TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
fruit calcium accumulation coupled and uncoupled from its transpiration in kiwifruit.accumulation of ca in several fleshy fruit is often supposed to depend, among others, by climatic variables driving fruit transpiration. this study tests the whole causal chain hypothesis: vpd → fruit transpiration → ca accumulation. also there are evidences that relationship between fruit transpiration and ca content is not always clear, hence the hypothesis that low vpd reduces the fraction of xylemic water destined to transpiration was tested by examining the water budget of fruit. attached f ...201525982084
chlorophylls and carotenoids of kiwifruit puree are affected similarly or less by microwave than by conventional heat processing and storage.the impact of microwave (1000 w - 340 s) and conventional heat (97 °c - 30s) pasteurisation and storage (4, 10, 22 °c for up to 63 d) on total and individual carotenoids and chlorophylls in kiwifruit puree was evaluated. bioaccessibility of carotenoids, before and after pasteurisation and storage, was also studied. microwaves and conventional heating led to marked changes in the chlorophyll (42-100% losses) and carotenoid (62-91% losses) content. first- and second-order kinetics appropriately ex ...201525977024
kiwifruit-derived supplements increase stool frequency in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.the worldwide growth in the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders has created an immediate need to identify safe and effective interventions. in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of actazin and gold, kiwifruit-derived nutritional ingredients, on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal comfort in healthy and functionally constipated (rome iii criteria for c3 functional constipation) individuals. using a crossover design, all participants ...201525931419
enhanced human neutrophil vitamin c status, chemotaxis and oxidant generation following dietary supplementation with vitamin c-rich sungold kiwifruit.neutrophils are the body's primary defenders against invading pathogens. these cells migrate to loci of infection where they engulf micro-organisms and subject them to an array of reactive oxygen species and antimicrobial proteins to effect killing. spent neutrophils subsequently undergo apoptosis and are cleared by macrophages, thereby resolving the inflammatory episode. neutrophils contain high concentrations of vitamin c (ascorbate) and this is thought to be essential for their function. this ...201525912037
effect of summer pruning and cppu on yield and quality of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa).a field experiment was conducted on bearing vines of kiwifruit cv. abbott to find the effect of cppu (n-(2- chloro-4-pyridyl)-n-phenylurea) and summer pruning on fruit yield, fruit size and quality. cppu greatly stimulated fruit growth indicating that it can be a powerful tool for improving kiwifruit cropping. application of cppu at 10 ppm concentration was done by dipping the fruits for 10 sec in the aqueous solution of compound at petal fall and 30 days after petal fall. cppu applied fruits in ...201525895255
identification, synthesis, and safety assessment of forchlorfenuron (1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea) and its metabolites in kiwifruits.identification and evaluation of safety of forchlorfenuron ((1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea)), 1, metabolites after biotransformation in kiwifruit is the objective of this study. to elucidate properties of these metabolites, liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (lc-it-tof-ms) was applied, with metid solution and formula predictor software in positive mode. cytotoxicity of forchlorfenuron and its metabolites were tested through sulforhodamine b assays agains ...201525757044
molecular characterization of allergens in raw and processed kiwifruit.the prevalence of allergy to kiwifruit is increasing in europe since the last two decades. different proteins have been identified as kiwifruit allergens; even though with geographic differences, act d 1, a cysteine protease protein of 30 kda, and act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein of 24 kda, are normally considered the most important. the aim of this study was (i) to identify at molecular level the sensitization pattern in a group of well-characterized patients allergic to kiwifruit and (ii) to ...201525640609
in the solanaceae, a hierarchy of bhlhs confer distinct target specificity to the anthocyanin regulatory complex.the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is regulated by a transcription factor complex consisting of an r2r3 myb, a bhlh, and a wd40. although r2r3 mybs belonging to the anthocyanin-activating class have been identified in many plants, and their role well elucidated, the subgroups of bhlh implicated in anthocyanin regulation seem to be more complex. it is not clear whether these potential bhlh partners are biologically interchangeable with redundant functions, or even if heterodimers are involved. ...201525628328
kiwifruit allergy in children: characterization of main allergens and patterns of recognition.kiwifruit allergy has been described mostly in the adult population, but immunoglobulin (ig)e-mediated allergic reactions to kiwifruit appear to be occurring more frequently in children. to date, 13 allergens from kiwifruit have been identified. our aim was to identify kiwifruit allergens in a kiwifruit allergic-pediatric population, describing clinical manifestations and patterns of recognition. twenty-four children were included. diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy was based on compatible clinical ...201527417374
the effect of kiwifruit consumption on blood pressure in subjects with moderately elevated blood pressure: a randomized, controlled study.kiwifruit contains bioactive substances that may lower blood pressure (bp) and improve endothelial function. we examined the effects of adding kiwifruit to the usual diet on 24-h ambulatory bp, office bp and endothelial function.201525483553
contact urticaria on eczematous skin by kiwifruit allergy. in vivo component-resolved diagnosis.kiwifruit allergy has been responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild reactions, such as localised oral symptoms, to severe systemic symptoms, such as anaphylaxis. no cases of isolated contact urticaria (icu) due to ige-mediated allergy to kiwifruit have been reported in the literature so far. here we describe the first three cases of icu due to kiwi and we hypothesise about a kiwifruit allergen not described yet.201525456531
