PMID(sorted ascending)
non-invasive lc-polscope imaging of biominerals and cell wall anisotropy changes.the formation of defined shapes by cells is one of the challenging questions in biology. due to the anisotropy of cell walls and of certain biominerals, the lc-polscope represents a promising tool for tracking dynamic structural changes in vivo non-invasively and, to some extent, quantitatively. a complex three-dimensional biogenic system, the in vitro precipitation of calcium oxalate induced by cellulose stalks produced by dictyostelium discoideum, was analyzed. although the retardance values a ...201020232089
actinidin enhances gastric protein digestion as assessed using an in vitro gastric digestion model.consumption of kiwifruit has long been claimed anecdotally to assist in gastric digestion. this has generally been assumed to be due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin; however, there is little published evidence supporting this assumption. this paper reports the findings of an in vitro study that examined the effect of kiwifruit proteases (actinidin) on the digestion of a range of common food proteins under simulated gastric conditions. an extract from green kiwifruit containin ...201020232890
actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.this paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach ph (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at smal ...201020232891
larval survival of fuller's rose weevil, naupactus cervinus, on common groundcover species in orchards of new zealand kiwifruit.fuller's rose weevil, naupactus cervinus (boheman) (curculionidae: entiminae), is an important quarantine pest of new zealand kiwifruit exported to asian markets. both adults and larvae are considered to be polyphagous. in this study, the survival of larval n. cervinus was estimated on common groundcover species of kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) in the bay of plenty, the main region in new zealand where kiwifruit is grown. the botanical composition of groundcover in commercial kiwifruit orchards, ch ...200820298112
quercetin, the active phenolic component in kiwifruit, prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication.we evaluated the effects of the two main kiwifruit cultivars (gold kiwifruit (gok) and green kiwifruit (grk)) and their active phenolic compound, quercetin, on h2o2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (gjic) in wb-f344 rat liver epithelial cells. we found that both gok and grk protect wb-f344 cells from h2o2-induced inhibition of gjic. the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (erk1/2)-connexin 43 (cx43) signalling pathway is crucial for the regulation of g ...201020302682
an ftir study of the induction and release of kiwifruit buds from dormancy.many deciduous, perennial fruit crops require winter chilling for adequate budbreak and flowering. recent research has shown that changes in sugar and amino acid profiles are associated with the release of buds from dormancy. this paper uses ftir spectrometry to provide an alternative mechanism for tracking metabolic changes in the meristems of kiwifruit buds during winter dormancy. the results suggest that the application of multivariate analysis to ftir spectra has the potential to be a reliab ...201020355149
polyamine biosynthesis and control of the development of functional pollen in kiwifruit.the role of polyamines (pas) in plant reproduction, especially pollen development and germination has been demonstrated in several higher plants. the aim of the present research was to investigate pa involvement in pollen development and germination in dioecious kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). differences in pa content, level and gene expression for pa biosynthetic enzymes, and the effect of pa biosynthetic inhibitors were found during pollen development (or abortion in female flowers). whereas ...201020359902
quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: a fluorescence-based homogeneous assay.a high-throughput, homogeneous, fluorescence polarization, and fluorescence intensity assay has been developed for the measurement of folate in fruits and vegetables. this assay is based on the competitive displacement of the fluorescent folate ligands alexa fluor (alexa) 594-folate and alexa 660-folate from bovine milk folate-binding protein by folates in fruit and vegetable extracts. these fluorescent ligands are employed because their excitation and emission maxima are in regions of the spect ...201020361923
the effect of dressing with fresh kiwifruit on burn wound healing.this study was designed to evaluate the wound healing effects of kiwifruit in the treatment of second-degree burn wounds in rats.201020381106
changes in vascular and transpiration flows affect the seasonal and daily growth of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berry.the kiwifruit berry is characterized by an early stage of rapid growth, followed by a relatively long stage of slow increase in size. vascular and transpiration flows are the main processes through which water and carbon enter/exit the fruit, determining the daily and seasonal changes in fruit size. this work investigates the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the change in fruit growth rate during the season.201020382641
effects of postharvest application of 1-mcp and postcutting dip treatment on the quality and nutritional properties of fresh-cut kiwifruit.consumption of minimally processed fruit and vegetables has increased significantly in the past few years due to the consumers' life style. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with ascorbic acid or calcium chloride on the quality parameters of fresh-cut kiwifruit prepared from fruit previously stored for 3 months, either treated or not treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) before storage. harvested fruit were treated with 1 microl l(-1) 1-mcp for 20 h at room temper ...201020411941
pre-rigor infusion with kiwifruit juice improves lamb tenderness.the ability of pre-rigor infusion of kiwifruit juice to improve the tenderness of lamb was investigated. lamb carcasses were infused (10% body weight) with fresh kiwifruit juice (ac), water (w) and a non-infusion control (c) treatment. infusion treatment had no effect on lamb hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and chilling evaporative losses. the infused treatment carcasses of ac and w had lower (p<0.05) ph values than c carcasses during the initial 12h post-mortem. the ld muscles from ac c ...200920416722
extracellular matrix of plant callus tissue visualized by esem and sem.actinidia deliciosa endosperm-derived callus culture is stable over a long period of culture. this system was used to investigate the ultrastructure of extracellular matrix occurring in morphogenic tissue. specimens were prepared by different biological techniques (chemical fixation, liquid nitrogen fixation, glycerol substitution, critical-point drying, lyophilization) and observed by scanning electron microscopy (sem). fresh and wet samples were analyzed with the use of environmental scanning ...201020424873
