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effects of cyclosporin a on the immune responses and pathogenesis of a virulent strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.immune responses to the virulent s6 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum in immunocompetent and cyclosporin a (csa)-treated specific pathogen free chickens were investigated, and pathogenesis of the m. gallisepticum strain was also examined. ten-day-old specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated by eye-drop with m. gallisepticum, and a control uninfected group was inoculated with mycoplasma broth. blood was collected weekly for 4 weeks from five birds in each group and whole blood lymphocyte ...200314522705
characterization of a naturally occurring infection of a mycoplasma gallisepticum house finch-like strain in turkey breeders.an outbreak of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in commercial turkeys involving very mild clinical signs was difficult to confirm by routine methods. in the first part of this study (trial a), we conducted a bioassay to increase the likelihood of detecting mg. susceptible turkeys were inoculated with sinus exudates from four different affected commercial turkey flocks. turkeys were evaluated for clinical signs, as well as by serology and culture of tracheal swabs, at 21 and 42 days postchallenge. a ...200314562878
molecular variability of house finch mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates as revealed by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the pvpa gene.mycoplasma gallisepticum, a major pathogen of chickens and turkeys, has caused significant declines in house finch (carpodacus mexicanus) populations in the eastern united states since it was first observed in this species in 1994. there is evidence that m. gallisepticum infection is now endemic among eastern house finches, although disease prevalence has declined, suggesting an evolving host-parasite relationship. studies based on randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) have documented the pr ...200314562892
real-time polymerase chain reaction for mycoplasma gallisepticum in chicken trachea.in this work, we describe a rapid detection procedure for mycoplasma gallisepticum from chicken tracheal swabs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) by lightcycler system, where we were able to monitor the amplification of the newly synthesized m. gallisepticum-specific pcr product as a proportionally increasing fluorescent signal by using the double-stranded dna binding dye sybr green i and have identified m. gallisepticum-specific pcr products by dna melting curve analysis by plotting t ...200314562901
induction of a mycoplasma gallisepticum pmga gene in the chicken tracheal ring organ culture model.genetic and molecular methods to investigate the pathogenesis of the poultry respiratory pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum are quite limited. therefore, the objective of this study was to design and evaluate a functional genomics approach to identify m. gallisepticum genes involved in colonization of the poultry respiratory tract. to serve as a transcriptional reporter, a promoterless lacz gene from escherichia coli was cloned into the tn4001 transposon. the transposon was used to randomly mutag ...200314562906
avian influenza (h9n2) outbreak in iran.an epidemic of avian influenza (ai) (h9n2) occurred in broiler chicken farms in iran during 1998-01. mortality between 20% and 60% was commonly observed on the affected farms. mixed infections of the influenza virus with other respiratory pathogens, particularly infectious bronchitis virus and mycoplasma gallisepticum, were thought to be responsible for such high mortality, which resulted in great economic losses. clinical signs included swelling of the periorbital tissues and sinuses, typical r ...200314575072
effects of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation on serum very low density lipoprotein diameter and fractionation of cholesterol among lipoproteins in commercial egg-laying hens.experimental inoculation with the f-strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) at 12 wk of age has been shown to affect the performance, liver, reproductive organs, and yolk lipid characteristics of commercial layers. therefore, this study was conducted to determine the serum lipoprotein characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens at 16 wk of age and throughout lay after inoculation with fmg at 12 wk of age. mean diameters of very low density lipoproteins (vldl) were determined for the 10th, 50t ...200314601743
molligen, a database dedicated to the comparative genomics of mollicutes.bacteria belonging to the class mollicutes were among the first ones to be selected for complete genome sequencing because of the minimal size of their genomes and their pathogenicity for humans and a broad range of animals and plants. at this time six genome sequences have been publicly released (mycoplasma genitalium, mycoplasma pneumoniae, ureaplasma urealyticum-parvum, mycoplasma pulmonis, mycoplasma penetrans and mycoplasma gallisepticum) and as the number of available mollicute genomes inc ...200414681420
effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on the cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens.an in vivo experiment was conducted to study the potential prebiotic effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharide extracts, lentinus edodes extract (lene), tremella fuciformis extract, and astragalus membranaceus radix extract, on chicken growth and the cecal microbial ecosystem, as compared with the antibiotic apramycin (apr). this investigation was carried out in terms of a dose-response study. the chickens were naturally infected with avian mycoplasma gallisepticum prior to the experiment. the ...200414979567
