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l-ascorbic acid metabolism in an ascorbate-rich kiwifruit (actinidia. eriantha benth.) cv. 'white' during postharvest.kiwifruit (actinidia eriantha benth.) 'white', a novel cultivar with higher l-ascorbic acid (asa) level, is registered in china. changes in asa, related metabolites, enzymatic activity, and gene expression associated with asa biosynthesis and recycling process were investigated in this paper. the results indicated that asa biosynthesis through l-galactose pathway supplemented by d-galacturonic acid pathway and asa recycling collectively contributed to accumulating and remaining higher asa level ...201829331889
transcriptome analysis of kiwifruit in response to pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae infection.kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) has brought about a severe threat to the kiwifruit industry worldwide since its first outbreak in 2008. studies on other pathovars of p. syringae are revealing the pathogenesis of these pathogens, but little about the mechanism of kiwifruit bacterial canker is known. in order to explore the species-specific interaction between psa and kiwifruit, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of kiwifruit infected by psa. afte ...201829373527
biofunctionalized "kiwifruit-assembly" of oxidoreductases in mesoporous zno/carbon nanoparticles for efficient asymmetric catalysis.a mesoporous zno/carbon composite is designed for coimmobilization of two oxidoreductases involving a novel "kiwifruit-assembly" pattern. the coimmobilization of (s)-carbonyl reductase ii-glucose dehydrogenase on nanoparticles (scrii-gdhnano ) exhibits 40-50% higher specific activity than the free enzyme and significantly improves stabilities of enzymes to heat, ph and solvents. it performs asymmetric catalysis of 75 × 10-3 m substrate with a perfect yield of 100% and an excellent enantioselecti ...201829359821
optimized paired-sgrna/cas9 cloning and expression cassette triggers high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in kiwifruit.kiwifruit is an important fruit crop; however, technologies for its functional genomic and molecular improvement are limited. the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr)/crispr-associated protein (cas) system has been successfully applied to genetic improvement in many crops, but its editing capability is variable depending on the different combinations of the synthetic guide rna (sgrna) and cas9 protein expression devices. optimizing conditions for its use within a p ...201829331077
a key structural gene, aaldox, is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in all red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) based on transcriptome analysis.study on kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis and a. deliciosa) color mainly concentrated in green and yellow-fleshed cultivars, less about molecular mechanism of red-fleshed trait formation, rarely in all-red typed fruit. using 'tianyuanhong' and 'yongfengyihao' ('ty', a kind of all-red typed cultivar, from actinidia arguta; 'yf', a kind of all-green type cultivar, also from actinidia arguta) as experimental material, we performed rna-seq to obtain 202,742 unigenes with an average length of 603bp and ...201829309888
proteomics analysis to understand the aba stimulation of wound suberization in kiwifruit.quick suberin-based healing after wounding played a protective role for plant to prevent further damage. in this study, the stimulative effect of exogenous abscisic acid (aba) on wound suberization in postharvest kiwifruit was evaluated through suberin staining with toluidine blue o as well as the determination of suberin phenolics and aliphatics in wound tissue. furthermore, to reveal the regulatory involvement of aba in wound suberization, comparative quantitative proteomics and transcriptomic ...201829191746
characterization of polymer chain fractions of kiwifruit starch.in this report, the amylose composition and molecular structure of starches from the core and outer pericarp of 3 golden kiwifruit varieties were characterised, using enzymatic and chromatographic techniques. starches from the core tissues of kiwifruit tend to have higher amylose contents (by ∼3-5%) and longer unit chains of both amylopectins and their φ, β-limit dextrins (lds) than those of the outer pericarp starches. the contents of short b-chains of the φ, β-lds of amylopectins from the oute ...201828946314
the nutritional composition of zespri® sungold kiwifruit and zespri® sweet green kiwifruit.the composition of kiwifruit is important for understanding the nutritional value of kiwifruit for consumption. our aim was to develop a reference nutritional composition profile for a gold-fleshed kiwifruit zespri® sungold kiwifruit and a green-fleshed kiwifruit zespri® sweet green kiwifruit. ten representative single-replicate (10 growers) samples, each containing 40 fruit, were prepared for both kiwifruit varieties. samples were analysed for macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins. the analyti ...201828867093
a proteometabolomic study of actinidia deliciosa fruit development. 201829133123
functional characterization of waterlogging and heat stresses tolerance gene pyruvate decarboxylase 2 from actinidia deliciosa.a previous report showed that both pyruvatedecarboxylase (pdc) genes were significantly upregulated in kiwifruit after waterlogging treatment using illumina sequencing technology, and that the kiwifruit adpdc1 gene was required during waterlogging, but might not be required during other environmental stresses. here, the function of another pdc gene, named adpdc2, was analyzed. the expression of the adpdc2 gene was determined using qrt-pcr, and the results showed that the expression levels of adp ...201729120390
kiwifruit-like persistent luminescent nanoparticles with high-performance and in situ activable near-infrared persistent luminescence for long-term in vivo bioimaging.persistent luminescence nanoparticles (plnps) have great potential for bioimaging because they can eliminate the tissue autofluorescence and improve the signal-to-noise ratio significantly. high-temperature calcination is a necessary process for the plnps to achieve high luminescence intensity and long afterglow time. however, high-temperature calcination usually results in uncontrollable morphology and poor homogeneity of plnps, which greatly limit their applications. therefore, there is still ...201729111643
kiwifruit non-sugar components reduce glycaemic response to co-ingested cereal in humans.kiwifruit (kf) effects on the human glycaemic response to co-ingested wheat cereal were determined. participants (n = 20) consumed four meals in random order, all being made to 40 g of the same available carbohydrate, by adding kiwifruit sugars (kf sug; glucose, fructose, sucrose 2:2:1) to meals not containing kf. the meals were flaked wheat biscuit (wb)+kfsug, wb+kf, wb+guar gum+kfsug, wb+guar gum+kf, that was ingested after fasting overnight. blood glucose was monitored 3 h and hunger measured ...201729084137