kiwifruit eil and erf genes involved in regulating fruit ripening.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) is a climacteric fruit sensitive to low concentrations of ethylene. to investigate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying kiwifruit ethylene response, transcription factors encoding four ein3-like (eils) and 14 ethylene response factors (erfs) were cloned from kiwifruit. expression of these transcription factors was examined during fruit development. the expression of transcripts of most aderfs was higher during early fruit development, with the exception of ad ...201020457803
[study on fingerprints of the stems of actinidia deliciosa by hplc].to establish the fingerprint spectrum of the stems of actinidia deliciosa by hplc.201020518300
ancient genome duplications during the evolution of kiwifruit (actinidia) and related assess the number and phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome duplications in the ancestry of actinidia, publicly available expressed sequenced tags (ests) for members of the actinidiaceae and related ericales, including tea (camellia sinensis), were analysed.201020576738
floral sesquiterpenes and their synthesis in dioecious kiwifruit.kiwifruit species are vigorously growing dioecious vines that rely on bees and other insects for pollen transfer between spatially separated male and female individuals. floral volatile terpene cues for insect pollinator attraction were characterized from flowers of the most widely grown and economically important kiwifruit cultivar actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and its male pollinator 'chieftain'. the sesquiterpenes alpha-farnesene and germacrene d dominated in all floral tissues and the emissi ...201020592812
modified carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase8 expression correlates with altered branching in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).• carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (ccd) genes have been demonstrated to play an integral role in the control of branch development in model plants, including arabidopsis, pea (pisum sativum), petunia (petunia hybrida) and rice (oryza sativa). • actinidia chinensis is a woody perennial plant grown for commercial production of kiwifruit. ccd7 and ccd8 genes were isolated from a. chinensis and these genes are predominantly expressed in the roots of kiwifruit. acccd7 and acccd8 were able to compleme ...201020659299
analysis of green kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) proteinases by two-dimensional zymography and direct identification of zymographic spots by mass spectrometry.proteinases present in kiwi fruits are potentially allergenic enzymes belonging to the papain family of cysteine proteinases. actinidin is a prominent kiwi enzyme. the study of kiwi proteinases is important for the follow-up of fruit maturation, a deeper insight in the allergenic properties of individual proteins, and the application of kiwi proteinases for meat tenderisation and other industrial purposes.201020672335
hapten synthesis and polyclonal antibody-based immunoassay development for the analysis of forchlorfenuron in kiwifruit.high-affinity polyclonal antibodies directed against the synthetic cytokinin forchlorfenuron (cppu) were produced from three immunizing haptens with equivalent spacer arms located at different positions. a competitive immunoassay was developed with a limit of detection in buffer of 12.42 +/- 3.06 ng/l. in addition, the ability of the produced antibodies to recognize a set of synthetic cppu analogues was studied. it was evidenced that the linker position had a strong impact on the specificity of ...201020681638
dkmyb2 wound-induced transcription factor of persimmon (diospyros kaki thunb.), contributes to proanthocyanidin regulation.proanthocyanidins (pas) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of a plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. persimmon (diospyros kaki) accumulates abundant pas in each plant organ, and some potential myb-like transcription factors (myb-tfs) involved in the production of pas have been isolated. in this study, we aimed to molecularly characterize one of them, dkmyb2, which was placed in a subclade including a pa regulator of arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana), transparent t ...201020690029
gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial.ascorbic acid, and more recently, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to enhance fe absorption. however, it is not clear whether fe status improves when foods high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids are consumed with fe-fortified meals. the present study aimed to investigate whether consuming high v. low ascorbic acid-, lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit (gold kiwifruit v. banana) with fe-fortified breakfast cereal and milk improved fe status in women with low fe stores. healthy w ...201120727238
multiple resistance of botrytis cinerea from kiwifruit to sdhis, qois and fungicides of other chemical groups.botrytis cinerea pers.: fr. is a high-risk pathogen for fungicide resistance development that has caused resistance problems on many crops throughout the world. this study investigated the fungicide sensitivity profile of isolates from kiwifruits originating from three greek locations with different fungicide use histories. sensitivity was measured by in vitro fungitoxicity tests on artificial nutrient media.201020730988
evaluation of penicillium expansum isolates for aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in usual and less common fruit hosts.experiments were carried out in vivo and in vitro with four isolates of penicillium expansum (i 1, e 11, c 28 and i 12) to evaluate their aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in both usual (pears and apples) and less common hosts (apricots, peaches, strawberries and kiwifruits) of the pathogen. the 75% of isolates showed the ability to cause blue mould in all tested hosts. in particular, c 28 and i 1 were the most and the least aggressive isolates, respectively (52.9 and 10.6% infecti ...201020800918
physico-chemical features of the environment affect the protein conformation and the immunoglobulin e reactivity of kiwellin (act d 5).allergy diagnostic systems sometimes give false positive or negative results. in this respect, the influence of protein conformational changes on the allergen-ige interaction sites is worthy to be investigated.201020825426
