PMID(sorted ascending)
organic and conventional kiwifruit, myths versus reality: antioxidant, antiproliferative, and health effects.comparison between organic and conventional kiwifruit cultivars 'hayward' and 'bidan', which was done by four radical scavenging assays, esi-ms, and dsc measurements, showed significant differences between the cultivars. such results were not estimated in kiwifruit growing under organic and conventional conditions. the extraction of bioactive compounds was done by two different methods: sequential extraction with ethyl acetate followed by methanol and maceration with methanol and ethyl acetate. ...201222712722
bacterial canker on kiwifruit in italy: anatomical changes in the wood and in the primary infection sites.the bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. many aspects of p. syringae pv. actinidiae biology and epidemiology still require in-depth investigation. the infection by and spread of p. syringae pv. actinidiae in xylem and phloem was investigated by carrying out artificial inoculation experiments with histological and dendrochronological analyses of naturally diseased plants in italy. we found that the bacter ...201222713076
measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation for in vivo monitoring of 14c tracer distribution between fruit and roots of kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) vivo measurements of (14)c tracer distribution have usually involved monitoring the β(-) particles produced as (14)c decays. these particles are only detectable over short distances, limiting the use of this technique to thin plant material. in the present experiments, x-ray detectors were used to monitor the bremsstrahlung radiation emitted since β(-) particles were absorbed in plant tissues. bremsstrahlung radiation is detectable through larger tissue depths. the aim of these experiments wa ...201222729822
the effect of 2n gametes on sex ratios in can sometimes lead to complications. in some crops, 2n gametes have been exploited by plant breeders to transfer genetic variation between taxa of different ploidy levels. however, their role and use in dioecious genera have received relatively little attention. in the dioecious genus actinidia (kiwifruit), seedling populations usually segregate equally for females and males as sex is determined by an xx female/xy male system. while fertilization involving 2n egg cells is not expected to aff ...201222739644
evaluation of antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of three actinidia (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) extracts in vitro.the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin c content, and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from different kiwifruit varieties (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) were determined in this study. multiple scavenging activity assays including the hydroxyl radical, o(2) (-)·radical, dpph, and the abts(+) radical scavenging activity assays were used to identify the antioxidant activities of actinidia extracts. the cell viability of hepg2 and ht-29 c ...201222754311
a novel polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from lathyrus sativus l. seeds.polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) are extracellular plant proteins bound to the plant cell wall containing leucine-rich repeats (lrr). they play an important role in plant defence being able to inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (epgs), the first enzymes secreted by phytopathogenic fungi during plant infection. in the present work, a novel pgip (lspgip) has been isolated from lathyrus sativus seeds. lspgip exhibited an inhibitory activity towards epgs from aspergillus niger and rh ...201222762184
the effects of fruit maturation, delayed storage and ethylene treatment on the incidence of low-temperature breakdown of 'hayward' kiwifruit.low-temperature breakdown (ltb), a disorder inducing quality loss, during and after cold storage of 'hayward' kiwifruit was investigated. harvested kiwifruits during fruit maturation or after delayed storage (ds) at 20 °c for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and 1 µl l⁻¹ ethylene treatment for 24 h were stored at -0.5 °c for 24 weeks and additional ripening at 20 °c for 5 days. fruit quality indices and ltb incidence and severity were determined before and after treatments.201322777890
the control of chlorophyll levels in maturing kiwifruit.chlorophyll is present in many plant organs, including immature fruit where it is usually degraded during ripening. mature green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) are an exception, with high concentrations of chlorophyll remaining in the fruit flesh. in gold-fleshed kiwifruit (a. chinensis), chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites upon fruit ripening, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. we have identified candidate genes for the control of chlorophyll degradation in kiwifruit and examine ...201222843245
digested and fermented green kiwifruit increases human β-defensin 1 and 2 production in vitro.the intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to a variety of microbial species including commensals and pathogens, the latter leaving the host susceptible to infection. antimicrobial peptides (amp) are an important part of the first line of defense at mucosal surfaces. human β-defensins (hbd) are amp expressed by colonic epithelial cells, which act as broad spectrum antimicrobials. this study explored the direct and indirect effects of green kiwifruit (kf) on human β-defensin 1 and 2 (hbd-1 and 2 ...201222872469
phylogenetic relationships among global populations of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.abstract pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of canker in kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) vines, was first detected in japan in 1984, followed by detections in korea and italy in the early 1990s. isolates causing more severe disease symptoms have recently been detected in several countries with a wide global distribution, including italy, new zealand, and china. in order to characterize p. syringae pv. actinidiae populations globally, a representative set of 40 isolates from new zea ...201222877312
applications of nmr metabolomics to the study of foodstuffs: truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea this review, four examples of the nmr metabolomic approach to foodstuff investigation are reported. different types of foodstuff of different origin (namely truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea bass), with different metabolite composition, processing, and storage procedures have been chosen to demonstrate the versatility and potentiality of nmr in the foodstuff analysis. fundamental aspects of nmr methodology such as sample preparation, metabolites extraction, quantitative elaboration of spec ...201222887151
composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species.sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic content in fruit of 25 wild and cultivated berry species were identified and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatograph. the composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic compounds in various species of vaccinium, rubus, ribes, and fragaria genus was evaluated. additonally, total phenolics of less known berry species of the morus, amelanchier, sorbus, sambucus, rosa, lycium, actinidia, and aronia genus were determined in wild growin ...201222924969
influence of cultivation parameters on the composition of volatile compounds and physico-chemical characteristics of kiwi fruit.the effect of four cultivation parameters (post-maturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °c and input of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers) on the physico-chemical characteristics and composition of volatile compounds in kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated. five physico-chemical parameters were selected, namely, ph, total acidity, dry matter, conductivity and refractive index. to our knowledge, no published data are available concerning the influence of nitrogen or potassium fertil ...201322936621
functional properties of some new zealand fruit extracts towards selected probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.the functional properties of aqueous extracts of four fruits commonly consumed in new zealand, namely blueberry, strawberry, green kiwifruit and feijoa, towards the growth of probiotic and pathogenic bacteria were investigated in this study. a concentration range of 0.1-30.0 g/l was evaluated in a high-throughput assay to determine their effects. in general, the four fruit extracts exerted growth-stimulating effects on the probiotic bacteria, except with bifidobacterium longum, whereas they were ...201222968373
hplc-msn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. more than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with hplc-ms(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog ...201222980782
kiwifruit remnants from digestion in vitro have functional attributes of potential importance to health.the physicochemical properties of plant cell walls in the gut are important in modulating processes that influence health. we investigated the physicochemical properties of kiwifruit cell walls digested under gastric and gastroileal conditions in vitro. soluble and insoluble undigested polymer fractions were measured, the hydration properties of the digested pulp, and the capacity to retard diffusion and mixing in a simulated small intestinal segment. undigested polymer (dietary fibre) fractions ...201222980789
an efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsltp(1) (9 kda) and nsltp(2) (7 kda). ltps have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. many efforts have been made for purification of different nsltps from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. we have developed a relatively simple and efficient ...201222987614
studies related to norway spruce galactoglucomannans: chemical synthesis, conformation analysis, nmr spectroscopic characterization, and molecular recognition of model compounds.galactoglucomannan (ggm) is a polysaccharide mainly consisting of mannose, glucose, and galactose. ggm is the most abundant hemicellulose in the norway spruce (picea abies), but is also found in the cell wall of flax seeds, tobacco plants, and kiwifruit. although several applications for ggm polysaccharides have been developed in pulp and paper manufacturing and the food and medical industries, attempts to synthesize and study distinct fragments of this polysaccharide have not been reported prev ...201223008171
green and gold kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts potentiate pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via a gabaergic mechanism.kiwifruit is one of the most popular fruits worldwide, and it has various biological properties, including antioxidant, anti-allergic, and cardiovascular protective effects. the peel of kiwifruit, which is a by-product of processing, is a good source of flavonoids; however, its bioactivity has not been widely investigated. in this study, we evaluated the hypnotic effects of green (grpe, actinidia deliciosa) and gold (gope, actinidia chinensis) kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts and their solvent fr ...201323017407
molecular cloning and characterization of a cdna encoding kiwifruit l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, a key gene of inositol formation.l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mips; ec is the key enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of myo-inositol, leading to numerous cellular functions. we isolated an open reading frame of actinidia deliciosa mips (admips), which is 1,533 bp long and codes for 510 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 56.3 kda. sequence analysis revealed its high similarity with mips proteins from other organisms. gene expression and enzyme activity were highest in flower and young fruit. tra ...201323065229
expression patterns and promoter characteristics of the gene encoding actinidia deliciosa l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase involved in the response to light and abiotic stresses.the gene encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (gpp) plays a central role in ascorbic acid (asa) biosynthesis in plants. here, we report asa contents, gpp expression, and functioning of its promoter in response to light, exogenous stress-signalling hormones, or abiotic stresses in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). to identify the upstream region of gpp required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of promoter deletion derivatives. each construct was analyzed by agrobacterium-medi ...201323070919
clonal differences in antioxidant activity and bioactive constituents of hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) and its year-to-year variability.hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) is a new species, commercially grown in recent years. total phenolics (tpc), vitamin c (taa) content, antioxidant activity (aa) and their year-to-year variability in seven hardy kiwifruit clones were evaluated. tpc was determined using the folin-ciocalteu reagent assay. taa was estimated by determination of l-ascorbic acid and l-dehydroascorbic acid levels using high-performance liquid chromatography. aa was measured using diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (dpph), 2,2 ...201323070974