the nutritional and health benefits of kiwiberry (actinidia arguta) - a review.the kiwiberry (actinidia arguta) is a new product on the market that is enjoying growing consumer acceptance around the world. this widespread interest has created increased demand for identification of the kiwiberry's nutritional health benefits. containing over 20 essential nutrients and a range of vitamins, the kiwiberry comes near the top of fruits classed as superfoods. it is one of the richest sources of vitamin c with up to 430 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) and is considered the richest diet ...201728988409
high oxygen facilitates wound induction of suberin polyphenolics in kiwifruit.rapid wound healing would be critical for successful long-term storage of fruits and vegetables. however, there was no direct evidence for the requirement and efficiency of oxygen in the fruit wound-healing process. this study was conducted to investigate the role of oxygen in wound-induced suberization by analyzing melanin, suberin polyphenolics (spps) and related enzymes in half-cut kiwifruits exposed to 100%, 50%, 21% and 0% oxygen.201728963774
complete genome sequence of the kiwifruit pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 5, originating from japan.we present the first complete genome sequence of a copper-resistant biovar 5 strain of a bacterial pathogen of kiwifruit, pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. comparison with the genome sequence of a copper-sensitive biovar 5 isolate indicates that copper resistance is encoded on a plasmid.201729242227
draft whole genome sequence analyses on pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae hr negative strains detected from kiwifruit bleeding sap samples.kiwifruit bleeding sap samples, collected in italian and chilean orchards from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, were evaluated for the presence of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of bacterial canker. the saps were sampled during the spring of both hemispheres, before the bud sprouting, during the optimal time window for the collection of an adequate volume of sample for the early detection of the pathogen, preliminarily by molecular assays, and then, through its direct ...201729240520
role of metcalfa pruinosa as a vector for pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.after 20 years of steady increase, kiwifruit industry faced a severe arrest due to the pandemic spread of the bacterial canker, caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa). the bacterium penetrates the host plant primarily via natural openings or wounds, and its spread is mainly mediated by atmospheric events and cultural activities. since the role of sucking insects as vectors of bacterial pathogens is widely documented, we investigated the ability of metcalfa pruinosa say (1830), one o ...201729238278
presumptive migrating gall bladder mucocoele in two dogs with gall bladder rupture.a 10-year-old neutered female soft-coated wheaten terrier and a 10-year-old, entire female pomeranian were presented for vomiting and anorexia. using ultrasound, an oval structure with a stellate, kiwifruit-like appearance typical of a gall bladder mucocoele was observed in the caudal abdomen of the soft-coated wheaten terrier and adjacent to the liver in the pomeranian. there was also a moderate volume of abdominal effusion in both dogs. cytology of the peritoneal fluid indicated a sterile exud ...201729235670
kiwifruit svp2 controls developmental and drought-stress pathways.genome-wide targets of actinidia chinensis svp2 confirm roles in aba- and dehydration-mediated growth repression and reveal a conservation in mechanism of action between svp genes of taxonomically distant arabidopsis and a woody perennial kiwifruit. the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and dormancy in woody perennials are largely unknown. in arabidopsis, the mads-box transcription factor short vegetative phase (svp) plays a key role in the progression from vegetative to floral development, ...201729222611
multivariate statistical analysis of the polyphenolic constituents in kiwifruit juices to trace fruit varieties and geographical origins.fifty-one kiwifruit juice samples of seven kiwifruit varieties from five regions in china were analyzed to determine their polyphenols contents and to trace fruit varieties and geographical origins by multivariate statistical analysis. twenty-one polyphenols belonging to four compound classes were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution tof mass spectrometry. (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin b1 and caffeic acid derivatives were the ...201728490110
cell separation in kiwifruit without development of a specialised detachment zone.unlike in abscission or dehiscence, fruit of kiwifruit actinidia eriantha develop the ability for peel detachment when they are ripe and soft in the absence of a morphologically identifiable abscission zone. two closely-related genotypes with contrasting detachment behaviour have been identified. the 'good-peeling' genotype has detachment with clean debonding of cells, and a peel tissue that does not tear. the 'poor-peeling' genotype has poor detachability, with cells that rupture upon debonding ...201728486974
kiwifruit actinidin digests salivary amylase but not gastric lipase.kiwifruit contains the cysteine proteinase actinidin whose strong activity allows kiwifruit to be used as a meat tenderiser. this raises the possibility digestive enzymes, also proteins, are themselves susceptible to degradation by actinidin. salivary amylase and gastric lipase are exposed to the highest concentrations of actinidin whereas duodenal enzymes are less likely to be inactivated by actinidin due to dilution and inactivation of actinidin by gastric juice. the saliva of six volunteers w ...201728849829
kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice via the activation of nrf2 and the inhibition of nf-κb (kiwi & gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity).gentamicin is a potent aminoglycoside antibiotic, but the risk of nephrotoxicity limits its prolonged use. the toxicity of gentamicin is believed to result from oxidative stress, a condition that could be counteracted by dietary antioxidants. this study determines the possible renoprotective effects of kiwifruit against the pathophysiological and ultrastructural alterations induced by gentamicin. mice were intraperitoneally injected with gentamicin (100mg/kg body weight) for eight consecutive da ...201728759758
comparative transcript profiling explores differentially expressed genes associated with sexual phenotype in kiwifruit.kiwifruit is a perennial, deciduous and functionally dioecious plant. however, very little is known about the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to distinct sexual phenotypes. to gain a global view of genes differentially expressed between male and female flowers, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles in the flowers of male and female plants using high-throughput rna sequencing.201728672040
a pilot randomized cross-over trial to examine the effect of kiwifruit on satiety and measures of gastric comfort in healthy adult males.'hayward' kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. the study aimed to use smartpill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin (actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa 'hayward') and kiwifruit without actinidin (a. chinensis var. chinensis 'hort16a') on digestion of a large protein meal. ten healthy male subjects were recrui ...201728640214