transformation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes using a micro-cross section method in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward).genetic transformation using a micro-cross section (mcs) technique was conducted to improve the carotenoid content in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward). the introduced carotenoid biosynthetic genes include geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (ggps), phytoene desaturase (pds), ζ-carotene desaturase (zds), β-carotene hydroxylase (chx), and phytoene synthase (psy). the transformed explants were selected on half-strength ms medium containing 0.001 mg l(-1) of 2,4-d and 0.1 mg l(-1) of zeat ...201020842364
blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers.plant-based diets rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent development of several chronic age-related diseases. however, the mechanisms behind this protective effect are not elucidated. we have tested the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant-rich foods can affect groups of genes associated with cellular stress defence in human blood cells. trial registration number: nct00520819
a functional-structural kiwifruit vine model integrating architecture, carbon dynamics and effects of the environment.functional-structural modelling can be used to increase our understanding of how different aspects of plant structure and function interact, identify knowledge gaps and guide priorities for future experimentation. by integrating existing knowledge of the different aspects of the kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) vine's architecture and physiology, our aim is to develop conceptual and mathematical hypotheses on several of the vine's features: (a) plasticity of the vine's architecture; (b) effects o ...201120855486
monitoring of metabolic profiling and water status of hayward kiwifruits by nuclear magnetic resonance.the metabolic profiling of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa, hayward cultivar) aqueous extracts and the water status of entire kiwifruits were monitored over the season (june-december) using nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) methodologies. the metabolic profiling of aqueous kiwifruit extracts was investigated by means of high field nmr spectroscopy. a large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1d and 2d nmr experiments. the change in the metabolic profiles monitored over th ...201020875584
advances in understanding pectin methylesterase inhibitor in kiwi fruit: an immunological order to gain insight into the in situ properties and localisation of kiwi pectin methylesterase inhibitor (pmei), a toolbox of monoclonal antibodies (ma) towards pmei was developed. out of a panel of ma generated towards kiwi pmei, three ma, i.e. ma-ki9a8, ma-ki15c12 and ma-ki15g7, were selected. thorough characterisation proved that these ma bind specifically to kiwi pmei and kiwi pmei in complex with plant pme and recognise a linear epitope on pmei. extract screening of green kiwi (actinid ...201121046145
ethylene-regulated (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester biosynthesis is likely to be modulated by precursor availability in actinidia chinensis genotypes.the limiting steps of ethylene-dependent (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester biosynthesis have been investigated in this study, using closely related actinidia chinensis genotypes and the commercial cultivar 'hort16a'. quantification of methylsulfanyl-compounds from the headspace of ethylene-producing kiwifruits revealed little variation in their volatile composition but remarkable differences in the magnitude of the fruit volatile levels. to test whether the variations in fruit volatile levels can ...201121071110
characterization of activity of a potential food-grade leucine aminopeptidase from kiwifruit.aminopeptidase (ap) activity in ripe but firm fruit of actinidia deliciosa was characterized using l-leucine-p-nitroanilide as a substrate. the enzyme activity was the highest under alkaline conditions and was thermolabile. edta, 1,10-phenanthroline, iodoacetamide, and zn(2+) had inhibitory effect while a low concentration of dithiothreitol (dtt) had stimulatory effect on kiwifruit ap activity. however, dtt was not essential for the enzyme activity. the results obtained indicated that the kiwifr ...201021076540
the performance of a component-based allergen microarray for the diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy.allergy to kiwifruit is increasingly reported across europe. currently, the reliability of its diagnosis by the measurement of allergen-specific ige with extracts or by skin testing with fresh fruits is unsatisfying.201121083775
differences in the allergenicity of 6 different kiwifruit cultivars analyzed by prick-to-prick testing, open food challenges, and elisa. 201121094995
dietary ascorbate intake affects steady state tissue concentrations in vitamin c-deficient mice: tissue deficiency after suboptimal intake and superior bioavailability from a food source (kiwifruit).humans acquire vitamin c (ascorbate) from their diet, and optimal tissue concentrations are required to maintain its enzyme cofactor and antioxidant activities. how dietary intake affects tissue concentrations is difficult to monitor and has generally been based on the measurement of plasma concentrations.201021123463
the environmental endocrine disruptor, bisphenol a, affects germination, elicits stress response and alters steroid hormone production in kiwifruit vitro toxicity of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol a (bpa) to pollen, the male haploid generation of higher plants, was studied. bpa caused significant inhibition of both tube emergence and elongation of kiwifruit pollen in a dose-dependent manner, beginning at 10 mg · l(-1); morphological changes to tubes were also detected. despite strong inhibition of pollen tube production and growth, a large percentage of treated cells remained viable. immunoblotting experiments indicated that levels of ...201121143743
temporal sensitivity of the wavelength calibration of a photodiode array spectrometer.subtle differences in the relationship between wavelength and pixel on photodiode array spectrometers contribute to difficulties in transferring calibrations from one instrument to another and may even introduce errors on a single instrument over time. to quantify the level of drift that might be expected in photodiode instruments, we calibrated the wavelength scale of two zeiss mms-1 photodiode spectrometers weekly over a 12-month period. we found no evidence of drift in the wavelength calibrat ...201021144148