characterizing kiwifruit carbohydrate utilization in vitro and its consequences for human faecal is well accepted that our gut bacteria have coevolved with us in relation to our genetics, diet and lifestyle and are integrated metabolically with us to affect our gut health adversely or beneficially. "who is there" may vary quite widely between individuals, as might "how they do it", but "what they make" may be less variable. many different individual species of bacteria can perform the same saccharolytic functions and so the availability of substrate (host or diet-derived) along with the ...201223072625
metabolic profiling and outer pericarp water state in zespri,, and hayward kiwifruits.the metabolic profiling of aqueous extracts of zespri gold ( actinidia chinensis ) and (a controlled crossbreed from different species of actinidia deliciosa ) kiwifruits and the water state of the outer pericarp of entire fruits were monitored over the season by means of high-field nmr spectroscopy and t(2) relaxation time measurements, respectively, and compared with the corresponding ones of hayward kiwifruits previously investigated. a more complete assignment of the (1)h spectrum with ...201323083310
proteomic changes in actinidia chinensis shoot during systemic infection with a pandemic pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strain.a pandemic, very aggressive population of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is currently causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit crops worldwide. upon leaf attack, this gram-negative bacterium systemically reaches the plant shoot in a week period. in this study, combined 2-de and nanolc-esi-lit-ms/ms procedures were used to describe major proteomic changes in actinidia chinensis shoot following bacterial inoculation in host leaf. a total of 117 differentially represented protein spots were ...201323099348
characterisation of bound volatile compounds of a low flavour kiwifruit species: actinidia eriantha.aroma compounds in fruit are known to occur in free and glycosidically bound forms. the bound volatile fraction of a low flavour kiwifruit species, actinidia eriantha, was studied. the fruit have a bland and grassy flavour. glycosidic precursors were isolated from juice by adsorption onto an amberlite xad-2 column. after enzymatic hydrolysis with rapidase ar2000, the released aglycones were analysed by gc-ms. alcohols, terpenoids and phenolics were the most numerously represented compound classe ...201223107675
characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.two plant enzyme extracts from kiwifruit and asparagus were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse commercially available substrates and proteins present in both beef connective tissue and topside myofibrillar extracts. the results show significant differences in protease activity depending on the assay used. protease assays with connective tissue and meat myofibrillar extracts provide a more realistic evaluation of the potential of the enzymes for application in meat tenderization. overall, t ...201323122154
fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. a causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather →(i)→ fruit transpiration →( ...201223136639
lc-ms-ms determination and pharmacokinetic study of the novel anti-tumor candidate drug teoa in rats.2α, 3α, 24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (teoa) is a prominent ursane-type triterpenoid isolated from the root of actinidia deliciosa, which has numerous pharmacological activities. to date, there is no report on the pharmacokinetic characterization of teoa in biological samples. a specific, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms-ms) method is reported for the fast assay of teoa in rat plasma. plasma sample preparation was based on liquid-liquid extraction w ...201323139245
kiwifruit allergy across europe: clinical manifestation and ige recognition patterns to kiwifruit allergens.kiwifruit is a common cause of food allergy. symptoms range from mild to anaphylactic reactions.201323141741
kiwifruit consumption favourably affects plasma lipids in a randomised controlled trial in hypercholesterolaemic men.the unique composition of green kiwifruit has the potential to benefit cvd risk. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruits daily in conjunction with a healthy diet on plasma lipids and other metabolic markers and to examine response according to apoe genotype in hypercholesterolaemic men. after undergoing a 4-week healthy diet, eighty-five hypercholesterolaemic men (ldl-cholesterol (ldl-c) > 3.0 mmol/l and tag < 3 mmol/l) completed an 8-week ran ...201323151354
identification and thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins in aqueous solutions with various ph values and fruit juices.thirteen anthocyanins were identified in the purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivar jihei no. 1. the main anthocyanins were 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside derivatives from cyanidin and peonidin, acylated with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, or caffeic acid. a unique anthocyanin, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside was also found. the thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins (pspas) followed a first-order kinetics model. aqueous solutions with various ph (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) and fruit j ...201323194545
meiotic chromosome pairing in actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., aaaa), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., aabb, aabbcc). allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub- ...201223196697
changes in the bound aroma profiles of 'hayward' and 'hort16a' kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) during ripening and gc-olfactometry analysis.bound volatiles are recognised as a potential source of aroma compounds in fruits. in this study, the bound volatiles of actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and a. chinensis 'hort16a' were studied at three different ripening stages. the bound volatile content tended to increase as the fruit ripened from under-ripe to ripe, and then decreased in over-ripe fruit. glycosides of (z)-3-hexen-1-ol and hexanol (green-note volatiles) were present in considerable amounts. β-glucosidase activity in 'hayward' an ...201323199989
development of an immunochromatographic assay based on carbon nanoparticles for the determination of the phytoregulator forchlorfenuron.rapid analytical methods enabling the determination of diverse targets are essential in a number of research areas, from clinical diagnostics to feed and food quality and safety. herein, the development of a quantitative immunochromatographic assay for the detection of the synthetic phytoregulator forchlorfenuron (cppu) is described. the competitive lateral flow immunoassay (lfia) was based on the immobilization onto a nitrocellulose membrane of an ovalbumin-cppu conjugate (test line) and on the ...201323202348
