synthesis of siderophores by plant-associated metallotolerant bacteria under exposure to cd(2.).rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria are well known producers of siderophores, organic compounds that chelate ferric iron (fe(3+)), and therefore play an important role in plant growth promotion in metalliferous areas, thereby improving bioremediation processes. however, in addition to their primary function in iron mobilization, siderophores also have the capacity to chelate other heavy metals, such as al(3+), zn(2+), cu(2+), pb(2+) and cd(2+), that can affect homeostasis and the heavy metal tol ...201627183333
long-term changes of metal contents in two metallophyte species (olkusz area of zn-pb ores, poland).the authors present the changes of the as, cd, fe, mn, pb and zn contents in two plant-considered metallophytes: common bent agrostis capillaris (blades) and birch betula pendula (leaves and seeds), recorded in a zn-pb industrial region of olkusz (poland) in 1994 and 2014. the highest amounts of cd (12 ppm) and zn (2524 ppm) in the common bent occur in the vicinity of the mining and metallurgical works 'bolesław' in bukowno. however, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: cd by ...201627165603
bioconversion of birch wood hemicellulose hydrolyzate to xylitol.a sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of japanese white birch (betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °c for 1 h. during the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. these inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto ...201525894947
effects of tree species richness and composition on moose winter browsing damage and foraging selectivity: an experimental study.the optimal foraging theory, the nutrient balance hypothesis, and the plant association theories predict that foraging decisions and resulting tree damage by large mammalian browsers may be influenced by the species richness and species composition of forest stands. this may lead to either associational susceptibility (increased damage on a focal plant in a mixed stand) or associational resistance (reduced damage in a mixed stand). better understanding of the mechanisms and the relative importan ...201323363076
leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads.ground-level ozone (o3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (n) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. rising ground-level o3 concentrations and atmospheric n deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. in addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. in the current study, three-year old betula pendula saplin ...201728152417
foliar fungi of betula pendula: impact of tree species mixtures and assessment methods.foliar fungi of silver birch (betula pendula) in an experimental finnish forest were investigated across a gradient of tree species richness using molecular high-throughput sequencing and visual macroscopic assessment. we hypothesized that the molecular approach detects more fungal taxa than visual assessment, and that there is a relationship among the most common fungal taxa detected by both techniques. furthermore, we hypothesized that the fungal community composition, diversity, and distribut ...201728150710
tree diversity affects chlorophyll a fluorescence and other leaf traits of tree species in a boreal assemblage of tree species with different crown properties creates heterogeneous environments at the canopy level. changes of functional leaf traits are expected, especially those related to light interception and photosynthesis. chlorophyll a fluorescence (chlf) properties in dark-adapted leaves, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content (n) and carbon isotope composition (δ13c) were measured on picea abies (l.) h.karst., pinus sylvestris l. and betula pendula roth. in monospecific and mixed ...201728100710
reaction of leaf weevil phyllobius arborator (coleoptera: curculionidae) to manganese content in diet.reaction of leaf weevil (phyllobius arborator (herbst)) to increased concentration of manganese in diet was investigated in laboratory rearing with controlled temperature, humidity, and light conditions. food for leaf weevils in rearing (leaves of birch betula pendula roth) was contaminated by soaking the leaves in solutions of mncl2.4h2o with graded concentration of manganese. direct influence of food was characterized by the consumed amount of leaves, period of feeding, and weight of p. arbora ...201728031428
accumulative response of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) and silver birch (betula pendula roth) to heavy metals enhanced by pb-zn ore mining and processing plants: explicitly spatial considerations of ordinary kriging based on a gis approach.plants have an accumulative response to heavy metals present in soils or deposited from airborne sources of emissions. therefore, their tissues are very often used in studies of heavy metal contamination originating from different sources as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. this research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of pb, zn, cd, cu and cr in washed and unwashed needles of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) and leaves of silver birch (betula pendula roth) growing in ...201727836278
two birch species demonstrate opposite latitudinal patterns in infestation by gall-making mites in northern europe.latitudinal patterns in herbivory, i.e. variations in plant losses to animals with latitude, are generally explained by temperature gradients. however, earlier studies suggest that geographical variation in abundance and diversity of gall-makers may be driven by precipitation rather than by temperature. to test the above hypothesis, we examined communities of eriophyoid mites (acari: eriophyoidea) on leaves of betula pendula and b. pubescens in boreal forests in northern europe. we sampled ten s ...201627835702
unravelling the distinct crystallinity and thermal properties of suberin compounds from quercus suber and betula pendula outer barks.the main purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of suberin (a naturally occurring aromatic-aliphatic polyester ubiquitous to the vegetable realm) as a renewable source of chemicals and, in particular, to assess their physical properties. a comparison between cork and birch suberin fragments obtained by conventional depolymerisation processes (hydrolysis or methanolysis) is provided, focusing essentially on their thermal and crystallinity properties. it was found that suberin frag ...201627632951
