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antigenic heterogeneity in mycoplasma iowae demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies.western blots of proteins of 14 mycoplasma iowae strains and isolates resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were probed with three monoclonal antibodies (mabs), mi6, mi7, and mi8. mab mi6 reacted with one or more antigens with apparent molecular weights of 60,000, 70,000, and 94,000. in three strains (n-phn-d13, r-d2497, and k 1805), antigens located on a single peptide band were recognized, while in others additional epitopes at different molecular-weight positio ...19921373600
serological response of turkeys to the intravaginal inoculation of mycoplasma iowae. 19921462495
identification of a plant-derived mollicute as a strain of an avian pathogen, mycoplasma iowae, and its implications for mollicute taxonomy.strain ppav, a filamentous but nonhelical mollicute, was isolated from aborted apple seeds in france in late 1979. this organism grew well in sp-4 broth, fermented glucose, and required sterol for growth, and most of its properties suggested that it belonged to the genus mycoplasma. however, it was serologically distinct; in addition, unlike other mycoplasma species, genome measurements consistently yielded values of about 1,000 mda (ca. 1,500 kbp), and the organism had a growth temperature opti ...19911720652
mycoplasma iowae species-specific dna probe.a mycoplasma iowae (mi) species-specific dna probe (designated pmi-2) of 6.0 kbp (kilobase pairs) was isolated from an mi strain i-695 genomic library prepared in plasmid puc8 and escherichia coli strain jm83. when labeled with [32]p by nick translation, the probe hybridized in dot blot assays with 6 reference strains and 8 field isolates of mi but not with 16 other known species of avian mycoplasmas. the pmi-2 probe detected a minimum of 1.5 ng of mi strain i-695 chromosomal dna. under identica ...19902095284
use of an avidin-biotin enhanced dot-immunobinding assay to detect antibodies for avian mycoplasma in sera from iowa market turkeys.a dot-immunobinding assay, amplified with avidin and biotin (dab assay), was used to detect serum antibodies to mycoplasma iowae in immunized turkeys. the dab assay was used to test serum samples from 122 commercial market turkey flocks obtained from four iowa processing plants. the samples were pooled and tested for the presence of antibodies to four species of mycoplasma spp. considered to be important pathogens for turkeys: m. gallisepticum (mg), m. iowae (mi), m. meleagridis (mm), and m. syn ...19902369374
heterogeneity of mycoplasma iowae determined by restriction enzyme analysis.strains of mycoplasma iowae were homogeneous in some characteristics and heterogeneous in others. thus, the biochemical tests, immunofluorescence, and protein profiling by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were group-specific tests. however, some minor differences in protein patterns were seen among strains. the growth inhibition test tended to be strain-specific. hemagglutination titers were very low and unstable for the majority of strains. one strain (ry-65) with a sta ...19892488335
colonization of the intestine of turkey embryos exposed to mycoplasma iowae.eight-day-old turkey embryos were inoculated into the yolk sac with 3 x 10(5) colony-forming units of mycoplasma iowae strain d112 in order to study the growth-depressing effect, the histopathological changes, and colonization of the intestinal tract. the embryo: egg weight ratio was significantly lower in the inoculated eggs than in controls. histologically, there were infiltrations in parenchymatous organs and chorioallantoic membranes with heterophilic granulocytes. m. iowae was demonstrated ...19892665713
enzymological features of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis reflect the phylogeny of mycoplasmas.acholeplasma laidlawii possesses a biochemical pathway for tyrosine and phenylalanine biosynthesis, while mycoplasma iowae and mycoplasma gallinarum do not. the detection of 7-phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptonate (dahp) synthase (ec 4.1.2.15), dehydro-shikimate reductase (ec 1.1.1.25) and 3-enol-pyruvoylshikimate-5-phosphate synthase (ec 2.5.1.19) activities in cell-free extracts established the presence in a. laidlawii of a functional shikimate pathway. l-phenylalanine synthesis occurs ...19872895162
status of the 1805 strain of mycoplasma iowae (k component of serovar i,j,k, n,q,r) and the sa strain of m. gallopavonis (serovar f).contrary to historical evidence, recent biochemical and serological studies have suggested that the 1805 strain of m. iowae (k component of serovar i,j,k,n, q,r) and the sa strain of m. gallopavonis (serovar f) were members of the species m. gallinaceum. after examining three seeds of strain 1805 and an original seed of the sa strain, we present evidence to indicate that 1805 and sa are indeed valid members of the species m. iowae and m. gallopavonis, respectively. however, some seeds of strains ...19892930396
