PMID(sorted ascending)
identification and quantitative analysis of sugars and non-volatile organic acids in chinese gooseberry fruit (actinidia chinensis planch.). 19751160363
direct gene transfer into actinidia deliciosa protoplasts: analysis of transient expression of the cat gene using tlc autoradiography and a gc-ms-based method.chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene was used as a reporter gene to assess the conditions for polyethylene glycol (peg)-mediated transfection of kiwifruit protoplasts. the effect of plasmid concentration and the presence of carrier dna were each assessed by analysing cat activity in transfected protoplasts using thin-layer chromatography (tlc) autoradiographic detection of acetylated chloramphenicol. a gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) non-radioact ...19911863775
analysis of the pesticide flufenoxuron in apples and kiwifruit by high-performance liquid chromatography. 19902079497
nucleotide sequence of the promoter region from kiwifruit actinidin genes. 19902102886
the blocking effects of chinese actinidia sinensis juice on n-nitrosamine formation in vitro and in vivo.chinese gooseberry juice has been found to be an efficient inhibitor of nitrosation both in vitro and in vivo. this activity appears to be due partly to high concentrations of ascorbic acid and partly to an unidentified nitrite scavenger.19846533012
differences in the interaction of the catalytic groups of the active centres of actinidin and papain. rapid purification of fully active actinidin by covalent chromatography and characterization of its active centre by use of two-protonic-state reactivity probes.1. a rapid method of isolation of fully active actinidin, the cysteine proteinase from actinidia chinensis (chinese gooseberry or kiwifruit), by covalent chromatography, was devised. 2. the active centre of actinidin was investigated by using n-propyl 2-pyridyl disulphide, 4-(n-aminoethyl 2'-pyridyl disulphide)-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. 3. the presence in actinidin in weakly acidic media of an interactive system containing a nucleophili ...19817034724
hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit (chinese gooseberry, actinidia chinensis).this report describes a hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit in a patient who developed moderately severe generalized symptoms after handling the fruit. a search of the literature did not reveal any previous reference to kiwi-fruit sensitivity. it is suggested that ige antibody is an important factor in the reaction.19817264104
paternal inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids of the genus actinidia revealed by pcr-amplification of chloroplast dna fragments.rflps (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) of pcr (polymerase chain reaction) -amplified fragments were used to trace the pattern of plastid dna inheritance in the genus actinidia. a total of 51 progeny originating from interspecific crosses between three a. arguta cultivars and a. deliciosa, the kiwifruit, and 12 progeny originating from the cross between a. kolomikta and a. chinensis were analysed together with their parents. no reciprocal crosses could be tested since they all failed t ...19957616960
correct processing of the kiwifruit protease actinidin in transgenic tobacco requires the presence of the c-terminal propeptide.a 355 cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and a tapetum-specific promoter were used to direct the synthesis in tobacco of preproactinidin and a derivative that lacked a c-terminal extension. preproactinidin was processed into a form that migrated identically on protein gels with mature actinidin extracted from kiwifruit. this protein was proteolytically active in vitro, and high-level accumulation of this protein appeared to be detrimental to plant growth. plants expressing an actinidin cdna const ...19957784505
use of static and dynamic nmr microscopy to investigate the origins of contrast in images of biological tissues.nmr imaging experiments have been carried out on a fruit (actinidia deliciosa) and plant stem (stachys sylvatica) using a wide range of image contrasts. these included t1, t2, t2*, diffusion, flow and chemical shift selection. in the case of fruit imaging we calculated relaxation time and diffusion maps and established that the imaged parameters varied significantly with fruit ripening. these changes we attribute to changes in water dynamics resulting from elevated sugar concentrations. for the ...19948011936
a polygalacturonase gene from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). 19938029342
cloning and characterization of five cdnas for genes differentially expressed during fruit development of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa).five cdnas for genes differentially expressed during fruit development of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward) were isolated from a library made from young fruit, 8-10 days after anthesis. one gene (pkiwi503) has low levels of expression in young fruit but is induced late in fruit development and during fruit ripening, and has some homology to plant metallothionein-like proteins. the other four genes are highly expressed in young fruit with reduced expression in the later s ...19948075403
fruit developmental regulation of the kiwifruit actinidin promoter is conserved in transgenic petunia plants.we have examined the expression of actinidin, a cysteine protease found in kiwifruit, over the course of fruit development. protease activity was first seen in fruit that had reached about half their final weight, and rose to high levels at harvest. the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1301 to +58) of a kiwifruit actinidin gene was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gus)-coding region, and the chimaeric gene was introduced into transgenic petunia plants. induction of the gus gene was observed duri ...19938219084
a cdna sequence from kiwifruit homologous to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. 19938278512
dietary fibre in spanish kiwifruit. 19958549547
a novel acidic allergen, hev b 5, in latex. purification, cloning and characterization.latex allergy is recognized as a serious health problem among health care workers and children with spina bifida. a number of ige-reactive proteins have been identified in natural and processed latex products. one of the most acidic proteins in the cytoplasm of lacticifer cells of rubber trees (hevea brasiliensis) is demonstrated to be a potent allergen in eliciting allergic reactions in humans. this protein, with pi = 3.5, has a molecular mass of 16 kda with a blocked n terminus and an unusual ...19968810305
headspace gas-liquid chromatographic determination of dithiocarbamate residues in fruits and vegetables with confirmation by conversion to ethylenethiourea.ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (ebdc) residues were determined as carbon disulfide (cs2) by an improved headspace gas-liquid chromatographic (glc) procedure. among 837 samples of 30 agricultural commodities tested, 43% contained residues above the detection limit for the method: 100% of broccoli samples; 80% of cabbage, kiwifruit, and grape samples; and 71% of cucumber samples. most of the residues in kiwifruit were on or near the skin. elimination of false-positive detections by the improved meth ...20138946720