exogenous cytokinin application to actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa 'hayward' fruit promotes fruit expansion through water uptake.exogenous application of a cytokinin-like compound forchlorfenuron (cppu) can promote fruit growth, although often at the expense of dry matter (dm), an important indicator of fruit quality. actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa 'hayward' fruit are very responsive to cppu treatments, but the mechanism underlying the significant fruit weight increase and associated decrease in dm is unclear. in this study, we hypothesised that cppu-enhanced growth increases fruit carbohydrate demand, but limited car ...201728944065
expression differences of pigment structural genes and transcription factors explain flesh coloration in three contrasting kiwifruit cultivars.fruits of kiwifruit cultivars (actinidia chinensis and a. deliciosa) generally have green or yellow flesh when ripe. a small number of genotypes have red flesh but this coloration is usually restricted to the inner pericarp. three kiwifruit cultivars having red ('hongyang'), or yellow ('jinnong-2'), or green ('hayward') flesh were investigated for their color characteristics and pigment contents during development and ripening. the results show the yellow of the 'jinnong-2' fruit is due to the c ...201728919902
development and application of transcriptome-derived microsatellites in actinidia eriantha (actinidiaceae).actinidia eriantha benth. is a diploid perennial woody vine native to china and is recognized as a valuable species for commercial kiwifruit improvement with high levels of ascorbic acid as well as having been used in traditional chinese medicine. due to the lack of genomic resources for the species, microsatellite markers for population genetics studies are scarce. in this study, rnaseq was conducted on fruit tissue of a. eriantha, yielding 5,678,129 reads with a total output of 3.41 gb. de nov ...201728890721
transformation products elucidation of forchlorfenuron in postharvest kiwifruit by time-of-flight mass spectrometry.forchlorfenuron (1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea, fcf) is a plant growth regulator, being extensively used for increasing kiwifruit size. the toxicological properties of its may persist in their transformation products (tps) or even higher toxicity than fcf. tps elucidation of fcf in postharvest kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis, chinese gooseberry) by the liquid chromatography ionization hybrid ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (lc-esi-it-tof/ms) in positive mode was the objective ...201728877224
hyperspectral imaging for predicting the internal quality of kiwifruits based on variable selection algorithms and chemometric models.we investigated the feasibility and potentiality of determining firmness, soluble solids content (ssc), and ph in kiwifruits using hyperspectral imaging, combined with variable selection methods and calibration models. the images were acquired by a push-broom hyperspectral reflectance imaging system covering two spectral ranges. weighted regression coefficients (bw), successive projections algorithm (spa) and genetic algorithm-partial least square (gapls) were compared and evaluated for the sele ...201728798306
the preparation of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles from aspicilia lichens using bifido bacteria for help in the treatment of diabetes in rats in vivo.many common herbs and spices are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them useful for people with or at high risk of diabetes. the main of compounds of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa), rhubarb (rheum ribes), membrane inner of egg shell, wool of sheep, human fingernail (unguis), hyaluronic acid produced by the bifidobacterium, and usnic acid of aspicilia lichen were extracted by different methods. all compounds of the extract were divided into five groups. we used variables s ...201728782194
cellulose nanocrystals from actinidia deliciosa pruning residues combined with carvacrol in pva_ch films with antioxidant/antimicrobial properties for packaging applications.kiwi actinidia deliciosa pruning residues were here used for the first time as precursors for the extraction of high performing cellulose nanocrystals (cnc) by applying a bleaching treatment followed by an acidic hydrolysis. the resultant cellulosic nanostructures, obtained by an optimize extraction procedure (0.7% wt/v two times of sodium chlorite naclo2) followed by an hydrolysis step, were then used as reinforcements phases in poly(vinyl alcohol) (pva) blended with natural chitosan (ch) based ...201728587959
experimental and modeling investigation of mass transfer during combined infrared-vacuum drying of hayward kiwifruits.in this work, we tried to evaluate mass transfer during a combined infrared-vacuum drying of kiwifruits. infrared radiation power (200-300 w) and system pressure (5-15 kpa), as drying parameters, are evaluated on drying characteristics of kiwifruits. both the infrared lamp power and vacuum pressure affected the drying time of kiwifruit slices. nine different mathematical models were evaluated for moisture ratios using nonlinear regression analysis. the results of regression analysis indicated th ...201728572946
identification of in situ flower volatiles from kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa) cultivars and their male pollenisers in a new zealand orchard.in situ flower volatiles from six kiwifruit cultivars (actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa); 'hayward', 'chieftain', 'm56', 'zes007' (green11), 'm36', and 'm43' were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. forty-five compounds were detected in the headspace of the flowers, with straight chain hydrocarbons and terpenes accounting for >98% of the volatiles emitted quantitatively across the six cultivars. of these hydrocarbons, (3z,6z,9z)-heptadecatriene is reported for the first time from a floral ...201728558268
putative mechanisms of kiwifruit on maintenance of normal gastrointestinal function.kiwifruit are recognized as providing relief from constipation and symptoms of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (ibs-c). however, the underlying mechanisms, specifically in regards to gastrointestinal transit time and motility, are still not completely understood. this review provides an overview on the physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying constipation and ibs-c, the composition of kiwifruit, and recent advances in the research of kiwifruit and abdominal com ...201728557573
comparison of fruit quality and gc-ms-based metabolite profiling of kiwifruit 'jecy green': natural and exogenous ethylene-induced ripening.we applied exogenous ethylene to 'jecy green' kiwifruit to elucidate the differences in fruit quality and metabolite profiling between naturally ripe (nr) and ethylene-induced ripe (er) kiwifruit. kiwifruit were exposed to ethylene (200μl/l) for 12h at 20°c and maintained for 9days at 20°c. two metabolites of ascorbic acid and arabinose significantly decreased during kiwifruit ripening regardless of the ripening method. the concentrations of sucrose, myo-inositol, citric acid, and malic acid in ...201728551271