effectiveness of different solid-phase microextraction fibres for differentiation of selected madeira island fruits based on their volatile metabolite profile--identification of novel compounds.a headspace solid-phase microextraction (hs-spme) procedure based on five commercialised fibres (85 μm polyacrylate - pa, 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane - pdms, 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene - pdms/dvb, 70 μm carbowax/divinylbenzene - cw/dvb and 85 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane - car/pdms) is presented for the characterization of the volatile metabolite profile of four selected madeira island fruit species, lemon (citrus limon), kiwi (actinidia deliciosa), papaya (carica papaya l.) a ...201021147335
kiwifruit improves bowel function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal system, and is characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea (ibs/d), constipation (ibs/c), and alternating diarrhea and constipation (ibsc/a). the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a four week kiwifruit intervention on bowel function in patients diagnosed with ibs/c. fifty-four patients with ibs/c and 16 healthy adults participated in this study. all subjects participated in the 6 week, three pha ...201021147704
ascorbate biosynthesis during early fruit development is the main reason for its accumulation in kiwi.ascorbic acid (asa) is a unique antioxidant as well as an enzyme cofactor. although it has multiple roles in plants, it is unclear how its accumulation is controlled at the expression level, especially in sink tissues. kiwifruit (actinidia) is well-known for its high ascorbate content. our objective was to determine whether asa accumulates in the fruits primarily through biosynthesis or because it is imported from the foliage.201021151561
effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) on rooting and root growth of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) stem cuttings.the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) on the rooting and root growth of semi-hardwood and hardwood kiwifruit stem cuttings were investigated. the pgpr used were bacillus rc23, paenibacillus polymyxa rc05, bacillus subtilis osu142, bacillus rc03, comamonas acidovorans rc41, bacillus megaterium rc01 and bacillus simplex rc19. all the bacteria showed indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) producing capacity. among the pgpr used, the highest rooting ratios were obtained at 47.50% for semi-h ...201021157636
identification and characterisation of f3gt1 and f3ggt1, two glycosyltransferases responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).much of the diversity of anthocyanins is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which add sugar moieties to anthocyanidins. we identified two glycosyltransferases, f3gt1 and f3ggt1, from red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) that perform sequential glycosylation steps. red-fleshed genotypes of kiwifruit accumulate anthocyanins mainly in the form of cyanidin 3-o-xylo-galactoside. genes in the anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway were identified and shown to be expressed in fru ...201121175894
green kiwifruit modulates the colonic microbiota in growing investigate whether green kiwifruit modulates the composition of colonic microbiota in growing pigs.201121255058
both base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair in humans are influenced by nutritional factors.lack of reliable assays for dna repair has largely prevented measurements of dna repair from being included in human biomonitoring studies. using newly developed modifications of the comet assay we tested whether a fruit- and antioxidant-rich plant-based intervention could affect base excision repair (ber) and nucleotide excision repair (ner) in a group of 102 male volunteers. ber and ner repair capacities were measured in lymphocytes before and after a dietary intervention lasting 8 weeks. the ...201021264888
sensitization profiles to purified plant food allergens among pediatric patients with allergy to banana.banana fruit allergy is well known, but neither immunoglobulin e recognition patterns to purified plant food allergens nor true prevalences of putative banana allergens have been established. this study aimed to characterize β-1,3-glucanase and thaumatin-like protein (tlp) as banana allergens, testing them, together with other plant food allergens, in 51 children with allergic reactions after banana ingestion and both positive specific ige and skin prick test (spt) to banana. banana β-1,3-glucan ...201121284746
dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel actinidia deliciosa genotypes.previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (dm) is more liked by consumers. a unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low dm × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate dm affects fruit flavour and texture. in the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory pan ...201121302330
kiwifruit act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen.kiwifruit is an important cause of food allergy. a high amount of a protein with a molecular mass compatible with that of bet v 1 was observed in the kiwifruit extract.201121309790
gold kiwifruit ( actinidia chinensis 'hort16a') for immune support.kiwifruit is a good source of several vitamins and minerals and dietary fibre, and contains a number of phytochemicals; so kiwifruit potentially provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. consumption of green kiwifruit can have positive effects on cardiovascular health through antioxidant activity, inhibition of platelet aggregation and lowered tag levels, and gut health through improving laxation, aiding digestion and promoting a healthy gut microflora. the importance of nutrition on immu ...201121349229
biosynthesis and enantioselectivity in the production of the lilac compounds in actinidia arguta flowers.biosynthesis of the lilac alcohols and alcohol epoxides from linalool in 'hortgem tahi' kiwifruit (actinidiaarguta) flowers was investigated by incubating flowers with rac-linalool, rac-[4,4,10,10,10-(2)h(5)]linalool, (r)-8-hydroxylinalool and (r)-8-oxolinalool. all substrates were incorporated into the lilac alcohols although the (r)-configured compounds are not normally present in flowers. biosynthesis of the lilac alcohol epoxides from rac-1,2-epoxy[4,4,10,10,10-(2)h(5)]linalool and rac-[4',4 ...201121377706
characterisation of two alcohol acyltransferases from kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) reveals distinct substrate preferences.volatile esters are key compounds of kiwifruit flavour and are formed by alcohol acyltransferases that belong to the bahd acyltransferase superfamily. quantitative rt-pcr was used to screen kiwifruit-derived expressed sequence tags with proposed acyltransferase function in order to select ripening-specific sequences and test their involvement in alcohol acylation. the screening criterion was for at least 10-fold increased transcript accumulation in ripe compared with unripe kiwifruit and in resp ...201121450321