shrinking genomics.two bacteria are featured this month, and both are at the lower end of the genome size scale. the first, mycoplasma gallisepticum, belongs to a group of bacteria that have been studied both as important human and animal pathogens and in the pursuit of understanding the essential functions of a self-replicating minimal cell. the second, nanoarchaeum equitans, is an obligate symbiont that only grows in co-culture with another archaeon. n. equitans seems to be the coelacanth of the microbial world- ...200415035003
a putative transposase gene in the 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma imitans.examination of the nucleotide sequences of the 16s-23s intergenic transcribed spacer (its) region of mycoplasma imitans and mycoplasma gallisepticum identified a putative transposase gene located only in the its of m. imitans, which can be used as a genetic marker to distinguish these two species. the relative size of the pcr products of the its region allowed a clear distinction to be made between strains of m. imitans and m. gallisepticum, both of which could be readily discriminated from the ...200415073311
survey of peafowl (pavo cristatus) for potential pathogens at three michigan zoos.blood samples collected from 31 free-roaming peafowl from three zoos in michigan were tested serologically. antibody titers were present against avian adenovirus and bordetella avium in 19.3% and 61.3% of the samples, respectively. serum plate agglutination tests were positive for mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma synoviae in 3.2% and 38.7% of the samples, respectively. all birds were seronegative for avian influenza, newcastle disease virus, west nile virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum, salmon ...200315077714
health survey of house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) from wisconsin.we conducted a health survey of house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) without evidence of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in order to establish baseline population health measures and estimate prevalence of potential pathogens likely to influence host susceptibility to mycoplasmosis. seasonal changes in several physiologic parameters were observed. weights were greater in winter compared with the breeding season (p < 0.01), fat scores were greater in winter than during fall migration (p < 0.01 ...200415077801
safety and efficacy of the avirulent mycoplasma gallisepticum strain k5054 as a live vaccine in poultry.a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolate from an atypically mild outbreak in turkey breeders was found to be similar to house finch isolates by dna analyses. a preliminary study in turkeys showed that this isolate (k5054) caused very mild lesions and protected turkeys against subsequent challenge with a virulent mg strain. in this study, k5054 was further evaluated as a potential vaccine strain in commercial layer-type chickens and turkeys. the safety of k5054 was evaluated by aerosol challenge f ...200415077802
effects of an s6 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation before beginning of lay on the leukocytic characteristics of commercial layers.a clinical study was conducted on commercial layers housed in biological isolation units, within which exogenous stress factors potentially affecting bird performance were minimized. this set-up was devised in order to assess how a pre-lay inoculation of s6 strain mycoplasma gallisepticum affects the leukocytic properties of laying chickens. previous studies have demonstrated relative decreases in lymphocyte and relative increases in heterophil percentages in birds infected with other strains of ...200415077815
mycoplasma gallisepticum--induced alterations in cytokine genes in chicken cells and embryos.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was used to infect the msb-1 cells, the hd-11 cells, and chicken embryos. the rna from these cells and the embryonic spleen cells were extracted and assayed for the expression of cytokine genes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. the results showed that mg infection suppressed the expression of the il-8 gene in the msb-1 cells and enhanced the expression of the il-8 and il-6 genes in the hd-11 cells; a slightly increased expression of macrophage i ...200415077819
geneorder3.0: software for comparing the order of genes in pairs of small bacterial genomes.an increasing number of whole viral and bacterial genomes are being sequenced and deposited in public databases. in parallel to the mounting interest in whole genomes, the number of whole genome analyses software tools is also increasing. geneorder was originally developed to provide an analysis of genes between two genomes, allowing visualization of gene order and synteny comparisons of any small genomes. it was originally developed for comparing virus, mitochondrion and chloroplast genomes. th ...200415128433
experimental infection of house finches with mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) has caused an endemic upper respiratory and ocular infection in the eastern house finch (carpodacus mexicanus) after the epidemic first described in 1994. the disease has been studied by a number of investigators at a population level and reports describe experimental infection in group-housed mg-free house finches. because detailed observation and evaluation of individual birds in group-housed passerines is problematic, we studied individually housed house finches ...200415137491