the viability of mycoplasma iowae at 40 c in turkey semen.mycoplasma iowae was mixed with turkey semen, incubated at 40 c in a water bath, and sampled at different intervals. the m. iowae remained viable throughout a 48-hr incubation period.19863588484
oral challenge of turkey poults with mycoplasma iowae.day-old poults were inoculated orally each day for 7 days with 0.2 ml of mycoplasma iowae, strain d112, 10(8) colony-forming units/ml. cloacal swabs were taken from each poult during the inoculation period and at selected intervals until 21 days after the last inoculation. most poults shed mycoplasmas persistently after inoculation. cloacal swabs from eight out of ten poults were positive at 21 days after the last inoculation. feces of poults in the infected group were normal, and there was no s ...19873619831
evaluation of growth of avian mycoplasmas on bile salt agar and in bile broth.all nine mycoplasma iowae strains and one strain of m gallinarum grew on 0.05 per cent 'bile' agar medium. the colony size of m iowae on this agar medium was similar to the size obtained on bile-free mycoplasma agar. one strain each of m maculosum, m arginini and m bovis also grew on 0.05 per cent bile agar. however, one strain each of m gallisepticum and m meleagridis were inhibited at this concentration. six of the nine strains of m iowae were also resistant to 1 per cent 'bile' in broth mediu ...19873685632
mycoplasma iowae from turkey phallus and semen. 19863705404
comparison of strains of mycoplasma iowae.comparison of biochemical test results and protein electrophoretic patterns of 21 strains of mycoplasma iowae indicated that all were similar. comparison of agglutination test results indicated marked within-species antigenic variation. none of 21 antigens prepared from different strains were effective in demonstrating turkey antibody against five reference strains. examination of sera from turkeys exposed by intra-air-sac inoculation to two pathogenic strains also indicated antigenic variation. ...19846487191
effect of mycoplasma iowae infection on the immune system of the young turkey.studies were conducted in turkey poults of the effect of mycoplasma iowae on the humoral antibody response to sheep red blood cells (srbc) and on the weight and histological appearance of the bursa of fabricius. day-old turkeys were infected with m. iowae via the air sac and control turkeys received sterile broth. in the first experiment infected and control birds were inoculated intravenously with srbc at 12 and 33 days of age, and hemagglutination (ha) tests were carried out on serum collected ...19846511326
scanning electron and light microscopy of selected avian strains of mycoplasma iowae.the morphology of six strains of mycoplasma iowae was studied at various stages of growth by scanning electron and light microscopy. the six strains, which formerly represented avian mycoplasmal serotypes i, j, k, n, q, and r, produced filaments and branching filaments, sometimes with centrally or terminally located bulbous swellings. during cell division, the filaments appeared to develop into chains of coccal, coccobacillary, and elongated cells. mycoplasmas that appeared as chains of cocci un ...19836847541
abnormalities in turkey poults following infection with mycoplasma iowae. 19827051512
mycoplasma-induced arthritis in poultry.mycoplasmaa-induced arthritis of poultry under field conditions is almost entirely caused by mycoplasm synoviae (ms) infection. experimentally, mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma iowae have all been shown to cause arthritis, tenosynovitis and lesions of periarticular tissue. however, greatest attention has been given to ms in this respect. the leg joints are most consistently involved, and of these particularly the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal and ...19817287403
rupture of the digital flexor tendons of chickens after infection with mycoplasma iowae. 19817340082
outbreak of mycoplasma iowae infection in commercial turkey poults.in september 1989, 17-day-old turkey poults were submitted to iowa state university because of leg weakness and dehydration. these birds were commercial large white toms from a flock of 23,214. lesions observed at necropsy included chondrodystrophy of the hock joints, clear fluid in hock joint spaces, valgus deformities and shortening of the tarsometatarsal bones, and curled toes. mycoplasma iowae was isolated and identified from swabs of the air sac, cloaca, hock joint, and large intestine. app ...19947702529
