6)-(delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine (i(6)ade), varies depending on the tissue. this can be demonstrated by incubating explants for 24 hr on a basal nutrient medium supplemented with 30 mum i(6)ade and then extracting the tissues and analyzing cytokinin contents using hplc methodology. under these conditions, the potential for io(6)ade accumulation in tissue sl ...198616593769
the blocking effects of chinese actinidia sinensis juice on n-nitrosamine formation in vitro and in vivo.chinese gooseberry juice has been found to be an efficient inhibitor of nitrosation both in vitro and in vivo. this activity appears to be due partly to high concentrations of ascorbic acid and partly to an unidentified nitrite scavenger.19846533012
hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit (chinese gooseberry, actinidia chinensis).this report describes a hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit in a patient who developed moderately severe generalized symptoms after handling the fruit. a search of the literature did not reveal any previous reference to kiwi-fruit sensitivity. it is suggested that ige antibody is an important factor in the reaction.19817264104
differences in the interaction of the catalytic groups of the active centres of actinidin and papain. rapid purification of fully active actinidin by covalent chromatography and characterization of its active centre by use of two-protonic-state reactivity probes.1. a rapid method of isolation of fully active actinidin, the cysteine proteinase from actinidia chinensis (chinese gooseberry or kiwifruit), by covalent chromatography, was devised. 2. the active centre of actinidin was investigated by using n-propyl 2-pyridyl disulphide, 4-(n-aminoethyl 2'-pyridyl disulphide)-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. 3. the presence in actinidin in weakly acidic media of an interactive system containing a nucleophili ...19817034724
identification and quantitative analysis of sugars and non-volatile organic acids in chinese gooseberry fruit (actinidia chinensis planch.). 19751160363
kiwifruit ameliorates gentamicin induced histological and histochemical alterations in the kidney of albino mice.gentamicin is an antibiotic used worldwide for treating gram-negative bacterial infections. gentamicin causes nephrotoxicity in up to 25% of therapeutic cases owing to increased production of free radicals. kiwifruit are nutrient-dense fruits that have proven effective for ameliorating many pathological conditions caused by oxidative stress. we investigated the possible prophylactic and therapeutic effects of kiwifruit on the changes in renal histology and histochemistry caused by gentamicin. in ...028598694
Displaying items 601 - 686 of 686