PMID(sorted ascending)
composition and seasonal variation of soluble cuticular waxes in actinidia deliciosa leaves.this research examines the annual evolution and composition of soluble cuticular waxes of actinidia deliciosa chev. cv hayward leaves. soluble cuticular waxes of foliar blade were extracted in chloroform and analysed by gc-ms. the seasonal weighted mean of the wax coverage was about 24 microg cm(-2). the alkyl alkanoates were the main class of components (10 microg cm(-2)) followed by hydrocarbons (6 microg cm(-2)), terpenes (3 microg cm(-2)), alkanols (1 microg cm(-2)), ketones (1 microg cm(-2) ...200616753901
quality changes and nutrient retention in fresh-cut versus whole fruits during storage.the influences of processing and storage on the quality indices and nutritional content of fresh-cut fruits were evaluated in comparison to whole fruits stored for the same duration but prepared on the day of sampling. fresh-cut pineapples, mangoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, strawberries, and kiwifruits and whole fruits were stored for up to 9 days in air at 5 degrees c. the postcutting life based on visual appearance was shorter than 6 days for fresh-cut kiwifruit and shorter than 9 days for fr ...200616756358
effects of high concentration of salts on the esterase activity and structure of a kiwifruit peptidase, actinidain.effects of salts on the activity and stability of actinidain were examined. with increasing salt concentration up to 0.5 m, the activity (kcat/km) for n-alpha-cbz-l-lysine p-nitrophenyl ester decreased to 40% of that in the absence of salt. the inhibitor constant ki of licl, nacl, and kcl was 0.16-0.43 m. with 3 m kcl and nacl, the specificity constant kcat/km recovered to 110 and 75%, respectively. no re-activation was observed with licl. the inhibition and re-activation were dependent on the c ...200616788057
biotransformation of (-)-ambrox by cell suspension cultures of actinidia deliciosa.biotransformation of (-)-ambrox (1) with cell suspension cultures of actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) yielded the regio- and stereospecific oxygenated products 3-oxoambrox (2), 3beta-hydroxyambrox (3), 1alpha-hydroxyambrox (4), 3beta,6beta-dihydroxyambrox (5), 1alpha,6beta-dihydroxyambrox (6), and 1alpha,3beta-dihydroxyambrox (7). metabolites 6 and 7 were found to be new compounds. these metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of spectroscopic studies. the structure of compound 6 ...200616792418
markers of oxidative dna damage in human interventions with fruit and berries.diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with a decreased risk of several cancers via numerous possible mechanisms. for example, phytochemicals may decrease oxidative dna damage and enhance dna repair. markers of oxidative dna damage in human dietary intervention trials used most frequently include oxidized nucleosides such as 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, which can be analyzed from isolated dna or urine. single-cell gel electrophoresis has been widely used to measure baseline or h2o ...200616800780
in vitro studies of polyphenols, antioxidants and other dietary indices in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).the main aim of the present study was the evaluation of proteins and antioxidant potential in ethylene-treated kiwifruit during the first 10 days of ripening. kiwifruit samples were randomly divided into two groups: treated and untreated. flesh firmness, sensory value, visual score, free sugars, soluble solids, ethylene biosynthesis, proteins, dietary fibers, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential were determined in both groups. ethylene (100 ppm) at 20 degrees c for 24 h was used in the tr ...201316849119
differential expression within the lox gene family in ripening kiwifruit.real-time quantitative pcr was used to study lipoxygenase (lox) gene expression patterns in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. hayward) during fruit ripening, and in response to ethylene and low temperature during post-harvest storage. six lox genes were identified and cloned from a kiwifruit est database. all were expressed in vegetative tissues and in the fruit. expression of adlox1 and adlox5 increased markedly as fruit developed to the cl ...200617032731
effect of ethylene treatment on kiwifruit bioactivity.the consumption of fruits and vegetables with high antioxidant activities leads to best healthful results. therefore, in the present investigation we tried to find the peak of the kiwifruits antioxidant activity during the first 10 days of ethylene treatment (100 ppm at 20 degrees c). in order to receive the most reliable data five different antioxidant assays were used: ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (frap); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (cuprac); trolox equivalent antioxidant capacit ...200617048101
both trivalent and hexavalent chromium strongly alter in vitro germination and ultrastructure of kiwifruit pollen.due to its widespread industrial use, chromium is considered a dangerous environmental pollutant. it is known to inhibit plant growth and development. the present study provides the first evidence of the toxicity of this metal on the male haploid generation of a higher plant. both cr(iii) and cr(vi) species, supplied as crcl(3) and cro(3), respectively, exerted a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on kiwifruit pollen tube emergence and growth. cr(iii) resulted more effective than cr(vi) in ...200717083967
high-resolution crystal structure of plant carboxylesterase aecxe1, from actinidia eriantha, and its complex with a high-affinity inhibitor paraoxon.carboxylesterases (cxes) are widely distributed in plants, where they have been implicated in roles that include plant defense, plant development, and secondary metabolism. we have cloned, overexpressed, purified, and crystallized a carboxylesterase from the kiwifruit species actinidia eriantha (aecxe1). the structure of aecxe1 was determined by x-ray crystallography at 1.4 a resolution. the crystal structure revealed that aecxe1 is a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily, most clo ...200717256879
construction of physical map and mapping of chromosomal virulence genes of the biovar 3 agrobacterium (rhizobium vitis) strain k-ag-1.most plant pathogenic agrobacterium strains have been classified into three biovars, "biovar 1 (a. tumefaciens; rhizobium radiobacter), biovar 2 (a. rhizogenes; r. rhizogenes) and biovar 3 (a. vitis; r. vitis)". the bacteria possess diverse types of genomic organization depending on the biovar. previous genomic physical maps indicated difference in location of rdna and chromosomally-coded virulence genes between biovar 1 and 2 genomes. in order to understand biovar 3 genome and its evolution in ...200617283382