identification of a chloroplast coenzyme a-binding protein related to the peroxisomal thiolases.a 30-kd coenzyme a (coa)-binding protein was isolated from spinach (spinacea oleracea) chloroplast soluble extracts using affinity chromatography under conditions in which 95% of the total protein was excluded. the 30-kd protein contains an eight-amino-acid sequence, dvrlyyga, that is identical to a region in a 36-kd protein of unknown function that is encoded by a kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) cdna. southern blotting also detected a spinach gene that is related to the kiwifruit cdna. the kiwi ...19968972603
comparative analysis of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argk) and 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer sequences.pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (roct) which confers resistance to the toxin. we confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses roct, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the roct gene and the intergeni ...19978979356
expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes in actinidia chinensis fruit.the fruit of actinidia chinensis, a diploid relative of kiwifruit, showed an increased rate of ripening in response to the application of exogenous ethylene. moreover, late in ripening the fruit produced a burst of ethylene biosynthesis. thus ripening is climacteric, and there is a clear temporal separation of ethylene sensitivity and ethylene production. rnase protection assays were used to monitor transcript levels of ethylene biosynthetic genes during fruit development and ethylene-induced ri ...19979177311
the isolation of a novel metallothionein-related cdna expressed in somatic and zygotic embryos of douglas-fir: regulation by aba, osmoticum, and metal isolate genes which are expressed preferentially during embryogenesis, a douglas-fir embryogenesis cdna library was constructed and differentially screened with cdna probes made with mrna from developing and mature embryos, respectively. the cdna clone pm 2.1 was isolated based on its abundance in developing seeds and absence in mature seeds, and its predicted amino acid sequence was shown to have structural features characteristic of plant mt-like proteins. alignment of the pm 2.1 predicted ...19979207840
complete amino acid sequence of ananain and a comparison with stem bromelain and other plant cysteine proteases.the amino acid sequences of ananain (ec3.4.22.31) and stem bromelain (, two cysteine proteases from pineapple stem, are similar yet ananain and stem bromelain possess distinct specificities towards synthetic peptide substrates and different reactivities towards the cysteine protease inhibitors e-64 and chicken egg white cystatin. we present here the complete amino acid sequence of ananain and compare it with the reported sequences of pineapple stem bromelain, papain and chymopapain fro ...19979355753
biochemical and molecular characterisation of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase from ripe kiwifruit.xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (xet) from the core tissue of ripe kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. hayward) was purified 3000-fold to homogeneity. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 34 kda, is n-glycosylated, and is active between ph 5.0 and 8.0, with an optimum between 5.5 and 5.8. the km was 0.6 for kiwifruit xyloglucan and 100 microm for [3h]xxxg-ol, a reduced heptasaccharide derived from kiwifruit xyloglucan. kiwifruit core x ...19989487728
enzymatic properties, substrate specificities and ph-activity profiles of two kiwifruit proteases.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) contains abundant protease, actinidin, and two possible components which were named a1 and a2. however, a comparison of the two components has not been thoroughly conducted. we have previously shown the presence of six proteases named kp1, kp2, kp3, kp4, kp5 and kp6 in kiwifruit, and that each purified kiwifruit protease was chromatographically pure. it was also indicated that the two representative components, kp4 and kp6, must be a1 and a2. to establish whether ...19979505243
sucrose-phosphate synthase steady-state mrna increases in ripening kiwifruit.early during fruit ripening in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa [a. chev.], c.f. liang and a.r. ferguson cv. hayward), starch is broken down to sucrose and hexose sugars. concomitantly, sucrose-phosphate synthase (sps, ec activity measured with saturating substrate increased, suggesting that sps is induced in response to a higher requirement for sucrose synthesis. a 2584 bp long partial cdna clone encoding sps was isolated from ripening kiwifruit. cdna fragments encoding t ...19989520277
effect of bead nutrient composition on regrowth of stored vitro-derived encapsulated microcuttings of different woody species.aseptic encapsulation in a sodium-alginate bead containing different nutritive solutions of microcuttings (uninodal explants excised from micropropagated shoots) of 10 different genotypes from four different woody species (actinidia deliciosa, kiwifruit, cv hayward and tomuri; malus spp,, apple, rootstock m. 26 and cv starkspur red and wellspur; olea europea, olive, cv canino, moraiolo, ascolana tenera and dolce agogia; rubus idaeus, raspberry, selection 1401) was investigated. the aim of the st ...20159972499
[antimutagenic mechanism of kiwifruit juice].to observe the effects of kiwifruit juice on the mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide (cp) and the effects of biotransformation enzymes in rats.199810322770
the selective increase or decrease of organellar dna in generative cells just after pollen mitosis one controls cytoplasmic inheritance.organellar dna in mature pollen grains of eight angiosperm species (actinidia deliciosa lindl., antirrhinum majus l., arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh., medicago sativa l., musa acuminata colla, pelargonium zonale (l.) l'hér, petunia hybrida vilm. and rhododendron mucronatum (blume) g. don, in which the modes of organellar inheritance have been determined genetically, was observed by fluorescence microscopy using technovit 7100 resin sections double-stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (dap ...199910467031
uptake, distribution, and metabolism of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid during callus initiation from actinidia deliciosa tissues.1-naphthaleneacetic acid (naa) and 6-benzyladenine (ba) were required for in vitro callus formation at the basal edge of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev] liang and ferguson, cv. hayward) petioles. the uptake, metabolism, and concentration of naa and indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) content were examined in the explants during the callus initiation period. after 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h of culture in the presence of [h(3)]naa, petioles were divided into apical, middle, and basal portions and ...199910552137