effects of topical kiwifruit on healing of chronic bedsore.kiwifruit (actindia deliciosa) is demonstrated to have antibacterial and pro-angiogenic effect. moreover, this fruit contains proteolytic enzymes (actinidin) and ascorbic acid. considering these properties and based on the results of recent animal studies, we carried out this study to evaluate the effects of kiwifruit on bedsore in clinical settings. forty patients with stage 2-3 sacral bedsores, preferably paraplegic, quadriplegic, and/or hemiplegic, were allocated into two groups of experiment ...201526730042
random tagging genotyping by sequencing (rtgbs), an unbiased approach to locate restriction enzyme sites across the target genome.genotyping by sequencing (gbs) is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. the number of gbs samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for ...201526633193
ozone-induced kiwifruit ripening delay is mediated by ethylene biosynthesis inhibition and cell wall dismantling regulation.ozone treatments are used to preserve quality during cold storage of commercially important fruits due to its ethylene oxidizing capacity and its antimicrobial attributes. to address whether or not ozone also modulates ripening by directly affecting fruit physiology, kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. 'hayward') were stored in very low ethylene atmosphere at 0°c (95% rh) in air (control) or in the presence of ozone (0.3μll(-1)) for 2 or 4 months and subsequently ripened at 20°c (90% rh) for up t ...201425443835
hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant activity of kiwifruit during storage.exogenous hydrogen sulfide (h₂s) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. little work has been done to explore the effects of h₂s on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of h₂s treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol l⁻¹ on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °c storage and the role of h₂s in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit.201425328925
proteomic analysis of mg132-treated germinating pollen reveals expression signatures associated with proteasome inhibition.chemical inhibition of the proteasome has been previously found to effectively impair pollen germination and tube growth in vitro. however, the mediators of these effects at the molecular level are unknown. by performing 2de proteomic analysis, 24 differentially expressed protein spots, representing 14 unique candidate proteins, were identified in the pollen of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) germinated in the presence of the mg132 proteasome inhibitor. qpcr analysis revealed that 11 of these pr ...201425265451
effects of topical kiwifruit on healing of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer.kiwifruit (actindia deliciosa) is demonstrated to have antibacterial and pro-angiogenic effects. it also contains proteolytic enzymes (actinidin) and ascorbic acid. in this study, the effects of kiwifruit on neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer healing in clinical settings were evaluated.201425197293
manipulation of flavour and aroma compound sequestration and release using a glycosyltransferase with specificity for terpene alcohols.glycosides are an important potential source of aroma and flavour compounds for release as volatiles in flowers and fruit. the production of glycosides is catalysed by udp-glycosyltransferases (ugts) that mediate the transfer of an activated nucleotide sugar to acceptor aglycones. a screen of ugts expressed in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) identified the gene adgt4 which was highly expressed in floral tissues and whose expression increased during fruit ripening. recombinant adgt4 enzyme glycos ...201425088478
[monolith column solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography in online mode for the determination of forchlorfenuron in fruits].a novel method based on the monolithic column solid-phase extraction (spe) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography in online mode was developed for the determination of trace forchlorfenuron in fruits. the enrichment factor of spe for forchlorfenuron was 214. the method was fully validated. it showed a linear range of 0.01-50.00 microg/l and a limit of detection of 25 ng/l, with the relative standard deviation (rsd) of 3.9%. the proposed method was successfully applied for the determ ...201425069331
[agrobacterium-mediated transformation of ljamp2 gene into 'red sun' kiwifruit and its molecular identification].bacterial canker caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is one of the most important diseases of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) and leads to considerable yield losses. in order to obtain transgenic plants with resistance for 'red sun' kiwifruit to canker disease, a non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein gene (ljamp2) from motherwort (leonurus japonicus) was introduced into 'red sun' kiwifruit through agrobacterium-mediated transformation. after two days of co-cult ...201425212010
an extremely rare trigger of kounis syndrome: actinidia chinensis. 201424456873
dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (ge). in this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on ge and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (spi), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as t ...201424431326
meiotic chromosome pairing behaviour of natural tetraploids and induced autotetraploids of actinidia chinensis.non-preferential chromosome pairing was identified in tetraploid actinidia chinensis and a higher mean multivalent frequency in pollen mother cells was found in colchine-induced tetraploids of a. chinensis compared with naturally occurring tetraploids. diploid and tetraploid actinidia chinensis are used for the development of kiwifruit cultivars. diploid germplasm can be exploited in a tetraploid breeding programme via unreduced (2n) gametes and chemical-induced chromosome doubling of diploid cu ...201424306317
crystal structure of kiwellin, a major cell-wall protein from kiwifruit.kiwellin is a cysteine-rich, cell wall-associated protein with no known structural homologues. it is one of the most abundant proteins in kiwifruit (actinidia spp.), and has been shown to be recognised by ige of some patients allergic to kiwifruit. cleavage of kiwellin into an n-terminal 4 kda peptide called kissper and a core domain called kith is mediated by actinidin in vitro, and isolation of the kissper peptide from green-fleshed kiwifruit extracts suggested it may result from in vivo proce ...201425093947
structure characterization and anti-tyrosinase mechanism of polymeric proanthocyanidins fractionated from kiwifruit provide information on the structure, activity, and structure-activity relationship of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) pericarp proanthocyanidins (pas), they were separated into three fractions. these fractions were further identified by maldi-tof ms and hplc-esi-ms methods. spectra results revealed that they are complex mixtures of b-type propelargonidins, procyanidins, procyanidins gallate, and prodelphinidins. enzymatic activity analysis showed that these compounds strongly inhibit the act ...201424939165
