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comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.in this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different ph values (ph 3.0, ph 7.5 and ph 10.5) using casein as a substrate. ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10u/g. pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. additionally, high pr ...201627451238
classification of kiwifruit grades based on fruit shape using a single camera.this study aims to demonstrate the feasibility for classifying kiwifruit into shape grades by adding a single camera to current chinese sorting lines equipped with weight sensors. image processing methods are employed to calculate fruit length, maximum diameter of the equatorial section, and projected area. a stepwise multiple linear regression method is applied to select significant variables for predicting minimum diameter of the equatorial section and volume and to establish corresponding est ...201627376292
influence of ph on the structure and function of kiwi pectin methylesterase inhibitor.pectin methylesterase is a pectin modifying enzyme that plays a key role in plant physiology. it is also an important quality-related enzyme in plant-based food products. the pectin methylesterase inhibitor (pmei) from kiwifruit inhibits this enzyme activity and is widely used as an efficient tool for research purposes and also recommended in the context of fruit and vegetable processing. using several methodologies of protein biochemistry, including circular dichroism and fluorescence spectrosc ...201627335009
optimal pretreatment determination of kiwifruit drying via online monitoring.pre-treating is a crucial stage of drying process. the best pretreatment for hot air drying of kiwifruit was investigated using a computer vision system (cvs), for online monitoring of drying attributes including drying time, colour changes and shrinkage, as decision criteria and using clustering method. slices were dried at 70 °c with hot water blanching (hwb), steam blanching (sb), infrared blanching (ir) and acid ascorbic 1% w/w (aa) as pretreatments each with three durations of 5, 10 and 15  ...201627322542
exploiting genotyping by sequencing to characterize the genomic structure of the american cranberry through high-density linkage mapping.the application of genotyping by sequencing (gbs) approaches, combined with data imputation methodologies, is narrowing the genetic knowledge gap between major and understudied, minor crops. gbs is an excellent tool to characterize the genomic structure of recently domesticated (~200 years) and understudied species, such as cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.), by generating large numbers of markers for genomic studies such as genetic mapping.201627295982
investigation of absorption and scattering characteristics of kiwifruit tissue using a single integrating sphere system.for a quantitative understanding of light interaction with fruit tissue, it is critical to obtain two fundamental parameters: the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient of the tissue. this study was to investigate the optical properties of kiwifruit tissue at the wavelength of 632.8 nm. the total reflectance and total transmittance of kiwifruit tissue from three parts (including the flesh part, the seed part, and the seed-base part) were measured using a single integrating sphere ...201627256682
bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: challenges in bacterial molecular plant pathology.plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. the attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. new and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip o ...201627238249
overexpression of actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic arabidopsis thaliana.ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. here, we cloned a full-length pdc cdna sequence from kiwifruit, named adpdc1. we determined the expression of the adpdc1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qrt-pcr, and the results showed that the increas ...201627191596
influence of cultivation parameters on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit from corsica.the effect of four cultivation parameters (postmaturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °c, and input of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa var. hayward) from corsica were evaluated. the kiwi fruit were harvested on three dates at two-week intervals and some fruit were stored for three and four months. the kiwi fruit orchard was fertilized with controlled levels of nitrogen (five levels) and potassium (three levels) during one grow ...201627135990
papain induced occupational asthma with kiwi and fig allergy.papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. here, we present a case of occupational, ige-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. a 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the t ...201626739411
hairiness: the missing link between pollinators and pollination.functional traits are the primary biotic component driving organism influence on ecosystem functions; in consequence, traits are widely used in ecological research. however, most animal trait-based studies use easy-to-measure characteristics of species that are at best only weakly associated with functions. animal-mediated pollination is a key ecosystem function and is likely to be influenced by pollinator traits, but to date no one has identified functional traits that are simple to measure and ...201628028464
optimization of polyphenol removal from kiwifruit juice using a macroporous resin.the separation of polyphenols from kiwifruit juice is essential for enhancing sensory properties and prevent the browning reaction in juice during processing and storage.201627701746
hollow molecular imprinted polymers towards rapid, effective and selective extraction of caffeic acid from fruits.rapid and selective extraction and enrichment of trace bioactive analytes from complex matrices were of significant importance for efficient and accurate quantification. here, novel hollow molecular imprinted polymers (hmips) were prepared using caffeic acid (ca) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-vp) as functional monomer, and fe3o4@sio2 as sacrificial support. fourier transform infrared spectrometer (ft-ir), transmission electron microscopy (tem), nitrogen adsorption and thermo-gravimetric analys ...201627720422
effects of diet on sleep quality.there is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. however, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. in this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. research has focused on the ...201627633109