evidence of prokaryote like protein associated with nickel resistance in higher plants: horizontal transfer of tonb-dependent receptor/protein in betula genus or de novo mechanisms?mechanisms of metal resistance have been reported in many plants but knowledge in woody species is scarce. the tonb-dependent receptors family (tbdts) is a large group of proteins that facilitate the transport of molecules across the membrane of gram-negative bacteria. some evidence exists that tbdts are involved in metal stress. the existence of a tonb-like mechanism in non-prokaryotes has not been established. the recent development of the betula papyrifera (white birch) transcriptome has allo ...201727804963
ecophysiological responses of betula pendula, pinus uncinata and rhododendron ferrugineum in the catalan pyrenees to low summer rainfall.climate change is producing modifications in the intensity and frequency of rainfall in some regions of the planet. according to predictions, annual rainfall distribution in western europe will result in an increase in episodes of drought, thereby negatively affecting nutrient availability. since high mountain systems will be particularly vulnerable, the physiological and nutritional responses to changes in summer rainfall were monitored over the course of two consecutive summers on three specie ...201627784825
the competitive status of trees determines their responsiveness to increasing atmospheric humidity - a climate trend predicted for northern latitudes.the interactive effects of climate variables and tree-tree competition are still insufficiently understood drivers of forest response to global climate change. precipitation and air humidity are predicted to rise concurrently at high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. we investigated whether the growth response of deciduous trees to elevated air humidity varies with their competitive status. the study was conducted in seed-originated silver birch and monoclonal hybrid aspen stands grown at th ...201727779805
clinical validation of controlled exposure to birch pollen in the environmental exposure unit (eeu).the environmental exposure unit (eeu) in kingston, ontario, canada is a controlled allergen challenge facility (cacf) that has been previously clinically validated for the use of ragweed and grass pollen in clinical studies. in this study we aim to validate the use of birch pollen to challenge allergic participants.201627777594
design and application of sporopollenin microcapsule supported palladium catalyst: remarkably high turnover frequency and reusability in catalysis of catalyst support materials with high thermal and structural stability are desired for catalysts systems requiring harsh conditions. in this study, a thermally stable palladium catalyst (up to 440°c) was designed from sporopollenin, which occurs naturally in the outer exine layer of pollens and is widely acknowledged as chemically very stable and inert biological material. catalyst design procedure included (1) extraction of sporopollenin microcapsules from betula pendula pollens (∼25μm ...201727701017
multispecies genetic structure and hybridization in the betula genus across eurasia.boreal and cool temperate forests are the major land cover of northern eurasia, and information about continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history of forest species is important from an evolutionary perspective and has conservation implications. however, although many population genetic studies of forest tree species have been conducted in europe or eastern asia, continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history remain poorly known. here, we focus on the birch ...201727763698
effect of betula pendula leaf extract on α-glucosidase and glutathione level in glucose-induced oxidative stress.b. pendula leaf is a common ingredient in traditional herbal combinations for treatment of diabetes in southeastern europe. present study investigated b. pendula ethanolic and aqueous extract as inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, as well as their ability to restore glutathione concentration in hep g2 cells subjected to glucose-induced oxidative stress. phytochemical analysis revealed presence of rutin and other quercetin derivatives, as well as chlorogenic acid. in general, ethanoli ...201627668005
development of betulinic acid as an agonist of tgr5 receptor using a new in vitro assay.g-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, also known as tgr5 is known to be involved in glucose homeostasis. in animal models, treatment with a tgr5 agonist induces incretin secretion to reduce hyperglycemia. betulinic acid, a triterpenoid present in the leaves of white birch, has been introduced as a selective tgr5 agonist. however, direct activation of tgr5 by betulinic acid has not yet been reported.201627578964
betulin attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe(-/-) mice by up-regulating abca1 and abcg1.betulin is a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from the bark of yellow and white birch trees with anti-cancer and anti-malaria activities. in this study we examined the effects of betulin on atherosclerosis in apoe(-/-) mice and the underlying mechanisms.201627374487
betulinic acid ameliorates experimental diabetic-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis via inhibiting the activation of nf-κb signaling pathway.diabetic nephropathy (dn) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure and is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ecm) proteins such as fibronectin (fn), in the glomerular mesangium and tubulointerstitium. betulinic acid (ba), a pentacyclic triterpene derived from the bark of the white birch tree, has been demonstrated to have many pharmacological activities. however, the effect of ba on dn has not been fully elucidated. to explore the possible anti-inflammatory eff ...201627364889
osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in europe.phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold ...201627313582
low vapour pressure deficit affects nitrogen nutrition and foliar metabolites in silver birch.air humidity indicated as vapour pressure deficit (vpd) is directly related to transpiration and stomatal function of plants. we studied the effects of vpd and nitrogen (n) supply on leaf metabolites, plant growth, and mineral nutrition with young micropropagated silver birches (betula pendula roth.) in a growth chamber experiment. plants that were grown under low vpd for 26 d had higher biomass, larger stem diameter, more leaves, fewer fallen leaves, and larger total leaf area than plants that ...201627259554
artificially decreased vapour pressure deficit in field conditions modifies foliar metabolite profiles in birch and aspen.relative air humidity (rh) is expected to increase in northern europe due to climate change. increasing rh reduces the difference of water vapour pressure deficit (vpd) between the leaf and the atmosphere, and affects the gas exchange of plants. little is known about the effects of decreased vpd on plant metabolism, especially under field conditions. this study was conducted to determine the effects of artificially decreased vpd on silver birch (betula pendula roth.) and hybrid aspen (populus tr ...201627255929