programmed cell death in kiwifruit stigmatic arms and its relationship to the effective pollination period and the progamic phase.kiwifruit is a crop with a highly successful reproductive performance, which is impaired by the short effective pollination period of female flowers. this study investigates whether the degenerative processes observed in both pollinated and non-pollinated flowers after anthesis may be considered to be programmed cell death (pcd).201424782437
isolation and partial characterization of bacteriophages infecting pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker.the phytopathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. in the last years, it has caused severe economic losses to actinidia spp. cultivations, mainly in italy and new zealand. conventional strategies adopted did not provide adequate control of infection. phage therapy may be a realistic and safe answer to the urgent need for novel antibacterial agents aiming to control this bacterial pathogen. in this study, we described the isolation an ...201424810619
proteomic analysis of the actinidia deliciosa leaf apoplast during biotrophic colonization by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.for plant pathogenic bacteria, adaptation to the apoplast is considered as key in the establishment of the parasitic lifestyle. pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), the causal agent of the bacterial canker of kiwifruit, uses leaves as the entry site to colonize plants. through a combined approach based on 2-de, nanolc-esi-lit-ms/ms and quantitative pcr, we investigated psa colonization of the actinidia deliciosa "hayward" leaf apoplast during the bacterial biotrophic phase. a total of 58 d ...201424530627
alt a 1 from alternaria interacts with pr5 thaumatin-like proteins.alt a 1 is a protein found in alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. we found that spores of alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. nevertheless, the expression of alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi pr5. pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way tha ...201424642375
antimicrobial peptides against pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and erwinia amylovora: chemical synthesis, secondary structure, efficacy, and mechanistic investigations.we report on structurally modified dodecapeptide amides (kyklfkkilkfl-nh2) and two analogs of a hexapeptide amide (wrwycr-nh2) with antibacterial activity against the gram negative pathogens pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) and erwinia amylovora (ea). dodecapeptide minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) ranged from 3.2 to 15.4 µm, with the unmodified peptide being the most potent against both pathogens. the unmodified dodecapeptide also had 32-58% α-helicity in membrane mimetic enviro ...201424122768
ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. however, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. we engineered e. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) from pseudomonas syringae. efe converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. the production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. the resu ...201425393892
prevalence, distribution, and diversity of escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella in kiwifruit orchards and processing plants.the aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and diversity of three foodborne bacteria in kiwifruit orchards and processing plants. fourteen kiwifruit orchards and two processing plants in shaanxi province were visited for sampling in 2012. fruit samples and environmental samples in orchards and plants were taken for isolation of escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella. all isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection ...201425054781
influence of green and gold kiwifruit on indices of large bowel function in healthy rats.the effects of kiwifruit on large bowel health were investigated in healthy rats. four-week old sprague-dawley rats were given diets containing 10% homogenized green kiwifruit, gold kiwifruit or 10% glucose solution (control) over 4 or 6 wk. green kiwifruit increased the fecal output compared to control. growth of certain bacterial species in cecum was influenced by both green and gold kiwifruit. a significant increase in cecal lachnospiraceae in rats fed the green kiwifruit diet was observed at ...201425048562
identification of bacteriophages for biocontrol of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia sp.). since 2008, a global outbreak of p. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in new zealand. the economic impact and the development of resistance in p. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. we isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active ...201424487530
genetic analysis of resistance to pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) in a kiwifruit progeny test: an application of generalised linear mixed models (glmms).linear mixed models (lmms) that incorporate genetic and spatial covariance structures have been used for many years to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values in animal and plant breeding. although the theoretical aspects for extending lmm to generalised linear mixed models (glmms) have been around for some time, suitable software has been developed only within the last decade or so. the glimmix procedure in sas® is becoming popular for fitting glmms in various disciplines. ap ...201426034671
molecular characteristics of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in korea and a multiplex pcr assay for haplotype differentiation.the molecular features of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in korea were compared with strains isolated in japan and italy. sequencing of eight p. syringae pv. actinidiae and three p. syringae pv. theae strains revealed a total of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 4,818 bp of the concatenated alignment of nine genes. a multiplex pcr assay was developed for the detection of p. syringae pv. actinidiae and for the specific detection of recent haplotype strains other than ...201425288991
the kiwifruit emerging pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae does not produce ahls but possesses three luxr solos.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is an emerging phytopathogen causing bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit plants worldwide. quorum sensing (qs) gene regulation plays important roles in many different bacterial plant pathogens. in this study we analyzed the presence and possible role of n-acyl homoserine lactone (ahl) quorum sensing in psa. it was established that psa does not produce ahls and that a typical complete luxi/r qs system is absent in psa strains. psa however possesses thre ...201424498215