specific detection of potentially allergenic kiwifruit in foods using polymerase chain reaction.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa and actinidia chinensis) is allergenic to sensitive patients, and, under japanese regulations, it is one of the food items that are recommended to be declared on food labeling as much as possible. to develop pcr-based methods for the detection of trace amounts of kiwifruit in foods, two primer pairs targeting the its-1 region of the actinidia spp. were designed using pcr simulation software. on the basis of the known distribution of a major kiwifruit allergen (acti ...200717288438
control of scion vigour by kiwifruit rootstocks is correlated with spring root pressure phenology.root pressure was measured continuously over spring in eight clonal kiwifruit rootstocks selected from seven actinidia species (a. chrysantha, a. deliciosa, a. eriantha, a. hemsleyana, a. kolomikta, a. macrosperma, a. polygama), using pressure transducers and miniature compression fittings. rootstocks that promoted scion vigour developed root pressures up to 0.15 mpa before or during scion budburst, whereas those that reduced scion vigour developed root pressure up to 0.05 mpa only after scion s ...200717404381
fruits of the actinidia genus.kiwifruit is the most well-known crop in the genus actinidia. although actinidia fruit sales in the international market are dominated by a single kiwifruit cultivar actinidia deliciosa "hayward," there are a considerable number of cultivars and selections in the genus that have widely diverse shape, size, and hairiness. they also offer a wide variation in sensory attributes such as flesh color, flavor, and taste, and in nutritional attributes such as the vitamin c level and carotenoid content. ...200717425948
chirality and biosynthesis of lilac compounds in actinidia arguta flowers.biosynthesis of lilac compounds in 'hortgem tahi' kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) flowers was investigated by treating inflorescences with d(5)-linalool. the incorporation of the deuterium label into 8-hydroxylinalool, 8-oxolinalool, the lilac aldehydes, alcohols, and alcohol epoxides was followed by gc-ms and enantioselective gc-ms. both (r)- and (s)-linalool were produced naturally by the flowers, but 8-hydroxylinalool, 8-oxolinalool, and the lilac aldehydes and alcohols occurred predominantly as ...200717466345
plasma antioxidant capacity changes following a meal as a measure of the ability of a food to alter in vivo antioxidant status.determine 1) if consumption of a meal of different fruits or berries increases plasma hydrophilic (h-) or lipophilic (l-) antioxidant capacity (aoc) measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (orac(fl)); 2) if including macronutrients in the meal alters postprandial changes in aoc; and 3) if preliminary recommendations can be developed for antioxidant intake.200717536129
in vitro toxicity towards kiwifruit pollen of the antimicrobial peptides magainins 1 and vitro toxicity of the antimicrobial peptides (amps) magainin 1 and 2 to a higher plant organism, i.e., the bicellular male gametophyte of actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit), is investigated. heavy damage to the plasma membrane, the primary cellular target of the peptides, was rapidly induced: in as few as 15 min, from 70 to nearly 100 % of pollen grains were rendered unviable by 20 microm magainin 1 or 2, respectively. therefore, kiwifruit pollen sensitivity to natural magainins seemed to be hig ...200717564946
[study on the chemical structure from the roots of actinidia deliciosa].active compounds from actinidia deliciosa were separated and identified. column chromatography was used for isolation. physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis were employed for structural identification. 5 compounds were isolated and identified as 2alpha, 3beta, 19, 23-tetrahydroxylolean-12-en-28-oic acid( i ), 2alpha, 3alpha, 23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid( ii ) , 2alpha, 3beta, 19,23-tetra-hydroxyl-urs-12-en-oic acid( i ) , undecanoic acid( iv) ,beta-sitoserol( v ). i , iv and v were i ...200717571763
in vitro and in vivo release of aroma compounds from yellow-fleshed kiwifruit.comparisons were made between the aroma volatiles of the yellow-fleshed kiwifruit, "hort16a", at two different stages of eating ripeness: firm and soft. the firm fruit contained a small number of aroma compounds that the soft fruit did not contain. in general, however, the largest difference between the two firmness categories was in the levels of esters, with the soft fruit containing higher concentrations and a larger number of esters than the firm fruit. in vitro analysis directly after macer ...200717616207
independent control of organogenesis and shoot tip abortion are key factors to developmental plasticity in kiwifruit (actinidia).in kiwifruit (actinidia), the number of nodes per shoot is highly variable and is influenced by genotype and environmental conditions. to understand this developmental plasticity, three key processes were studied: organogenesis by the shoot apical meristem during shoot growth; expansion of phytomers; and shoot tip abortion.200717650513
dna base excision repair as a biomarker in molecular epidemiology studies.base excision repair can be measured in human lymphocytes by a variety of techniques, the most convenient of which are probably in vitro assays of the activity of a cell extract on a dna substrate containing specific lesions such as 8-oxoguanine. inter-individual variation in base excision repair ranges from about 3-fold to 10-fold in different studies. repair has been variously reported to decline or to increase with the age of the individual. few studies of environmental or occupational exposu ...200717659329
[determination of forchlorfenuron in chinese gooseberry with dispersive solid phase extraction and hplc]. 200717679450
some physical, pomological and nutritional properties of kiwifruit cv. this research, several physical, pomological and nutritional properties that are important for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separation and packaging of kiwifruit cv. hayward grown in the black sea region of turkey were determined. the fruit characteristics ranged from 72.28 g for average fruit weight, 59.41, 46.28 and 42.87 mm for fruit length, width and thickness, 49.03 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 0.825% for sphericity and 66.52 cm(3) ...200717710584
increasing dietary fiber intake in terms of kiwifruit improves constipation in chinese investigate if increased dietary fiber, in terms of kiwifruit, is effective in chinese constipated patients.200717729399
kiwifruit allergy: actinidin is not a major allergen in the united kingdom.actinidin has previously been reported as the major allergen in kiwifruit. objectives to investigate the relevance of actinidin in a well-characterized population of uk patients with kiwifruit allergy.200717845415