molecular diagnosis of fruit and vegetable allergy.the purpose of this paper is to review and discuss studies on molecular diagnosis in fruit and vegetable allergy.201121460714
antioxidant and 'natural protective' properties of kiwifruit.kiwifruit are nutrient-dense fruit with a reputation for promoting good health. although this could be attributed to the high vitamin c content of kiwifruit, other phytochemicals could also provide health benefits. kiwifruit are commonly reported to be a good source of vitamin e and in addition contain phenolics and carotenoids. the antioxidant properties of kiwifruit have received attention as possible mechanisms for their health-promoting effects. in this review, the antioxidant capacity of ki ...201121506926
dissecting the role of climacteric ethylene in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) ripening using a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase knockdown line.during climacteric fruit ripening, autocatalytic (type ii) ethylene production initiates a transcriptional cascade that controls the production of many important fruit quality traits including flavour production and softening. the last step in ethylene biosynthesis is the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) to ethylene by the enzyme acc oxidase (aco). ten independent kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) lines were generated targeting suppression of fruit ripening-related aco gen ...201121511911
weak static and extremely low frequency magnetic fields affect in vitro pollen germination.this study concerns the effects of a weak static magnetic field (mf) at 10 µt oriented downward, combined with a 16-hz sinusoidal mf (10 µt), on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). extremely low frequency magnetic field (elf-mf) exposure was carried out by a signal generator unit connected to a copper wire solenoid, inside which samples where placed. two different kinds of treatment were performed: direct and indirect. in the direct treatment, pollen samples were dire ...201121516284
identification and characterization of flowering genes in kiwifruit: sequence conservation and role in kiwifruit flower development.flower development in kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is initiated in the first growing season, when undifferentiated primordia are established in latent shoot buds. these primordia can differentiate into flowers in the second growing season, after the winter dormancy period and upon accumulation of adequate winter chilling. kiwifruit is an important horticultural crop, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of flower development.201121521532
physicochemical properties of bread dough and finished bread with added pectin fiber and phenolic antioxidants.comparative studies were conducted in this paper to investigate the effects of added dietary fiber (df) and/or phenolic antioxidants on the properties of bread dough and finished bread. breads were developed in the absence (control bread), or presence of apple pectin and/or fruit phenolic extracts (treated breads), and subjected to quality evaluation (attributes including color, weight, and volume) and characterization of chemical and rheological properties. chemical analyses revealed that bread ...201121535837
determining consumer purchase intentions: the importance of dry matter, size, and price of kiwifruit.knowledge of the relative importance of food quality attributes in determining consumer purchase intention is critical for robust assessment of economic opportunities for industry growth. the aim of this study is to demonstrate how conjoint analysis methodology that incorporates tasting of fruit can be used to collect such information. three hundred japanese consumers took part in research designed to measure the importance of dry matter (dm), size, and price of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa "h ...201121535857
evolution of plant pathogenesis in pseudomonas syringae: a genomics perspective.the phytopathogenic bacterium pseudomonas syringae causes serious diseases in a wide range of important crop plants, with recent severe outbreaks on the new zealand kiwifruit crop and among british horse chestnut trees. next-generation genome sequencing of over 25 new strains has greatly broadened our understanding of how this species adapts to a diverse range of plant hosts. not unexpectedly, the genomes were found to be highly dynamic, and extensive polymorphism was found in the distribution o ...201021568703
effect of lactic acid fermentation on antioxidant, texture, color and sensory properties of red and green smoothies.weissella cibaria, lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus sp. and lactobacillus pentosus were variously identified from blackberries, prunes, kiwifruits, papaya and fennels by partial 16s rrna gene sequence. representative isolates from each plant species were screened based on the kinetics of growth on fruit juices. a protocol for processing and storage of red and green smoothies (rs and gs) was set up, which included fermentation by selected lactic acid bacteria starters and exo-polysaccharide ...201121569953
supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (actinidia chinensis var.'hort 16a':) effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection.abstract: background: the health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products. methods: we carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, dna stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. our ...201121586177
kiwifruit extracts inhibit cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cells isolated from il10 gene deficient mice.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract involving an inappropriate immune response to commensal microorganisms in a genetically susceptible host. this study examined the effects of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) or green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) using in vitro models of ibd. these models comprised primary macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells isolated from c57bl/5j and interleukin- ...201121600571
hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) following root severance.whole vine (k(plant)) and individual root (k(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch. var. chinensis 'hort16a') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (ψ) were used to calculate k(plant) and k(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of r ...201121636692