genetic stability assessments of plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved in vitro cultured grape and kiwi shoot-tips using vitro cultured shoot-tips of four grape (vitis vinifera) cultivars and one kiwi (actinidia deliciosa) cultivar were cryopreserved using the encapsulation-dehydration method. genomic dna of plantlets regenerated directly from cryopreserved shoot-tips was extracted and analyzed using the rapd (random amplified polymorphic dna) technique. the rapd profiles obtained were highly reproducible and no differences were found between the dna patterns obtained with plantlets regenerated from control and ...201414566391
strategies of functional foods promote sleep in human being.sleep is a vital segment of life, however, the mechanisms of diet promoting sleep are unclear and are the focus of research. insomnia is a general sleep disorder and functional foods are known to play a key role in the prevention of insomnia. a number of studies have demonstrated that major insomnia risk factors in human being are less functional foods in dietary. there are higher functional components in functional foods promoting sleep, including tryptophan, gaba, calcium, potassium, melatonin ...201426005400
pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the aegean region, turkey.the purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the aegean region of turkey. a total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. the samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. the analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (uplc/ms/ms) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (gc-ecd) confirmed by gas chro ...201424799252
do sun- versus shade-grown kiwifruits perform differently upon storage? an overview of fruit maturity and nutraceutical properties of whole and fresh-cut produce.fresh-cut produce represents a good method to save about 25% of the kiwifruit not useful to meet the fresh fruit-marketing standard due to improper size and shape. for that reason, fresh-cut kiwifruit has been extensively studied. however, the comprehension of the influence of some aspects of cultivation might further increase the shelf life as well as the nutritional values of that fruit. this study explored the hypothesis that kiwifruits grown fully exposed to sunlight or partially shaded diff ...201424762186
triterpene acids from apple peel inhibit lepidopteran larval midgut lipases and larval growth.fruit extracts from apple, kiwifruit, feijoa, boysenberry, and blueberry were screened for the presence of lipase inhibitory compounds against lepidopteran larval midgut crude extracts. from 120 extracts, six showed significant inhibition with an extract from the peel of malus × domestica cv. "big red" showing highest levels of inhibition. because this sample was the only apple peel sample in the initial screen, a survey of peels from seven apple cultivars was undertaken and showed that, despite ...201424753088
variation in gastric ph may determine kiwifruit's effect on functional gi disorder: an in vitro study.consumption of kiwifruit is reported to relieve symptoms of functional gastrointestinal (gi) disorder. the effect may be related to the proteases in kiwifruit. this in vitro study aimed to measure protein hydrolysis due to kiwifruit protease under gastric and duodenal conditions. a sequence of experiments incubated meat protein, with and without kiwifruit, with varying concentrations of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, at 37 °c for 60 min over the ph range 1.3-6.2 to simulate gastric digestion. duo ...201424732018
pre-anthesis cppu low dosage application increases 'hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional 2008, in central italy, a low dosage of cppu solution, 4 μl l(-1) (6 hl/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. at harvest, cppu, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%) ...201424731335
daily kiwifruit consumption did not improve blood pressure and markers of cardiovascular function in men with hypercholesterolemia.increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a key lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. kiwifruit has previously been shown to have favorable effects on blood pressure (bp), likely through inhibiting angiotensin i-converting enzyme activity. we hypothesized that the replacement of 2 fruit servings in a healthy diet with 2 green kiwifruit a day would significantly improve bp and other markers of cardiovascular function, including heart rate, stroke volume, card ...201424655490
hydrogen-rich water delays postharvest ripening and senescence of kiwifruit.the effect of hydrogen-rich water (hrw) on prolonging the shelf life of kiwifruit and possible underlying mechanisms were assessed. our results revealed that hrw (30%, 80%, and 100%) displayed different effects in inhibiting the rot of kiwifruit. among these treatments, 80% hrw had the most significant effect by decreasing the rot incidence and preserving the firmness of kiwifruit. this conclusion was supported by the fact that 80% hrw treatment could effectively alleviate pectin solubilization ...201424629944
synergistic defensive function of raphides and protease through the needle effect.raphides, needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals in tissues of many plants, have been thought to play defensive roles against herbivores without detailed bioassays for their defensive roles and modes of function using purified raphides. in order to examine the defensive roles and modes of function of raphides in a clear experimental system, we performed bioassays giving the larvae of the eri silkmoth, samia ricini (saturniidae), leaves of their host plant, the castor oil plant, ricinus communis ...201424621613
proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.actinidin, a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases, is abundant in kiwifruit. to date, a few studies have been provided to investigate the proteolytic activity and substrate specificity of actinidin on native proteins. herein, the proteolytic activity of actinidin was compared to papain on several different fibrous and globular proteins under neutral, acidic and basic conditions. the digested samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sd ...201424604128
modeling the effects of light and sucrose on in vitro propagated plants: a multiscale system analysis using artificial intelligence technology.plant acclimation is a highly complex process, which cannot be fully understood by analysis at any one specific level (i.e. subcellular, cellular or whole plant scale). various soft-computing techniques, such as neural networks or fuzzy logic, were designed to analyze complex multivariate data sets and might be used to model large such multiscale data sets in plant biology.201424465829
survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin c, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). for comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. over ...201424360417
determination of forchlorfenuron in fruits by solid phase or quechers extraction and lc-uv or lc/ms/ms.forchlorfenuron, n-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-n'-phenylurea, is a plant growth regulator used to increase the size of kiwifruit, apples, table grapes, and peaches and to promote increased yields of potatoes, rice, and wheat. this study reports the comparison of the performances of two extraction methods [quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (quechers) and spe] and two analytical methods (lc-uv and a lc/ms/ms) when determining forchlorfenuron in apples, kiwis, and grapes. both extraction m ...201425051647
the effect of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) cysteine protease actinidin on the occludin tight junction network in t84 intestinal epithelial cells.actinidin, a kiwifruit cysteine protease, is a marker allergen for genuine sensitization to this food allergen source. inhalatory cysteine proteases have the capacity for disruption of tight junctions (tjs) enhancing the permeability of the bronchial epithelium. no such properties have been reported for allergenic food proteases so far. the aim was to determine the effect of actinidin on the integrity of t84 monolayers by evaluating its action on the tj protein occludin. immunoblot and immunoflu ...201425042511
detailed characterization of act d 12 and act d 13 from kiwi seeds: implication in ige cross-reactivity with peanut and tree nuts.act d 12 (11s globulin) and act d 13 (2s albumin) are two novel relevant allergens from kiwi seeds that might be useful to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and the management of kiwifruit-allergic patients.201425041438
act d 12 and act d 13: two novel, masked, relevant allergens in kiwifruit seeds. 201424990823
overexpression of the kiwifruit svp3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.svp-like mads domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. previously, four svp genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. kiwifruit svp3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it w ...201424948678
taqib polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (cetp) gene influences lipid responses to the consumption of kiwifruit in hypercholesterolaemic men.fruit and vegetables are key elements of a cardioprotective diet, but benefits on plasma lipids, especially hdl-cholesterol (hdl-c), are inconsistent both within and between studies. in the present study, we investigated whether four selected hdl-c-related polymorphisms (cholesteryl ester transfer protein (cetp) taq1b, apoa1 - 75g/a, hepatic lipase (lipc) - 514c → t, and endothelial lipase (lipg) i24582) modulate the plasma lipid response to a kiwifruit intervention. this is a retrospective anal ...201424176024
establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality rna from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. this work describes the successful modification of a total rna extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total rna from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification of gapdh housekeeping gene from iso ...201424321691
actinidin from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.the present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. for this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). ...201424252432
effects of daidzein and kiwifruit on bone mineral density and equol production in ovariectomised this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of daidzein (dz) and kiwifruit on bone and equol production in ovariectomised (ovx) rats. female sprague-dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham operated, ovx control, ovx fed 0.1% dz-supplemented diet (ovx + dz), ovx fed 0.1% dz and green kiwifruit (grk)-supplemented diet (ovx + dz + grk) and ovx fed 0.1% dz and gold kiwifruit (gok)-supplemented diet (ovx + dz + gok). there were no significant differences in whole bod ...201424251973
inhibitory effects of kiwifruit extract on human platelet aggregation and plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity.previous human studies suggest that supplementation with kiwifruits lowers several cardiovascular risk factors such as platelet hyperactivity, blood pressure and plasma lipids. the cardiovascular health benefit of fruit and vegetables is usually attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals therein; however, kiwifruit's cardioprotective factors are not well studied. in this study, we investigated the effects of kiwifruit extract on human blood platelet aggregation and plasma angiotensin-co ...201424219176
relationships between the leaf and fruit mineral compositions of actinidia deliciosa var. hayward according to nitrogen and potassium fertilization.the variations of the elements that are examined most frequently during foliar analysis were determined for kiwi as a function of different nitrogen and potassium fertilizer loads. the values recorded demonstrated the existence of a relation between the leaves and the fruit. two groups of elements were identified that exhibited different responses. the first group comprised elements that, in leaves and fruits, presented a different evolution as a function of at least one of the fertilizers. this ...201424206717
inflammatory status modulates plasma lipid and inflammatory marker responses to kiwifruit consumption in hypercholesterolaemic men.kiwifruit has the potential to improve markers of metabolic dysfunction, but the response may be influenced by inflammatory state. we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory state would modulate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruit daily on plasma lipids and markers of inflammation.201424099724
effect of ultrasound treatment on the water state in kiwifruit during osmotic dehydration.the present work investigates how ultrasound pretreatment modulates the effects of osmotic dehydration (od) on the water state and microstructure of kiwifruit. kiwifruit slices (10mm thick) were subjected to ultrasonic waves in a water bath at a frequency of 35 khz for 10, 20 and 30 min. od process was then carried out by immersing the samples in 61.5% sucrose solution equilibrated at 25°c for a contact period of 0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. the partition of water into the cellular tissue stru ...201424099537
characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins: an assessment of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin.assessment of the potential allergenicity (ige-inducing properties) of novel proteins is an important challenge in the overall safety assessment of foods. resistance to digestion with pepsin is commonly measured to characterize allergenicity, although the association is not absolute. we have previously shown that specific ige antibody production induced by systemic [intraperitoneal (i.p.)] exposure of balb/c strain mice to a range of proteins correlates with allergenic potential for known allerg ...201423754484
comparative pathogenicity, biocontrol efficacy, and multilocus sequence typing of verticillium nonalfalfae from the invasive ailanthus altissima and other hosts.verticillium wilt, caused by verticillium nonalfalfae, is currently killing tens of thousands of highly invasive ailanthus altissima trees within the forests in pennsylvania, ohio, and virginia and is being considered as a biological control agent of ailanthus. however, little is known about the pathogenicity and virulence of v. nonalfalfae isolates from other hosts on ailanthus, or the genetic diversity among v. nonalfalfae from confirmed ailanthus wilt epicenters and from locations and hosts n ...201424134719
a biophysical model of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berry development.a model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of fishman and génard used for peach fruit. that model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. first, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit ...201324123250
maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genomes and complex inheritance of chloroplast genomes in actinidia lind.: evidences from interspecific crosses.the inheritance pattern of chloroplast and mitochondria is a critical determinant in studying plant phylogenetics, biogeography and hybridization. to better understand chloroplast and mitochondrial inheritance patterns in actinidia (traditionally called kiwifruit), we performed 11 artificial interspecific crosses and studied the ploidy levels, morphology, and sequence polymorphisms of chloroplast dna (cpdna) and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of parents and progenies. sequence analysis showed that th ...201323337924
mood improvement in young adult males following supplementation with gold kiwifruit, a high-vitamin c food.enhanced intakes of fruit and vegetables have been associated with improved psychological well-being. we investigated the potential mood-enhancing effects of kiwifruit, a fruit rich in vitamin c and a number of other important micronutrients. young adult males (n 35) were supplemented with either half or two kiwifruit/d for 6 weeks. profile of mood states questionnaires were completed at baseline and following the intervention. no effect on overall mood was observed in the half a kiwifruit/d gro ...201325191573
changes in the bound aroma profiles of 'hayward' and 'hort16a' kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) during ripening and gc-olfactometry analysis.bound volatiles are recognised as a potential source of aroma compounds in fruits. in this study, the bound volatiles of actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and a. chinensis 'hort16a' were studied at three different ripening stages. the bound volatile content tended to increase as the fruit ripened from under-ripe to ripe, and then decreased in over-ripe fruit. glycosides of (z)-3-hexen-1-ol and hexanol (green-note volatiles) were present in considerable amounts. β-glucosidase activity in 'hayward' an ...201323199989
identification and thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins in aqueous solutions with various ph values and fruit juices.thirteen anthocyanins were identified in the purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivar jihei no. 1. the main anthocyanins were 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside derivatives from cyanidin and peonidin, acylated with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, or caffeic acid. a unique anthocyanin, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside was also found. the thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins (pspas) followed a first-order kinetics model. aqueous solutions with various ph (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) and fruit j ...201323194545
kiwifruit consumption favourably affects plasma lipids in a randomised controlled trial in hypercholesterolaemic men.the unique composition of green kiwifruit has the potential to benefit cvd risk. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruits daily in conjunction with a healthy diet on plasma lipids and other metabolic markers and to examine response according to apoe genotype in hypercholesterolaemic men. after undergoing a 4-week healthy diet, eighty-five hypercholesterolaemic men (ldl-cholesterol (ldl-c) > 3.0 mmol/l and tag < 3 mmol/l) completed an 8-week ran ...201323151354
kiwifruit allergy across europe: clinical manifestation and ige recognition patterns to kiwifruit allergens.kiwifruit is a common cause of food allergy. symptoms range from mild to anaphylactic reactions.201323141741
lc-ms-ms determination and pharmacokinetic study of the novel anti-tumor candidate drug teoa in rats.2α, 3α, 24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (teoa) is a prominent ursane-type triterpenoid isolated from the root of actinidia deliciosa, which has numerous pharmacological activities. to date, there is no report on the pharmacokinetic characterization of teoa in biological samples. a specific, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms-ms) method is reported for the fast assay of teoa in rat plasma. plasma sample preparation was based on liquid-liquid extraction w ...201323139245
clonal differences in antioxidant activity and bioactive constituents of hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) and its year-to-year variability.hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) is a new species, commercially grown in recent years. total phenolics (tpc), vitamin c (taa) content, antioxidant activity (aa) and their year-to-year variability in seven hardy kiwifruit clones were evaluated. tpc was determined using the folin-ciocalteu reagent assay. taa was estimated by determination of l-ascorbic acid and l-dehydroascorbic acid levels using high-performance liquid chromatography. aa was measured using diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (dpph), 2,2 ...201323070974
expression patterns and promoter characteristics of the gene encoding actinidia deliciosa l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase involved in the response to light and abiotic stresses.the gene encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (gpp) plays a central role in ascorbic acid (asa) biosynthesis in plants. here, we report asa contents, gpp expression, and functioning of its promoter in response to light, exogenous stress-signalling hormones, or abiotic stresses in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). to identify the upstream region of gpp required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of promoter deletion derivatives. each construct was analyzed by agrobacterium-medi ...201323070919