[not available].los kiwis, tanto la variedad verde (actinidia deliciosa) como la de color amarillo (sungold®) (a. chinensis), destacan entre las frutas de consumo habitual por su composición nutricional. son excepcionalmente ricos en vitamina c, ya que los kiwis verdes duplican la cantidad que tienen fresas o naranjas, y el kiwi de color amarillo incluso la triplica. además, los kiwis tienen un elevado contenido en vitaminas e, k, folatos, carotenoides, potasio, fibra y otros fitoquímicos, que proporcionan no s ...201627571859
actinidia arguta supplementation protects aorta and liver in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia.there are no published results focusing on the study of hardy kiwifruit as a supplementation to the atherogenic diet. we hypothesized that hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta (a. arguta)) from poland possess better pro-healthy action than two asian varieties (hayward and bidan). we tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic reactions of rats loaded with 1% cholesterol and supplemented with 5% of hardy kiwifruit (a. arguta), hayward, or bidan in their diets. the experiment was performed on 7 ...201627865618
kiwifruit fibre level influences the predicted production and absorption of scfa in the hindgut of growing pigs using a combined in vivo-in vitro digestion methodology.combined in vivo (ileal cannulated pig) and in vitro (faecal inoculum-based fermentation) digestion methodologies were used to predict the production and absorption of scfa in the hindgut of growing pigs. ileal and faecal samples were collected from animals (n 7) fed diets containing either 25 or 50 g/kg dm of kiwifruit fibre from added kiwifruit for 14 d. ileal and faecal scfa concentrations normalised for food dm intake (dmi) and nutrient digestibility were determined. ileal digesta were colle ...201626277926
inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.hardy kiwifruits (actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) for 16 h at 10 °c and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °c. anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. the hardy kiwifruits, without 1-mcp treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. the 1-mcp treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. fruits with ...201626212954
kiwifruit cysteine protease actinidin compromises the intestinal barrier by disrupting tight junctions.the intestinal epithelium forms a barrier that food allergens must cross in order to induce sensitization. the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the plant-derived food cysteine protease--actinidin (act d1) on the integrity of intestinal epithelium tight junctions (tjs).201626701113
characterization of starch degradation related genes in postharvest kiwifruit.starch is one of the most important storage carbohydrates in plants. kiwifruit typically accumulate large amounts of starch during development. the fruit retain starch until commercial maturity, and its postharvest degradation is essential for consumer acceptance. the activity of genes related to starch degradation has, however, rarely been investigated. based on the kiwifruit genome sequence and previously reported starch degradation-related genes, 17 novel genes were isolated and the relations ...201627983700
influence of geographical location of orchards on green kiwifruit bioactive components.italy is one of the world's major kiwifruit producers and exporters with orchards located in different areas from the north to the south of the peninsula. this study sought to investigate for the first time the possible influence of the geographical location of kiwifruit orchards on some fruit components, selected because of their involvement in beneficial or negative effects on human health. the fruits harvested in 16 italian areas were analyzed, and the results obtained show that the observed ...201627933987
the digestion of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) fibre and the effect of kiwifruit on the digestibility of other dietary nutrients.the effect of dietary kiwifruit inclusion level on the digestibility of kiwifruit fibre and dietary nutrients was studied. ileal cannulated pigs (50±1.9 kg) were fed a fibre-free diet for seven days (n=14) followed by kiwifruit-containing diets (133 or 266 g kiwifruit/kg dry matter) (n=7) for 44 days followed by the fibre-free diet (n=14) for seven days. faecal and ileal samples were collected on days 5, 11, 21, 35, 49 and 56. the soluble kiwifruit fibre was highly digested in the foregut (80%), ...201626616986
growth rate of bumblebee larvae is related to pollen amino acids.the use of bombus terrestris l. commercial colonies for outdoor and greenhouse crop pollination is currently widespread. colony breeding includes bumblebee feeding, mostly by using the honeybee pollen loads of diverse palynological composition. because the chemical content of pollen is highly variable, the choice of commercial blend should not be random but has to be carefully selected to ensure the optimal development of workers and then pollination efficacy. in this work, we compared the impac ...201626385047
equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit for wheaten cereal reduces postprandial glycaemia without decreasing satiety.kiwifruit is a carbohydrate food of low glycaemic potency which could potentially be exchanged for starch-based foods in management of postprandial glycaemia. the effect of equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit varieties 'hayward' green (gr) and 'zesy002' (sungold; sg) for a starchy wheat-based breakfast cereal (wb) on the characteristics of the postprandial glycaemic response and satiety was therefore determined. a total of twenty non-diabetic subjects (mean age 36 years; mean bmi 24·5 ...201627752304
effect of putrescine treatment on chilling injury, fatty acid composition and antioxidant system in kiwifruit.we investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mm) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch. var. chinensis 'hongyang'). we achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mm putrescine. furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increase ...201627607076
optimization of postharvest ultrasonic treatment of kiwifruit using rsm.this study reports the optimization of ultrasonic treatment combined with sodium hypochlorite (naocl) solution on kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) to evaluate its effect on microbial population, respiration rate and its textural quality. response surface methodology (rsm) based on four factors three level central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of process variables on ultrasonic treatment. four independent variables include ultrasonic intensity (184-368w/cm(2)), temperatur ...201627150778