rapid radiations of both kiwifruit hybrid lineages and their parents shed light on a two-layer mode of species diversification.reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. however, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. we found evidence, including significant ge ...201728543189
corrigendum: phytohormone and putative defense gene expression differentiates the response of 'hayward' kiwifruit to psa and pfm infections.[this corrects the article on p. 1366 in vol. 8, pmid: 28824694.].201729181018
vanillic acid from actinidia deliciosa impedes virulence in serratia marcescens by affecting s-layer, flagellin and fatty acid biosynthesis proteins.serratia marcescens is one of the important nosocomial pathogens which rely on quorum sensing (qs) to regulate the production of biofilm and several virulence factors. hence, blocking of qs has become a promising approach to quench the virulence of s. marcescens. for the first time, qs inhibitory (qsi) and antibiofilm potential of actinidia deliciosa have been explored against s. marcescens clinical isolate (ci). a. deliciosa pulp extract significantly inhibited the virulence and biofilm product ...201729180790
kiwifruit r2r3-myb transcription factors and contribution of the novel acmyb75 to red kiwifruit anthocyanin biosynthesis.red kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is a popular fresh fruit with a high market value due to its unique color, caused by anthocyanin accumulation. the r2r3-myb transcription factors (tfs) have important roles in plant development and anthocyanin metabolism. in this first comprehensive study of r2r3-mybs in kiwifruit, a total of 93 r2r3-myb genes, including five novel previously unannotated acmybs, were identified. their phylogenic relationship, exon-intron structures, and conserved motifs were a ...201729203778
transcriptome analysis reveals the effect of pre-harvest cppu treatment on the volatile compounds emitted by kiwifruit stored at room temperature.kiwifruits are rich in nutrients beneficial to humans. because forchlorfenuron (cppu)-treatment after full bloom can enlarge fruit size, and significantly increase the income of farmers, it has been extensively used. however, cppu might also influence fruit sugar and acid content, and storage performance. this study analyzed the differences in volatile emissions between cppu-treated and water-treated kiwifruits after two, four, six, or eight days of storage, and differential gene expression rela ...201729195998
effect of molecular weight of chitosan on the shelf life and other quality parameters of three different cultivars of actinidia kolomikta (kiwifruit).the kiwi fruit, actinidia kolomikta, has valuable properties such as high antioxidant activity, high vitamin c, polyphenols, chlorophylls and organic acids content, but the species are hardly commercialized due to their short shelf life (less than two days). in this study three different cultivars of a. kolomikta (anykšta, sentiabrskaya and vir2) were coated with low, medium and high molecular weight chitosan bio-polymer with the aim to extend the shelf life. the changes in fruit firmness, mass, ...201728732865
osmotic dehydration of organic kiwifruit pre-treated by pulsed electric fields and monitored by nmr.osmotic dehydration (od) is a widely used preservation technique that consists in the reduction in food water activity by the immersion of the biological tissue in hypertonic solutions. the aim of this work was to analyze the effect of pulsed electric fields (pef) in mass transfer as a pre-treatment of the od using nmr. in this sense, pef pre-treatments were done using three different voltages (100, 250 and 400v/cm) and 60 number of pulse. the od of kiwifruit was carried out in 61.5% of sucrose ...201728624093
itraq-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals alterations in the metabolism of actinidia arguta.actinidia arguta 'tianyuanhong' is a new kiwifruit variety with an all-red pericarp and pulp, in contrast to the all-green pulp of a. arguta 'yongfengyihao'. transcriptome profile analysis of fruit color has been reported, however, the metabolic mechanisms producing red flesh remain unknown, and it is unclear why the pulp of 'tianyuanhong' is red rather than green. herein, we identified differences between the proteomes of two a. arguta cultivars with different fruit color by using itraq-based q ...201728720800
valorization of starchy, cellulosic, and sugary food waste into hydroxymethylfurfural by one-pot catalysis.this study aimed to produce a high-value platform chemical, hydroxymethylfurfural (hmf), from food waste and evaluate the catalytic performance of trivalent and tetravalent metals such as alcl3, crcl3, fecl3, zr(o)cl2, and sncl4 for one-pot conversion. starchy food waste, e.g., cooked rice and penne produced 4.0-8.1 wt% hmf and 46.0-64.8 wt% glucose over sncl4 after microwave heating at 140 °c for 20 min. this indicated that starch hydrolysis was effectively catalyzed but subsequent glucose isom ...201728672690
multiple copies of a simple myb-binding site confers trans-regulation by specific flavonoid-related r2r3 mybs in diverse species.in apple, the myb transcription factor myb10 controls the accumulation of anthocyanins. myb10 is able to auto-activate its expression by binding its own promoter at a specific motif, the r1 motif. in some apple accessions a natural mutation, termed r6, has more copies of this motif within the myb10 promoter resulting in stronger auto-activation and elevated anthocyanins. here we show that other anthocyanin-related mybs selected from apple, pear, strawberry, petunia, kiwifruit and arabidopsis are ...201729163590
consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomised controlled human trial.this study investigated the impact of actazin™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (fc) participants. the participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the fc group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout per ...201729152256
transcriptome analysis unravels an ethylene response factor involved in regulating fruit ripening in pear.ethylene response factor (erf) has been widely studied in regulating fruit ripening in tomato, apple, banana and kiwifruit, but little is known in pear. in this study 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) treatment, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, was conducted at approximately 30 days before harvest to delay fruit ripening in a climacteric white pear cultivar yali. transcriptome libraries were constructed and sequenced in pre-ripening, ripening, and 1-mcp treated fruits. data analysis showed that 7 ...201729148054
identification, synthesis, and safety assessment of thidiazuron [1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl)urea] and its metabolites in kiwifruits.the quality of kiwifruit became worse as a result of the abuse of plant growth regulators (pgrs). the safety of the fruits treated with pgrs also worried consumers. therefore, the present study analyzed the structure of thidiazuron [tdz, (1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl)-urea)] (1) and its metabolites of biotransformation in kiwifruits using liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (lc-it-tof-ms). standard compounds were also synthesized and used for structural ide ...201729144740