the effect of mycoplasmosis on carotenoid plumage coloration in male house finches.parasites are widely assumed to cause reduced expression of ornamental plumage coloration, but few experimental studies have tested this hypothesis. we captured young male house finches carpodacus mexicanus in alabama before fall molt and randomly divided them into two groups. one group was infected with the bacterial pathogen mycoplasma gallicepticum (mg) and the other group was maintained free of mg infection. all birds were maintained through molt on a diet of seeds with tangerine juice added ...200415143143
induced expression of the antimicrobial peptide melittin inhibits experimental infection by mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.the in vivo action of the antimicrobial peptide melittin, expressed from a recombinant plasmid vector, on chickens experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum was studied. the plasmid vector pbi/mel2/rtta includes the melittin gene under the control of an inducible tetracycline-dependent human cytomegalovirus promoter and the gene coding for the trans-activation protein rtta. aerosol administration of the vector, followed by infecting the chickens with m. gallisepticum 1226, is shown t ...200415158186
a serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of the netherlands.to get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. these flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the netherlands, regions with a high poultry density. the owners of the tested flocks showed their chicken at national and international poultry exhibitions. antibodies against avian influenza, egg drop syndrome '76 virus, ...200415185615
significance of interactions between escherichia coli and respiratory pathogens in layer hen flocks suffering from colibacillosis-associated mortality.this study aimed to examine the significance of interactions between escherichia coli and various respiratory pathogens during outbreaks of colibacillosis-associated mortality in layer hen flocks under field conditions. for this purpose, a case-control study involving 20 control flocks with baseline mortality and 20 flocks with increased mortality due to e. coli septicaemia and polyserositis, was conducted. in each colibacillosis flock, blood samples were taken from 20 hens at the onset of clini ...200415223556
aerosolization of mycoplasma synoviae compared with mycoplasma gallisepticum and enterococcus faecalis.in order to study the airborne transmission of an arthropathic strain of mycoplasma synoviae, preliminary aerosol experiments were performed. they were conducted in duplicate in an empty isolator (1.3 m3) to assess the yield and viability of m. synoviae with time compared with mycoplasma gallisepticum and enterococcus faecalis. after aerosol generation air samples were taken with two different devices using gelatine or cellulose nitrate filters. there was no difference between the devices, but c ...200415276990
disposition kinetics of doxycycline in chickens naturally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.1. the pharmacokinetic properties of doxycycline were determined in healthy chickens and chickens naturally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum after a single intravenous (i.v.) and oral administration of the drug at 20 mg/kg body weight. tissue residues of the tested drug after an oral dose of 20 mg/kg given twice daily for 5 consecutive days were also estimated in diseased chickens. 2. the plasma concentrations of doxycycline following single i.v. and oral administration were higher in heal ...200415484732
morphologic changes in chicken cells after in vitro exposure to mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was used to expose chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbls), red blood cells (rbcs), heterophils, and chicken tumor cells (msb-1 and hd-11 cells). incubation of pbls with mg for 3 hr resulted in extensive clumping of lymphocytes. incubation of the msb-1 cells with mg also caused clumping of the cells, with many of the cells showing perforations and others showing capping of the surface projections. incubation of rbcs with mg resulted in an altered cell surface mo ...200415529970
molecular characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from turkeys.mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from several turkey flocks at different locations in the united states that were clinically affected with respiratory disease. five of these isolates from four series of outbreaks had patterns similar to the 6/85 vaccine strain of m. gallisepticum by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis using three different primer sets, whereas with a fourth primer set (opa13 and opa14), only two of the isolates were similar to 6/85. results obtained by sequenci ...200415529978
safety of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain 6/85 after backpassage in turkeys.the objective of this research was to evaluate the safety of the 6/85 strain vaccine strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys by backpassing the vaccine strain up to 10 times by contact infection in turkeys and challenging turkeys with the resulting backpassaged strain. the vaccine strain, however, did not spread to in-contact turkeys, and it was necessary to reisolate the organism before challenging turkeys for the next passage. the challenge strain, therefore, was one that had been backpa ...200415529988