antibacterial activity of essential oils mixture against psa.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. it is very difficult to treat pandemic disease. the prolonged treatment with antibiotics, has resulted in failure and resistance and alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. the aim of our study was to analyse the phenotypic characteristics of psa, identify new substances from natural source i.e. essential oils (eos) able to contain the kiwifruit canker and investigate their pote ...201625782920
comprehensive transcriptome profiling reveals long noncoding rna expression and alternative splicing regulation during fruit development and ripening in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).genomic and transcriptomic data on kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) in public databases are very limited despite its nutritional and economic value. previously, we have constructed and sequenced nine fruit rna-seq libraries of a. chinensis "hongyang" at immature, mature, and postharvest ripening stages of fruit development, and generated over 66.2 million paired-end and 24.4 million single-end reads. from this dataset, here we have identified 7051 long noncoding rnas (lncrnas), 29,327 alternative ...201627594858
microarray analysis of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) bark following challenge by the sucking insect hemiberlesia lataniae (hemiptera: diaspididae).both commercial and experimental genotypes of kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) exhibit large differences in response to insect pests. an understanding of the vine's physiological response to insect feeding and its genetic basis will be important in assisting the development of varieties with acceptable levels of pest resistance. this experiment describes transcriptome changes observed in the bark of kiwifruit 2 and 7 days after the commencement of feeding by the armored scale insect pest, hemiberlesia ...201626981426
identification and validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative pcr data in kiwifruit.identification and validation of reference genes are required for the normalization of qpcr data. we studied the expression stability produced by eight primer pairs amplifying four common genes used as references for normalization. samples representing different tissues, organs and developmental stages in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (a. chev.) a. chev.) were used. a total of 117 kiwifruit samples were divided into five sample sets (mature leaves, axillary buds, stigmatic arms, ...201626897117
wide distribution of airborne ice-nucleation active pseudomonas syringae in agricultural environments.pseudomonas syringae, a phytopathogen with a wide host range, inhabits various environments. among these habitats, air is an important transport environment for microbes, allowing them to disperse over long distances; however, information on the distribution and composition of airborne p. syringae is limited. here, we report the isolation of several groups of airborne p. syringae in japan. since 2013, we have trapped 43 strains of airborne p. syringae species complex, most of which were ice-nucl ...201627247081
two subclasses of differentially expressed tps1 genes and biochemically active tps1 proteins may contribute to sugar signalling in kiwifruit actinidia chinensis.trehalose metabolism and its intermediate trehalose-6-phosphate (t6p) are implicated in sensing and signalling sucrose availability. four class i trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (tps1) genes were identified in kiwifruit, three of which have both the tps and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (tpp) domain, while the fourth gene gives rise to a truncated transcript. the transcript with highest sequence homology to arabidopsis tps1, designated tps1.1a was the most highly abundant tps1 transcript in a ...201627992562
overall quality properties of kiwifruit treated by cinnamaldehyde and citral: microbial, antioxidant capacity during cold storage.this work was undertaken to evaluate the microbiological characteristics and antioxidant and physiological activities in kiwifruits (actinida deliciosa var. qinmei) with/without cinnamaldehyde (c1) and citral (c2) fumigation treatments (5 μl/l) during 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 d of storage at 4 °c. essential oils (eos) treatment lowered the total viable counts, yeast, and mold to 1.54, 2.36, and 2.05 log cfu/g, respectively. moreover, eos improved the antioxidant activities of kiwifruit. they enhanced ...201627802570
a set of pcrs for rapid identification and characterization of pseudomonas syringae phylogroups.the aim of this study was to develop a rapid pcr-based method for the specific detection of individual phylogroups of the pseudomonas syringae complex.201626661140
isolation and characterization of bacteriophages against pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causing bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. in this study, we isolated bacterioph ...201626628254
pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mm oxalic acid (oa) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (ssc) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °c). pre-harvest application of oa led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in ssc during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidenc ...201626213007
a complex inoculant of n2-fixing, p- and k-solubilizing bacteria from a purple soil improves the growth of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) plantlets.limited information is available if plant growth promoting bacteria (pgpb) can promote the growth of fruit crops through improvements in soil fertility. this study aimed to evaluate the capacity of pgpb, identified by phenotypic and 16s rrna sequencing from a vegetable purple soil in chongqing, china, to increase soil nitrogen (n), phosphorus (p), and potassium (k) availability and growth of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis). in doing so, three out of 17 bacterial isolates with a high capacity of ...201627445991
accessing spoilage features of osmotolerant yeasts identified from kiwifruit plantation and processing environment in shaanxi, china.osmotolerant yeasts originating from kiwifruit industrial chain can result in spoilage incidences, while little information is available about their species and spoilage features. this work identified possible spoilage osmotolerant yeasts from orchards and a manufacturer (quick-freeze kiwifruit manufacturer) in main producing areas in shaanxi, china and further characterized their spoilage features. a total of 86 osmotolerant isolates dispersing over 29 species were identified through 26s rdna s ...201627294521