localization of cell wall polysaccharides during kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) ripening.the localization of pectin, cellulose, xyloglucan, and callose was compared in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c. f. liang and a. r. ferguson var. deliciosa "hayward") at harvest, at the end of the first phase of softening, and when ripe. pectin was visualized using three different methods: labeling of galacturonic acid residues, labeling of negatively charged groups, and labeling with jim 5 (nonesterified residues) and jim 7 (methyl-esterified) monoclonal antibodies. labeling of pecti ...199910568777
polygalacturonase gene expression in kiwifruit: relationship to fruit softening and ethylene kiwifruit, much of the softening process occurs prior to the respiratory climacteric and production of ethylene. this fruit therefore represents an excellent model system for dissecting the process of softening in the absence of endogenous ethylene production. we have characterized the expression of three polygalacturonase (pg) cdna clones (ckpga, b and c) isolated from fruit of actinidia chinensis. expression of ckpga and b was detected by northern analysis only in fruit producing endogenous ...200010794531
phenolic composition of kiwifruit juice.phenolic compounds in kiwifruit pulp were separated and characterized by reversed-phase hplc, and the effect of juice processing on the phenolic composition was studied. fractionation of phenolic compounds was achieved through selective elution from c-18 cartridges prior to preconcentration and subsequent separation by hplc. strongly acidic compounds were identified as derivatives of coumaric and caffeic acids, including chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and a derivative of 3,4-dihydroxyben ...199910794642
enumerative and binomial sampling plans for armored scale (homoptera: diaspididae) on kiwifruit leaves.the spatial dispersion of armored scale insects; greedy scale, hemiberlesia rapax (comstock); and latania scale, hemiberlesia lataniae (signoret), was investigated on kiwifruit, actinidia deliciosa (a. chevalier) c. f. liang et a. r. ferguson, leaves in new zealand. a universal description for dispersion was determined using taylor's power law, which encompassed a wide range of different orchards, blocks, block sizes, sampling times, scale control practices, regions and seasons. scale density si ...200011142309
bimodal patterns of floral gene expression over the two seasons that kiwifruit flowers develop.polymerase chain reaction fragments with homology to the arabidopsis floral meristem identity genes leafy and apetala1 have been isolated from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c. f. liang and a. r. ferguson) and have been named alf and aap1, respectively. northern hybridisation analyses have shown that alf and aap1 have bimodal patterns of annual expression in developing first-order axillary buds and their subsequent shoots. this pattern of expression is consistent with the 2-year cycle ...200111240925
actinidic acid, a new triterpene phytoalexin from unripe kiwi phytoalexins (1-7), including a new compound, were isolated from the peel of unripe kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. golden king) that had been wounded and inoculated with colletotrichum musae. the new phytoalexin (1) was identified as 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxy-12,20(30)-ursadien-28-oic acid, and named actinidic acid. phytoalexins 2-6 are known triterpenes but have not previously been described as phytoalexins. phytoalexin 7 is the same triterpene as the phytoalexin of nectarine fruit.200111302196
purification and characterisation of a galactoglucomannan from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).a galactoglucomannan (ggm) has been purified from the primary cell walls of ripe kiwifruit. a combination of barium hydroxide precipitation, anion exchange- and gel-permeation chromatography gave a chemically homogeneous polymer with a 1:2:2 galactose-glucose-mannose ratio and a molecular weight range of 16-42 kda. complete hydrolysis of the polymer with endo-1,4-beta-mannanase (ec from aspergillus niger gave a mixture of oligosaccharides, three of which (ii, iii, iv) accounted for mor ...200111383899
biological activity of kiwifruit peel extracts.various bioactive substances in kiwifruit extracts were fractionated by organic solvent extractions, followed by silica gel and ods chromatographies. both cytotoxic activity and multi-drug resistance reversal activity were found in the less polar fractions. cytotoxic activity was not always parallel the radical intensity. antibacterial activity was distributed into various fractions and all fractions were inactive against candida albicans and h. pylori. only 70% methanol extracts showed anti-hum ...200111406859
inhibition of proteasome activity strongly affects kiwifruit pollen germination. involvement of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway as a major regulator.the 26s proteasome is a multicatalytic complex that acts as primary protease of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway in eukaryotes. we provide here the first evidence that the proteasome plays a key role in regulating pollen tube growth. immunoblotting experiments revealed the presence of high levels of free ubiquitin and ubiquitin conjugates in rehydrated and germinating pollen of kiwifruit [actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa (a. chev) c. f. liang et a. r. ferguson]. proteasome activity, ...200111457965
kiwifruit protects against oxidative dna damage in human cells and in vitro.antioxidant micronutrients may account for the beneficial effects of fruits on human health. a direct demonstration that consumption of fruit decreases oxidative dna damage in human cells would support this hypothesis. kiwifruit was taken as an example of a food with putative antioxidant properties, and its effectiveness at decreasing oxidative dna damage was assessed in ex vivo as well as in vitro tests. the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) was used to measure dna damage in lymphoc ...200111588897
color in fruit of the genus actinidia: carotenoid and chlorophyll compositions.the carotenoid and chlorophyll contents in the fruit of four species of actinidia were measured to determine the chemical basis of color in kiwifruit and related actinidia species. the species studied were the two commercial fruits actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward and a yellow-fleshed genotype actinidia chinensis cv. hort16a (known commercially as zespri gold kiwifruit), the yellow fruit of actinida polygama, and the orange fruit of actinida macrosperma. as reported previously, ripe fruit of a. d ...200211754554
[prevalent forecast of kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae].the prevalent analysis of kiwifruit bacterial canker for several years showed that the effective ecological factors of severe degree were the precipitation (x1) in the second and last ten-days of march, and the average temperature (x2) of january. the model was y = 2.1359 + 0.0107x1 - 0.6061x2. the main factor of the prevalence was the relative variation of ten-days average temperature and precipitation in winter and in early spring, and the regression equation was y = -8.127 + 22.739x - 13.254x ...200111758412