effect of secondary metabolite of actinidia deliciosa on the biofilm and extra-cellular matrix components of acinetobacter baumannii.acinetobacter baumannii, opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, increases gradually in the clinical setup. the high level of resistance mechanisms acquired by these bacteria makes their eradication difficult and biofilm formation is one of them. biofilm comprises of closely packed bacterial population crowded together by extra-cellular matrix (ecm). ecm contains bacterial secreted polymers such as exopolysaccharides (eps), proteins and extracellular-dna (e-dna) and rarely amyloidogenic proteins. bio ...201728705748
phytohormone and putative defense gene expression differentiates the response of 'hayward' kiwifruit to psa and pfm infections.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) and pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum (pfm) are closely related pathovars infecting kiwifruit, but psa is considered one of the most important global pathogens, whereas pfm is not. in this study of actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' responses to the two pathovars, the objective was to test whether differences in plant defense responses mounted against the two pathovars correlated with the contrasting severity of the symptoms caused by them. results sh ...201728824694
occurrence and epidemics of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in korea.bacterial canker is the largest limiting factor in the cultivation and production of kiwifruit worldwide. typical symptoms comprise necrotic spots on leaves, canker and dieback on canes and trunks, twig wilting, and blossom necrosis. pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), which is the causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker, is divided into four biovars based on multilocus sequence analysis of different genes, additional pcr testing of pathogenic genes (argktox cluster, cfl, and various e ...201728811752
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae type iii effectors localized at multiple cellular compartments activate or suppress innate immune responses in nicotiana benthamiana.bacterial phytopathogen type iii secreted (t3s) effectors have been strongly implicated in altering the interaction of pathogens with host plants. therefore, it is useful to characterize the whole effector repertoire of a pathogen to understand the interplay of effectors in plants. pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a causal agent of kiwifruit canker disease. in this study, we generated an agrobacterium-mediated transient expression library of yfp-tagged t3s effectors from two strains of psa ...201729326748
biochemical and functional characterization of acufgt3a, a galactosyltransferase involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).much of the diversity of anthocyanin pigmentation in plant tissues is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which attach sugar moieties to the anthocyanin aglycone. this step can increase both their solubility and stability. we investigated the pigmentation of the outer and inner pericarps of developing fruits of the red-fleshed kiwifruit actinidia chinensis cv. 'hongyang'. the results show that the red color of the inner pericarp is due to anthocyanin. based on expression analyses of struc ...201729057484
monoglobus pectinilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a pectinolytic bacterium isolated from human faeces.a novel anaerobic pectinolytic bacterium (strain 14t) was isolated from human faeces. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences revealed that strain 14t belonged to the family ruminococcaceae, but was located separately from known clostridial clusters within the taxon. the closest cultured relative of strain 14t was acetivibrio cellulolyticus (89.7 % sequence similarity). strain 14t shared ~99 % sequence similarity with cloned 16s rrna gene sequences from uncultured bacteria derived ...201729039307
mycoflora assessment, growth and toxigenic features of patulin-producers in kiwifruit in china.fungal development in agricultural products may cause mycotoxin contamination, which is a significant threat to food safety. patulin (pat) and pat-producer contamination has been established as a worldwide problem. the present study aimed to investigate the mycoflora and pat-producers present in kiwifruits and environmental samples collected from orchards and processing plants in shaanxi province, china.201729030968
a bacterial acetyltransferase triggers immunity in arabidopsis thaliana independent of hypersensitive response.type-iii secreted effectors (t3es) play critical roles during bacterial pathogenesis in plants. plant recognition of certain t3es can trigger defence, often accompanied by macroscopic cell death, termed the hypersensitive response (hr). economically important species of kiwifruit are susceptible to pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker. although psa is non-pathogenic in arabidopsis thaliana, we observed that a t3e, hopz5 that is unique to a glo ...201728620210
the scientific, economic, and social impacts of the new zealand outbreak of bacterial canker of kiwifruit (pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae).the introduction of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) severely damaged the new zealand kiwifruit industry, which in 2010 was based on only two cultivars. despite an extraordinarily quick and strong response by industry, government, and scientists to minimize the economic and social impacts, the economic consequences of this outbreak were severe. although our understanding of psa epidemiology and control methods increased substantively over the past six years, the kiwifruit industry large ...201728613977
whole transcriptome sequencing of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae-infected kiwifruit plants reveals species-specific interaction between long non-coding rna and coding genes.an outbreak of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) beginning in 2008 caused disaster to the kiwifruit industry. however the mechanisms of interaction between kiwifruit and psa are unknown. long noncoding rnas (lncrnas) are known to regulate many biological processes, but comprehensive repertoires of kiwifruit lncrnas and their effects on the interaction between kiwifruit and psa are unknown. here, based on in-depth transcriptomic analysis of fou ...201728687784
meloidogyne aberrans sp. nov. (nematoda: meloidogynidae), a new root-knot nematode parasitizing kiwifruit in china.high infection rates of roots of wild kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch) and soil infestation by a root-knot nematode were found in anshun, guizhou province, china. morphology, esterase phenotype and molecular analyses confirmed that this nematode was different from previously described root-knot nematodes. in this report, the species is described, illustrated and named meloidogyne aberrans sp. nov. the new species has a unique combination of characters. a prominent posterior protuberance, r ...201728854186