topical effectiveness of kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin ointment on removal of necrotic tissue of full-thickness burns in male rats.formation of necrotic tissues is a major issue affecting treatment of full-thickness burns. this study was designed to compare topical effectiveness of applying kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin on removal of necrotic tissue of burns. ten adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. for group 1, the right-side wounds were treated with kiwifruit and the other side with fibrinolysin. for group 2, the wounds on the right side were treated with kiwifruit or fibrinolysin, and the left s ...201223210763
diversity and relative levels of actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like allergens in 15 varieties of kiwifruit (actinidia).in the last 30 years the incidence of kiwifruit allergy has increased with the three major allergenic proteins being identified as actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like protein (tlp). we report wide variation in the levels of actinidin and tlp in 15 kiwifruit varieties from the four most widely cultivated actinidia species. acidic and basic isoforms of actinidin were identified in actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and actinidia arguta 'hortgem tahi', while only a basic isoform of actinidin was ide ...201323289429
an r2r3 myb transcription factor determines red petal colour in an actinidia (kiwifruit) hybrid colour in kiwifruit results from the presence of anthocyanin pigments. their expression, however, is complex, and varies among genotypes, species, tissues and environments. an understanding of the biosynthesis, physiology and genetics of the anthocyanins involved, and the control of their expression in different tissues, is required. a complex, the mbw complex, consisting of r2r3-myb and bhlh transcription factors together with a wd-repeat protein, activates anthocyanin 3-o-galactosyltransfe ...201323324587
maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genomes and complex inheritance of chloroplast genomes in actinidia lind.: evidences from interspecific crosses.the inheritance pattern of chloroplast and mitochondria is a critical determinant in studying plant phylogenetics, biogeography and hybridization. to better understand chloroplast and mitochondrial inheritance patterns in actinidia (traditionally called kiwifruit), we performed 11 artificial interspecific crosses and studied the ploidy levels, morphology, and sequence polymorphisms of chloroplast dna (cpdna) and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of parents and progenies. sequence analysis showed that th ...201323337924
effect of acid fruit juices combined with electric or sonic toothbrushing on root dentin permeability--an in vitro study.the purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify the alterations on human root dentin permeability after exposure to different acid fruit juices and to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing with electric or sonic toothbrush after acid exposure. the root dentin of 50 extracted third molars was exposed with a high speed bur. crowns were sectioned above the cementoenamel junction and root fragments were used to prepare dentin specimens. specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the ...201223338258
in silico identification of ige-binding epitopes of osmotin protein.the identification of b-cell epitopes is an important step to study the antigen- antibody interactions for diagnosis and therapy. the present study aimed to identify b- cell epitopes of osmotin using bioinformatic tools and further modify these regions to study the allergenic property. b-cell epitopes were predicted based on amino acid physicochemical properties. three single point mutations m1, m2, and m3 and a multiple point mutant (m123) were selected to disrupt the ige binding. these mutants ...201323349964
nutritional and pharmaceutical properties of bioactive compounds in organic and conventional growing kiwifruit.the bioactivity of two kiwifruit's cultivars growing under organic and conventional conditions were studied and compared. the bioactive compounds were extracted with water and ethanol using similar conditions which are applied in pharmaceutical applications and for daily fruit consumption such as tea drink. antioxidant radical scavenging assays [ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (frap); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (cuprac); 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (abts)], ...201323386202
kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.while the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key g ...201323394979
kiwifruit: the wild and the cultivated plants.the defining characteristics of the genus actinidia, to which kiwifruit belong, are described. taxonomic relationships between the two important cultivated species, a. chinensis and a. deliciosa, are summarized, and the history of the domestication of these two species is outlined. most commercially important kiwifruit cultivars are selections from the wild, not the result of planned breeding programs. there is great variability within the genus, and it is therefore important when considering th ...201323394980
the composition and nutritional value of kiwifruit.understanding the nutrient composition of kiwifruit is central to discussions of the nutritional value and potential health benefits of kiwifruit. until recently, there were only limited validated data providing extensive compositional information available as reference values for common commercial cultivars. as a genus, actinidia is diverse in both form and composition; however, there are several notable compounds that, within the context of fruit, are the signature of actinidia: vitamin c, act ...201323394981
kiwifruit proteins and enzymes: actinidin and other significant proteins.protein is a minor but significant component of kiwifruit. crude protein is typically measured at about 1% of fresh weight; however, soluble protein is much less, around 0.3%. the difference can be accounted for by nonprotein nitrogen and insoluble protein, such as polypeptide chains forming part of the cell wall. kiwifruit soluble protein is mostly accounted for by the proteolytic enzyme actinidin and its inactive forms, a so-called thaumatin-like protein and an unusual protein called kiwellin, ...201323394982
fiber: composition, structures, and functional properties.kiwifruit dietary fiber consists of cell-wall polysaccharides that are typical of the cell walls of many dicotyledonous fruits, being composed of pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose. the kiwifruit pectic polysaccharides consist of homo- and rhamnogalacturonans with various neutral, (arabino)-galactan side chains, while the hemicelluloses are mostly xyloglucan and xylan. the proportions of pectic polysaccharide, hemicellulose, and cellulose in both green 'hayward' and 'zespri® g ...201323394983