identification and characterization of botrytis blossom blight of japanese plums caused by botrytis cinerea and b. prunorum sp. nov. in chile.blossom blight is a destructive disease of plums (prunus salicina) when humid and temperate weather conditions occur in chile. disease incidence ranging from 4 to 53% has been observed. symptoms include light brown petal necrosis, starting as light brown mottles or v-shaped necrosis at the margins of the petals, progressing to the stamen and pistils. in this study, the etiology of blossom blight of plums was determined. high- and low-sporulating isolates of botrytis were obtained consistently fr ...201626474331
d-psa-k: a model for estimating the accumulated potential damage on kiwifruit canes caused by bacterial canker during the growing and overwintering seasons.we developed a model, termed d-psa-k, to estimate the accumulated potential damage on kiwifruit canes caused by bacterial canker during the growing and overwintering seasons. the model consisted of three parts including estimation of the amount of necrotic lesion in a non-frozen environment, the rate of necrosis increase in a freezing environment during the overwintering season, and the amount of necrotic lesion on kiwifruit canes caused by bacterial canker during the overwintering and growing s ...201627904460
stress tolerance and biocontrol performance of the yeast antagonist, candida diversa, change with morphology transition.as an eco-friendly management method, biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing antagonistic yeasts, is a research topic receiving considerable attention. detailed knowledge on the biology of yeast antagonists is crucial when considering their potential application and development as biocontrol products. changes in the growth form, such as single-cell to pseudohyphae, have been associated with the mode of action in postharvest biocontrol yeasts. in this study, the antagonistic yeast, ...201626637302
outbreak and spread of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in korea.a bacterial pathogen, pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), is a causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker worldwide. psa biovar 3 (psa3) was first detected in 2011 at an orchard in dodeok-myeon, goheunggun, jeonnam province in korea. in this study, we present the results of an epidemiological study regarding psa3 occurrence on kiwifruit orchards in korea for the period of 2013 to 2015. since the first detection of psa3 in 2011, there was no further case reported by 2013. however, psa3 was ...201627904461
antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde and estragole extracted from plant essential oils against pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causing bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (peos) originating from 49 plant species were tested against psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. the five peos from pimenta racemosa, p. dioica, melaleuca linariifolia, m. cajuputii, and cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited psa growth by either assays. among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant ant ...201627493612
draft genome sequences of five pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in france.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of actinidia deliciosa and actinidia chinensis. p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in new zealand, australia, france and spain. four lineages were previously identified within the p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in france. the whole genomes of str ...201627237113
draft genome sequences of 18 strains of pseudomonas isolated from kiwifruit plants in new zealand and overseas.in this paper, we present the draft sequences of 18 genetically diversepseudomonasstrains isolated from kiwifruit plants in new zealand and overseas, including a number that are currently not fully characterized. these sequences will aid in the diagnosis ofpseudomonason kiwifruit for future pest management and border security decision-making.201627056212
development of specific markers for identification of biovars 1 and 2 strains of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of canker in kiwifruit, can be divided into three biovars (biovars 1, 2, and 3). strains belonging to biovar 1 produce phaseolotoxin and were isolated in japan and italy before 2008. strains of biovar 2 produce coronatine instead of phaseolotoxin and have been isolated only in korea. strains belonging to biovar 3 produce neither phaseolotoxin nor coronatine and are responsible for the global outbreak of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in recent ...201627147936
studies on the infection, colonization, and movement of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit tissues using a gfpuv-labeled strain.kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. using a gfpuv-labeled strain of psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. the pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of psa is obtained in cut tissues. we determined that, following spray inoculat ...201626999596
genome analysis of the kiwifruit canker pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 5.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is a destructive pathogen of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease, causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit industry worldwide. biovar 5 is the most recently reported biovar of psa, and is found in only a local area of japan at present. there is not much information of genetic characteristics of biovar 5. thus, the genome of biovar 5 was sequenced and analyzed to clarify its detailed genetic characteristics. here, the genomes of strain maff 212056 and m ...201626891997
changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit during development.changes in pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose in the cell walls of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) were determined during development. an extensive amylase digestion was employed to remove possible contaminating starch before and after fractionation of wall polysaccharides. an initial treatment of crude cell walls with alpha-amylase and iso-amylase or dmso, was found to be insufficient removing the contaminating starch from wall polysaccharides. after edta ...201616647859
bioactivity and nutritional properties of hardy kiwi fruit actinidia arguta in comparison with actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and actinidia eriantha 'bidan'.the aim of this research is to identify and compare the bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacities and binding potentials to human protein in different varieties of hardy kiwi (actinidia (a.) arguta), 'hayward' (actinidia deliciosa) and less - known 'bidan' (actinidia eriantha). polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, vitamin c, lutein, zeaxanthin and dietary fibers were significantly higher in cultivar 'm1' among the a. arguta than in 'hayward'. the binding properties of studied kiwi frui ...201626593493