[ecological factors affecting prevalence of kiwifruit bacterial canker and bacteriostatic action of bacteriocides on pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidae].according to the systematic study for 5 years, this paper dealt with the ecological factors affecting prevalence of kiwifruit bacterial canker. the disease was more serious in the orchards with above 750 m in elevation, and more serious at mountain slope facing south than facing north. incidence differed significantly among cultivars, with easy disease infection for jinfeng, and strong disease resistance for jinkui. the older the trees, the more the diseased plants. the one year old twigs had hi ...200111758413
routine cryopreservation of kiwifruit (actinidia spp) germplasm by encapsulation-dehydration: importance of plant growth regulators.the encapsulation-dehydration protocol was optimized for an in vitro cultured hybrid actinidia arguta x a. deliciosa. shoot tips from 14-d reactivated mononodal microcuttings were embedded, transferred to liquid culture medium whose sucrose concentration was daily increased (0.3, 0.5, 0.75 m) and then kept at 0.75 m for 2 or 4 d. dehydration on silica gel was monitored to 20+/-1.5% residual water content (dry weight basis), allowing direct quenching in liquid nitrogen and rewarming at room tempe ...200611788845
immunocytochemical location of endogenous cytokinins in buds of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) during the first hours of in vitro immunocytochemical techniques using peroxidase-antiperoxidase as markers for light microscopy or immunoglobulin g-gold for electron microscopy respectively were used for the localization of cytokinins [9-beta-d-ribofuranosil-n6-(delta2-isopentenil) adenina ([9r]ip), 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-zeatin ([9r]z) and 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-dihydrozeatin ([9r](dih)z)] in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) meristematic cells of the second nodal segment. immunolocation at the cellular level was c ...200111858460
influence of co2 and sucrose on photosynthesis and transpiration of actinidia deliciosa explants cultured in vitro.explants of actinidia deliciosa chev. liang and ferguson var. hayward were cultured in controlled co2 atmospheres in the presence of different sucrose concentrations. organogenesis was measured after 45 days in explants from the different assays, and quantification of photosynthesis, transpiration, chlorophylls, rubisco and total soluble protein content was performed in leaves from the different treatments. the best results were those of explants cultured at 600 &mgr;mol co2 mol-1 on 20 g l-1 of ...200212010480
dna markers for identification of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.the specific dna fragment was screened by rapd analysis of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, as well as similar strains that were isolated from kiwifruits. the primer c24 detected a fragment that is specific in p. syringae pv. actinidiae. this fragment was cloned. the pathovar-specific fragment was detected from a southern blot analysis of the genomic dnas of p. syringae pv. actinidiae using the cloned fragment as a probe. the sequence size of the cloned fragment was determined as 675 bp. a d ...200212018854
kiwifruit promotes laxation in the elderly.numerous anecdotal reports have suggested that kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) has laxative effects. this could be an acceptable dietary supplement, especially for elderly people who often present with constipation. we wished to obtain objective evidence as to whether or not kiwifruit eaten regularly could promote laxation in elderly people. thirty-eight healthy adults of age > 60 years consumed their normal diet, with or without one kiwifruit per 30 kg bodyweight for three weeks, followed by a ...200212074185
modelling kiwifruit budbreak as a function of temperature and bud interactions.this paper presents two models of budbreak on canes of 'hayward' kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). a conventional 'chill unit' (cu) type model is compared with an alternative 'loss of potential' (lop) approach, which assumes that the number of buds developing in spring depends on climate and node position-dependent bud-to-bud interactions that vary in duration and intensity. both models describe how temperature, and application of a dormancy-breaking chemical, determine the overall amount of budb ...200212102525
cancer prevention and therapy with kiwifruit in chinese folklore medicine: a study of kiwifruit gold fruits were extracted successively with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and further fractionated by silica gel and ods column chromatographies for the assays of various biological activities. five fractions h1, h2 (hexane extract), al, a2 (acetone extract) and m2 (methanol extract) showed selective cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines, which was more sensitive than human gingival fibroblasts. more hydrophilic fractions [70m3, 70m4, 70m5] of 70% methanol ex ...200212127237
biochemical responses to iron deficiency in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).a comparative study of two kiwifruit genotypes (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa) with different tolerance to iron (fe) deficiency was conducted to identify biochemical features associated with tolerance to fe deficiency. after 14 days of growth in hydroponic culture under fe-deficient and fe-sufficient conditions, leaf chlorophyll concentration, activities of ferric chelate reductase (fcr), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) and citrate synthase in r ...200212184976
xyloglucan endotransglycosylase activity increases during kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) ripening (implications for fruit softening).the activity of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (xet) was as-sayed in three tissue zones of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var deliciosa cv hayward) at harvest and at several softening stages following a postharvest ethylene treatment. at harvest, extractable xet activity per unit fresh weight in the inner pericarp (ip) and core tissue was 4.5 and 42 times higher, respectively, than in the outer pericarp (op). within 24 h of ethylene treatment there was an ...199312232034
carvacrol and cinnamic acid inhibit microbial growth in fresh-cut melon and kiwifruit at 4 degrees and 8 degrees establish whether or not carvacrol and cinnamic acid delay microbial spoilage of fresh-cut fruit.200212390487
a case of chloroplast heteroplasmy in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) that is not transmitted during sexual reproduction.we report the first case of plastid chimera within the actinidia genus, where plastid inheritance was believed to be paternal. the heterogeneity of chloroplast dna observed in the hexaploid actinidia deliciosa cultivar d uno involves the presence or absence of a particular mspi restriction site in the region between the psbc gene and the trna-ser(uga) gene. the heterogeneity was first observed using restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed through cloning and sequencing. the a ...200612407220