a model for testing the efficacy of enrofloxacin (baytril) administered to turkey hens in the control of mycoplasma iowae infection in eggs and embryos.in a preliminary experiment, a field infection with mycoplasma iowae was simulated by inoculating turkey eggs with various doses of two strains of m. iowae immediately before incubation. the strain and dose chosen for further study were those that best multiplied and resulted in infection of embryos from which the organism could be isolated after 25 days of incubation. ten turkey hens free from infection with mycoplasmae were housed in isolation. the hens were given enrofloxacin in the drinking ...19938141733
comparison of antigenic and pathogenic properties of mycoplasma iowae strains and development of a pcr-based detection assay.the six reference strains of mycoplasma iowae (i, j, k, n, q and r) and 12 field strains, most of them isolated from turkeys, were studied with a growth-inhibition test and a dot immunobinding test with rabbit antisera to the different serovars of m iowae, 16s rdna gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction, and pathogenicity for chicken or turkey embryos. antigenic tests tended to be strain specific and showed that most field strains were closely related to serovars k or n. the two pairs o ...19948191008
amplification of mycoplasma iowae using polymerase chain reaction.based on sequence data of mycoplasma iowae recombinant dna probe, pmi-12, two 25-base primers were synthesized for use in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). an m. iowae species-specific 299-base pair product was amplified by the primers. an annealing temperature of 58.5 c was critical for detecting all members of this heterogeneous species while maintaining specificity of the m. iowae pcr. the minimum amount of target dna detected by m. iowae pcr was 1 pg, which was 1000 times more sensitive t ...19938452498
specific detection of mycoplasma iowae using polymerase chain reaction.a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for the specific detection of mycoplasma iowae, a poultry pathogen. two primers were chosen in the dna region located immediately 5' of the ribosomal genes operon. under our pcr conditions, specific amplification of all m. iowae strains tested was achieved, and none of 17 other mycoplasma species isolated from birds gave an amplification product. we obtained amplification from culture medium samples of m. iowae by using tth dna polymerase instead o ...19968684373
monoclonal antibodies specific to mycoplasma iowae.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against mycoplasma iowae (mi) were produced to identify common immunogenic determinants shared between antigenically heterogenous mi. twenty-four mabs were produced against mi. with western immunoblotting, all 24 mabs recognized a 45,000-mw protein (p45) of mi strain i-695. one of the mabs characterized, mab 2c, identified p45 antigen in western immunoblots with six laboratory strains and 24 field isolates of mi. mab 2c did not cross-react with mycoplasma galliseptic ...19968883792
identification of mycoplasma iowae by colony immunoblotting utilizing monoclonal antibodies.the utility of monoclonal antibody mab-2c in identification of mycoplasma iowae (mi) by colony immunoblotting technique was explored. colony immunoblots of reference mi strains, field isolates, and mycoplasmas recovered from experimentally inoculated turkey embryos were probed with mab-2c. the monoclonal antibody identified colonies of all the mi isolates tested and did not cross-react with colonies of m. gallisepticum, m. synoviae, or m. meleagridis. in western immunoblots of 22 mi field isolat ...19979376423
detection and identification of avian mycoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with primers complementary to the 16s rrna genes was used to detect avian mycoplasmas. a primer pair designed for the detection of human and rodent mycoplasmal species was examined for its ability to detect the most important avian mycoplasmas. after testing the respective reference strains, we found that mycoplasma iowae, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma synoviae could be detected by pcr with this primer pair, and distinction could be made among them by ...19979451458
mycoplasmas in the etiology of multifactorial respiratory disease.the avian mycoplasmas pathogenic for commercial poultry, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in chickens and turkeys, and mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma iowae in turkeys are egg-transmitted infections and exhibit wide variations in clinical manifestations. mycoplasma gallisepticum strains vary widely in virulence, tissue tropism, and antigenic makeup and have the ability to alter the expression of major surface antigenic proteins. although less well studied, strains of m. syn ...19989706080