the peculiar structural features of kiwi fruit pectin methylesterase: amino acid sequence, oligosaccharides structure, and modeling of the interaction with its natural proteinaceous inhibitor.pectin methylesterase (pme) from kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) is a glycoprotein, showing an apparent molecular mass of 50 kda upon size exclusion chromatography and sds-page. the primary structure, elucidated by direct sequencing of the protein, comprises 321 amino acid residues providing a molecular mass of 35 kda. the protein has an acetylated thr residue at the amino terminus and five n-glycosylation consensus sequences, four of which are actually glycosylated. a careful investigation of ...200817932919
carotenoids and color of fruit juice and milk beverage mixtures.seventeen commercially available, "ready to drink" fortified beverages consisting of mixtures of fruit juices and milk were analyzed to evaluate their carotenoid profile (including their z/e stereoisomers) and color during their commercial shelf life. lightness (l*) was found to be correlated with the content of milk in the mixtures (r= 0.649) whereas red-yellow colors were correlated with the contents of alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and beta-carotene supplied by the fruit. the beverages ...200718034704
the effect of digestion and ph on the allergenicity of kiwifruit is suggested that patients with oral allergy syndrome (oas) respond to pepsin-sensitive allergens, and systemic reactors identify pepsin-resistant allergens. we sought to assess the digestibility of kiwifruit proteins in simulated gastric fluid (sgf), and to compare the immunogenicity of the digests in patients with isolated oral and systemic reactions to kiwifruit. in addition, the effect of ph on digestibility of kiwifruit proteins was investigated. the in vitro resistance of kiwifruit prot ...200818086217
kissper, a kiwi fruit peptide with channel-like activity: structural and functional features.kissper is a 39-residue peptide isolated from kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa). its primary structure, elucidated by direct protein sequencing, is identical to the n-terminal region of kiwellin, a recently reported kiwi fruit allergenic protein, suggesting that kissper derives from the in vivo processing of kiwellin. the peptide does not show high sequence identity with any other polypeptide of known function. however, it displays a pattern of cysteines similar, but not identical, to those obser ...200818186145
immunoglobulin e recognition patterns to purified kiwifruit (actinidinia deliciosa) allergens in patients sensitized to kiwi with different clinical kiwifruit allergy is on the rise. however, no surveys testing purified major kiwi allergens have been carried out in a large population, including both kiwi-sensitized [skin prick test (spt)-positive] and truly kiwi-allergic patients.200818205857
study of photostimulated- and thermo-luminescence characteristics for detecting irradiated kiwifruit.photostimulated luminescence (psl) and thermo-luminescence (tl) analyses were conducted to detect irradiated kiwifruits. samples were irradiated with co-60 gamma-rays at 0-2 kgy. the freeze-dried kiwifruit peel showed 309 photon counts (pcs) for nonirradiated samples that accounted for less than the lower threshold value (700 counts/60 s, negative) and above 9306 pcs for 1 and 2 kgy-irradiated samples, which was higher than the upper threshold value (5000 counts/60 s, positive). however, psl sig ...200818247533
[study on anti-tumor effect of extractions from roots of actinidia deliciosa].to study the anti-tumor effect of adee and adbe in mice.200718300504
ultrastructure and histochemical analysis of extracellular matrix surface network in kiwifruit endosperm-derived callus culture.the study used actinidia deliciosa endosperm-derived callus to investigate aspects of the morphology, histology and chemistry of extracellular matrix (ecm) structures in morphogenically stable tissue from long-term culture. sem showed ecm as a membranous layer or reticulated fibrillar and granular structure linking the peripheral cells of callus domains. tem confirmed that ecm is a distinct heterogeneous layer, up to 4 mum thick and consisting of amorphous dark-staining material, osmiophilic gra ...200818340450
nondestructive quantification of chemical and physical properties of fruits by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength range 650-1000 nm.time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy can be used to assess nondestructively the bulk (rather than the superficial) optical properties of highly diffusive media. a fully automated system for time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the absorption and the transport scattering spectra of fruits in the red and the near-infrared regions. in particular, data were collected in the range 650-1000 nm from three varieties of apples and from peaches, kiwifruits, and tomatoes. the absor ...200118357029
quantification of the thaumatin-like kiwi allergen by a monoclonal antibody-based elisa.thaumatin-like proteins (tlps) have been established as a new family of fruit and pollen allergens. the aim of this study was to develop a two-site elisa for the quantification of the thaumatin-like kiwi allergen (act d 2) in kiwifruit extracts and kiwifruit-containing food products. genomic dna (gdna) of act d 2 was amplified and the deduced amino acid sequence was determined to obtain a primary structure. act d 2 purified from kiwifruit extract by hplc was identified by edman degradation and m ...200818384094
anti-hyperglycemic activity of kiwifruit leaf (actinidia deliciosa) in mice.the methanol extract of kiwifruit leaf suppressed the postprandial blood glucose level after an oral administration of soluble starch or sucrose in mice. the mechanism of action is proposed to be due to the alpha-amylase-inhibiting activity in the 90% aqueous methanol fraction and alpha-glucosidase-inhibiting activity in the n-buthanol fraction, based on the results of in vitro experiments.200818391441
bis(guanylhydrazones) negatively affect in vitro germination of kiwifruit pollen and alter the endogenous polyamine pool.bis(guanylhydrazones) are a class of compounds known to interfere with the metabolism of polyamines (pas). among them, the methylglyoxal derivative (mgbg) has been studied most thoroughly. because pas and their biosynthetic enzymes are strongly involved in pollen tube organization, emergence and elongation, a number of these inhibitors have been studied in the present work for their effects on the in vitro performance of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) pollen. increasing concentrations of severa ...200818426480
inactivation of escherichia coli and listeria innocua in kiwifruit and pineapple juices by high hydrostatic pressure.escherichia coli and listeria innocua in kiwifruit and pineapple juices were exposed to high hydrostatic pressure (hhp) at 300 mpa for 5 min. both bacteria showed equal resistance to hhp. using low (0 degrees c) or sub-zero (-10 degrees c) temperatures instead of room temperature (20 degrees c) during pressurization did not change the effectiveness of hhp treatment on both bacteria in studied juices. pulse pressure treatment (multiple pulses for a total holding time of 5 min at 300 mpa) instead ...200818455820