nickel and copper toxicity and plant response mechanisms in white birch (betula papyrifera).nickel (ni) and copper (cu) are the most prevalent metals found in the soils in the greater sudbury region (canada) because of smelting emissions. the main objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the toxicity of nickel (ni) and copper (cu) at different doses in betula papyrifera (white birch), (2) characterize nickel resistance mechanism, and (3) assess segregating patterns for ni and cu resistance in b. papyrifera populations. this study revealed that b. papyrifera is resistant to ...201627230027
analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of happy valley-goose bay, eastern canadian subarctic.this research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (btex) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (mtbe) in groundwater in eastern canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of happy valley-goose bay, labrador. petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. tree cores we ...201627151238
antitumor drug effect of betulinic acid mediated by polyethylene glycol modified liposomes.betulinic acid (ba), as a natural pentacyclic lupine-type triterpene, principally derives from bark of white birch, due to its potent pharmacological properties and low side-effect, which has been demonstrated a prominent efficiency on cancer therapy. however, the poor solubility and low bioavailability limit its pharmaceutical effect. herein, we reported the rapid efficient synthesis of the polyethylene glycol modified (pegylated) ba liposomes using ethanol injection technique for the first tim ...201627127036
comprehensive transcriptome analysis of response to nickel stress in white birch (betula papyrifera).white birch (betula papyrifera) is a dominant tree species of the boreal forest. recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (b. nana) enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other betula species such as b. papyrif ...201627082755
effect of different pretreatment methods on birch outer bark: new biorefinery routes.a comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. the residual solid fractions have been characterized by atr-ftir, (13)c-solid-state nmr and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. the general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including ...201627043513
quantification of overnight movement of birch (betula pendula) branches and foliage with short interval terrestrial laser scanning.the goal of the study was to determine circadian movements of silver birch (petula bendula) branches and foliage detected with terrestrial laser scanning (tls). the study consisted of two geographically separate experiments conducted in finland and in austria. both experiments were carried out at the same time of the year and under similar outdoor conditions. experiments consisted of 14 (finland) and 77 (austria) individual laser scans taken between sunset and sunrise. the resulting point clouds ...201626973668
simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic ions in plant parts of betula pendula from two different types of ecosystems (wielkopolski national park and chemical plant in luboń, poland).the results of inorganic and organic anion concentrations in samples of soils and plant parts of betula pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, leaves), in the bioavailable fraction, are presented in this study. an ion chromatography method was applied for the first time in the simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions, as an effective tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples with different matrix. a linear gradient elution with potassium hydroxide allow ...201626903135
the efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of european aspen.the sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. in finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the european aspen (populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. in this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological contr ...201626899306
rhododenol and raspberry ketone impair the normal proliferation of melanocytes through reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of gadd45.rhododenol or rhododendrol (rd, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol) occurs naturally in many plants along with raspberry ketone (rk, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone), a ketone derivative, which include nikko maple tree (acer nikoense) and white birch (betula platyphylla). de-pigmenting activity of rd was discovered and it was used as a brightening ingredient for the skin whitening cosmetics. recently, cosmetics containing rd were withdrawn from the market because a number of consumers developed leukod ...201626867644
photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the catalan pyrenees in summer.information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the central catalan pyrenees: mountain pine (pinus uncinata mill.), birch (betula pendula roth) and rhododendron (rhododendron ferrugineum l.) were studied und ...201626833754
bvoc responses to realistic nitrogen fertilization and ozone exposure in silver birch.emission of bvoc (biogenic volatile organic compounds) from plant leaves in response to ozone exposure (o3) and nitrogen (n) fertilization is poorly understood. for the first time, bvoc emissions were explored in a forest tree species (silver birch, betula pendula) exposed for two years to realistic levels of o3 (35, 48 and 69 ppb as daylight average) and n (10, 30 and 70 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), applied weekly to the soil as ammonium nitrate). the main bvocs emitted were: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, ...201626809503
photosynthesis, nutrient accumulation and growth of two betula species exposed to waterlogging in late dormancy and in the early growing season.increased risk of soil waterlogging in winter and spring at northern latitudes will potentially affect forest production in the future. we studied gas exchange, chlorophyll content index, chlorophyll fluorescence, nutrient concentration and biomass accumulation in 1-year-old silver (betula pendula roth) and pubescent birch (betula pubescens ehrh.) seedlings. we hypothesized that b. pubescens has different physiological mechanisms that make it tolerate waterlogging better than b. pendula. the tre ...201728338895