adhesion inhibition of mycoplasma iowae to chicken lymphoma dt40 cells by monoclonal antibodies reacting with a 65-kd polypeptide.tissue- and cell-specific attachment of mycoplasmas is a key aspect of the host-parasite relationship. in this study, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) recognizing surface membrane polypeptides with molecular masses of 46 kd (p46) and 65 kd (p65), respectively, were examined in a microtiter cell attachment (agglutination) inhibition assay. mabs mi3, mi6, and mi12 reacting with p65 polypeptide of mycoplasma iowae inhibited attachment of the organisms to chicken lymphoma (dt 40) cells. one mab (mi2) th ...19989876840
the characterization of mycoplasma synoviae ef-tu protein and proteins involved in hemadherence and their n-terminal amino acid sequences.an abundant cytoplasmic 43-kda protein from mycoplasma synoviae, a major pathogen from poultry, was identified as elongation factor tu. the n-terminal amino acid sequence (akldfdrskehvnvgtighv) has 90% identity with the sequence of the mycoplasma hominis elongation factor tu protein. monoclonal antibodies reacting with the m. synoviae elongation factor tu protein also reacted with 43-kda proteins from the avian mycoplasma species mycoplasma gallinarum, mycoplasma gallinaceum, mycoplasma pullorum ...199910220885
a gene family in mycoplasma imitans closely related to the pmga family of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum possesses a large gene family encoding lipoproteins which function as haemagglutinins. representative species of the pneumoniae phylogenetic group of mycoplasmas were examined for the presence of genes homologous to members of this multigene family. antisera against the pmga1.1 lipoprotein recognized a 35 kda protein in mycoplasma imitans, but did not recognize proteins of mycoplasma genitalium, mycoplasma pneumoniae, mycoplasma pirum, mycoplasma penet ...199910463176
phenotypic variation of mycoplasma iowae surface antigen.the diseases caused by mycoplasmas are generally chronic and persistent and apparently occur notwithstanding a host immune response. the ability to evade the host immune response is facilitated by phenotypic variation in the mycoplasma surface components. the avian mycoplasmas mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae have both been previously described to be able to switch their surface antigens, and recent evidence indicates that m. gallisepticum could switch surface antigens under natu ...200010879924
preparation of a heterogeneous conjugate to detect mycoplasma iowae by immunofluorescence.fluorescent antibody technique has been used as a diagnostic tool for the identification of pathogenic avian mycoplasma species. fluorescein-conjugated antisera for mycoplasma iowae prepared from rabbit hyperimmune serum against one serotype (i) has not always been reliable, giving false-negative results. a fluorescein-conjugated antisera was prepared with antibody against the six identified serotypes (i, j, k, n, q, and r) that comprise the species m. iowae. this heterogeneous conjugate was use ...200011007022
in vitro development of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin and oxytetracycline in mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma iowae and mycoplasma synoviae.the in vitro emergence of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin, and oxytetracycline in three avian mycoplasma species, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma iowae was studied. mutants were selected stepwise and their mics were determined after 10 passages in subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic. high-level resistance to erythromycin and tylosin developed within 2-6 passages in the three mycoplasma species. resistance to enrofloxacin developed m ...200212119137
haemagglutinins of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas.the pathogenic avian mycoplasmas, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma meleagridis, mycoplasma iowae and mycoplasma imitans, synthesize haemagglutinins that are immunogenic, variably expressed, surface proteins. the haemagglutinins of m. gallisepticum (pmga), m. synoviae (vlha) and m. imitans are lipoproteins, encoded by related multigene families that appear to have arisen by horizontal gene transfer. m. gallisepticum also has genes encoding cytadhesins in its genome but th ...200212593736
gordon memorial lecture. poultry mycoplasmas: sophisticated pathogens in simple guise.mycoplasmas are a genus within the class mollicutes (trivial name mollicutes), which are the smallest known prokaryotes capable of self-replication. they have a very small genome, and have evolved to this 'minimalist' status by losing non-essential genes, including those involved in cell wall synthesis. the mollicutes exploit their limited genetic material to the maximum and many are successful pathogens in man, animals, birds and plants. most of those of veterinary importance are in the genus m ...200515957431