secondary metabolite components of kiwifruit.both green and gold kiwifruit contain high concentrations of vitamin c, and much of the "health story" of kiwifruit involves this vitamin. kiwifruit also contain other compounds that are bioactive and beneficial to health. in this chapter, the secondary metabolite composition of kiwifruit is presented. although there are limited compositional data for kiwifruit published in the scientific literature, the concentrations of 42 compounds have been documented. included are compounds that are often a ...201323394984
the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit.vitamin c is an essential component of the diet for humans, and an adequate intake is important not only for the prevention of scurvy but also to limit the risk of developing chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. to achieve a regular and adequate intake, daily consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is recommended. the vitamin c content of food varies widely, however, and plasma levels generally reflect the amount consumed, regardless of its origin. kiwifruit are one of the premie ...201323394985
influence of kiwifruit on protein kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. this chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on the gastro- and small-intestinal digestion of a range of common food proteins and protein-rich foods including milk, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, and cereal proteins. clear evidence is provided that g ...201323394986
kiwifruit, mucins, and the gut barrier.kiwifruit has long been regarded in china, where it originated from, for its health properties and particularly in relation to digestion and general gut health. there are a number of physical and chemical properties of the fruit, including its dietary fiber content, the presence of raphides, its high water holding capacity and actinidin content, that suggest that kiwifruit may be effective in influencing gut mucin production and thus enhancing the integrity of the gut barrier. the mucous layer, ...201323394987
digestion of kiwifruit fiber.dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. the digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. ...201323394988
modification of the colonic is becoming clear that the ecology and functionality of the human gut microbiota are extremely diverse and complex. the microbiota have coevolved with us metabolically to live symbiotically and to share the workload of extracting nutrients and energy from the diet. it is also clear that a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals is good for general health and gut health and that this is due partly to the phytochemicals and partly to the nondigestible carbohydrates (or dietary f ...201323394989
kiwifruit modulation of gastrointestinal motility.disorders of gastrointestinal motility are common, resulting in a decreased quality of life of individuals, and an economic burden. gastrointestinal motility is categorized according to location within the gastrointestinal tract: stomach, small intestine, and colon, with the colon being the dominant compartment in determining overall gastrointestinal transit. constipation results from gastrointestinal dysmotility and is a significant chronic health issue globally. clinical studies in a range of ...201323394990
kiwifruit and mineral nutrition.dietary minerals are essential nutrients that drive key cellular and physiological functions. each mineral is absorbed in the gut via unique, complex pathways that can involve a cascade of receptors and binding proteins. foods can both provide dietary minerals and contain components that impact the bioavailability of minerals in the digestive system. kiwifruit exceeds most other fruits in its content of key micronutrients including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, and folate. it ...201323394991
kiwifruit, carbohydrate availability, and the glycemic appreciable proportion, about 10%, of the dry weight of kiwifruit consists of primary cell walls. about 80% of dry matter is available carbohydrate consisting of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and about 10% is digestible protein. the cell wall component, being nonstarch polysaccharide, is undigested in the stomach and small intestine, so the component increases in relative concentration in the gut lumen where its physicochemical properties may be important in modulating carbohydrate digestio ...201323394992
cardioprotective properties of kiwifruit.beneficial effects of consumption of fruit and vegetables on the cardiovascular system have been reported. fruit and vegetable components affect the cardiovascular system in both antioxidant and nonantioxidant ways. the mechanisms of their actions are, however, still not well understood. the compounds present in fruits and vegetables may function individually or in concert to protect lipoproteins and vascular cells from oxidation or by other mechanisms such as reducing plasma lipid levels, high ...201323394993
kiwifruit as a modulator of dna damage and dna repair.kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin c and other antioxidants. we have demonstrated the capacity of kiwifruit to protect cellular dna against oxidative damage in single-dose human experiments and in longer term supplementation trials using the comet assay to measure both dna-strand breaks and oxidized bases. enhanced antioxidant status following a single large dose of kiwifruit is shown by an increased resistance of lymphocyte dna to oxidation by h(2)o(2)in vitro. after 3 weeks (or more) of su ...201323394994
effects of kiwifruit on innate and adaptive immunity and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.maintenance of an adequate and properly regulated immune system is essential for health and well-being. components in food may modulate immune responses in a positive way (immunonutrition), and some of these components are present in kiwifruit. kiwifruit contains vitamin c, carotenoids, polyphenols, and dietary fiber, and these are all potentially beneficial to the immune system. research that has contributed to our understanding of the beneficial effects that kiwifruit may have on immune respon ...201323394995
kiwifruit allergies.while kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. ige-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. eleven green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as act d 1 through act d 11. bet v 1 homologue (act d 8) and profilin (act d 9 ...201323394996
preface. kiwifruit. 201323394997
using fundamental knowledge of induced resistance to develop control strategies for bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. 201323437017