nutritional modulation of dna repair in a human intervention study.dna oxidation is a potential cause of cancer in humans. it is well-known that fruits and vegetables protect against cancer, and this may be in part because they contain antioxidants, which decrease the level of oxidation of dna. however, there are other possible mechanisms, such as an enhancement of cellular repair of this damage. a randomized cross-over study was carried out on healthy human subjects, who were given kiwifruit as a supplement to their normal diet, for 3-week periods at different ...200312663512
characterization of elemental composition in kiwifruit grown in northern iran.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) has different varieties such as hayward, bruno, monty, and abbott. these varieties are different in taste, odor, shape, and some chemical compositions. this work reports the elemental analysis of cu, fe, mn, zn, ca, mg, k, and na in the different varieties of hayward, bruno, monty, and abbott grown in northern iran. results from elemental analysis were determined using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy. distributions and amounts of metals for different v ...200312720400
identification of an emergent and atypical pseudomonas viridiflava lineage causing bacteriosis in plants of agronomic importance in a spanish region.pseudomonas strains with an atypical lopat profile (where lopat is a series of determinative tests: l, levan production; o, oxidase production; p, pectinolitic activity; a, arginine dihydrolase production; and t, tobacco hypersensibility) can be regarded as emergent pathogens in the principality of asturias (spain), where they have been causing, since 1999, severe damage in at least three taxonomically unrelated orchard plants of agronomic importance: common bean (phaseolus vulgaris), kiwifruit ...200312732569
a one-step organelle capture: gynogenetic kiwifruits with paternal chloroplasts.androgenesis, the development of a haploid embryo from a male nucleus, has been shown to result in the instantaneous uncoupling of the transmission of the organelle and nuclear genomes (with the nuclear genome originating from the male parent only and the organelle genomes from the female parent). we report, for the first time, uncoupling resulting from gynogenesis, in actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit), a plant species known for its paternal mode of chloroplast inheritance. after pollen irradiatio ...200312737655
weak extremely high frequency microwaves affect pollen-tube emergence and growth in kiwifruit: pollen grain irradiation and water-mediated effects.this study was designed to evaluate the effects of weak-intensity extremely high frequency (ehf) microwaves in a model system-the plant organism pollen grain-lacking the placebo effect, available in large populations, to ensure accurate statistical analysis, and whose sensitivity is closely relevant to animal and human biology.200312804075
effect of mating delay on the reproductive performance of cnephasia jactatana (lepidoptera: tortricidae).the leafroller species, cnephasia jactatana walker, is an important pest of kiwifruit in new zealand. the effect of mating delay on its reproductive performance was investigated in the laboratory to provide information for the development of pheromonal pest control measures such as mating disruption. reproductive performance of both sexes is adversely affected by mating delay. females are more severely affected by mating delay than males in terms of reproductive potential. delaying mating in fem ...200312852593
transformation of apple ( malus domestica borkh.) with the stilbene synthase gene from grapevine ( vitis vinifera l.) and a pgip gene from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa).the objective of the present research was to introduce genes with antifungal potential into the commercially important apple cvs. elstar and holsteiner cox in order to establish resistance against fungal diseases. the gene encoding the stilbene synthase (vst1) from vitis vinifera l., responsible for the synthesis of the phytoalexin resveratrol in grapevine, and the gene for a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa) were transferred into holsteiner cox and els ...200314504909
genetic stability assessments of plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved in vitro cultured grape and kiwi shoot-tips using vitro cultured shoot-tips of four grape (vitis vinifera) cultivars and one kiwi (actinidia deliciosa) cultivar were cryopreserved using the encapsulation-dehydration method. genomic dna of plantlets regenerated directly from cryopreserved shoot-tips was extracted and analyzed using the rapd (random amplified polymorphic dna) technique. the rapd profiles obtained were highly reproducible and no differences were found between the dna patterns obtained with plantlets regenerated from control and ...201414566391
purification and characterization of phytocystatins from kiwifruit cortex and seeds.kiwifruit cysteine proteinase inhibitors (kcpis) were purified from the cortex and seeds of kiwifruit after inactivation of the abundant cortex cysteine proteinase actinidain. one major (kcpi1) and four minor cystatins were identified from actinidia deliciosa ripe mature kiwifruit cortex as well as a seed kcpi from a. chinensis. the predominant cortex cystatin, kcpi1, inhibited clan ca, family c1 (papain family) cysteine proteinases (papain, chymopapain, bromelain, ficin, human cathepsins b, h a ...200414697268
canopy photosynthesis and respiration of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines growing in the co(2) assimilation (a) for canopies of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines enclosed in a whole-canopy cuvette was measured continuously for three periods of 15-20 days during late summer, near hamilton, new zealand (latitude 38.2 degrees s). canopy a showed an asymptotic response to incident radiation (par), saturating at about 1300 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for one vine and about 800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for two other vines. radiation interception at low solar angles and low lea ...199214969971
accumulation and partitioning of dry matter and mineral nutrients in developing kiwifruit vines.size, dry weight and mineral nutrient content of fruit, leaves, shoots, canes, leader, stem and roots of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa) vines, aged from one to five years, were measured. the distribution of fruit yield among single canes was examined in three of the vines. total dry weight increased from a mean of 1.29 kg vine(-1) for one-year-old vines to 29.2 kg vine(-1) for five-year-old vines. the proportion of total dry weight in roots ...198714975822
est-derived microsatellites from actinidia species and their potential for increase the speed and reduce the cost of constructing a genetic map of actinidia species (kiwifruit), for use in both breeding and functional genomics programmes, we sampled microsatellites from expressed sequence tags (ests) to evaluate their frequency of occurrence and level of polymorphism. perfect dinucleotide repeats were the microsatellites selected, and these were found to be numerous in both the 5' and 3' ends of the genes represented. the microsatellites were of various lengths, the ...200415067386