a low cost compact measurement system constructed using a smart electrochemical sensor for the real-time discrimination of fruit ripening.ethylene as an indicator for evaluating fruit ripening can be measured by very sensitive electrochemical gas sensors based on a high-resolution current produced by a bias potential applied to the electrodes. for this purpose, a measurement system for monitoring ethylene gas concentrations to evaluate fruit ripening by using the electrochemical ethylene sensor was successfully developed. before the electrochemical ethylene sensor was used to measure the ethylene gas concentrations released from f ...201627070614
effect of kiwifruit on bone resorption in ovariectomized mice.kiwifruit is a good source of dietary components and has beneficial effects for health. in this study, we investigated the effects of two types of kiwifruit, green kiwifruit (grk) and gold kiwifruit (gok), on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (ovx) mice. seven-week-old female balb/c-strain mice were divided into four groups: sham-operated (sham) group, ovx group, and ovx mice that were fed a grk-supplemented diet or gok-supplemented diet. freeze-dried grk and gok were prepared and added in the d ...201526440641
encapsulated green kiwifruit extract: a randomised controlled trial investigating alleviation of constipation in otherwise healthy adults.previous clinical trials have shown bowel function is improved through consumption of whole kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). this study investigated whether encapsulated kiwifruit extract (1 g/day) could alleviate constipation in otherwise healthy adults.201526420182
in the solanaceae, a hierarchy of bhlhs confer distinct target specificity to the anthocyanin regulatory complex.the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is regulated by a transcription factor complex consisting of an r2r3 myb, a bhlh, and a wd40. although r2r3 mybs belonging to the anthocyanin-activating class have been identified in many plants, and their role well elucidated, the subgroups of bhlh implicated in anthocyanin regulation seem to be more complex. it is not clear whether these potential bhlh partners are biologically interchangeable with redundant functions, or even if heterodimers are involved. ...201525628328
kiwifruit allergy in children: characterization of main allergens and patterns of recognition.kiwifruit allergy has been described mostly in the adult population, but immunoglobulin (ig)e-mediated allergic reactions to kiwifruit appear to be occurring more frequently in children. to date, 13 allergens from kiwifruit have been identified. our aim was to identify kiwifruit allergens in a kiwifruit allergic-pediatric population, describing clinical manifestations and patterns of recognition. twenty-four children were included. diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy was based on compatible clinical ...201527417374
the effect of kiwifruit consumption on blood pressure in subjects with moderately elevated blood pressure: a randomized, controlled study.kiwifruit contains bioactive substances that may lower blood pressure (bp) and improve endothelial function. we examined the effects of adding kiwifruit to the usual diet on 24-h ambulatory bp, office bp and endothelial function.201525483553
contact urticaria on eczematous skin by kiwifruit allergy. in vivo component-resolved diagnosis.kiwifruit allergy has been responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild reactions, such as localised oral symptoms, to severe systemic symptoms, such as anaphylaxis. no cases of isolated contact urticaria (icu) due to ige-mediated allergy to kiwifruit have been reported in the literature so far. here we describe the first three cases of icu due to kiwi and we hypothesise about a kiwifruit allergen not described yet.201525456531
application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. the juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. to process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. the membranes are being used for these purposes. these processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. membrane separation ...201524915352
the relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.we examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (cps) derived from pineapple (ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of cps from the latex of papaya (carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, heligmosomoides bakeri. both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on h. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little ef ...201524176056
effect of bead nutrient composition on regrowth of stored vitro-derived encapsulated microcuttings of different woody species.aseptic encapsulation in a sodium-alginate bead containing different nutritive solutions of microcuttings (uninodal explants excised from micropropagated shoots) of 10 different genotypes from four different woody species (actinidia deliciosa, kiwifruit, cv hayward and tomuri; malus spp,, apple, rootstock m. 26 and cv starkspur red and wellspur; olea europea, olive, cv canino, moraiolo, ascolana tenera and dolce agogia; rubus idaeus, raspberry, selection 1401) was investigated. the aim of the st ...20159972499
qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for detecting major food allergens (peanut, soybean, and wheat) by using internal transcribed spacer region.allergen detection methods for peanut, soybean, and wheat were developed by designing pcr primer pairs for specific amplification of a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (its) region reported for arachis spp. for peanut, glycine spp. for soybean, and triticum and aegilops spp. for wheat. the target species for detection included not only cultivated, but also wild and ancestor species, which were thought to be potentially allergenic. the ability of the resultant primer pairs to detect th ...201519916385
reference gene selection for normalization of rt-qpcr gene expression data from actinidia deliciosa leaves infected with pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.normalization of data, by choosing the appropriate reference genes (rgs), is fundamental for obtaining reliable results in reverse transcription-quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr). in this study, we assessed actinidia deliciosa leaves inoculated with two doses of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae during a period of 13 days for the expression profile of nine candidate rgs. their expression stability was calculated using four algorithms: genorm, normfinder, bestkeeper and the deltact method. glyceraldeh ...201526581656