human skeletal muscle ascorbate is highly responsive to changes in vitamin c intake and plasma concentrations.vitamin c (ascorbate) is likely to be essential for skeletal muscle structure and function via its role as an enzyme cofactor for collagen and carnitine biosynthesis. vitamin c may also protect these metabolically active cells from oxidative stress.201323446899
analytical determination of bioactive compounds as an indication of fruit quality.the aim of this investigation was to determine the bioactive compounds in kiwifruit as an indication of quality after extraction using methanol and ethyl acetate. using ftir and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and electrospray ionization/ms, the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, and tannins, and the level of the antioxidant activity by 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing/ antioxidant p ...201223451390
(e)-5-hexadecenyl acetate: a novel moth sex pheromone component from stathmopoda auriferella.the sex pheromone of stathmopoda auriferella (walker), an important pest of kiwifruit in korea, was studied. two candidate pheromone components detected in the gland extracts of females were identified as (e)-5-hexadecenyl acetate (e5-16:oac) and (e)-5-hexadecenol (e5-16:oh) in a ratio of 75:25 by mass spectral analysis of natural pheromone components and dimethyldisulfide adducts, and retention index comparisons with synthetic standards. in the kiwifruit orchards, e5-16:oac alone was attractive ...201323483347
characterization of the complete genome of a novel citrivirus infecting actinidia chinensis.a ssrna virus from kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) was identified as a member of the family betaflexiviridae. it was mechanically transmitted to the herbaceous indicators nicotiana benthamiana, n. clevelandii, n. glutinosa and n. occidentalis. the complete genome was comprised of three orfs and a 3'poly (a) tail. phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome indicated it was a novel member of the genus citrivirus (family betaflexiviridae). the complete nucleotide sequence differed from that of citrus le ...201323494225
actinidia drm1--an intrinsically disordered protein whose mrna expression is inversely correlated with spring budbreak in kiwifruit.intrinsically disordered proteins (idps) are a relatively recently defined class of proteins which, under native conditions, lack a unique tertiary structure whilst maintaining essential biological functions. functional classification of idps have implicated such proteins as being involved in various physiological processes including transcription and translation regulation, signal transduction and protein modification. actinidia drm1 (ade dormancy associated gene 1), represents a robust dormanc ...201323516402
a pparγ ligand present in actinidia fruit (actinidia chrysantha) is identified as dilinolenoyl galactosyl glycerol.activity-guided fractionation of actinidia fruit species, including kiwifruit, has identified dlgg (dilinolenoyl galactosyl glycerol) as a potent pparγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) ligand. dlgg is a type of mgdg (monogalactosyl diacylglycerol) and is present in all chloroplasts, and therefore all green fruits and vegetables. pparγ is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates glucose metabolism and inflammation. an ethyl acetate extract of actinidia chrysantha was f ...201323548247
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from recent outbreaks of kiwifruit bacterial canker belong to different clones that originated in china.a recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa and a. chinensis), is caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa). the disease was first reported in china and japan in the 1980s. a severe outbreak of psa began in italy in 2008 and has spread to other european countries. psa was found in both new zealand and chile in 2010. to study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of psa between countries, genomes of strains from china and jap ...201323555547
health-promoting effects of ethylene-treated kiwifruit 'hayward' from conventional and organic crops in rats fed an atherogenic diet.kiwifruit is a subtropical fruit that is very popular among consumers. kiwifruit 'hayward' ( actinidia deliciosa c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson) is an important source of bioactive compounds and possesses high antioxidant capacity, but its value can be changed during ripening. the aim of this study was to compare the levels of total polyphenols (tp), ascorbic acid (aa), and total antioxidant capacities (tacs) of ethylene-treated and nontreated kiwifruits 'hayward' from conventional and organic farm ...201323566063
homologs of ft, cen and fd respond to developmental and environmental signals affecting growth and flowering in the perennial vine kiwifruit.flowering locus t (ft) and centroradialis (cen) homologs have been implicated in regulation of growth, determinacy and flowering. the roles of kiwifruit ft and cen were explored using a combination of expression analysis, protein interactions, response to temperature in high-chill and low-chill kiwifruit cultivars and ectopic expression in arabidopsis and actinidia. the expression and activity of ft was opposite from that of cen and incorporated an interaction with a flowering locus d (fd)-like ...201323577598
low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in 'hayward' kiwifruit by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and regulating en-dogenous hormones understand the mechanisms leading to the enhanced chilling tolerance of kiwifruit by low-temperature conditioning (ltc, 12 °c for 3 days), this study investigated the effect of ltc on chilling tolerance and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and endogenous hormones.201323633231
endogenous cytokinin in developing kiwifruit is implicated in maintaining fruit flesh chlorophyll kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) retain high concentrations of chlorophyll in the fruit flesh, whereas in gold-fleshed kiwifruit (a. chinensis) chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites during fruit development, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. the plant hormone group the cytokinins has been implicated in the delay of senescence, and so the aim of this work was to investigate the link between cytokinin levels in ripening fruit and chlorophyll de-greening.201323644363
hydraulic resistance of developing actinidia fruit.xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. it has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (rt) contributes to this process. this study examined changes in rt that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase ...201323658370