kiwifruit actinidin: a proper new collagenase for isolation of cells from different tissues.actinidin is a cysteine protease abundant in kiwifruit. this enzyme is known as a meat-tenderizing protease. in this project, actinidin was purified from kiwifruit by salt precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. collagenolytic effect of the purified enzyme was tested in four different buffer systems. thereafter, the enzyme was used for isolation and culture of cells from three different tissues: endothelial cells from human umbilical vein, hepatocytes from rat liver, and thymic epithelial ...200818456944
a second gdp-l-galactose phosphorylase in arabidopsis en route to vitamin c. covalent intermediate and substrate requirements for the conserved reaction.the arabidopsis thaliana vtc2 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of gdp-l-galactose to l-galactose 1-phosphate in the first committed step of the smirnoff-wheeler pathway to plant vitamin c synthesis. mutations in vtc2 had previously been found to lead to only partial vitamin c deficiency. here we show that the arabidopsis gene at5g55120 encodes an enzyme with high sequence identity to vtc2. designated vtc5, this enzyme displays substrate specificity and enzymatic properties th ...200818463094
barley (hordeum vulgare l.) inositol monophosphatase: gene structure and enzyme characteristics.the cellular myo-inositol (ins) pool is important to many metabolic and signaling pathways in plants. ins monophosphatase (impase; ec activity is essential for the de novo synthesis of myo-inositol (ins), and for recycling of ins in ins(1,4,5)p3. however, proteins encoded by at least one family of imp genes also have l-galactose-1-p phosphatase activity important to ascorbic acid synthesis, indicating a bifunctionality that links these two branches of carbon metabolism. as part of rese ...200818493722
what is a food allergen?with the increasing prevalence of allergies, accurate identification of allergens is a major priority for allergists, scientists, the food industry, and food regulators. knowledge of allergens is essential for risk assessment of novel genetically modified (gm) foods, and to develop recombinant proteins for the treatment and diagnosis of allergies. this opinion paper considers the lack of standardization for the clinical and scientific assessment of proteins before they are labelled as allergens. ...200818498418
ethylene-induced modulation of genes associated with the ethylene signalling pathway in ripening kiwifruit.gene families associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway in ripening kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. hayward) were isolated from a kiwifruit expressed sequence tag (est) database, including five ethylene receptor genes, two ctr1-like genes, and an ein3-like gene adeil1. all were differentially expressed among various kiwifruit vine tissues, and none was fruit specific. during fruit development, levels of transcripts of aders1 ...200818535296
effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens act d 1, actinidin, and act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein.kiwifruit is a significant elicitor of allergy both in children and adults. digestibility of two kiwifruit allergens, actinidin (act d 1) and thaumatin-like protein (act d 2), was assessed using an in vitro digestion system that approximates physiological conditions with respect to the passage of food through the stomach into the duodenum. act d 1 precipitated in simulated gastric fluid at ph 2 and digestion of the aggregated protein proceeded slowly. the residual precipitate redissolved complet ...200818655003
analysis of expressed sequence tags from actinidia: applications of a cross species est database for gene discovery in the areas of flavor, health, color and ripening.kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) are a relatively new, but economically important crop grown in many different parts of the world. commercial success is driven by the development of new cultivars with novel consumer traits including flavor, appearance, healthful components and convenience. to increase our understanding of the genetic diversity and gene-based control of these key traits in actinidia, we have produced a collection of 132,577 expressed sequence tags (ests).200818655731
allergy to kiwi in patients with baker's asthma: identification of potential cross-reactive allergens.baker's asthma is a frequent ige-mediated occupational disorder mainly provoked by inhalation of cereal flour. allergy to kiwifruit has being increasingly reported in the past few years. no association between both allergic disorders has been described so far.200818727477
species-dependent chromium accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels in germinating kiwifruit pollen under cr(iii) and cr(vi) stress.the accumulation of chromium by germinating kiwifruit pollen appears to be significantly affected by cr species, cr concentration and calcium availability. cr(iii) accumulation always occurred in a linear manner while cr(vi) uptake followed a logarithmic model. in the absence of exogenous calcium, cr(iii) accumulation was much higher than that of cr(vi). it was observed that, as the cr(iii) concentration increased, there was a significant decrease in the endogenous calcium content of pollen, ult ...200818790514
[analysis of the volatile oils chemical constituents of roots of actinidia deliciosa].to analyze the volatile oils chemical constituents of roots of actinidia deliciosa.200818826142
[studies on chemical constituents in n-butyl alcohol extract of roots of actinidia deliciosa in guangxi].to study the chemical constituents of n-butyl alcohol extract in the roots of actinidia deliciosa in guangxi.200818831205
on the origin of kiwifruit: classifying kiwifruit from different countries using vis/nir spectroscopy. 200818831263
characterization of bet v 1-related allergens from kiwifruit relevant for patients with combined kiwifruit and birch pollen allergy.allergy to kiwifruit appears to have become more common in europe and elsewhere during the past several years. seven allergens have been identified from kiwifruit so far, with actinidin, kiwellin and the thaumatin-like protein as the most relevant ones. in contrast to other fruits, no bet v 1 homologues were characterized from kiwifruit so far. we cloned, purified, and characterized recombinant bet v 1-homologous allergens from green (actinidia deliciosa, act d 8) and gold (actinidia chinensis, ...200818925615
postharvest biological control of botrytis cinerea on kiwifruit by volatiles of [isabella] grapes.abstract the potential of volatile substances emitted by 'isabella' grapes (vitis labrusca) to control gray mold (botrytis cinerea) on 'hayward' kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) was studied. the closed mariotte system was used as a bioassay method to analyze quantitatively the biological action of these volatiles on b. cinerea growth. in vivo experiments compared the effects of volatiles from 'isabella' grapes versus volatiles from 'roditis' grapes (v. vinifera) and a b. cinerea control on the gr ...200418943697