high inter-species and low intra-species variation in 16s-23s rdna spacer sequences of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas offers potential use as a diagnostic tool.in order to investigate its value for phylogenetic analysis, species characterisation and diagnosis, the 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer regions (isrs) of the type strain of 23 avian mycoplasma species were amplified and the sequences determined. also sequenced were the reference strains of mycoplasma iowae serotypes j, k, n, q and r and a number of field strains of mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and m. iowae. the isrs demonstrated a high level of size varia ...200818055138
development and field validation of a mycoplasma iowae real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.a mycoplasma iowae real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay using primers and probes targeting the 16s rrna gene was developed and field-validated in this study. the assay specifically identified m. iowae with a detection limit of 80 colony-forming units (cfu) per turkey cloacal swab sample (3.2 cfu per pcr reaction). it was validated by testing 154 field turkey cloacal swab samples in parallel with culture isolation. the diagnostic sensitivity of the pcr was 97.6%, and the specificity wa ...200818319440
a survey of avian mycoplasma species for neuraminidase enzymatic activity.among 23 currently recognized avian mycoplasma (am) species only mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma iowae cause disease and loss of production in chickens and/or turkeys. because neuraminidases are considered virulence factors in many pathogenic microorganisms the aim of our study was to determine which am species possess neuraminidase enzymatic activity (neac). small samples of am cells were assayed for neac using the chromogenic substrate 5-bro ...200818372121
mycoplasma iowae: a review.mycoplasma iowae is an avian mycoplasma which has rather different properties from other avian mycoplasmas such as resistance to bile salts, predilection for the gastrointestinal tract and a relative resistance to many antimicrobials. there is also an unusually large degree of antigenic variation among strains belonging to this species. the mycoplasma has been isolated from a number of avian hosts, but in natural infections the main manifestation is mortality of turkey embryos in the later stage ...199618645854
use of polymerase chain reactions to detect mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma imitans, mycoplasma iowae, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma synoviae in birds of prey.certain mycoplasma spp. are pathogens of poultry, but little is known of the role of mycoplasmas in disease of birds of prey. species-specific polymerase chain reactions (pcrs) for the detection of the poultry pathogens mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma imitans, mycoplasma iowae, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma synoviae were therefore evaluated for use in birds of prey. the specificities of the pcr methods were established using avian and other mycoplasmas and also selected walled bacte ...200818661307
the production of mycoplasma iowae infection of turkey poults suitable for monitoring antimicrobials.in an attempt to produce a persistent infection with m. iowae (mi) three separate trials were conducted using strain b 11/80, a virulent strain, strain m 012-118, a recent isolate of unknown virulence, and strain iowae 695 (i 695), the type strain. in each trial groups of 2-day-old poults were infected via the oesophagus, trachea, cloaca and directly into the lungs. isolation during life was attempted from the oropharynx and the cloaca, and at necropsy at the end of the experiment (21 days after ...199218670942
the polymerase chain reaction for mycoplasma gallisepticum detection.on the basis of the aligned 16s rrna sequences of mollicutes, a pair of primers was chosen for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum. when used in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the primers detected a specific amplification of all mg strains tested, yielding an expected 330 bp product. amplification was not detected when other mollicutes or e. coli were used as pcr templates. spf chickens were experimentally inoculated with two strains of m. gallisepticum or mycoplasma iowae. tracheal ...199318671058
investigations into the survival of mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma iowae on materials found in the poultry house environment.following preliminary experiments to determine suitable methods for studying mycoplasma survival, suspensions of mycoplasma gallisepticum (four strains), mycoplasma synoviae (two strains) or mycoplasma iowae (two strains) were seeded onto replicate samples of cotton, rubber, straw, shavings, timber, food, feathers and human hair. the organisms were also seeded onto human skin, ear and nasal mucosa. all samples were cultured for viability after 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, and then daily up to 6 days. the ...199418671077