transcriptome analysis of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) bark in response to armoured scale insect (hemiberlesia lataniae) feeding.the kiwifruit cultivar actinidia chinensis 'hort16a' is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest hemiberlesia lataniae (hemiptera: diaspididae). a cdna microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ests) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the a. chinensis 'hort16a' canes in response to a controlled infestation of h. lataniae. after 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. after 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcri ...201526571404
complete dna sequence of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of kiwifruit canker disease.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. we have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid dna from p. syringae pv. actinidiae icmp 18884 using the pacbio rs ii platform.201526383666
the first complete chloroplast genome sequences in actinidiaceae: genome structure and comparative analysis.actinidia chinensis is an important economic plant belonging to the basal lineage of the asterids. availability of a complete actinidia chloroplast genome sequence is crucial to understanding phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms and facilitates kiwifruit genetic improvement. we report here the complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast genomes for actinidia chinensis and a. chinensis var deliciosa obtained through de novo assembly of illumina paired-end reads prod ...201526046631
genome, proteome and structure of a t7-like bacteriophage of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia sp.). bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. a variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect p. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to pro ...201526114474
origin of the outbreak in france of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3, the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, revealed by a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis.the first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in france in 2010. p. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. in order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in france, we developed a multilocus variable-n ...201526209667
development of a multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats analysis (mlva) to unravel the intra-pathovar structure of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae populations worldwide.the bacterial canker of kiwifruit by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an emblematic example of a catastrophic disease of fruit crops. in 2008 a new, extremely virulent form of the pathogen emerged and rapidly devastated many actinidia spp. orchards all over the world. in order to understand differences in populations within this pathovar and to elucidate their diffusion and movements on world scale, it is necessary to be able to quickly and on a routine basis compare new isolates with prev ...201526262683
bactericidal compounds controlling growth of the plant pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, which forms biofilms composed of a novel exopolysaccharide.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. many aspects of the disease caused by p. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (epss), are still unknown. here, a highly virulent strain of p. syringae pv. actinidiae, nz v-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined w ...201525841017
ecofriendly hot water treatment reduces postharvest decay and elicits defense response in kiwifruit.hot water treatment (hwt) of fruit is an effective approach for managing postharvest decay of fruits and vegetables. in the present study, the effects of hwt (45 °c for 10 min) on the growth of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum in vitro, and gray (b. cinerea) and blue mold (p. expansum) development in kiwifruit were investigated. hwt effectively inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of b. cinerea and p. expansum. reactive oxygen species accumulation and protein impairment ...201526002370
shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.kiwi fruits (actinidia deliciosa c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °c for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-mcp. after the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °c during 24 weeks. flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-mcp and conditioning plus 1-mcp treatments than those of control or conditioning. however, ssc, acidity and ph did not change among ...201525892768
foods, drugs and environmental factors: novel kounis syndrome offenders.kounis syndrome is hypersensitivity coronary disorder induced by various types of environmental exposures, drugs, conditions and stents. allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are associated with this syndrome. the disorder manifests as coronary spasms, acute myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis and affects the cerebral and mesenteric as well as coronary arteries. importantly, its manifestations are broad and its etiology is continuously increasing. recently, ...201526134186
survey of microbial contamination and characterization of escherichia coli in kiwifruit orchards in shaanxi, china, 2013.the aim of the study was to survey three foodborne pathogens in kiwifruit orchards as a continuous monitoring program. a total of 193 samples were collected from 11 kiwifruit orchards in shaanxi province in october 2013. among the 193 samples, 68 escherichia coli isolates were recovered, while no staphylococcus aureus and salmonella was recovered. all e. coli isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of virulence genes, and the ability to produce biofilm form ...201526267480
identification of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains causing bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the anhui province of china, and determination of their streptomycin sensitivities.bacterial canker, caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, is one of the most severe diseases of kiwifruit. it has become an international pandemic and threatens the sustainable development of kiwifruit production in all main kiwi-growing regions worldwide. streptomycin has been the major bactericide for the control of kiwifruit canker, especially in anhui province, one of the main kiwifruit production regions in china. however, until now, no studies on the baseline sensitivity to streptom ...201526345745