preparation and structural analysis of actinidain-processed atelocollagen of yellowfin tuna (thunnus albacares).pepsin-hydrolyzed collagen (atelocollagen) is a trimer, consisting of alpha 1 and alpha 2 monomers, and shows molecular species corresponding to a monomer, dimer (beta chain), and trimer (gamma chain) by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. atelocollagen was purified from yellowfin tuna (thunnus albacares) by salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography. enzymatic hydrolysis of the atelocollagen by actinidain, a cysteine protease purified from kiwifruit, was analyzed by sds-polyacryl ...200415118315
mannan transglycosylase: a novel enzyme activity in cell walls of higher plants.mannan transglycosylase is a novel cell wall enzyme activity acting on mannan-based plant polysaccharides in primary cell walls of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. the enzyme activity was detected by its ability to transfer galactoglucomannan (ggm) polysaccharides to tritium-labelled ggm-derived oligosaccharides generating tritium-labelled ggm polysaccharides. mannan transglycosylase was found in a range of plant species and tissues. high levels of the enzyme activity were present in flowers of ...200415118857
hydraulic conductance and rootstock effects in grafted vines of kiwifruit.whole-plant hydraulic conductance, shoot growth, and leaf photosynthetic properties were measured on kiwifruit vines with four clonal rootstocks to examine the relationship between plant hydraulic conductance and leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and to test the hypothesis that reduced hydraulic conductance can provide an explanation for reductions in plant vigour caused by rootstocks. the rootstocks were selected from four species of actinidia and grafted with actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'h ...200415133051
dietary cancer and prevention using antimutagens.many of the cancers common in the western world, including colon, prostate and breast cancers, are thought to relate to dietary habits. of the known risk factors, many will act through increasing the probability of mutation. recognised dietary mutagens include cooked meat compounds, n-nitroso compounds and fungal toxins, while high meat and saturated fat consumption, increasing rates of obesity, and regular consumption of alcohol and tobacco are all dietary trends that could indirectly enhance t ...200415138038
programmed cell death induces male sterility in actinidia deliciosa female flowers.the importance of programmed cell death (pcd) during the life cycle of plants is well established, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly defined. an emerging system for the study of pcd during development in plants is that of sex organ abortion. in this work we investigate the degeneration of microspores in the anthers of actinidia deliciosa female flowers. the kiwifruit, a. deliciosa, is a dioecious species native to china. pollen development in female flowers is equival ...200415246067
preparation and promotion of fruit growth in kiwifruit of fluorinated n-phenyl-n'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl ureas.seventeen phenyl-fluorinated analogues of thidiazuron [n-phenyl-n'-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea, tdz] have been prepared and characterized. the effects of each fluorinated urea on growth and quality of kiwifruits (actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated by comparison with untreated (control) and tdz-treated fruits. the results obtained showed a clear dependence of the growth-promoting activity of these fluorinated ureas on the pattern and degree of fluorine substitution in the phenyl ring. the most e ...200415264899
varietal difference in vitamin c content in the fruit of kiwifruit and other actinidia species.vitamin c content in the fruit of various cultivars of kiwifruit and other actinidia species was estimated by determination of l-ascorbic acid and l-dehydroascorbic acid using ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. fruit of a. deliciosa cv. hayward, the most common commercially available cultivar, contained 65.5 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) vitamin c. vitamin c content in a. deliciosa fruit varied from 29 mg/100 g fw to 80 mg/100 g fw. in most cultivars of a. chinensis, vi ...200415315387
tolerance of heat-treated kiwi by children with kiwifruit allergy.kiwifruit allergy is increasing among children but whether heating affects clinical tolerance to kiwifruit is unknown. to assess tolerance to heated kiwifruit in children allergic to fresh kiwifruit. in this prospective trial, 20 children (median age 9.4 yr) with a history of immediate allergic reactions to fresh kiwifruit underwent double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges with steam-cooked (100 degrees c for 5') and industrially homogenised kiwifruit. skin prick tests with a commercial k ...200415482522
feedback inhibition of spinach l-galactose dehydrogenase by l-ascorbate.we have studied the enzymological properties of l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-galdh), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of l-ascorbate (asa) in plants. l-galdh was purified approximately 560-fold from spinach leaves. the enzyme was a homodimer with a subunit mass of 36 kda. we also cloned the full-length cdna of spinach l-galdh, which contained an open reading frame encoding 322 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 35,261 da. the deduced amino acid sequence of the cdna s ...200415509850
ige sensitization profiles toward green and gold kiwifruits differ among patients allergic to kiwifruit from 3 european countries.kiwifruits have become a major elicitor of plant food allergy. until recently, the only species of kiwifruit grown commercially was the common green-fleshed actinidia deliciosa cv hayward. in 1999, the yellow-fleshed cultivar actinidia chinensis cv hort16a was introduced into the international market.200415536427
a highly specific l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase on the path to ascorbate biosynthesis.ascorbate is a critical compound in plants and animals. humans are unable to synthesize ascorbate, and their main source of this essential vitamin are plants. however, the pathway of synthesis in plants is yet to be established, and several unknown enzymes are only postulated to exist. we describe a specific l-galactose-1-phosphate (l-gal-1-p) phosphatase that we partially purified from young kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berries. the enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 65 kda, ...200415550539