molecular cloning and characterization of a cdna encoding kiwifruit l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, a key gene of inositol formation.l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mips; ec is the key enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of myo-inositol, leading to numerous cellular functions. we isolated an open reading frame of actinidia deliciosa mips (admips), which is 1,533 bp long and codes for 510 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 56.3 kda. sequence analysis revealed its high similarity with mips proteins from other organisms. gene expression and enzyme activity were highest in flower and young fruit. tra ...201323065229
influence of cultivation parameters on the composition of volatile compounds and physico-chemical characteristics of kiwi fruit.the effect of four cultivation parameters (post-maturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °c and input of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers) on the physico-chemical characteristics and composition of volatile compounds in kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated. five physico-chemical parameters were selected, namely, ph, total acidity, dry matter, conductivity and refractive index. to our knowledge, no published data are available concerning the influence of nitrogen or potassium fertil ...201322936621
the effects of fruit maturation, delayed storage and ethylene treatment on the incidence of low-temperature breakdown of 'hayward' kiwifruit.low-temperature breakdown (ltb), a disorder inducing quality loss, during and after cold storage of 'hayward' kiwifruit was investigated. harvested kiwifruits during fruit maturation or after delayed storage (ds) at 20 °c for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and 1 µl l⁻¹ ethylene treatment for 24 h were stored at -0.5 °c for 24 weeks and additional ripening at 20 °c for 5 days. fruit quality indices and ltb incidence and severity were determined before and after treatments.201322777890
characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.two plant enzyme extracts from kiwifruit and asparagus were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse commercially available substrates and proteins present in both beef connective tissue and topside myofibrillar extracts. the results show significant differences in protease activity depending on the assay used. protease assays with connective tissue and meat myofibrillar extracts provide a more realistic evaluation of the potential of the enzymes for application in meat tenderization. overall, t ...201323122154
characterisation of the polyphenol content in the kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) exocarp for the calibration of a fruit-sorting optical sensor.kiwifruit contains high amounts of anti-oxidants beneficial to health. its quality is influenced by ripening time, genotype, cultivation techniques, climate and storage conditions after harvest.201323716352
in vitro toxicity of silver nanoparticles to kiwifruit pollen exhibits peculiar traits beyond the cause of silver ion release.the vast use of silver nanoparticles (agnps) mandates thorough investigation of their impact on biosystems at various levels. the cytotoxicity of pvp coated-agnps to pollen, the aploid male gametophyte of higher plants, has been assessed here for the first time. the negative effects of agnps include substantial decreases in pollen viability and performance, specific ultrastructural alterations, early changes in calcium content, and unbalance of redox status. ag⁺ released from agnps damaged polle ...201323702492
volume-based pollen size analysis: an advanced method to assess somatic and gametophytic ploidy in flowering plants.pollen size is often used as a biological parameter to estimate the ploidy and viability of mature pollen grains. in general, pollen size quantification is performed one- or two-dimensionally using image-based diameter measurements. as these approaches are elaborate and time consuming, alternative approaches that enable a quick, reliable analysis of pollen size are highly relevant for plant research. in this study, we present the volume-based particle size analysis technique as an alternative me ...201323686220
hydraulic resistance of developing actinidia fruit.xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. it has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (rt) contributes to this process. this study examined changes in rt that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase ...201323658370
endogenous cytokinin in developing kiwifruit is implicated in maintaining fruit flesh chlorophyll kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) retain high concentrations of chlorophyll in the fruit flesh, whereas in gold-fleshed kiwifruit (a. chinensis) chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites during fruit development, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. the plant hormone group the cytokinins has been implicated in the delay of senescence, and so the aim of this work was to investigate the link between cytokinin levels in ripening fruit and chlorophyll de-greening.201323644363
low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in 'hayward' kiwifruit by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and regulating en-dogenous hormones understand the mechanisms leading to the enhanced chilling tolerance of kiwifruit by low-temperature conditioning (ltc, 12 °c for 3 days), this study investigated the effect of ltc on chilling tolerance and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and endogenous hormones.201323633231
homologs of ft, cen and fd respond to developmental and environmental signals affecting growth and flowering in the perennial vine kiwifruit.flowering locus t (ft) and centroradialis (cen) homologs have been implicated in regulation of growth, determinacy and flowering. the roles of kiwifruit ft and cen were explored using a combination of expression analysis, protein interactions, response to temperature in high-chill and low-chill kiwifruit cultivars and ectopic expression in arabidopsis and actinidia. the expression and activity of ft was opposite from that of cen and incorporated an interaction with a flowering locus d (fd)-like ...201323577598
health-promoting effects of ethylene-treated kiwifruit 'hayward' from conventional and organic crops in rats fed an atherogenic diet.kiwifruit is a subtropical fruit that is very popular among consumers. kiwifruit 'hayward' ( actinidia deliciosa c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson) is an important source of bioactive compounds and possesses high antioxidant capacity, but its value can be changed during ripening. the aim of this study was to compare the levels of total polyphenols (tp), ascorbic acid (aa), and total antioxidant capacities (tacs) of ethylene-treated and nontreated kiwifruits 'hayward' from conventional and organic farm ...201323566063