the adverse effects of hydrogen cyanamide on human health: an evaluation of inquiries to the new zealand national poisons centre.hydrogen cyanamide is used in new zealand to induce bud break in kiwifruit vines. the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the calls received by the new zealand national poisons centre (nznpc) attributed to acute hydrogen cyanamide exposure, and to ascertain the clinical effects of such exposures.200918951270
callus induction and plant regeneration from different explants of actinidia this study, an efficient procedure was developed for callus induction and regeneration of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) using different organs of shoots developed under in vitro conditions. effects of explants source and media (m(1), 1.0 mg l(-1) ba + 2.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-d-m(2), 1.0 mg l(-1) naa + 2.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-d) on initiation of callus were examined in order to obtain callus for organogenesis. the best callus for plant regeneration was obtained from leaf explants on murashige and skoog's ...200918975140
the past and present day of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa planch.) breeding in pazar watershed, this study, the problems of kiwifruit breeding in pazar watershed which is 37 km east of city of rize were investigated with public survey and the results of public survey were presented in two periods (1996-2002, 2002-2006). according to the results of questionnarie of the year 2002; 57.7% of total kiwifruit producers started to establish kiwifruit garden to gain additional income and 62.02% of total kiwifruit gardens were established less then 1000 m2 area, 24.05% of total kiwifruit produce ...200719069913
oral lyophilisate and food immunotherapy: from research to clinical practice.thanks to its excellent safety profile, sublingual immunotherapy has served as a basis for launching two important lines of research in current allergology: sublingual immunotherapy with pharmaceutical registry (oral lyophilizates or tablets), and sublingual immunotherapy with food. at present, clinical trials are being conducted which use rapid dissolution oral lyophilizates. the results of the clinical trials carried out in large patient groups and based on a double-blind methodological design ...200819080800
feeding zespri gold kiwifruit puree to mice enhances serum immunoglobulins specific for ovalbumin and stimulates ovalbumin-specific mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation in response to orally administered ovalbumin.the health benefits of fruits have been recognized for some time, but only recently have their effects on the immune system been investigated. kiwifruit contains vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that are known to be important for normal functioning of the immune system. in this work, the influence of feeding 2 zespri gold kiwifruit processed products (tauranga, new zealand) on immune function in mice was investigated. using a model to demonstrate adaptive immune responses in the gut, mice ...200819083416
gene expression studies in kiwifruit and gene over-expression in arabidopsis indicates that gdp-l-galactose guanyltransferase is a major control point of vitamin c biosynthesis.vitamin c (l-ascorbic acid, asa) is an essential metabolite for plants and animals. kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) are a rich dietary source of asa for humans. to understand asa biosynthesis in kiwifruit, asa levels and the relative expression of genes putatively involved in asa biosynthesis, regeneration, and transport were correlated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in leaves and during fruit development in four kiwifruit genotypes (three species; a. eriantha, a. chinensis, and a. delicio ...200919129165
dna diagnostics of three armored scale species on kiwifruit in new zealand.three species of armored scale (hemiptera: diaspididae) are found on kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) in new zealand orchards: latania scale, hemiberlesia lataniae (signoret); greedy scale, hemiberlesia rapax (comstock); and oleander scale, aspidiotus nerii (bouché). each of them is a quarantine pest in some of the markets to which new zealand kiwifruit are exported. adult females of the three species can be distinguished morphologically; however, the task is laborious when large numbers must be ident ...200819133478
anaphylaxis associated with the ingestion of gold kiwifruit. 200919150037
isolation and structural identification of the anthocyanin components of red kiwifruit.the anthocyanins responsible for the red color of red kiwifruit were extracted in acidified ethanol and isolated by solid phase extraction (spe) followed by preparative hplc. five anthocyanins were obtained and subsequently identified as delphinidin 3-[2-(xylosyl)galactoside], delphinidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-[2-(xylosyl)galactoside], cyanidin 3-galactoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside by a combination of lc-ms/ms, gc-ms, and 2d nmr. delphinidin 3-[2-(xylosyl)galactoside] and delphinidin 3-gal ...200919203266
the cell wall of kiwifruit pollen tubes is a target for chromium toxicity: alterations to morphology, callose pattern and arabinogalactan protein distribution.trivalent chromium has previously been found to effectively inhibit kiwifruit pollen tube emergence and elongation in vitro. in the present study, a photometric measure of increases in tube wall production during germination showed that 25 and 50 mum crcl(3) treatment induced a substantial reduction in levels of polysaccharides in walls over those in controls. moreover, chromium-treated kiwifruit pollen tubes had irregular and indented cell walls. callose, the major tube wall polysaccharide, was ...200919228325
trinucleotide repeats as bait for vectorette pcr: a tool for developing genetic mapping markers.trinucleotide repeats are common within gene coding regions and could serve as beacons to locate genes. five of the most common trinucleotide repeats in an actinidia (kiwifruit) expressed sequence tag (est) database were found to be (acc)(4), (cac)(4), (cca)(4), (ctc)(4), and (tgg)(4). these repeats, with or without an artificial 5'-end tail, were tested by vectorette pcr against genomic dna from actinidia chinensis. eighty-nine randomly selected clones showed an average insert size of 383 bp, w ...200919277911
a gene-rich linkage map in the dioecious species actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) reveals putative x/y sex-determining chromosomes.the genus actinidia (kiwifruit) consists of woody, scrambling vines, native to china, and only recently propagated as a commercial crop. all species described are dioecious, but the genetic mechanism for sex-determination is unknown, as is the genetic basis for many of the cluster of characteristics making up the unique fruit. it is, however, an important crop in the new zealand economy, and a classical breeding program would benefit greatly by knowledge of the trait alleles carried by both fema ...200919284545