mycoplasma iowae: field and laboratory studies to evaluate egg transmission in turkeys.in order to study the egg transmission of mycoplasma iowae in turkeys, two experiments are undertaken. experiment 1 was a field trial designed to investigate egg transmission in naturally infected turkeys: commercial hens were inseminated with semen from naturally infected toms. mycoplasma iowae was regularly cultured from dead-in-shell embryos, pips and culls but not from healthy poults. egg transmission occurred from the second up to the tenth week of production. experiment 2 was a laboratory ...198918679861
mycoplasma iowae infection in broiler breeders.experimental infection of broiler breeder chickens at one day of age with two strains of mycoplasma iowae resulted in stunting and poor feathering accompanied, in some cases, by rupture of the digital flexor tendon, tenosynovitis, tendon fibrosis and arthritis. broiler breeder birds appeared to be more susceptible to the effects of infection than were light, layer-type birds inoculated with the same two strains in an earlier experiment. the two strains of organism did not persist in the affected ...199118680000
a comparison of baytril, tylosin and tiamulin in the control of mycoplasma iowae infection of turkey poults.comparison was made of the protection afforded by baytril, tylosin and tiamulin for turkey poults infected with mycoplasma iowae (mi) by injection of the organism into the lungs. poults were infected at 2 days of age and treatment commenced 3 days later by including the appropriate drug in the drinking water. following treatment with baytril at 50 mug/ml for 5 days, mi was not isolated at 7, 14 and 19 days after infection from the oropharynx or cloaca, during life, but was recovered from five of ...199118680022
some observations on the indirect elisa for antibodies to mycoplasma iowae serovar i in sera from turkeys considered to be free from mycoplasma infections.a number of sera from turkeys considered to be uninfected with mycoplasma iowae were examined by indirect elisa using whole cell ai. iowae serovar i antigen. in an attempt to reduce the number of 'false positive' sera, assays were made (a) using plates blocked with foetal calf serum or skim milk before, or, bovine serum albumin after, coating with antigen, (b) using the absorbance difference method in which each serum was tested against mycoplasma antigen and medium antigen and (c) with unblocke ...198718766616
mycoplasma iowae infection in young turkeys.a comparison was made of the effect of five different strains of m. iowae after inoculation of one-day-old poults via the thoracic air sac and foot pad. three strains appeared to be more virulent and more invasive than the other two, causing stunting, poor feathering and leg abnormalities including chondrodystrophy. one of these three strains was used in a second experiment in which three routes of infection were compared. infection in ovo caused a severe generalised disease in hatched poults wi ...198818766674
pathogenicity of mycoplasma iowae for chick embryos.an investigation was carried out into the pathogenicity of four strains of mycoplasma iowae for chick embryos. doses ranging from approximately 10(6) to 10 colony-forming units of m. iowae per egg were inoculated via the yolk sac at 7 days of incubation. groups of 10 or more eggs per dose were used. the eggs were incubated through to hatch, and dead embryos and hatched chicks were examined for abnormalities and mycoplasma recovery. all four strains of m. iowae caused embryo mortality but two wer ...198318766807
mycoplasma iowae infection in chicks.five groups of light hybrid spf chicks were inoculated at 1 day of age with different strains of mycoplasma iowae via the right thoracic air sac and right foot pad. control birds were inoculated with sterile mycoplasma broth at the same sites. the chicks were observed daily for clinical signs and at 3 and 6 weeks approximately half the birds in each group were killed for postmortem, histological and cultural examination. at 6 weeks serological studies were also carried out. clinical signs were m ...198418766866
the development of diagnostic real-time taqman pcrs for the four pathogenic avian mycoplasmas.four avian mycoplasmas are commonly recognized as poultry pathogens: mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms), mycoplasma meleagridis (mm), and mycoplasma iowae (mi). the avian mycoplasmas are associated with respiratory disease, synovitis and arthritis, poor performance, skeletal deformities, and embryo mortality. three main approaches are used for the diagnosis of avian mycoplasmosis: isolation and identification, detection of antibodies, and molecular detection of the organism' ...200919432011