dynamic object individuation in rhesus macaques: a study of the tunnel effect.a manual-search experiment with rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) explored dynamic object individuation in the tunnel effect: subjects watched as a lemon rolled down a ramp and came to rest behind a tunnel (occluder 1) and then as a kiwifruit emerged and became occluded at the end of its path behind a screen (occluder 2). when the kiwifruit emerged at about the time that the lemon should have (had it continued its motion), subjects searched for food only behind occluder 2-apparently perceiving the ...200415563323
[sugar metabolism and its regulation in postharvest ripening kiwifruit].kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. bruno) was used to investigate starch and sugar metabolism and the mechanisms of regulation by acetylsalicylic acid (asa 1.0 mmol/l, ph 3.5), low temperature (0 degrees c) and ethylene (100 microl/l) treatments. there was an increase in amylase activity at the initial stage followed by dramatical decrease in starch content and a rapid increase in hexose content at the rapid stage of fruit ripening and softening, which was associated with an increase in sps acti ...200415599029
in vitro pollen tube growth reveals the cytotoxic potential of the flavonols, quercetin and rutin.flavonols are phytochemicals widely found in commonly consumed foods. in spite of their beneficial effects on human health, however, cytotoxicity and even suspected genotoxicity have also been reported for the flavonol, quercetin. this points to the need for preventive studies to identify any cytotoxic effects associated with pure flavonol intake. this work was performed with the aim of verifying whether a plant-based in vitro system, the pollen tube, could be used to evaluate the cytotoxic pote ...200415601236
[cloning and expression of ethylene receptor gene ad-etr1 from kiwifruit].according to the conserved amino acid sequence from ethylene receptors in other plants, a pair of degenerate primers was designed and a 657-bp cdna fragment encoding an ethylene receptor fruit was obtained by rt-pcr from ripening kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. bruno) (fig. 1). the cdna fragment encoding 219 amino acids was named ad-etr1, and its sequences shared high similarity at both nucleotide and polypeptide level with the sequences from the plants of arabidopsis, tomato, persimmon, avoc ...200415643090
occurrence of the stra-strb streptomycin resistance genes in pseudomonas species isolated from kiwifruit plants.the occurrence of stra-strb streptomycin-resistance genes within transposon tn5393 was examined in pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, p. syringae pv. syringae, and p. marginalis, isolated from kiwifruit plants in korea and japan. pcr amplification with primers specific to stra-strb revealed that three of the tested pseudomonas species harbored these genes for a streptomycin-resistance determinant. tn5393, containing stra-strb, was also identified with pcr primers designed to amplify parts of t ...200415650697
morphological anomalies in pollen tubes of actinidia deliciosa (kiwi) exposed to 50 hz magnetic field.the role of the pollen grain, with respect to the reproductive process of higher plants, is to deliver the spermatic cells to the embryo sac for egg fertilisation. delivery occurs through the pollen tube, a self produced organ that is generated when the pollen grain reaches the stigma surface. the effect of magnetic fields on pollen tube growth was reported in a recent publication by germanà et al. pollen tube growth is an interesting candidate for the detailed study of the effects of electromag ...200515672369
structural basis for the interaction between pectin methylesterase and a specific inhibitor protein.pectin, one of the main components of the plant cell wall, is secreted in a highly methyl-esterified form and subsequently deesterified in muro by pectin methylesterases (pmes). in many developmental processes, pmes are regulated by either differential expression or posttranslational control by protein inhibitors (pmeis). pmeis are typically active against plant pmes and ineffective against microbial enzymes. here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of the complex between the most abund ...200515722470
plant genotype affects total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents in fruit.we wanted to determine the total antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid equivalent antioxidant assay; teac) of different species and cultivars (strawberry and apple) and to characterize the teac among fruits of the same varieties (peach and apricot) but grafted on different rootstocks.200515723750
immunolocalisation of arabinogalactan proteins and pectins in actinidia deliciosa pollen. short communication.the cell wall composition of germinating pollen grains of actinidia deliciosa was studied by immunolocalization with monoclonal antibodies against arabinogalactan proteins (agps) and pectins. in ungerminated pollen, the jim8 epitope (against a subset of agps) was located in the intine and in the cytoplasm, while the mac207 epitope (against agps) was located only in the exine. after germination, the jim8 and mac 207 epitopes were located in the cytoplasm and in the pollen tube wall. the yariv rea ...200415726817
effect of the application of benzyladenine pulse on organogenesis, acclimatisation and endogenous phytohormone content in kiwi explants cultured under autotrophic traditional in vitro culture, explants grow enclosed in a non-ventilated vessel at high relative humidity with phytohormones continuously present and sucrose as the main energy source. under such conditions explant growth is far from normal. in this paper, explants of actinidia deliciosa were cultured in ms medium supplemented with sucrose, benzyladenine and gibberellic acid under autotrophic conditions in glass boxes flushed with air enriched with 600 microl l(-1) co(2) for the first 20 days ...200515820664
effect of kiwifruit juice on beef collagen.the objective of this study is to clarify the difference in susceptibility to protease digestion by kiwifruit juice between collagen domains under different conditions. in addition, the effect of pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice on collagen in meat during cooking processes was examined. kiwifruit juice can degrade denatured collagen, but it can not cleave the triple helical domain of collagen. thus, kiwifruit juice does not have collagenase activity. on the other hand, the cross-linked subunit ...200515915665
genotypic differences in chlorophyll, lutein, and beta-carotene contents in the fruits of actinidia species.chlorophyll, lutein, and beta-carotene contents in actinidia fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in various genotypes, including five actinidia deliciosa, seven actinidia chinensis, two actinidia rufa, five actinidia arguta, and three interspecific hybrids. the concentrations of chlorophyll, lutein, and beta-carotene in the fruit of a. deliciosa hayward were 1.65, 0.418, and 0.088 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. of a. deliciosa cultivars, koryoku showed signific ...200516076125