the shifting phenological landscape: within- and between-species variation in leaf emergence in a mixed-deciduous woodland.many organisms rely on synchronizing the timing of their life-history events with those of other trophic levels-known as phenological matching-for survival or successful reproduction. in temperate deciduous forests, the extent of matching with the budburst date of key tree species is of particular relevance for many herbivorous insects and, in turn, insectivorous birds. in order to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces operating in these systems, we require knowledge of the factors i ...201728303184
evaluation of the antioxidant activity of betula pendula leaves extract and its effects on model foods.betula pendula roth (betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. however, the antioxidant activity of bp towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined.201728152668
shortening tobacco life cycle accelerates functional gene identification in genomic research.definitive allocation of function requires the introduction of genetic mutations and analysis of their phenotypic consequences. novel, rapid and convenient techniques or materials are very important and useful to accelerate gene identification in functional genomics research. here, over-expression of pmft (prunus mume), a novel ft orthologue, and ptft (populus tremula) lead to shortening of the tobacco life cycle. a series of novel short life cycle stable tobacco lines (30-50 days) were develope ...201223107371
formic acid aided hot water extraction of hemicellulose from european silver birch (betula pendula) sawdust.hemicellulose has been extracted from birch (betula pendula) sawdust by formic acid aided hot water extraction. the maximum amount of hemicellulose extracted was about 70mol% of the total hemicellulose content at 170°c, measured as the combined yield of xylose and furfural. lower temperatures (130 and 140°c) favored hemicellulose hydrolysis rather than cellulose hydrolysis, even though the total hemicellulose yield was less than at 170°c. it was found that formic acid greatly increased the hydro ...201728231535
from soil to leaves--aluminum fractionation by single step extraction procedures in polluted and protected areas.the paper presents the fractionation of aluminum in the samples of soil and plants of different species using a selective single-step extraction method. the study was conducted in the area located near a chemical plant, which for many years served as a post-crystallization leachate disposal site storing chemical waste (sector i), and in the area around the site: in wielkopolski national park, rogalin landscape park and toward the infiltration ponds at the "dębina" groundwater well-field for the ...201323651943
replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in sweden.whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. to provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. here, we conduct such an assessment in ...201626744048
in vivo protective effect of betulinic acid on dexamethasone induced thymocyte apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress.dexamethasone (dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, is strictly controlled for use due to its serious side effects, including immune suppression. betulinic acid (ba), an antioxidant prepared from the white birch, exhibits immunomodulation properties. to assess the implications and investigate the mechanisms of ba-elicited immunomodulation, we hypothesized that dex induced thymocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress could be lessened by ba.201626721359
an efficient protocol for isolation of inhibitor-free nucleic acids even from recalcitrant plants.for fast and easy isolation of inhibitor-free genomic dna even from the toughest plant leaf samples, including those high in polyphenols and polysaccharides, a protocol has been developed. to prevent the solubility of polysaccharides in the dna extract, high salt concentration (1.4 m) was used in the extraction buffer. polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) was used for the removal of polyphenols as polymerase chain reaction (pcr) inhibitors. proteins like various enzymes were degraded by proteinase k and r ...201628330131
dependence of guaiacol peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation rate in drooping birch (betula pendula roth) and tillet (tilia cordata mill) leaf on motor traffic pollution intensity.hormesis and paradoxical effects are frequently found for different plant parameters. these phenomena were also observed for lipid peroxidation (lp) rate at environmental pollution. however, the role of antioxidant enzymes, particularly guaiacol peroxidases (gpx), in a nonmonotonic variation in the lp rate remains insufficiently explored. therefore, dependence of gpx activity and lp rate in betula pendula and tilia cordata leaf on motor traffic pollution intensity was studied. regression analysi ...201726676174
hormesis and paradoxical effects of drooping birch (betula pendula roth) parameters under motor traffic pollution.various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. however, the nonmonotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. we studied the dependences of these betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). lipid peroxidation rate had different ...201726676071
hierarchical self-assembly of a renewable nanosized pentacyclic dihydroxy-triterpenoid betulin yielding flower-like architectures.betulin, a naturally occurring 6-6-6-6-5 pentacyclic dihydroxy-triterpenoid, is extractable from the bark of white birch (betula papyrifera). we report the first self-assembly properties of betulin in different liquids. the molecule spontaneously self-assembled in different media, yielding flower-like architectures of nano- to micrometers diameters via the formation of fibrillar networks. the self-assemblies have been characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmissio ...201526671722
[genotoxic and mutagenic properties of synthetic betulinic and betulonic acids].synthesis of betulinic acid was performed from the birch bark extract (betula pendula). betulonic acid was intermediate of the synthesis. both acids were isolated with purity 95%. genotoxicity and mutagenicity of obtained compounds were analyzed by ames test and sos chromotest, none of these properties have been detected.201526615642
deconstruction of nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.nordic hardwood (betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made spinchem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °c using co2 and cs2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh sils further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved ...201626572376
online measurement of real-time cytotoxic responses induced by multi-component matrices, such as natural products, through electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ecis).natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. here, we developed a label-free electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ecis)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. the conditions to measure the impedance using ecis were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons gt1-7 cells. the performance of four ...201526569236
elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (betula pendula).as changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. the main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees' resource allocation in silver birch (betul ...201526528318
waterlogging in late dormancy and the early growth phase affected root and leaf morphology in betula pendula and betula pubescens seedlings.the warmer winters of the future will increase snow-melt frequency and rainfall, thereby increasing the risk of soil waterlogging and its effects on trees in winter and spring at northern latitudes. we studied the morphology of roots and leaves of 1-year-old silver birch (betula pendula roth) and pubescent birch (betula pubescens ehrh.) seedlings exposed to waterlogging during dormancy or at the beginning of the growing season in a growth-chamber experiment. the experiment included 4-week dorman ...201626420790
aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of poland.this paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (al) concentrations in plant parts of betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. a new procedure of al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of al in soils and b. pendula samples. in addition, total al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total al content in soil samples colle ...201626370811
effects of a major tree invader on urban woodland arthropods.biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia), which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. as a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in be ...201526359665
coupled enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation: ionic liquid pretreatment for enhanced yields.pretreatment is a vital step upon biochemical conversion of lignocellulose materials into biofuels. an acid catalyzed thermochemical treatment is the most commonly employed method for this purpose. alternatively, ionic liquids (ils), a class of neoteric solvents, provide unique opportunities as solvents for the pretreatment of a wide range of lignocellulose materials. in the present study, four ionic liquid solvents (ils), two switchable ils (sils) dbu-mea-so2 and dbu-mea-co2, as well as two 'cl ...201526339292
identification of genes associated with male sterility in a mutant of white birch (betula platyphylla suk.).white birch (betula platyphylla suk.) is a monoecious tree species with unisexual flowers. in this study, we used a spontaneous mutant genotype that produced normal-like male (nlm) inflorescences and mutant male (mm) inflorescences at different locations within the tree to investigate the genes necessary for pollen development. a cdna-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cdna-aflp) analysis was used to identify genes differentially expressed between the two types of inflorescences. of approxi ...201526260014
can serum white birch (betula verrucosa) pollen antigen (bet v 1) immunoglobulin e measurement distinguish between sensitization and allergy?in clinical practice, it is fundamental to distinguish between sensitization and allergy, mainly with respect to polysensitized patients. the aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum immunoglobulin e (ige) to white birch (betula verrucosa) pollen antigen (bet v 1) assessment might be able to differentiate simple sensitization from true allergy.201526250401
asynchrony between host plant and insects-defoliator within a tritrophic system: the role of herbivore innate immunity.the effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects' fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. however, the spreading of this phenomenon through the food chain, and especially those mechanisms operating this spreading, are still unclear. in this paper, we study the effect of seasonally declined leafquality (estimated i ...201526115118
volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in finland.climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. we compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (vocs) from silver birch (betula pendula (roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (joensuu 62°n) and northern (kolari 67°n) sit ...201526093370
correction: development of ssr markers and genetic diversity in white birch (betula platyphylla). 201526030921
[the use of the parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction for assessment of plant state under anthropogenic load].the technique for recording of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics has been used for assessment of the physiological state of leaves of tillet (tilia cordata), pendent white birch (betula pendula), american arborvitae (thuja occidentalis) in urban environments. different sensitivity of plants to adverse growing conditions was observed. the most sensitive jip test parameters such as pi(abs), f(v)/f(0), f(v)/f(m), r(fd) are determined to be used as indicators of the physiological state o ...201526016029
development of ssr markers and genetic diversity in white birch (betula platyphylla).in order to study genetic diversity of white birch (betula platyphylla), 544 primer pairs were designed based on the genome-wide solexa sequences. among them, 215 primer pairs showed polymorphism between five genotypes and 111 primer pairs that presented clear visible bands in genotyping 41 white birch plants that were collected from 6 different geographical regions. a total of 717 alleles were obtained at 111 loci with a range of 2 to 12 alleles per locus. the results of statistic analysis show ...201525923698
ectomycorrhizal community structure of salix and betula spp. at a saline site in central poland in relation to the seasons and soil parameters.saline stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting the growth and development of plants and associated microorganisms. while the impact of salinity on associations of arbuscular fungi is relatively well understood, knowledge of the ectomycorrhizal (em) fungi of trees growing on saline land is limited. the main objective of this study was to determine the density and diversity of em fungi associated with three tree species, salix alba, salix caprea and betula pendula, growing in ...201725821257
leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. it is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (slcs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch betula pendula. in this study we investigated how the alteration of slcs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth lymantria dispar. we found that a low slcs concen ...201525816371