volume-based pollen size analysis: an advanced method to assess somatic and gametophytic ploidy in flowering plants.pollen size is often used as a biological parameter to estimate the ploidy and viability of mature pollen grains. in general, pollen size quantification is performed one- or two-dimensionally using image-based diameter measurements. as these approaches are elaborate and time consuming, alternative approaches that enable a quick, reliable analysis of pollen size are highly relevant for plant research. in this study, we present the volume-based particle size analysis technique as an alternative me ...201323686220
in vitro toxicity of silver nanoparticles to kiwifruit pollen exhibits peculiar traits beyond the cause of silver ion release.the vast use of silver nanoparticles (agnps) mandates thorough investigation of their impact on biosystems at various levels. the cytotoxicity of pvp coated-agnps to pollen, the aploid male gametophyte of higher plants, has been assessed here for the first time. the negative effects of agnps include substantial decreases in pollen viability and performance, specific ultrastructural alterations, early changes in calcium content, and unbalance of redox status. ag⁺ released from agnps damaged polle ...201323702492
characterisation of the polyphenol content in the kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) exocarp for the calibration of a fruit-sorting optical sensor.kiwifruit contains high amounts of anti-oxidants beneficial to health. its quality is influenced by ripening time, genotype, cultivation techniques, climate and storage conditions after harvest.201323716352
kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' (green kiwifruit) and actinidia chinensis 'hort 16a', zespri(®) (gold kiwifruit). compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins c, e, k, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting i ...201323746068
characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins: an assessment of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin.assessment of the potential allergenicity (ige-inducing properties) of novel proteins is an important challenge in the overall safety assessment of foods. resistance to digestion with pepsin is commonly measured to characterize allergenicity, although the association is not absolute. we have previously shown that specific ige antibody production induced by systemic [intraperitoneal (i.p.)] exposure of balb/c strain mice to a range of proteins correlates with allergenic potential for known allerg ...201423754484
effects of kivia powder on gut health in patients with occasional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluate the efficacy of kivia powder on supporting overall gut health through the relief of the discomfort of occasional constipation.201323758673
light and abiotic stresses regulate the expression of gdp-l-galactose phosphorylase and levels of ascorbic acid in two kiwifruit genotypes via light-responsive and stress-inducible cis-elements in their promoters.ascorbic acid (asa) plays an essential role in plants by protecting cells against oxidative damage. gdp-l-galactose phosphorylase (ggp) is the first committed gene for asa synthesis. our research examined asa levels, regulation of ggp gene expression, and how these are related to abiotic stresses in two species of actinidia (kiwifruit). when leaves were subjected to continuous darkness or light, aba or meja, heat, or a hypoxic environment, we found some correlation between the relative levels of ...201323775440
conformational mobility of active and e-64-inhibited actinidin.actinidin, a protease from kiwifruit, belongs to the c1 family of cysteine proteases. cysteine proteases were found to be involved in many disease states and are valid therapeutic targets. actinidin has a wide ph activity range and wide substrate specificity, which makes it a good model system for studying enzyme-substrate interactions.201323803410
biochemical and immunological characterization of a recombinantly-produced antifungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).plant proteinase inhibitors are considered important defense molecules against insect and pathogen attack. the cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cpi) from green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) belongs to the cystatin family and shows potent antifungal activity (in vitro and in vivo). however, the low abundance of this molecule in fruit (6μg/g of fresh fruit) seems to limit further investigations on the interaction between phytocystatin and photopathogenic fungi. in this paper the cdna of the kiwi c ...201323830694
over-accumulation of putrescine induced by cyclohexylamine interferes with chromium accumulation and partially restores pollen tube growth in actinidia deliciosa.both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, i.e., cr(iii) and cr(vi), respectively, were previously demonstrated to affect in vitro germination and ultrastructure of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) pollen. in the present work, the response to chromium in germinating pollen was evaluated in terms of changes in the polyamine profile. slight, though significant, increases in free spermidine and spermine occurred after exposure to cr(iii), while the levels remained almost unchanged after cr(vi) treatmen ...201323835360
mating behavior of cnephasia jactatana (lepidoptera: tortricidae), an important pest of kiwifruit.understanding mating behavioral sequence helps us identify the mechanisms of mate assessment and choice, and better evaluate behavior-based pest control strategies. here we describe the mating behavior of cnephasia jactatana walker whose females release a sex pheromone, and determine the effect of male mating status on reproductive success. the mating sequence starts when males approach females and display courtship behavior with antennation and fanning wings. both males and females may end a ma ...201323865204
the prevalence of pfs and prevalence and characteristics of reported food allergy; a survey of uk adults aged 18-75 incorporating a validated pfs diagnostic questionnaire.pollen-food syndrome (pfs), a food allergy affecting pollen-sensitized individuals, is likely to be the most prevalent food allergy in adults, estimated to affect 50-90% of people allergic to birch tree pollen.201323889246
biochemical and structural characterisation of dehydroquinate synthase from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia of the novel aspects of kiwifruit is the presence of a high level of quinic acid which contributes to the flavour of the fruit. quinic acid metabolism intersects with the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of primary and secondary aromatic metabolites. the gene encoding the enzyme which catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway, dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia chinensis was identified, cloned and expressed. a ...201323916589