lipoxygenase gene expression in ripening kiwifruit in relation to ethylene and aroma production.during postharvest ripening of kiwifruit [ actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. bruno] at 20 degrees c, six lipoxygenase (lox) genes exhibited different expression patterns. adlox1 and adlox5 were up-regulated during ripening, and transcript accumulation was delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp), whereas adlox2, adlox3, adlox4, and adlox6 were down-regulated with ripening. levels of two volatiles arising from the lox pathway, that is, n-hexanal and (e)- ...200919334761
vtc4 is a bifunctional enzyme that affects myoinositol and ascorbate biosynthesis in plants.myoinositol synthesis and catabolism are crucial in many multiceullar eukaryotes for the production of phosphatidylinositol signaling molecules, glycerophosphoinositide membrane anchors, cell wall pectic noncellulosic polysaccharides, and several other molecules including ascorbate. myoinositol monophosphatase (imp) is a major enzyme required for the synthesis of myoinositol and the breakdown of myoinositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate, a potent second messenger involved in many biological activities. i ...200919339506
identification and assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals from kiwi fruits.the kiwi fruit is the edible berry of a cultivar group of the woody vine of several actinidia species. the most common commercially available, green-fleshed kiwi fruit is the cultivar 'hayward', which belongs to the actinidia deliciosa species. an antioxidative screening of kiwi fruit components (peel and pulp) crude extracts was carried out using specific assay media characterized for the presence of highly reactive species such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (dpph(•)), h(2)o(2), and ...200919358604
mri endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes.magnetic resonance imaging (mri) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (for). here a method for high-resolution mri that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 t. because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming mri from the lab ...200919378751
the enantiomeric composition of linalool and linalool oxide in the flowers of kiwifruit (actinidia) species.a survey of linalool enantiomers in kiwifruit (actinidia) flowers was conducted to determine their potential as sources of these valuable floral fragrances, and revealed a wide range of enantiomeric ratios. while flowers of a. polygama and a. chrysantha contained almost exclusively one enantiomer, most species contained significant amounts of both (r) and (s) isomers. in some species enantiomeric ratios of floral linalool differed between genotypes, full siblings, and in one case clones, and rat ...201019382237
a rapid method of fruit cell isolation for cell size and shape measurements.cell size is a structural component of fleshy fruit, contributing to important traits such as fruit size and texture. there are currently a number of methods for measuring cell size; most rely either on tissue sectioning or digestion of the tissue with cell wall degrading enzymes or chemicals to release single cells. neither of these approaches is ideal for assaying large fruit numbers as both require a considerable time to prepare the tissue, with current methods of cell wall digestions taking ...200919402911
structural characteristics of 'hayward' kiwifruits from elephantiasis-affected plants studied by drift, ft-raman, nmr, and sem techniques.this is the first study on structural and ultrastructural changes taking place in actinidia deliciosa kiwifruits affected by "elephantiasis syndrome", by means of drift, ft-raman, nmr, and sem techniques. the fruits arising from elephantiasis-affected plants assume a round and smaller shape, limiting their marketing. despite etiological studies on this disease, so far no information is available on the structural and ultrastructural characteristics of the fruits. the sem and spectroscopic data s ...200919413311
two terpene synthases are responsible for the major sesquiterpenes emitted from the flowers of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).kiwifruit vines rely on bees for pollen transfer between spatially separated male and female individuals and require synchronized flowering to ensure pollination. volatile terpene compounds, which are important cues for insect pollinator attraction, were studied by dynamic headspace sampling in the major green-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) cultivar 'hayward' and its male pollinator 'chieftain'. terpene volatile levels showed a profile dominated by the sesquiterpenes alpha-farnesene and ...200919516075
kiwifruit-based polyphenols and related antioxidants for functional foods: kiwifruit extract-enhanced gluten-free bread.the present study investigates the production of gluten-free bread enhanced with polyphenols and related antioxidants derived from a natural aqueous extract from green-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). puree and four aqueous extracts, produced from ripe green kiwifruit in the absence of artificial preservatives, were subjected to storage stability trials at 4 degrees c, 20 degrees c and 38 degrees c, and were chemically characterized (phenolic, vitamin c and pectic polysaccharide contents ...200919548162
characterization and quantification of anthocyanins in red kiwifruit ( actinidia spp.).red-fleshed fruit occur in a small number of distantly related taxa in different sections of the genus actinidia (kiwifruit). we describe and identify the anthocyanin profile of fruit of several actinidia species. differences in the relative amounts of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanins determine whether the fruit appear red or purple. cyanidin derivatives have been found in all actinidia species that contain anthocyanins, whereas delphinidin derivatives are limited to two taxa: a. mel ...200919572542
the kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.the composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the actinidia (kiwifruit) species. lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. in addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. expression analysis of carote ...200919574250
the way the dioecious plant actinidia deliciosa attracts bees: critical role of volatile terpenes released from kiwifruit flowers of both genotypes. 200919587061
actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit), a new drug for enzymatic debridement of acute burn wounds.actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) is used as a meat tenderizer. it acts rapidly and efficiently to soften meat, liquefying it if allowed to work for more than a few hours. observing this effect and the lack of studies addressing this subject in the literature, the authors sought to investigate the use of this natural remedy in an animal model for eschar separation and debridement.201019616384