preliminary investigation of catalytic, antioxidant, anticancer and bactericidal activity of green synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using actinidia deliciosa.herein we report a rapid low cost one step green synthetic method using actinidia deliciosa fruit extract for preparation of stable and multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles. the synthesized nanoparticles were successfully used as green catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-np) and methylene blue (mb). the enhanced biological activity of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated based on its highly stable antioxidant, anticancer and bactericidal effects. tem micrographs showe ...201728454046
draft genome sequences of pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae icmp 19971 and icmp 19972, two strains isolated from actinidia chinensis with symptoms of summer canker in south korea.pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae is the causal agent of summer canker in kiwifruit plants in south korea. we report here the draft genome sequences of two p. carotovorum subsp. actinidiae strains, icmp 19971 and icmp 19972, which were originally isolated from actinidia chinensis with symptoms of summer canker. these genome sequences will aid in the identification of genetic traits associated with their unusual capacity to cause canker and help understanding of the threat these exotic ...201728385839
pcppi: a comprehensive database for the prediction of penicillium-crop protein-protein interactions.penicillium expansum , the causal agent of blue mold, is one of the most prevalent post-harvest pathogens, infecting a wide range of crops after harvest. in response, crops have evolved various defense systems to protect themselves against this and other pathogens. penicillium -crop interaction is a multifaceted process and mediated by pathogen- and host-derived proteins. identification and characterization of the inter-species protein-protein interactions (ppis) are fundamental to elucidating t ...201728365721
evaluation of penicillium expansum for growth, patulin accumulation, nonvolatile compounds and volatile profile in kiwi juices of different cultivars.patulin (pat) contamination and changes of nonvolatile and volatile compounds caused by penicillium expansum in fresh juices of 8 kiwi cultivars were investigated. growth and pat production of p. expansum were greater at 25°c than at 4°c. p. expansum grew in kiwi juices under ph ranging from 2.75 to 3.27 and produced 45.10-268.88μg/ml of pat at 25°c. decreases occurred in malic acid and soluble protein; while consumption and production simultaneously happened for reducing sugar, total soluble so ...201728317715
origin and evolution of the kiwifruit canker pandemic.recurring epidemics of kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) bleeding canker disease are caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa). in order to strengthen understanding of population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary dynamics, we isolated pseudomonas from cultivated and wild kiwifruit across six provinces in china. based on the analysis of eighty sequenced psa genomes we show that china is the origin of the pandemic lineage but that strain diversity in china is confined to just a single ...201728369338
transposon insertion libraries for the characterization of mutants from the kiwifruit pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit canker, is one of the most devastating plant diseases of recent times. we have generated two mini-tn5-based random insertion libraries of psa icmp 18884. the first, a 'phenotype of interest' (poi) library, consists of 10,368 independent mutants gridded into 96-well plates. by replica plating onto selective media, the poi library was successfully screened for auxotrophic and motility mutants. lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynt ...201728249011
identification of loci of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae involved in lipolytic activity and their role in colonization of kiwifruit leaves.bacterial canker disease caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, an emerging pathogen of kiwifruit plants, has recently brought about major economic losses worldwide. genetic studies on virulence functions of p. syringae pv. actinidiae have not yet been reported and there is little experimental data regarding bacterial genes involved in pathogenesis. in this study, we performed a genetic screen in order to identify transposon mutants altered in the lipolytic activity because it is known t ...201728112597
evolution of copper resistance in the kiwifruit pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae through acquisition of integrative conjugative elements and plasmids.horizontal gene transfer can precipitate rapid evolutionary change. in 2010 the global pandemic of kiwifruit canker disease caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) reached new zealand. at the time of introduction, the single clone responsible for the outbreak was sensitive to copper, however, analysis of a sample of isolates taken in 2015 and 2016 showed that a quarter were copper resistant. genome sequences of seven strains showed that copper resistance - comprising czc/cusabc and c ...201728063194
development and validation of an infection risk model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit, using a multiplication and dispersal concept for forecasting bacterial diseases.a weather-based disease prediction model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit (known worldwide as psa; pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3) was developed using a new mechanistic scheme for bacterial disease forecasters, the multiplication and dispersal concept. bacterial multiplication is estimated from a temperature function, the m index, accumulated from hourly air temperature over 3 days for hours when the leaf canopy is wet. rainfall provides free water to move inoculum to infection si ...201727749150
identification and expression analysis of photoreceptor genes in kiwifruit leaves under natural daylength conditions and their relationship with other genes that regulate photoperiodic flowering.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (a. chev) a. chev.) is a dioecious vine highly dependent on pollination, which is limited by a lack of synchrony of flowering time between male and female plants. in many plant species, the regulation of the timing of flowering depends largely on seasonal cues such as photoperiod, which is detected by photoreceptors. in this report, we determined the full sequences of the phyb (acphyb) and phya (acphya) genes and a partial sequence of the cry2 (accry ...201728363189
three ft and multiple cen and bft genes regulate maturity, flowering, and vegetative phenology in kiwifruit.kiwifruit is a woody perennial horticultural crop, characterized by excessive vegetative vigor, prolonged juvenility, and low productivity. to understand the molecular factors controlling flowering and winter dormancy, here we identify and characterize the kiwifruit pebp (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) gene family. five cen-like and three bft-like genes are differentially expressed and act as functionally conserved floral repressors, while two mft-like genes have no impact on flowerin ...201728369532