testing the efficacy of fermented wheat germ extract against mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens.the effect of fermented wheat germ extract (fwge, immunovet-hbm) was studied in chickens challenged with mycoplasma gallisepticum. ninety m. gallisepticum- and m. synoviae-free 3-wk-old chickens were exposed to aerosol infection of m. gallisepticum. one group (30 birds) was treated with fwge, a second group with tiamulin, and a third group was untreated. the fourth group was exposed to pbs aerosol as a negative control. on d 9, all chickens were slaughtered and examined for the presence of gross ...200415554060
carotenoid-based plumage coloration predicts resistance to a novel parasite in the house finch.the hamilton-zuk hypothesis proposes that the bright colours displayed by many species of birds serve as signals of individual resistance to parasites. despite the popularity of this hypothesis, only one previous study has tested whether plumage coloration predicts how individuals respond to a disease challenge. we inoculated 24 male house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) of variable plumage hue with a novel bacterial pathogen, mycoplasma gallicepticum (mg). we found no relationship between plumag ...200515558224
seasonality and wildlife disease: how seasonal birth, aggregation and variation in immunity affect the dynamics of mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches.we examine the role of host seasonal breeding, host seasonal social aggregation and partial immunity in affecting wildlife disease dynamics, focusing on the dynamics of house finch conjunctivitis (mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in carpodacus mexicanus). this case study of an unmanaged emerging infectious disease provides useful insight into the important role of seasonal factors in driving ongoing disease dynamics. seasonal breeding can force recurrent epidemics through the input of fresh suscept ...200415615682
inactivation, storage, and pcr detection of mycoplasma on fta filter paper.we evaluated the feasibility of using flinders technology associates (fta) filter paper for the inactivation and storage of mycoplasma dna templates and their detection by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). fta paper is a cotton-based cellulose membrane containing lyophilized chemicals that lyses most types of bacteria and viruses. mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) cultures were spotted at various volumes on the filter paper and stored at different temperatures for var ...200415666865
effects of mycoplasma gallisepticum on reproductive success in house finches.long known as a pathogen of poultry, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was first detected in house finches in 1994. the disease rapidly spread throughout the eastern united states and canada and was associated with debilitating disease and high mortality in house finches. however, in the late 1990s, the proportion of infected finches dying as a result of infection with mg decreased, and asymptomatic infection was more common among wild birds than in the past. we documented mg infections in breeding ...200415666869
duplex pcr to differentiate between mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma gallisepticum on the basis of conserved species-specific sequences of their hemagglutinin genes.we developed a duplex pcr assay targeting the hemagglutinin multigene families, vlha and pmga, of mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma gallisepticum, respectively. the assay proved to be specific and sensitive enough to justify its use for the simultaneous detection of the two major avian mycoplasma species from field isolates.200515695715
persistence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens after treatment with enrofloxacin without development of resistance.the ability of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum to persist despite fluoroquinolone treatment was investigated in chickens. groups of specific pathogen free chickens were experimentally infected with m. gallisepticum and treated with enrofloxacin at increasing concentrations up to the therapeutic dose. when m. gallisepticum could no longer be re-isolated from chickens, birds were stressed by inoculation of infectious bronchitis virus or avian pneumovirus. although m. gallisepticum coul ...200515737482
the vlha loci of mycoplasma synoviae are confined to a restricted region of the genome.mycoplasma synoviae, a major pathogen of poultry, contains a single expressed, full-length vlha gene encoding its haemagglutinin, and a large number of vlha pseudogenes that can be recruited by multiple site-specific recombination events to generate chimaeric variants of the expressed gene. the position and distribution of the vlha pseudogene regions, and their relationship with the expressed gene, have not been investigated. to determine the relationship between these regions, a physical map of ...200515758238
dynamics of a novel pathogen in an avian host: mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in house finches.in early 1994, a novel strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg)--a poultry pathogen with a world-wide distribution--emerged in wild house finches and within 3 years had reached epidemic proportions across their eastern north american range. the ensuing epizootic resulted in a rapid decline of the host population coupled with considerable seasonal fluctuations in prevalence. to understand the dynamics of this disease system, a multi-disciplinary team composed of biologists, veterinarians, microbio ...200515777638