a rapid transcriptional activation is induced by the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) buds.budbreak in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) can be poor in locations that have warm winters with insufficient winter chilling. kiwifruit vines are often treated with the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide (hc) to increase and synchronize budbreak. this treatment also offers a tool to understand the processes involved in budbreak. a genomics approach is presented here to increase our understanding of budbreak in kiwifruit. most genes identified following hc application appear to be ass ...200919651683
an external heat pulse method for measurement of sap flow through fruit pedicels, leaf petioles and other small-diameter stems.the external heat ratio method is described for measurement of low rates of sap flow in both directions through stems and other plant organs, including fruit pedicels, with diameters up to 5 mm and flows less than 2 g h(-1). calibration was empirical, with heat pulse velocity (v(h)) compared to gravimetric measurements of sap flow. in the four stem types tested (actinidia sp. fruit pedicels, schefflera arboricola petioles, pittosporum crassifolium stems and fagus sylvatica stems), v(h) was linea ...200919671100
development of flat and fan-shaped fruit in actinidia chinensis var. chinensis and actinidia deliciosa.we describe and quantify development of flat and fan-shaped fruit of actinidia chinensis var. chinensis from inception to maturity. flat fruit arise from particularly large and flat floral meristems. after bract initiation, the terminal flower remains elliptic in cross section, produces elliptic whorls of floral organs, and forms a flat-shaped ovary. the allometry of the ovary does not change from inception to maturity. fan-shaped fruit develop from exceptionally flat floral meristems. they resu ...199419700463
are extracellular matrix surface network components involved in signalling and protective function?endosperm is an interesting model for in vitro experiments, because of its unique origin, development and ploidy level. here we used actinidia deliciosa endosperm-derived callus to investigate morphology, histology and chemistry of extracellular matrix (ecm) structures in morphogenically stable tissue from long-term culture. sem and tem analysis showed that ecm is a heterogenous layer which consists of amorphous, dark-staining material, osmiophilic granules and reticulated fibres outside the out ...200819704835
artificial neural networks as an alternative to the traditional statistical methodology in plant this work, we compared the unique artificial neural networks (anns) technology with the usual statistical analysis to establish its utility as an alternative methodology in plant research. for this purpose, we selected a simple in vitro proliferation experiment with the aim of evaluating the effects of light intensity and sucrose concentration on the success of the explant proliferation and finally, of optimizing the process taking into account any influencing factors. after data analysis, th ...201019716625
characterization of kiwifruit xyloglucan.structural characteristics of xyloglucan are constant in the pericarp cell walls of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) throughout fruit enlargement and maturation. most of the xyloglucan (xg) persists in the cell walls of ripe kiwifruit. xg from the pericarp tissues of 36-h ethylene-treated kiwifruit was extracted as hemicellulose ii (hc-ii) with 4.28 m koh containing 0.02% nabh(4), and purified using iodine precipitation and subsequent anion-exchange chromatography. this purifying protocol increas ...200919778403
dkmyb4 is a myb transcription factor involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in persimmon fruit.proanthocyanidins (pas) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of the plant and also to the taste of the fruit, mainly through astringency. persimmon (diospyros kaki) is unique in being able to accumulate abundant pas in the fruit flesh. fruits of the nonastringent (na)-type mutants lose their ability to produce pa at an early stage of fruit development, while those of the normal astringent (a) type remain rich in pa until fully ripened. the expression of many pa pathway gen ...200919783643
[study of simplification of prediction model for kiwifruit firmness using near infrared spectroscopy].to simplify the prediction model of kiwifruit firmness, snv was used to preprocess the near infrared (nir) spectra (1 000-2 500 nm)of kiwifruit. pls model simplification by optimizing spectral intervals and decreasing the number of factors through net analyte preprocessing (nap)was carried out. results showed that the performance of nap/pls model is the best. it was achieved with 5 factors in five wavenumber ranges(5 189-5 370, 4 549-4 620, 6 049-6 230, 6 999-7 730, and 6 249-6 614 cm(-1)). the ...200919798936
pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble pd(ii).in the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. results showed pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble pd(ii). at particulate pd concentrations well below those of ...201019815321
cysteine proteinase inhibitor act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.kiwifruit has become a frequent cause of fruit allergy in the recent years. the molecular basis of type i hypersensitivity to kiwifruit is attributed to 11 iuis allergens, with act d 1, act d 2 and act d 5 characterized in extenso. evaluation of the allergenic properties of act d 4, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) was performed in this study. identity of the purified glycoprotein was determined by edman degradation and by mass fingerprint whereby more t ...201019885843
qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for detecting major food allergens (peanut, soybean, and wheat) by using internal transcribed spacer region.allergen detection methods for peanut, soybean, and wheat were developed by designing pcr primer pairs for specific amplification of a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (its) region reported for arachis spp. for peanut, glycine spp. for soybean, and triticum and aegilops spp. for wheat. the target species for detection included not only cultivated, but also wild and ancestor species, which were thought to be potentially allergenic. the ability of the resultant primer pairs to detect th ...201519916385
effects of kiwifruit consumption on serum lipid profiles and antioxidative status in hyperlipidemic subjects.cardiovascular disease (cvd) is the most important adult health problem in the world. epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments have shown that fruit and vegetable consumption has protective effects against cvd. the purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of consumption of two kiwifruit per day on the lipid profile, antioxidants and markers of lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic adult men and women in taiwan. forty-three subjects who had hyperlipidemia, including 13 males a ...200919919518