reticulate evolution in kiwifruit (actinidia, actinidiaceae) identified by comparing their maternal and paternal phylogenies.evolutionary relationships within actinidia, a genus known for the contrasting mode of inheritance of its plastids and mitochondria, were studied. the phylogenetic analysis is based on chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) restriction site and sequence data (matk, psbc-trns, rbcl, and trnl-trnf for cpdna; nad1-2/3 and nad4-1/2 for mtdna). the analysis of cp sequence data confirms the hypothesis that the four currently recognized sections are not monophyletic. the detection of incongruences amo ...200421653428
effect of kiwifruit consumption on sleep quality in adults with sleep problems.numerous studies have revealed that kiwifruit contains many medicinally useful compounds, among which antioxidants and serotonin may be beneficial in the treatment of the sleep disorders. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kiwifruit on sleep patterns, including sleep onset, duration, and quality. in this study, we applied a free-living, self-controlled diet design. twenty-four subjects (2 males, 22 females) 20 to 55 years of age consumed 2 kiwifruits 1 hour before bedtime night ...201121669584
botanical briefs: kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis). 201121699120
evaluation of the incidence of the g143a mutation and cytb intron presence in the cytochrome bc-1 gene conferring qoi resistance in botrytis cinerea populations from several hosts.previous studies have shown that resistance of botrytis cinerea to qoi fungicides has been attributed to the g143a mutation in the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, while, in a part of the fungal population, an intron has been detected at codon 143 of the gene, preventing qoi resistance. during 2005-2009, 304 grey mould isolates were collected from strawberry, tomato, grape, kiwifruit, cucumber and apple in greece and screened for resistance to pyraclostrobin and for the presence of the cytb intron, usi ...201121702077
proteomic changes and molecular effects associated with cr(iii) and cr(vi) treatments on germinating kiwifruit pollen.the present study is aimed at identifying molecular changes elicited by cr(iii) and cr(vi) on germinating kiwifruit pollen. to address this question, comparative proteomic and dna laddering analyses were performed. while no genotoxic effect was detected, a number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered by treatments were identified. in particular, the upregulation of some proteins involved in the scavenging response, cell redox homeostasis and lipid synthesis could be interpreted as a ...201121708391
towards aspect-oriented functional--structural plant modelling.functional-structural plant models (fspms) are used to integrate knowledge and test hypotheses of plant behaviour, and to aid in the development of decision support systems. a significant amount of effort is being put into providing a sound methodology for building them. standard techniques, such as procedural or object-oriented programming, are not suited for clearly separating aspects of plant function that criss-cross between different components of plant structure, which makes it difficult t ...201121724653
cutin plays a role in differentiation of endosperm-derived callus of kiwifruit.cutin fluorescence, after auramine o treatment, was detected on the surface of organogenic areas (protuberances) of endosperm derived callus induced on murashige and skoog medium with thidiazuron (0.5 mg l(-1)) in darkness. electron micrographs of the protuberances revealed cuticle, visible as a dark-staining layer, and amorphous waxes on the cell wall. in some cases the cells of the epidermis-like layer and shoot buds at early stages of development showed thick and characteristically wavy cutin ...201121750903
metabolomic analysis reveals differences in urinary excretion of kiwifruit-derived metabolites in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.the interleukin-10-deficient (il-10(-/-)) mouse, a model of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), develops intestinal inflammation unless raised in germ-free conditions. the metabolic effects of consuming extracts from the fruits of yellow (actinidia chinensis) or green-fleshed (a. deliciosa) kiwifruit that displayed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were investigated in il-10(-/-) mice by metabolomic analysis of urine samples. kiwifruit-derived metabolites were detected at significantly higher le ...201121957058
reactive oxygen species are involved in pollen tube initiation in kiwifruit.the role of reactive oxygen species (ros) during pollen tube growth has been well established, but its involvement in the early germination stage is poorly understood. ros production has been reported in germinating tobacco pollen, but evidence for a clear correlation between ros and germination success remains elusive. here, we show that ros are involved in germination and pollen tube formation in kiwifruit. using labelling with dihydrofluorescein diacetate (h(2) fda) and nitroblue tetrazolium ...201221973108
induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in actinidia chinensis.some otherwise promising selections of actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. we have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading.201221980192
mapping, complementation, and targets of the cysteine protease actinidin in kiwifruit.cysteine proteases (cps) accumulate to high concentration in many fruit, where they are believed to play a role in fungal and insect defense. the fruit of actinidia species (kiwifruit) exhibit a range of cp activities (e.g. the actinidia chinensis variety yellowa shows less than 2% of the activity of actinidia deliciosa variety hayward). a major quantitative trait locus for cp activity was mapped to linkage group 16 in a segregating population of a. chinensis. this quantitative trait locus coloc ...201222039217
low-temperature-modulated fruit ripening is independent of ethylene in 'sanuki gold' kiwifruit.fruit ripening in response to treatments with propylene, 1-methycyclopropene (1-mcp), and low temperature was characterized in 'sanuki gold' kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis planch. propylene treatment immediately induced rapid fruit softening, increased ac-pg (polygalacturonase) and ac-exp (expansin) mrna accumulation, and stimulated an increase in the soluble solid concentration (ssc) and a decrease in titratable acidity (ta). after 3 d exposure to propylene, ethylene production and ac-pl (pecta ...201222058408
conservation and divergence of four kiwifruit svp-like mads-box genes suggest distinct roles in kiwifruit bud dormancy and flowering.mads-box genes similar to arabidopsis short vegetative phase (svp) have been implicated in the regulation of flowering in annual species and bud dormancy in perennial species. kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) are woody perennial vines where bud dormancy and out-growth affect flower development. to determine the role of svp-like genes in dormancy and flowering of kiwifruit, four mads-box genes with homology to arabidopsis svp, designated svp1, svp2, svp3, and svp4, have been identified and analysed in ...201222071267