[developmental instability of the organism as a result of pessimization of environment under anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes].the value of fluctuating asymmetry is considered to be an indicator of the developmental instability of the organism. the consequences of activities of the mining industry plants, which are characterized by alienation and transformation of large areas of natural landscapes, are analyzed as an anthropogenic factor. the objects of study were small mammals (northern red-backed (clethrionomys rutilus) and gray red-backed (clethrionomys rufocanus) voles, tundra vole (microtus oeconomus), laxmann's (s ...201525720274
measuring feeding traits of a range of litter-consuming terrestrial snails: leaf litter consumption, faeces production and scaling with body size.plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to energy and nutrient cycling above- and belowground. terrestrial gastropods can affect this process in various ways: they consume and fragment leaf litter and create suitable habitats for microorganisms through the production of faeces and mucus. we assessed the contributions of ten litter-feeding terrestrial snail species to leaf litter mass loss and checked whether consumption rate and faeces production scale with ...201525698139
mesophyll conductance in leaves of japanese white birch (betula platyphylla var. japonica) seedlings grown under elevated co2 concentration and low n test the hypothesis that mesophyll conductance (gm ) would be reduced by leaf starch accumulation in plants grown under elevated co2 concentration [co2 ], we investigated gm in seedlings of japanese white birch grown under ambient and elevated [co2 ] with an adequate and limited nitrogen supply using simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. both elevated [co2 ] and limited nitrogen supply decreased area-based leaf n accompanied with a decrease in the maximum rate o ...201525690946
breeding increases the efficacy of chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.we tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus chondrostereum purpureum (pers. ex fr.) pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in finland. we paired c. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. this procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. the mortality of birch (betula pendu ...201525674794
vulnerability to cavitation differs between current-year and older xylem: non-destructive observation with a compact magnetic resonance imaging system of two deciduous diffuse-porous species.development of xylem embolism during water stress in two diffuse-porous hardwoods, katsura (cercidiphyllum japonicum) and japanese white birch (betula platyphylla var. japonica), was observed non-destructively under a compact magnetic resonance imaging (mri) system in addition to conventional quantitation of hydraulic vulnerability to cavitation from excised stem segments. distribution of white and dark areas in mr images corresponded well to the distribution of water-filled/embolized vessels ob ...201525630712
genotype × herbivore effect on leaf litter decomposition in betula pendula saplings: ecological and evolutionary consequences and the role of secondary metabolites.plant genetic variation and herbivores can both influence ecosystem functioning by affecting the quantity and quality of leaf litter. few studies have, however, investigated the effects of herbivore load on litter decomposition at plant genotype level. we reduced insect herbivory using an insecticide on one half of field-grown betula pendula saplings of 17 genotypes, representing random intrapopulation genetic variation, and allowed insects to naturally colonize the other half. we hypothesized t ...201525622034
decreased anthocyanidin reductase expression strongly decreases silver birch (betula pendula) growth and alters accumulation of phenolics.phenolics, formed via a complex phenylpropanoid pathway, are important defensive agents in plants and are strongly affected by nitrogen (n) fertilization. proanthocyanidins (pas) are one possible endpoint of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and anthocyanidin reductase (anr) represents a key enzyme in pa biosynthesis. in this study, the expression of silver birch (betula pendula) anthocyanidin reductase bpanr was inhibited using the rna interference (rnai) method, in three consequent bpanr rnai (anri ...201525611902
determining the composition of lignins in different tissues of silver birch.quantitative and qualitative lignin analyses were carried out on material from the trunks of silver birch (betula pendula roth) trees. two types of material were analyzed. first, whole birch trunk pieces were cryosectioned into cork cambium, non-conductive phloem, the cambial zone (conductive phloem, cambium and differentiating xylem), lignified xylem and the previous year's xylem; material that would show differences in lignin amount and quality. second, clonal material from one natural birch p ...201527135322
genetic and metal analyses of fragmented populations of betula papyrifera (marsh) in a mining reclaimed region: identification of population-diagnostic molecular marker.white birch (betula papyrifera) is an open pollinate species that is, dominant in the northern ontario after land reclamation. in fact, this species represents 65% of all trees in the region. we hypothesized that the exchange of genetic information between fragmented populations by range-wide paternal introgression is possible in wind-pollinated species such as b. papyrifera. on the other hand, the effects of heavy metal contamination from the mining activities on plant growth and population dyn ...201425535559
shotgun bisulfite sequencing of the betula platyphylla genome reveals the tree's dna methylation patterning.dna methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. most studies of dna methylation have been performed in herbaceous plants, and little is known about the methylation patterns in tree genomes. in the present study, we generated a map of methylated cytosines at single base pair resolution for betula platyphylla (white birch) by bisulfite sequencing combined with transcriptomics to analyze dna methylation and its effects on gene expression. we obtained a detailed view of t ...201425514241
phenolic compounds and expression of 4cl genes in silver birch clones and pt4cl1a lines.a small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:coa ligases (4cls) catalyzing the coa ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. in the present study, we examined the effect of antisense populus tremuloides 4cl (pt4cl1) to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (betula pendula) pt4cl1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. the endogenous expression of silver birch 4cl genes w ...201425502441