identification of circular rnas in kiwifruit and their species-specific response to bacterial canker pathogen invasion.research studies have recently focused on circle rnas (circrnas) in relation to their regulatory functions in animals. however, the systematic identification of circrnas in plants, especially non-model plants, is limited. in addition, raw report on the prediction of the potential role of circrnas in plant response to pathogen invasion is currently available. we conducted the systematic identification of circrnas from four materials originating from three species belonging to genus actinidia unde ...201728396678
effects of six commercial saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on phenolic attributes, antioxidant activity, and aroma of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv.) wine."hayward" kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv.), widely planted all around the world, were fermented with six different commercial saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (bm4×4, ra17, rc212, wlp77, jh-2, and cr476) to reveal their influence on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and aromatic components. significant differences in the levels of caffeic acid, protocatechuate, and soluble solid content were found among wines with the six fermented strains. wines fermented with rc212 strain exhibit ...201728251154
physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.three varieties of golden kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) (gold3, gold9 and hort16a) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. all the kiwifruit starches showed b-type polymorph. compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starche ...201727855880
kiwifruit alleviates learning and memory deficits induced by pb through antioxidation and inhibition of microglia activation in vitro and in vivo.lead (pb) exposure, in particular during early postnatal life, increases susceptibility to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative outcomes. the detrimental effect of pb exposure is basically due to an increasing ros production which overcomes the antioxidant systems and finally leads to cognitive dysfunction. kiwifruit is rich in the antioxidants like vitamin c and polyphenols. this study aims to investigate the effects and mechanism of kiwifruit to alleviate learning and memory deficits in ...201728386309
characterization of genes encoding key enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism of kiwifruit during storage period.'hongyang' is a red fleshed kiwifruit with high anthocyanin content. in this study, we mainly investigated effects of different temperatures (25 and 0°c) on anthocyanin biosynthesis in harvested kiwifruit, and characterized the genes encoding key enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism, as well as evaluated the mode of the action, by which low temperature regulates anthocyanin accumulation in 'hongyang' kiwifruit during storage period. the results showed that low temperature could effectively ...201728344589
is kiwifruit allergy a matter in kiwifruit-cultivating regions? a population-based study.although kiwifruit is known as a common cause of food allergy, population-based studies concerning the prevalence of kiwifruit allergy do not exist. we aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ige-mediated kiwifruit allergy in 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren in a region where kiwifruit is widely cultivated.201727732749
nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value.the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of china domestic kiwifruit and imported kiwifruit with different prices and the relationships of retail price among cultivars, nutritional qualities and flesh color were investigated. results showed that cultivar was the main factor influencing nutritional quality, though the product region could also affect the cultivar characteristics to some extent. additionally, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit had no relationship to ...201727719912
kiwifruit svp2 gene prevents premature budbreak during dormancy. 201728158721
negative act d 8 indicates systemic kiwifruit allergy among kiwifruit-sensitized children. 201728140468
sucrose phloem unloading follows an apoplastic pathway with high sucrose synthase in actinidia fruit.phloem unloading plays a pivotal role in photoassimilate partitioning and the accumulation of sugars in sink organs, e.g. fruit. here, we investigated the pathway of sucrose unloading in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciasa cv. qinmei) using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of the phloem-mobile symplastic tracer carboxyfluorescein and enzyme activity and gene expression assays. our structural investigation revealed that the sieve element-companion cell complex of bundles feeding the fru ...201728131340
synthesis and characterization of hollow porous molecular imprinted polymers for the selective extraction and determination of caffeic acid in fruit samples.hollow porous molecular imprinted polymers (hpmips) were prepared using caffeic acid (ca) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-vp) as functional monomer, and mcm-48 as sacrificial support. large surface area (562.7m(2)/g) of hpmips resulted in high binding capacity (27.26mg/g) and fast kinetic binding (40min) in comparison with solid mips. equilibrium data fitted well to freundlich equation, and adsorption process with multi-diffusion mechanisms could be described by pseudo-second order model. select ...201728159273
actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated virus: a novel emaravirus infecting kiwifruit plants.by integrating next-generation sequencing (ngs), bioinformatics, electron microscopy and conventional molecular biology tools, a new virus infecting kiwifruit vines has been identified and characterized. being associated with double-membrane-bound bodies in infected tissues and having a genome composed of rna segments, each one containing a single open reading frame in negative polarity, this virus shows the typical features of members of the genus emaravirus. five genomic rna segments were iden ...201727125218
ileal digesta nondietary substrates from cannulated pigs are major contributors to in vitro human hindgut short-chain fatty acid production.it has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (scfas) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. however, scfas in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material.201728003537
the development and effectiveness of an ecological momentary intervention to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption in low-consuming young adults.to develop and test the effectiveness of a mobile-phone based ecological momentary intervention (emi) to increase fruit and vegetable (fv) consumption in low-consuming young adults.201727642037
postharvest application of brassica meal-derived allyl-isothiocyanate to kiwifruit: effect on fruit quality, nutraceutical parameters and physiological response.the use of natural compounds to preserve fruit quality and develop high value functional products deserves attention especially in the growing industry of processing and packaging ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit. in this work, potential mechanisms underlying the effects of postharvest biofumigation with brassica meal-derived allyl-isothiocyanate on the physiological responses and quality of 'hayward' kiwifruits were studied. fruits were treated with 0.15 mg l(-1) of allyl-isothiocyanate vapours for ...201728298689