effect of celluclast 1.5l on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin.the effects of celluclast 1.5l concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. the viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. celluclast 1.5l with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. high molecular weight (m(w)) pect ...201122072895
allergenic lipid transfer proteins from plant-derived foods do not immunologically and clinically behave homogeneously: the kiwifruit ltp as a allergy is increasingly common worldwide. tools for allergy diagnosis measuring ige improved much since allergenic molecules and microarrays started to be used. ige response toward allergens belonging to the same group of molecules has not been comprehensively explored using such approach yet.201122114713
glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in taiwan: healthy and type 2 diabetes subjects compared.the aim of this study was to evaluate the glycemic index and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in taiwan, comparing healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 17). the six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas. glycemic index values were tested according to the standard glycemic index testing protocol. the glycemic index and peak incremental indices were calculated according to published formulas. in type ...201122128219
effects of kiwifruit extracts on colonic gene and protein expression levels in il-10 gene-deficient mice.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a collective term for conditions characterised by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving an inappropriate immune response to commensal micro-organisms in a genetically susceptible host. previously, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) or green kiwifruit (a. deliciosa) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity using in vitro models of ibd. the present study examined whether these kiwifruit extracts ...201122152591
vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) berries.indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. this inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'hort16a') exhibiting a pre-harvest 'shrivel' disorder in california, and normal development in new zealand. dye labelling and m ...201222155631
identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (e)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).flowers of the kiwifruit species actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (fdp) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (gdp). the tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (e)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (e,e)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (e)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool ...201222162874
consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin c concentration in healthy older the elderly, immunosenescence and malnourishment can contribute to increased risk and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (urti). gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis 'hort16a') contains nutrients important for immune function and mitigation of symptoms of infection, including vitamins c and e, folate, polyphenols and carotenoids. the objective of the present study was to evaluate whether regular consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces symptoms of urti in older people, and determine t ...201222172428
fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis 'hort16a'.with the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, actinidia chinensi ...201122204446
evaluation of ige reactivity of active and thermally inactivated actinidin, a biomarker of kiwifruit allergy.actinidin, an abundant cysteine protease from kiwifruit, is a specific biomarker of isolated allergy to kiwifruit. this study evaluates the ige-binding properties of biologically active and thermally inactivated actinidin. employing two different activity assays (caseinolytic assay and zymogram with gelatin) we showed that actinidin obtained from kiwifruit extract under native conditions represents a mixture of inactive and active enzyme. the structural integrity of actinidin was confirmed by sd ...201222227218
actinidin, a protease from kiwifruit, induces changes in morphology and adhesion of t84 intestinal epithelial cells.actinidin belongs to the papain-like family of cysteine proteases and is a major kiwifruit allergen. in this study, the effect of actinidin on cellular morphology and adhesion of t84 intestinal cells was investigated. both rounding and detachment of t84 cells were observed upon actinidin treatment. the morphological changes and cell desquamation was protease-dependent, as well as time- and concentration-dependent. changes of intercellular adhesion and adhesion of epithelial cells to collagen upo ...201222257750
kiwifruit decreases blood pressure and whole-blood platelet aggregation in male modifications to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as blood pressure (bp) and smoking have been emphasized. fruits and vegetables may modify such risk factors. the major aim of this randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the effects of (1) kiwifruits and (2) an antioxidant-rich diet compared with (3) a control group on bp and platelet aggregation (that is, whole-blood platelet aggregation) after 8 weeks in male smokers (age 44-74 years, n=102). the kiwifruit ...201222258209
physiological and proteomic approaches to address the active role of ozone in kiwifruit post-harvest ozone application has recently been shown to inhibit the onset of senescence symptoms on fleshy fruit and vegetables; however, the exact mechanism of action is yet unknown. to characterize the impact of ozone on the post-harvest performance of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. 'hayward'), fruits were cold stored (0 °c, 95% relative humidity) in a commercial ethylene-free room for 1, 3, or 5 months in the absence (control) or presence of ozone (0.3 μl l(-1)) and subsequently were al ...201222268155
kiwifruit floral gene apetala2 is alternatively spliced and accumulates in aberrant indeterminate flowers in the absence of arabidopsis, the identity of perianth and reproductive organs are specified by antagonistic action of two floral homeotic genes, apetala2 (ap2) and agamous (ag). ap2 is also negatively regulated by an evolutionary conserved interaction with a microrna, mir172, and has additional roles in general plant development. a kiwifruit gene with high levels of homology to ap2 and ap2-like genes from other plant species was identified. the transcript was abundant in the kiwifruit flower, particularly pe ...201222290408