tackling the bottleneck in bacterial signal transduction research: high-throughput identification of signal molecules.signal transduction processes are typically initiated by the interaction of signal molecules with sensor domains. the current lack of information on the signal molecules that feed into regulatory circuits forms a major bottleneck that hampers the understanding of regulatory processes. mckellar et al. report a high-throughput approach for the identification of signal molecules, which is based on thermal shift assays of recombinant sensor domains in the absence and presence of compounds from comme ...201525708679
detection and characterization of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum in kiwifruit in spain.bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is currently the major threat to its commercial production worldwide. in 2011, the most virulent type (psa3) was detected for the first time in northwest-spain, in the province of pontevedra. in 2013 surveys, leaves and flower buds with mild symptoms were observed in actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' vines in an orchard at the province of a coruña, suggesting the presence of p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum (psaf).201526768357
the hybrid non-ethylene and ethylene ripening response in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is associated with differential regulation of mads-box transcription factors.ripening in tomato is predominantly controlled by ethylene, whilst in fruit such as grape, it is predominantly controlled by other hormones. the ripening response of many kiwifruit (actinidia) species is atypical. the majority of ripening-associated fruit starch hydrolysis, colour change and softening occurs in the apparent absence of ethylene production (phase 1 ripening) whilst phase 2 ripening requires autocatalytic ethylene production and is associated with further softening and an increase ...201526714876
kiwifruit information resource (kir): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics.the kiwifruit information resource (kir) is dedicated to maintain and integrate comprehensive datasets on genomics, functional genomics and transcriptomics of kiwifruit (actinidiaceae). kir serves as a central access point for existing/new genomic and genetic data. kir also provides researchers with a variety of visualization and analysis tools. current developments include the updated genome structure of actinidia chinensis cv. hongyang and its newest genome annotation, putative transcripts, ge ...201526656885
correction: gene expression profiling of development and anthocyanin accumulation in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) based on transcriptome sequencing. 201526376184
high-density interspecific genetic maps of kiwifruit and the identification of sex-specific markers.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planchon) is an important specialty fruit crop that suffers from narrow genetic diversity stemming from recent global commercialization and limited cultivar improvement. here, we present high-density rad-seq-based genetic maps using an interspecific f1 cross between actinidia rufa 'mt570001' and a. chinensis 'guihai no4'. the a. rufa (maternal) map consists of 2,426 single-nucleotide polymorphism (snp) markers with a total length of 2,651 cm in 29 linkage groups (l ...201526370666
production of transgenic kiwifruit plants harboring the sbtcry1ac gene.the kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch.) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop that has a remarkably high vitamin c content and is popular throughout the world. however, kiwifruit plants are vulnerable to attack from pests, and effective pest control is urgently required. transgenic kiwifruit plants containing the synthetic chimeric gene sbtcry1ac that encodes the insecticidal protein btcrylac were obtained through an agrobacterium-mediated transformation of kiwifruit leaf ...201526345776
gene expression profiling of development and anthocyanin accumulation in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) based on transcriptome sequencing.red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch. 'hongyang') is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin c and anthocyanins. in this study, we obtained transcriptome data of 'hongyang' from seven developmental stages using illumina sequencing. we mapped 39-54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abunda ...201526301713
in vitro characterisation of the fermentation profile and prebiotic capacity of gold-fleshed kiwifruit.a new actinidia chinensis gold-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar 'zesy002' was tested to investigate whether it could positively modulate the composition of the human colonic microbiota. digested zesy002 kiwifruit was added to in vitro ph-controlled anaerobic batch fermenters that were inoculated with representative human faecal microbiota. alterations to the gut microbial ecology were determined by 16s rrna gene sequencing and metabolic end products were measured using gas chromatography and liquid ch ...201526123782
functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit soc1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.the mads-domain transcription factor suppressor of overexpression of constans1 (soc1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species arabidopsis thaliana. in the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. in order to understand the re ...201525979999
extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).gold kiwifruit pomace extracted using citric acid, water and enzyme (celluclast 1.5l) were studied in terms of pectin yield, protein, ash, non-starch polysaccharide, galacturonic acid (gala), neutral sugar composition, molar mass (mw), viscosity and degree of branching. water-extracted pectin was considered closest to its native form. enzyme extracted pectin showed the highest yield (∼ 4.5%w/w) as compared with the acid and water extraction methods (∼ 3.6-3.8%w/w). pectin obtained from different ...201525977029
natural variation in monoterpene synthesis in kiwifruit: transcriptional regulation of terpene synthases by nac and ethylene-insensitive3-like transcription factors.two kiwifruit (actinidia) species with contrasting terpene profiles were compared to understand the regulation of fruit monoterpene production. high rates of terpinolene production in ripe actinidia arguta fruit were correlated with increasing gene and protein expression of a. arguta terpene synthase1 (aatps1) and correlated with an increase in transcript levels of the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (dxs). actinidia chinensis terpene sy ...201525649633
the impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'hort16a' kiwifruit.fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. in this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'hort16a' (actinidia chinensis planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. cold storage (1.5°c) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl h ...201525236191