medicinal plants of the genus betula--traditional uses and a phytochemical-pharmacological review.trees and shrubs of the genus betula (betulaceae) inhabit various ecosystems in temperate and boreal climate zones of the northern hemisphere. the healing properties of betula bark and bark extracts have been known for a long time in traditional medicine in different parts of the world. several species of betula have traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases including arthritis. the purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized infor ...201525449458
functional characterization of ccr in birch (betula platyphylla × betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.we cloned a cinnamoyl-coa reductase gene (bpccr1) from an apical meristem and first internode of betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. we generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. we found that bpccr1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, ...201525393559
integration of bpmads4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (malus × domestica borkh.). this technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. the utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the bpmads4 gene of the european silver birch (betula pendula roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. aiming for the ...201525370729
betula pendula: a promising candidate for phytoremediation of tce in northern climates.betula pendula (silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central sweden. the first was the site of a trichloroethylene (tce) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. in both cases, sap and sapwood from silver birch trees were collected and analyzed ...201525174420
soil application of biochar produced from biomass grown on trace element contaminated land.trace element (te) contamination of soils is a worldwide problem. however, although not considered safe anymore for food production without clean-up, many of these soils may still be used to produce biomass for non-food purposes such as biochar. exploring the suitability of such biochar for the amendment of low-fertility soil, we investigated growth and metal accumulation of ryegrass (lolium perenne, var. calibra) as well as soil microbial abundance on a non-contaminated soil after amendment wit ...201425163600
effects of atmospheric pollutants (co, o3, so2) on the allergenicity of betula pendula, ostrya carpinifolia, and carpinus betulus pollen.pollen of betula pendula, ostrya carpinifolia, and carpinus betulus was exposed in vitro to relatively low levels of the air pollutants, namely carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. the allergenicity of the exposed pollen was compared with that of non-exposed pollen samples to assess if air pollution exposition affects the allergenicity potential of pollen. the immunodetection assays indicated higher ige recognition by all sera of allergic patients to the pollen protein extracts in all exp ...201525055718
sap-feeding insects on forest trees along latitudinal gradients in northern europe: a climate-driven patterns.knowledge of the latitudinal patterns in biotic interactions, and especially in herbivory, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. we used sap-feeding insects as a model group to test the hypotheses that the strength of plant-herbivore interactions in boreal forests decreases with latitude and that this latitudinal pattern is driven primarily by midsummer temperatures. we used a replicated sampling design ...201525044643
how does solar ultraviolet-b radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (betula pendula roth.) seedlings?we hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (uv) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. to better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-a and ultraviolet-b (uvb) from solar radiation ...201525041067
development of lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.we studied the response of gypsy moth (lymantria dispar (linnaeus) (lepidoptera: lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. the food of the caterpillars {betula pendula roth (fagales: betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of mncl2 · 4h2o with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. parameters recorded during t ...201425028315
quality evaluation of different preparations of dry extracts of birch (betula pendula roth) leaves.qualitatively prepared dry extracts are advantaged over conventional fluid extracts. extracts of betula pendula roth leaves possess mild diuretic effects and anti-inflammatory activity. in this work, the spray-drying and lyophilisation processes were evaluated for producing dry extracts of birch leaves. the purpose was to identify the best drying method that provides the highest content of phenolic compounds and possesses greatest antioxidant activity. predominant compounds hyperoside and chloro ...201424934103
indication of airborne pollution by birch and spruce in the vicinity of copper smelter.the aim of the study was determination of air pollution impact of the copper smelter in bor and its surroundings (serbia) by assessing the suitability of birch (betula pendula roth.) and spruce (picea abies l.) for the purposes of biomonitoring and comparing it with previously published data from the same study area. the concentrations of cu, zn, pb and mn in leaves/needles, branches, roots and soil were determined. sampling was performed during 2009 in two zones with high load of air pollution ...201424910312
functionalized para-substituted benzenes as 1,8-cineole production modulators in an endophytic nodulisporium species.a nodulisporium species (designated ti-13) was isolated as an endophyte from cassia fistula. the fungus produces a spectrum of volatile organic compounds (vocs) that includes ethanol, acetaldehyde and 1,8-cineole as major components. initial observations of the fungal isolate suggested that reversible attenuation of the organism via removal from the host and successive transfers in pure culture resulted in a 50 % decrease in cineole production unrelated to an overall alteration in fungal growth. ...201424836622
forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the phenological models for betula pendula and padus racemosa spring phases, latvia.a historical phenological record and meteorological data of the period 1960-2009 are used to analyse the ability of seven phenological models to predict leaf unfolding and beginning of flowering for two tree species-silver birch betula pendula and bird cherry padus racemosa-in latvia. model stability is estimated performing multiple model fitting runs using half of the data for model training and the other half for evaluation. correlation coefficient, mean absolute error and mean squared error a ...201524789346