[construction of cdna library of 'hongyang' kiwifruit and analysis of f3h expression].the smart switching mechanism at 5' end of the rna transcript technique was used to construct a cdna library from inner pericarp of the red flesh kiwifruit actinidia chinesis cv 'hongyang'. construction of cdna library facilitated cloning of the genes associated with the secondary metabolism, the specific genes in the course of anthocyanin biosynthesis. the titers of the primary library and the amplified library were 6.7x104 cfu/ml and 2.72x108 cfu/ml, respectively. the recom-bination rate was o ...200920042395
component-resolved diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy with purified natural and recombinant kiwifruit allergens.kiwifruit is one of the most common causes of food allergic reactions. component-resolved diagnostics may enable significantly improved detection of sensitization to kiwifruit.201020061012
a fraction of unripe kiwi fruit extract regulates adipocyte differentiation and function in 3t3-l1 cells.adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and diabetes, and regulation of adipogenesis is important in prevention of diabetes. we prepared a 100% methanol fraction of methanolic extract from unripe kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa), designated kmf (kiwi fruit methanol fraction). when applied to 3t3-l1 preadipocyte cells, kmf promoted adipocyte differentiation, increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdh) activity, and increased triglyceride (tg ...201020087882
the effect of gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal on iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16 week randomised controlled intervention study.dietary treatment is often recommended as the first line of treatment for women with mild iron deficiency. although it is well established that ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption, it is less clear whether the consumption of ascorbic acid rich foods (such as kiwifruit) with meals fortified with iron improves iron status. the aim of this study is to investigate whether the consumption of zespri(r) gold kiwifruit (a fruit high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids) with an iron fortified breakfast c ...201020102633
antioxidant activity and chemical difference in fruit of different actinidia sp.the present research aimed at evaluating the vitamin c, total phenolic content (tpc), phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll contents, as well as antioxidant activity (aac) of six actinidia species fruit. vitamin c, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and chlorophylls were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. tpc was determined using the folin-ciocalteau reagent, and aac using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (dpph) assay. the highest concentrations of vitamin c and tpc wer ...201020113214
expression of sweet potato cysteine protease spcp2 altered developmental characteristics and stress responses in transgenic arabidopsis this report a full-length cdna, spcp2, which encoded a putative papain-like cysteine protease was isolated from senescent leaves of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas). spcp2 contained 1101 nucleotides (366 amino acids) in its open reading frame, and exhibited high amino acid sequence identities (ca. 68% to 83%) with plant cysteine proteases, including actinidia deliciosa, arabidopsis thaliana, brassica oleracea, phaseolus vulgaris, pisum sativa, vicia faba, vicia sativa and vigna mungo. rt-pcr an ...201020129700
an mri receiver coil produced by inkjet printing directly on to a flexible substrate.inkjet printing has been used to produce resonant radio frequency coils that are comparable to those produced by conventional printed circuit board (pcb) methods. the coils, which consist of a conductive loop and in-series capacitors, form part of a receiver circuit that is used for magnetic resonance imaging (mri). the resonant circuit is selective at the predetermined frequency of 400 mhz. the required electrical components (resistor, capacitor, and inductor) were produced by inkjet printing, ...201020129848
effect of urea on protein separation by ion-exchange chromatography.ion-exchange chromatography (iec) is the most frequently used chromatographic technique for the separation of proteins and peptides. in this article, the effects of urea on iec separation of kiwifruit actinidin, egg white and urinary proteins were examined. the purity and relative amount of each protein in different conditions (in the presence or absence of urea) were compared with each other. the three parameters, including resolution, selectivity and efficiency of column in the presence of ure ...201020139060
dietary factors in chronic inflammation: food tolerances and intolerances of a new zealand caucasian crohn's disease is known to play a major role in the symptoms of the inflammatory bowel disease, crohn's disease (cd). although no single diet is appropriate to all individuals, most cd patients are aware of foods that provide adverse or beneficial effects. this study seeks to categorise foods in relation to their effects on symptoms of cd, in a new zealand caucasian population. four hundred and forty-six subjects from two different centres in new zealand were recruited into the study. an extensive dietary ...201020144628
one year sustainability of risk factor change from a 9-week workplace intervention.we examined the effect of a 9-week diet and physical activity intervention provided in the workplace by a group education session where personal dietary and physical activity goals were proposed. measurements of anthropometry, fasting blood lipids, glucose and insulin, assays for antioxidant activity (aoa) and questionnaires were completed at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks in 50 healthy workers (50% male, mean age 46y). followup measurements in 39 (56% male) were possible at 52 weeks. at week 3 a grou ...200920169118
(methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester biosynthesis in actinidia chinensis kiwifruit and changes during cold storage.four 3-(methylsulfanyl)propionate esters, ethyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)prop-2-enoate, two 2-(methylsulfanyl)acetate esters and their possible precursors 2-(methylsulfanyl)ethanol, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanol and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal were quantified from the headspace of actinidia chinensis 'hort 16a' kiwifruit pulp by gc-ms-tof analysis. the majority of these compounds were specific for eating-ripe fruit and their levels increased in parallel with the climacteric rise in ethylene, accumulating t ...201020189207
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