a pparγ ligand present in actinidia fruit (actinidia chrysantha) is identified as dilinolenoyl galactosyl glycerol.activity-guided fractionation of actinidia fruit species, including kiwifruit, has identified dlgg (dilinolenoyl galactosyl glycerol) as a potent pparγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) ligand. dlgg is a type of mgdg (monogalactosyl diacylglycerol) and is present in all chloroplasts, and therefore all green fruits and vegetables. pparγ is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates glucose metabolism and inflammation. an ethyl acetate extract of actinidia chrysantha was f ...201323548247
actinidia drm1--an intrinsically disordered protein whose mrna expression is inversely correlated with spring budbreak in kiwifruit.intrinsically disordered proteins (idps) are a relatively recently defined class of proteins which, under native conditions, lack a unique tertiary structure whilst maintaining essential biological functions. functional classification of idps have implicated such proteins as being involved in various physiological processes including transcription and translation regulation, signal transduction and protein modification. actinidia drm1 (ade dormancy associated gene 1), represents a robust dormanc ...201323516402
(e)-5-hexadecenyl acetate: a novel moth sex pheromone component from stathmopoda auriferella.the sex pheromone of stathmopoda auriferella (walker), an important pest of kiwifruit in korea, was studied. two candidate pheromone components detected in the gland extracts of females were identified as (e)-5-hexadecenyl acetate (e5-16:oac) and (e)-5-hexadecenol (e5-16:oh) in a ratio of 75:25 by mass spectral analysis of natural pheromone components and dimethyldisulfide adducts, and retention index comparisons with synthetic standards. in the kiwifruit orchards, e5-16:oac alone was attractive ...201323483347
human skeletal muscle ascorbate is highly responsive to changes in vitamin c intake and plasma concentrations.vitamin c (ascorbate) is likely to be essential for skeletal muscle structure and function via its role as an enzyme cofactor for collagen and carnitine biosynthesis. vitamin c may also protect these metabolically active cells from oxidative stress.201323446899
preface. kiwifruit. 201323394997
kiwifruit allergies.while kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. ige-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. eleven green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as act d 1 through act d 11. bet v 1 homologue (act d 8) and profilin (act d 9 ...201323394996
effects of kiwifruit on innate and adaptive immunity and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.maintenance of an adequate and properly regulated immune system is essential for health and well-being. components in food may modulate immune responses in a positive way (immunonutrition), and some of these components are present in kiwifruit. kiwifruit contains vitamin c, carotenoids, polyphenols, and dietary fiber, and these are all potentially beneficial to the immune system. research that has contributed to our understanding of the beneficial effects that kiwifruit may have on immune respon ...201323394995
kiwifruit as a modulator of dna damage and dna repair.kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin c and other antioxidants. we have demonstrated the capacity of kiwifruit to protect cellular dna against oxidative damage in single-dose human experiments and in longer term supplementation trials using the comet assay to measure both dna-strand breaks and oxidized bases. enhanced antioxidant status following a single large dose of kiwifruit is shown by an increased resistance of lymphocyte dna to oxidation by h(2)o(2)in vitro. after 3 weeks (or more) of su ...201323394994
cardioprotective properties of kiwifruit.beneficial effects of consumption of fruit and vegetables on the cardiovascular system have been reported. fruit and vegetable components affect the cardiovascular system in both antioxidant and nonantioxidant ways. the mechanisms of their actions are, however, still not well understood. the compounds present in fruits and vegetables may function individually or in concert to protect lipoproteins and vascular cells from oxidation or by other mechanisms such as reducing plasma lipid levels, high ...201323394993
kiwifruit, carbohydrate availability, and the glycemic appreciable proportion, about 10%, of the dry weight of kiwifruit consists of primary cell walls. about 80% of dry matter is available carbohydrate consisting of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and about 10% is digestible protein. the cell wall component, being nonstarch polysaccharide, is undigested in the stomach and small intestine, so the component increases in relative concentration in the gut lumen where its physicochemical properties may be important in modulating carbohydrate digestio ...201323394992
kiwifruit and mineral nutrition.dietary minerals are essential nutrients that drive key cellular and physiological functions. each mineral is absorbed in the gut via unique, complex pathways that can involve a cascade of receptors and binding proteins. foods can both provide dietary minerals and contain components that impact the bioavailability of minerals in the digestive system. kiwifruit exceeds most other fruits in its content of key micronutrients including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, and folate. it ...201323394991
kiwifruit modulation of gastrointestinal motility.disorders of gastrointestinal motility are common, resulting in a decreased quality of life of individuals, and an economic burden. gastrointestinal motility is categorized according to location within the gastrointestinal tract: stomach, small intestine, and colon, with the colon being the dominant compartment in determining overall gastrointestinal transit. constipation results from gastrointestinal dysmotility and is a significant chronic health issue globally. clinical studies in a range of ...201323394990
modification of the colonic is becoming clear that the ecology and functionality of the human gut microbiota are extremely diverse and complex. the microbiota have coevolved with us metabolically to live symbiotically and to share the workload of extracting nutrients and energy from the diet. it is also clear that a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals is good for general health and gut health and that this is due partly to the phytochemicals and partly to the nondigestible carbohydrates (or dietary f ...201323394989
Displaying items 201 - 300 of 686