mycoplasma iowae associated with chondrodystrophy in commercial turkeys.opportunistic observations of and necropsies from selected commercial (meat) turkey flocks revealed skeletal lesions consistent with chondrodystrophy, characterized by leg and vertebral deformities, occurring at very low incidences in turkeys from two primary breeds and various multiplier breeder flocks. mycoplasma organisms were cultured and identified as mycoplasma iowae by immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction from some of the vertebral lesions but not from leg joints. this is the ...201020390542
detection of mycoplasma species in turkeys by culture and polymerase chain reaction.the purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of pathogenic mycoplasma species in the turkey population of turkey. tracheal samples randomly collected from a total of 624 apparently healthy meat-type turkeys at a commercial abattoir located in the north of the country were examined by culture and genus- and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays for mycoplasma. in the direct plating onto solid specific media, mycoplasma growth was observed from 1.4% (9/624) of ...200920462169
genome sequence of mycoplasma iowae strain 695, an unusual pathogen causing deaths in turkeys.mycoplasma iowae is associated mainly with reduced hatchability in turkeys and is well known for the unusual ability of phenotypic variation in the mycoplasma surface components as well as a relative resistance to heat, bile salts, and many antimicrobials. a subset of unique genes and a gene cluster responsible for these characteristics could be identified from the genome. here, we report the first genome sequence of this species.201222207750
isolation of mycoplasma iowae in commercial turkey flocks. 201222287398
conserved terminal organelle morphology and function in mycoplasma penetrans and mycoplasma iowae.within the genus mycoplasma are species whose cells have terminal organelles, polarized structures associated with cytadherence and gliding motility. mycoplasma penetrans, found mostly in hiv-infected patients, and mycoplasma iowae, an economically significant poultry pathogen, are members of the mycoplasma muris phylogenetic cluster. both species have terminal organelles that interact with host cells, yet the structures in these species, or any in the m. muris cluster, remain uncharacterized. t ...201222447904
a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction for mycoplasma iowae using primers located in the intergenic spacer region and the 23s rrna gene.mycoplasma iowae is primarily a pathogen of turkeys and, although uncommon, it still persists in some areas of the world, where it may cause embryo mortality and leg lesions. a species-specific diagnostic polymerase chain reaction was developed using a forward primer based in the intergenic spacer region between the 16s rrna and the 23s rrna ribosomal genes and a reverse primer located within the 23s rrna gene. the polymerase chain reaction proved to be both sensitive and specific. it detected m ...201222702460
first isolation of mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (perdix perdix). clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. the gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development ...201425055642
reduction of hydrogen peroxide accumulation and toxicity by a catalase from mycoplasma iowae.mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. one potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of h2o2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. previous sequencing of m. iowae serovar i strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for h2o2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degr ...201425127127
mycoplasma iowae: relationships among oxygen, virulence, and protection from oxidative stress.the poultry-associated bacterium mycoplasma iowae colonizes multiple sites in embryos, with disease or death resulting. although m. iowae accumulates in the intestinal tract, it does not cause disease at that site, but rather only in tissues that are exposed to atmospheric o2. the activity of m. iowae catalase, encoded by kate, is capable of rapid removal of damaging h2o2 from solution, and kate confers a substantial reduction in the amount of h2o2 produced by mycoplasma gallisepticum kate trans ...201525880161
development of multilocus sequence typing (mlst) assay for mycoplasma iowae.mycoplasma iowae (mi) infection is an economically and commercially important disease of turkeys. there are no sequence typing assays available for mi strain identification, the only available molecular tools for this purpose, are dna fingerprinting assays. in addition to their low reproducibility, fingerprinting assays require isolation of the microorganism in pure culture, which is difficult for avian mycoplasma. therefore, we propose a multilocus sequence typing (mlst) assay as the first geno ...201627771065
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