horizontal gene transfer gone wild: promiscuity in a kiwifruit pathogen leads to resistance to chemical control. 201728262000
characterization of metabolites in different kiwifruit varieties by nmr and fluorescence spectroscopy.it is known from our previous studies that kiwifruits, which are used in common human diet, have preventive properties of coronary artery disease. this study describes a combination of (1)h nmr spectroscopy, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements in differentiating of some kiwifruit varieties, their quenching and antioxidant properties. a total of 41 metabolites were identified by comparing with literature data chenomx database and 2d nmr. the binding properties of the extracte ...201728189049
corrigendum to "nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value" [food chem. 218 (2017) 294-304]. 201728159291
gbs-based deconvolution of the surviving north american collection of cold-hardy kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) germplasm.plant germplasm collections can be invaluable resources to plant breeders, provided they are well-characterized. after 140 years of acquisition and curation efforts by a wide and largely non-coordinated array of private and institutional actors, the current us collection of cold-hardy kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is rife with misclassifications, misnomers, and mix-ups. to facilitate the systematic improvement and resource-efficient curation of these species of long-recognized horticultural potenti ...201728125645
hairiness: the missing link between pollinators and pollination.functional traits are the primary biotic component driving organism influence on ecosystem functions; in consequence, traits are widely used in ecological research. however, most animal trait-based studies use easy-to-measure characteristics of species that are at best only weakly associated with functions. animal-mediated pollination is a key ecosystem function and is likely to be influenced by pollinator traits, but to date no one has identified functional traits that are simple to measure and ...201628028464
optimising survey effort to monitor environmental variables: a case study using new zealand kiwifruit orchards.environmental monitoring is increasingly used to assess spatial and temporal trends in agricultural sustainability, and test the effectiveness of farm management policies. however, detecting changes in environmental variables is often technically and logistically challenging. to demonstrate how survey effort for environmental monitoring can be optimised, we applied the new statistical power analysis r package simr to pilot survey data. specifically, we identified the amount of survey effort requ ...201627567933
coupling of physiological and proteomic analysis to understand the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening syndrome.kiwifruit [actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson, cv. "hayward"] is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. to understand the biological basis of this "dilemma," kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20°c following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μl l(-1), 20°c, 24 h) or/and chilling temperature (0°c, 10 days). all treatments elicited kiw ...201626913040
characterization of physiochemical and microbiological properties, and bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa).the objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as the bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of two varieties (bruno and monty) of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) at two stages of maturation. the flour made with kiwi fruit peel from both varieties showed higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity that the flour made with bagasse from both varieties. the flour made with green kiwi fruit skin from the ...201626775997
chitosan coating of red kiwifruit (actinidia melanandra) for extending of the shelf life.commercial production of red kiwifruit (actinidia melanandra) has been unsuccessful because of its short shelf life. here in this study, we used chitosan to extend the shelf life of red kiwifruit berries. chitosan (with 70-75% deacetylation degree and low molecular weight) was dissolved in acetic acid (at ph 2.0-2.3) to obtain gel material, which was used for coating of the fruit. the coated and uncoated samples were kept for 26 days at room temperature (20±2°c). the changes in the weight loss, ...201626772912
papain induced occupational asthma with kiwi and fig allergy.papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. here, we present a case of occupational, ige-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. a 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the t ...201626739411
impact of cultivation conditions, ethylene treatment, and postharvest storage on selected quality and bioactivity parameters of kiwifruit "hayward" evaluated by analytical and chemometric methods.organic, semiorganic, and conventional "hayward" kiwifruits, treated with ethylene for 24 h and stored during 10 days, were assessed by uv spectrometry, fluorometry, and chemometrical analysis for changes in selected characteristics of quality (firmness, dry matter and soluble solid contents, ph, and acidity) and bioactivity (concentration of polyphenols via folin-ciocalteu and p-hydroxybenzoic acid assays). all of the monitored qualitative parameters and characteristics related to bioactivity w ...201627472553
kiwifruit cysteine protease actinidin compromises the intestinal barrier by disrupting tight junctions.the intestinal epithelium forms a barrier that food allergens must cross in order to induce sensitization. the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the plant-derived food cysteine protease--actinidin (act d1) on the integrity of intestinal epithelium tight junctions (tjs).201626701113
bioactivity and nutritional properties of hardy kiwi fruit actinidia arguta in comparison with actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and actinidia eriantha 'bidan'.the aim of this research is to identify and compare the bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacities and binding potentials to human protein in different varieties of hardy kiwi (actinidia (a.) arguta), 'hayward' (actinidia deliciosa) and less - known 'bidan' (actinidia eriantha). polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, vitamin c, lutein, zeaxanthin and dietary fibers were significantly higher in cultivar 'm1' among the a. arguta than in 'hayward'. the binding properties of studied kiwi frui ...201626593493
classification of kiwifruit grades based on fruit shape using a single camera.this study aims to demonstrate the feasibility for classifying kiwifruit into shape grades by adding a single camera to current chinese sorting lines equipped with weight sensors. image processing methods are employed to calculate fruit length, maximum diameter of the equatorial section, and projected area. a stepwise multiple linear regression method is applied to select significant variables for predicting minimum diameter of the equatorial section and volume and to establish corresponding est ...201627376292
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