cardiovascular protective properties of kiwifruit extracts in is currently accepted that the consumption of fruit-derived antioxidants such as vitamin c, carotenoids, and flavonoids provides a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease. the purpose of the present study was to investigate potential cardiovascular protective properties of aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts from kiwifruit by analyzing the antioxidative, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, and fibrinolytic activities in vitro. aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts at 50 mg/ml showed dpph- ...200516141561
cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci within the dioecious, polyploid genus actinidia (actinidiaceae).microsatellite marker transfer across species in the dioecious genus actinidia (kiwifruit) could offer an efficient and time-effective technique for use during trait transfer for vine and fruit improvement in breeding programmes. we evaluated the cross-species amplification of 20 est-derived microsatellite markers that were fully informative in an actinidia chinensis mapping family. we tested all 20 markers on 120 genotypes belonging to 21 species, 5 with varieties and/or chromosome races. these ...200516211378
pigments in the fruit of red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis and actinidia deliciosa).kiwifruit cultivars (actinidia chinensis and a. deliciosa) generally have fruit with yellow or green flesh when ripe. a small number of genotypes also have red pigments, usually restricted to the inner pericarp but varying in intensity and in distribution within the fruit. carotenoids, chorophylls, and anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit pericarp of such red-fleshed kiwifruit selections. pigments were analyzed by hplc and identified by comparison with authentic standards and by liquid chr ...200516302772
comparison of the allergenicity of actinidia deliciosa (kiwi fruit) and actinidia chinensis (gold kiwi).actinidia chinensis (gold kiwi) is a newly available fruit which has been shown to have in vitro immunoglobulin e (ige) cross-reactivity with green kiwi. this is the first study to investigate clinical reactivity of gold kiwi. five patients clinically allergic to green kiwi were investigated by skin test and double-blind placebo controlled food challenge (dbpcfc) with gold kiwi fruit. ige-binding patterns of individual sera from the five challenged patients and a pool of sera from a further nine ...200516343086
self-reported allergy to latex gloves among health care workers in jordan.the objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of natural rubber latex allergy and its associated factors among health care workers in jordan based on a self-administered questionnaire. in this cross-sectional study, the data were obtained through a self-reported hand-delivered questionnaire that was distributed to 500 health care workers who use natural rubber latex gloves. a total of 420 (84%) health care workers responded by filling the questionnaire. of the total number of 420 he ...200516364123
transformation of actinidia eriantha: a potential species for functional genomics studies in actinidia.protocols were developed for regeneration and agrobacterium-mediated transformation of actinidia eriantha benth. a. eriantha has a number of features that make it a useful tool for functional genomics in actinidia: the vines are relatively small and non-vigorous in nature, flowers form all over the vine including on lower axillary branches and the species flowers prolifically in greenhouse conditions. flowering and fruiting of transgenic a. eriantha plants was obtained within 2 years of transfor ...200616404600
vigor-controlling rootstocks affect early shoot growth and leaf area development of kiwifruit.patterns of shoot development and the production of different types of shoots were compared with scion leaf area index (lai) to identify how eight clonal actinidia rootstocks influence scion development. rootstocks selected from seven actinidia species (a. chrysantha merri., a. deliciosa (a. chev.) c. f. liang et a.r. ferguson, a. eriantha benth., a. hemsleyana dunn, a. kolomikta (maxim. et rupr.) maxim., a. kolomikta c.f. liang and a. polygama (sieb. et zucc.) maxim.) were grafted with the scio ...200616414929
evaluation of ige binding to proteins of hardy (actinidia arguta), gold (actinidia chinensis) and green (actinidia deliciosa) kiwifruits and processed hardy kiwifruit concentrate, using sera of individuals with food allergies to green kiwifruit.allergy to green kiwifruit has become common since the fruit was introduced in north america and europe 30 years ago. gold kiwifruit, more recently introduced commercially, has been shown to bind ige from some individuals allergic to green kiwifruit. hardy kiwifruit is a third species that is now cultivated in north america with potential application as a fresh fruit and in processed foods.200616481086
biosynthesis of zeatin from n-(delta-isopentenyl)adenine in actinidia: sites and seasonal changes in actinidia arguta (hardy kiwifruit) plants, the potential to accumulate the cytokinin zeatin (io(6)ade) during feeding with a precursor, n(6)-(delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine (i(6)ade), varies depending on the tissue. this can be demonstrated by incubating explants for 24 hr on a basal nutrient medium supplemented with 30 mum i(6)ade and then extracting the tissues and analyzing cytokinin contents using hplc methodology. under these conditions, the potential for io(6)ade accumulation in tissue sl ...198616593769
changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit during development.changes in pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose in the cell walls of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) were determined during development. an extensive amylase digestion was employed to remove possible contaminating starch before and after fractionation of wall polysaccharides. an initial treatment of crude cell walls with alpha-amylase and iso-amylase or dmso, was found to be insufficient removing the contaminating starch from wall polysaccharides. after edta ...201616647859
effect of hydrogen cyanamide on amino acid profiles in kiwifruit buds during budbreak.buds, and resultant shoots, were collected from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] cf liang et ar ferguson var deliciosa cv hayward) vines from late autumn until late spring with and without hydrogen cyanamide treatment. those samples were weighed and analyzed for total nitrogen and free amino acids. by 7 days after hydrogen cyanamide treatment, the amount of proline had risen to nearly one-quarter of the total amino acid pool in the treated buds and that proportion was maintained for at ...199116668518
cell wall dissolution in ripening kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) : solubilization of the pectic polymers.pectic polysaccharides solubilized in vivo during ripening, were isolated using phenol, acetic acid, and water (paw) from the outer pericarp of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang and a.r. ferguson var deliciosa ;hayward') before and after postharvest ethylene treatment. insoluble polysaccharides of the cell wall materials (cwms) were solubilized in vitro by chemical extraction with 0.05 molar cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetraacetate (cdta), 0.05 molar na(2)co(3), 6 molar guan ...199216668651
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