a high-throughput screen for ligand binding reveals the specificities of three amino acid chemoreceptors from pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.chemoreceptors play a central role in chemotaxis, allowing bacteria to detect chemical gradients and bias their swimming behavior in order to navigate toward favorable environments. the genome of the kiwifruit pathogen, pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) strain nz-v13 encodes 43 predicted chemoreceptors, none of which has been characterized. we developed a high-throughput fluorescence-based thermal shift assay for identifying the signal molecules that are recognized by a given chemorecept ...201525656450
a framework to gauge the epidemic potential of plant pathogens in environmental reservoirs: the example of kiwifruit canker.new economically important diseases on crops and forest trees emerge recurrently. an understanding of where new pathogenic lines come from and how they evolve is fundamental for the deployment of accurate surveillance methods. we used kiwifruit bacterial canker as a model to assess the importance of potential reservoirs of new pathogenic lineages. the current kiwifruit canker epidemic is at least the fourth outbreak of the disease on kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae in the mere 50 years ...201524986268
yeast surface display is a novel tool for the rapid immunological characterization of plant-derived food allergens.high-throughput characterization of allergens relies often on phage display technique which is subject to the limitations of a prokaryotic expression system. substituting the phage display platform with a yeast surface display could lead to fast immunological characterization of allergens with complex structures. our objective was to evaluate the potential of yeast surface display for characterization of plant-derived food allergens. the coding sequence of mature actinidin (act d 1) was cloned i ...201525537533
high-temperature inhibition of biosynthesis and transportation of anthocyanins results in the poor red coloration in red-fleshed actinidia chinensis.in plants, the role of anthocyanins trafficking in response to high temperature has been rarely studied, and therefore poorly understood. red-fleshed kiwifruit has stimulated the world kiwifruit industry owing to its appealing color. however, fruit in warmer climates have been found to have poor flesh coloration, and the factors responsible for this response remain elusive. partial correlation and regression analysis confirmed that accumulative temperatures above 25 °c (t25) was one of the domin ...201525143057
changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (vitis vinifera l.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang & a.r. ferguson) and grapes (vitis vinifera l.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes.201526377914
characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin from fruit of different maturities and extraction methods.studies on gold kiwifruit pectins are limited. in this work, the characterization of pectin isolated from two different stages of maturity of gold kiwifruit, namely early harvested fruit (ehf) and main harvested fruit (mhf) isolated by three methods (acid, water, enzymatic) was carried out. pectins isolated from mhf were higher in galacturonic acid content (52-59% w/w) and weight-average molecular weights (mw, 1.7-3.8 × 10(6)g/mol) compared with ehf pectins (29-49% w/w and 0.2-1.7 × 10(6)g/mol r ...201525053083
molecular characterization of allergens in raw and processed kiwifruit.the prevalence of allergy to kiwifruit is increasing in europe since the last two decades. different proteins have been identified as kiwifruit allergens; even though with geographic differences, act d 1, a cysteine protease protein of 30 kda, and act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein of 24 kda, are normally considered the most important. the aim of this study was (i) to identify at molecular level the sensitization pattern in a group of well-characterized patients allergic to kiwifruit and (ii) to ...201525640609
effects of soy phytoestrogens and new zealand functional foods on bone health.new zealand is a rich source of food components that may have bioactivity on bone. docosahexaenoic acid (dha) from fish oil has been shown to maintain bone in ovariectomised (ovx) rats. kiwifruit, a source of fibre and carotenoids, may also affect bone via a prebiotic as well as direct cell-based mechanisms. we aimed to 1) ascertain the effects of dha on two cell models, including interactions with soy isoflavones; 2) and investigate the specific effects of carotenoids from kiwifruit as well as ...201526598831
recognition pattern of kiwi seed storage proteins in kiwifruit-allergic children. 201526184705
kiwifruit anaphylaxis: the usefulness of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. 201526182694
the impact of sodium nitroprusside and ozone in kiwifruit ripening physiology: a combined gene and protein expression profiling approach.despite their importance in many aspects of plant physiology, information about the function of oxidative and, particularly, of nitrosative signalling in fruit biology is limited. this study examined the possible implications of o3 and sodium nitroprusside (snp) in kiwifruit ripening, and their interacting effects. it also aimed to investigate changes in the kiwifruit proteome in response to snp and o3 treatments, together with selected transcript analysis, as a way to enhance our understanding ...201526159933
elusive structural, functional, and immunological features of act d 5, the green kiwifruit kiwellin.kiwellin (act d 5) is an allergenic protein contained in kiwifruit pulp in high amounts. the aim of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the natural molecule from green kiwifruit and its possible function. kiwellin was crystallized, and its structure, including post-translational modifications, was elucidated. the molecular weight and structural features, in solution, were analyzed by gel filtration and circular dichroism, respectively. although structurally similar t ...201526146952
identification, synthesis, and safety assessment of forchlorfenuron (1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea) and its metabolites in kiwifruits.identification and evaluation of safety of forchlorfenuron ((1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea)), 1, metabolites after biotransformation in kiwifruit is the objective of this study. to elucidate properties of these metabolites, liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (lc-it-tof-ms) was applied, with metid solution and formula predictor software in positive mode. cytotoxicity of forchlorfenuron and its metabolites were tested through sulforhodamine b assays agains ...201525757044
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