genomic analysis of the kiwifruit pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae provides insight into the origins of an emergent plant disease.the origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. most crops were domesticated centuries--even millennia--ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by p. syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) first recorded in the 1980s. based on snp analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that psa is comprised of distinct clade ...201323935484
tapetum and middle layer control male fertility in actinidia deliciosa.dioecism characterizes many crop species of economic value, including kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). kiwifruit male sterility occurs at the microspore stage. the cell walls of the microspores and the pollen of the male-sterile and male-fertile flowers, respectively, differ in glucose and galactose levels. in numerous plants, pollen formation involves normal functioning and degeneration timing of the tapetum, with calcium and carbohydrates provided by the tapetum essential for male fertility. t ...201323965617
structural and bioinformatic analysis of the kiwifruit allergen act d 11, a member of the family of ripening-related proteins.the allergen act d 11, also known as kirola, is a 17 kda protein expressed in large amounts in ripe green and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit. ten percent of all kiwifruit-allergic individuals produce ige specific for the protein. using x-ray crystallography, we determined the first three-dimensional structures of act d 11, produced from both recombinant expression in escherichia coli and from the natural source (kiwifruit). while act d 11 is immunologically correlated with the birch pollen allergen be ...201323969108
kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) changes intestinal microbial profile.kiwifruit is high in pectic polysaccharides and dietary fiber. this study aimed to find out how the ingestion of kiwifruit will affect intestinal microbiota populations, namely lactobacillus, bacteroides, clostridium, bifidobacterium, and enterococcus.201223990838
extremely low doses of arsenic affect in vitro pollen germination.this study deals with the effects of extremely low doses or high dilutions of pharmacological compounds on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).201324030446
metabolic analysis of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berries from extreme genotypes reveals hallmarks for fruit starch metabolism.tomato, melon, grape, peach, and strawberry primarily accumulate soluble sugars during fruit development. in contrast, kiwifruit (actinidia lindl. spp.) and banana store a large amount of starch that is released as soluble sugars only after the fruit has reached maturity. by integrating metabolites measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activities measured by a robot-based platform, and transcript data sets during fruit development of actinidia deliciosa genotypes contrasting i ...201324058160
a randomized steady-state bioavailability study of synthetic versus natural (kiwifruit-derived) vitamin c.whether vitamin c from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. we have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin c in a genetically vitamin c-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic activity of the whole fruit. to determine if these results are translatable to humans, we carried out a randomized human study comparing the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit wit ...201324067392
effect of ultrasound treatment on the water state in kiwifruit during osmotic dehydration.the present work investigates how ultrasound pretreatment modulates the effects of osmotic dehydration (od) on the water state and microstructure of kiwifruit. kiwifruit slices (10mm thick) were subjected to ultrasonic waves in a water bath at a frequency of 35 khz for 10, 20 and 30 min. od process was then carried out by immersing the samples in 61.5% sucrose solution equilibrated at 25°c for a contact period of 0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. the partition of water into the cellular tissue stru ...201424099537
inflammatory status modulates plasma lipid and inflammatory marker responses to kiwifruit consumption in hypercholesterolaemic men.kiwifruit has the potential to improve markers of metabolic dysfunction, but the response may be influenced by inflammatory state. we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory state would modulate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruit daily on plasma lipids and markers of inflammation.201424099724
antimicrobial peptides against pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and erwinia amylovora: chemical synthesis, secondary structure, efficacy, and mechanistic investigations.we report on structurally modified dodecapeptide amides (kyklfkkilkfl-nh2) and two analogs of a hexapeptide amide (wrwycr-nh2) with antibacterial activity against the gram negative pathogens pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) and erwinia amylovora (ea). dodecapeptide minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) ranged from 3.2 to 15.4 µm, with the unmodified peptide being the most potent against both pathogens. the unmodified dodecapeptide also had 32-58% α-helicity in membrane mimetic enviro ...201424122768
a biophysical model of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berry development.a model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of fishman and génard used for peach fruit. that model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. first, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit ...201324123250
comparative pathogenicity, biocontrol efficacy, and multilocus sequence typing of verticillium nonalfalfae from the invasive ailanthus altissima and other hosts.verticillium wilt, caused by verticillium nonalfalfae, is currently killing tens of thousands of highly invasive ailanthus altissima trees within the forests in pennsylvania, ohio, and virginia and is being considered as a biological control agent of ailanthus. however, little is known about the pathogenicity and virulence of v. nonalfalfae isolates from other hosts on ailanthus, or the genetic diversity among v. nonalfalfae from confirmed ailanthus wilt epicenters and from locations and hosts n ...201424134719
draft genome of the kiwifruit actinidia chinensis.the kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin c content. here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. the assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 mb and contains 39,040 genes. comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-g ...201324136039
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