cupressus arizonica pollen: a new pollen involved in the lipid transfer protein syndrome?lipid transfer proteins (ltp) are responsible for systemic manifestations in food allergy. their relationship with pollinosis is not clear. in our area, many patients allergic to multiple ltp-containing foods present pollinosis due to cupressus arizonica.201122312935
modelling chlorophyll fluorescence of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa).kiwi fruit displays chlorophyll fluorescence. a physical model was developed to reproduce the observed original fluorescence for the whole fruit, from the emission of the different parts of the kiwi fruit. the spectral distribution of fluorescence in each part of the fruit, was corrected to eliminate distortions due to light re-absorption and it was analyzed in relation to photosystem ii-photosystem i ratio. kiwi fruit also displays variable chlorophyll-fluorescence, similar to that observed fro ...201222337099
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae: a re-emerging, multi-faceted, pandemic pathogen.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of green-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (a. chinensis). a recent, sudden, re-emerging wave of this disease has occurred, almost contemporaneously, in all of the main areas of kiwifruit production in the world, suggesting that it can be considered as a pandemic disease. recent in-depth genetic studies performed on p. syringae pv. actinidiae strains have revealed that this pathovar is ...201222353258
a report from the american heart association scientific sessions 2011 (november 12-16, 2011, orlando, florida, usa).diet and lifestyle have a direct impact on cardiovascular health and may help improve the condition in many patients suffering from or at risk for cardiac diseases, and remote and in-person behavioral interventions were shown to prompt weight loss in obese individuals (appel, l.j., late-breaking clinical trial presentation), thus helping reduce the cardiovascular risk. in that regard, and as an example, kiwifruit was noted to lower 24-hour blood pressure (svendsen, m. et al., abst 16175), wherea ...201222384460
anaphylactic shock due to kiwifruit.a 44-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency department (ed) with an episode of severe anaphylaxis displaying generalized urticaria and dyspnea 1 hour after consuming a kiwifruit. initially, the patient reported discrete itching of his abdominal skin and was in moderate respiratory distress. the patient's wheal response and itch were attenuated 30 minutes after emergency treatment with intravenous antianaphylaxis drugs. however, he had symptoms of the chest distress, dizzy, and dysph ...201222386357
the evaluation of chinese therapeutic food for the treatment of moderate dyslipidemia.the clinical efficacy of the chinese therapeutic food (specifically hawthorn fruit and chinese kiwifruit-extract compound) on dyslipidemia was evaluated in this placebo-controlled, double blind, paired clinical trial conducted in melbourne, australia. forty-three participants diagnosed with moderate dyslipidemia and met the study criteria were randomly assigned to group a or b, with baseline characteristics matched. twenty-seven participants completed all the tests, the blood lipid profile inclu ...201222474507
development and validation of a direct competitive monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay for the sensitive and selective analysis of the phytoregulator forchlorfenuron.forchlorfenuron is a synthetic phytohormone with cytokinin-like activity used worldwide as a plant growth regulator to increase fruit size in a number of crops, mostly in kiwifruit and grape vines. a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the determination of forchlorfenuron has been characterized and optimized. the selected immunoreagents afforded a highly selective assay with a limit of detection of 10 ng l(-1) in buffer. this direct competitive elisa was valid ...201222526663
in vitro utilization of gold and green kiwifruit oligosaccharides by human gut microbial populations.we examined the effects of whole kiwifruit on gut microbiota using an in vitro batch model of gastric-ileal digestion and colonic fermentation. faecal fermentations of gold and green kiwifruit, inulin and water (control) digests were performed for up to 48 h. as compared to the control, gold and green kiwifruit increased bifidobacterium spp. by 0.9 and 0.8 log(10) cfu/ml, respectively (p < 0.001), and the bacteroides-prevotella-porphyromonas group by 0.4 and 0.5 log(10) cfu/ml, respectively. inu ...201222576129
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. one emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa and a. chinensis) caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa). the disease first occurred in china and japan in the 1980s and in korea and italy in the 1990s. a more severe form of the disease broke out in italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiw ...201222590555
a functional pectin methylesterase inhibitor protein (solypmei) is expressed during tomato fruit ripening and interacts with pme-1.a pectin methylesterase inhibitor (solypmei) from tomato has been identified and characterised by a functional genomics approach. solypmei is a cell wall protein sharing high similarity with actinidia deliciosa pmei (adpmei), the best characterised inhibitor from kiwi. it typically affects the activity of plant pectin methylesterases (pmes) and is inactive against a microbial pme. solypmei transcripts were mainly expressed in flower, pollen and ripe fruit where the protein accumulated at breaker ...201222610346
in vitro and in vivo antifungal properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit.higher plants possess several mechanisms of defense against plant pathogens. proteins actively synthesized in response to those stresses are called defense-related proteins which, among others, include certain protease inhibitors. it is of particular relevance to investigate plant natural defense mechanisms for pathogen control which include cystatins-specific inhibitors of cysteine proteases.201222653546
evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.this research was carried out to determine the effects of pre-rigor injection of beef semimembranosus muscle with nine proteases from plant and microbial sources, on the volatile profile of cooked beef after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem (pm) storage using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. a total of 23 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 3 furans, 8 nitrogen and sulphur compounds, 4 alkanes, 7 alcohols and 6 terpenes were detected. eleven volatile compounds characteri ...201222682685
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