signaling events during macrophage activation with betula pendula roth pectic polysaccharides.we studied the effect of two pectic polysaccharides ps-b1-ag and ps-b2-rg that were contained in total polysaccharides extracted from betula pendula leaves on no production by mouse macrophages and the contribution of signaling molecules to macrophage activation by the test substances. unlike the total sample, pectins produced a no-stimulating effect on macrophages. the effect of ps-b2-rg (10 μg/ml) did not differ from the effect of lps, while ps-b1-ag produced this effect only in a concentratio ...201424771428
predicting impacts of climate change on the aboveground carbon sequestration rate of a temperate forest in northeastern china.the aboveground carbon sequestration rate (acsr) reflects the influence of climate change on forest dynamics. to reveal the long-term effects of climate change on forest succession and carbon sequestration, a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (landis pro7.0) was used to simulate the acsr of a temperate forest at the community and species levels in northeastern china based on both current and predicted climatic data. on the community level, the acsr of mixed korean pine hardwood f ...201424763409
genetic and environmental determinants of insect herbivore community structure in a betula pendula population.a number of recent studies have shown that intraspecific genetic variation of plants may have a profound effect on the herbivorous communities which depend on them. however less is known about the relative importance of intraspecific variation compared to other ecological factors, for example environmental variation or the effects of herbivore damage. we randomly selected 22 betula pendula genotypes from a local population (< 0.9 ha), cloned them and planted cloned seedlings on two study sites s ...201424715977
process-based models not always better than empirical models for simulating budburst of norway spruce and birch in europe.budburst models have mainly been developed to capture the processes of individual trees, and vary in their complexity and plant physiological realism. we evaluated how well eleven models capture the variation in budburst of birch and norway spruce in germany, austria, the united kingdom and finland. the comparison was based on the models performance in relation to their underlying physiological assumptions with four different calibration schemes. the models were not able to accurately simulate t ...201424700779
rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in eastern estonia. the study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern europe. rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought.201424655599
contrasting responses of silver birch voc emissions to short- and long-term herbivory.there is a need to incorporate the effects of herbivore damage into future models of plant volatile organic compound (voc) emissions at leaf or canopy levels. short-term (a few seconds to 48 h) changes in shoot voc emissions of silver birch (betula pendula roth) in response to feeding by geometrid moths (erannis defoliaria hübner) were monitored online by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ptr-tof-ms). in addition, two separate field experiments were established to study ...201424627262
co 2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings.white birch (betula paperifera mash) seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated co 2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species' potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and co 2 elevation. in situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26 (o)c and 37 (o)c. elevated co 2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (pn) at both measu ...201324555025
arsenic (as), antimony (sb), and lead (pb) availability from au-mine technosols: a case study of transfer to natural vegetation cover in temperate climates.soils from old au-mine tailings (la petite faye, france) were investigated in relation to the natural vegetation cover to evaluate the risk of metals and metalloids (pb, as, sb) mobilizing and their potential transfer to native plants (graminea, betula pendula, pteridium aquilinum, equisetum telmateia). the soils are classified as technosols with high contamination levels of as, pb, and sb. the single selective extractions tested to evaluate available fraction (cacl2, acetic acid, a-rhizo, and d ...201424474610
effect of betulin-containing extract from birch tree bark on α-amylase activity in vitro and on weight gain of broiler chickens in vitro effect of betulin-containing extract from betula pendula roth. bark on alpha-amylase activity was studied, the kinetic mechanism of interaction was proposed and in vivo effect of betulin-containing extract on weight gain and meat quality of broiler chickens was evaluated. the highest level of inhibitory activity (20%) was detected in extract concentration of 1,000 mg/l. increased extract concentration did not lead to increased enzyme inhibition. using dixon and cornish-bowden coordinate ...201424445672
effect of air pollutant no₂ on betula pendula, ostrya carpinifolia and carpinus betulus pollen fertility and human allergenicity.pollen of betula pendula, ostrya carpinifolia and carpinus betulus was exposed in vitro to two levels of no2 (about 0.034 and 0.067 ppm) - both below current atmospheric hour-limit value acceptable for human health protection in europe (0.11 ppm for no2). experiments were performed under artificial solar light with temperature and relative humidity continuously monitored. the viability, germination and total soluble proteins of all the pollen samples exposed to no2 decreased significantly when c ...201424361564
mitochondrial toxin betulinic acid induces in vitro eryptosis in human red blood cells through membrane permeabilization.betulinic acid (ba), a compound isolated from the bark of white birch (betula pubescens), was reported to induce apoptosis in many types of cancer through mitochondrial dysfunction with low side effects in normal cells. because of these features, ba is regarded as a potential anti-cancer agent. however, the effect of ba on the induction of cell death in human erythrocytes remains unknown. given that ba is a mitochondrial toxin and mitochondria are the central cell death regulator, we hypothesize ...201424241250
overexpression of bpap1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in betula platyphylla × betula pendula.the involvement of apetala1 (ap1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. here, we produced betula platyphylla × betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed bpap1 using agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35s::bpap1 transgenic lines. polymerase chain reaction (pcr), southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. as determined by quantitative real-time pcr (qrt-pcr), bpap1 expression in roots, shoots, l ...201424200078
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