key role of chlamydophila psittaci on belgian turkey farms in association with other respiratory pathogens.two hundred turkey sera from eight belgian and two french farms were tested for the presence of antibodies against avian pneumovirus (apv), ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ort), mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and chlamydophila psittaci. at slaughter, c. psittaci, apv and ort antibodies were detected in 94, 34 and 6.5% of the turkeys, respectively. no antibodies against m. gallisepticum or m. meleagridis were present. additionally, turkeys on three belgian farms were examined f ...200515795081
mycoplasma sturni and mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild birds in scotland. 200515833969
differentiation of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using amplified fragment length polymorphism and other dna-based typing methods.amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) was used to type 34 strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) including vaccine strains ts-11, 6/85, and f. using aflp, a total of 10 groups, with 30 distinguishable aflp typing profiles, were generated in the analysis. the aflp method was able to identify and differentiate both mg field strains from recent outbreaks and those that were epidemiologically related. the aflp procedure will provide assistance in identifying the sources of mycoplasma infec ...200515839411
pigeon paramyxovirus: association with common avian pathogens in chickens and serologic survey in wild birds.pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (ppmv-1) was isolated from pigeons from east-central alabama and used in association with chicken anemia virus (cav), infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv), or finch mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in specific-pathogen-free chickens to assess dinical disease and pathology. ppmv-1 infection in all groups was conducted at day 10 of age via the ocular route. the low passage ppmv-1 isolate was inoculated into chickens in different groups at 10 days post-cav infection, 6 days po ...200515839419
evaluation and comparison of various pcr methods for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.four genetic mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) polymerase chain reactions (pcrs) (16s rrna pcr, three newly developed pcr methods that target surface protein genes [mgc2, lp (nested) and gapa (nested)]) were compared for analytical specificity and sensitivity and for diagnostic sensitivity (se) and specificity of detection from tracheal swabs. the licensed mg dna test kit flock chek test (idexx, laboratories, inc., westbrook, me) was as well evaluated for the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity o ...200515839425
floor pen study to evaluate the serological response of broiler breeders after vaccination with ts-11 strain mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.to determine the mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) rapid serum plate agglutination (rspa) test response of broiler breeders after ts-11 strain vaccination, 55 cobb pullets derived from a nonvaccinated, mg-negative, commercial, broiler breeder grandparent flock were monitored from 8 to 20 wk of age (over a 12-wk trial period). to evaluate the effect of lateral spread of the ts-11 vaccine strain on rspa test results from commingled and adjacently penned birds, treatment groups included (a) birds vacci ...200515839426
a self-propelled, constant-speed spray vaccinator for commercial layer chickens.vaccination of commercial layer chickens is labor intensive and often results in poor rates of seroconversion, which, in turn, generally correlate with decreased flock uniformity and performance. attempts to improve the vaccination process include numerous variations of individual shop-built vaccinators in use by the layer sector of the poultry industry. each of these vaccinators has limitations that contribute to poor vaccinations. major problems include the nonuniform speed of the applicator s ...200515839429
chemotaxis in mycoplasma gallisepticum.boyden-type chemotactic chambers were used to demonstrate that mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was capable of migrating into chemotactic membranes. scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm that mg could penetrate the membranes. to further demonstrate the invasive ability of mg, mg was deposited on the shell membranes of 9-day-old chicken embryos, and after 6 days of incubation, the presence of mg dna in the allantoic fluids was detected by polymerase chain reactions. these results indicate ...200515839430
an acute inflammatory response alters bone homeostasis, body composition, and the humoral immune response of broiler chickens.to quantify the effects of an acute phase response in broilers, chicks were injected with 1 mg/kg escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (lps) at 15 and 23 d. lipopolysaccharide injection increased feed/gain (p = 0.03), increased liver weight (p = 0.09), and decreased tibia calcium (p = 0.05) and breaking strength (p < 0.04) by d 28. in a second experiment, 3 d postinjection of chicks at d 31, lps decreased bw (p < 0.01), breast weight (p = 0.08), and tibia breaking strength (p = 0.05), and increas ...200515844811
stress responses and disease in three wintering house finch (carpodacus mexicanus) populations along a latitudinal gradient.in laboratory studies, stress hormones have been shown to impair immune functions, and increase susceptibility to diseases. however, the interactions between stress hormones and disease have rarely been studied in free-ranging populations. in this study, we measured concentrations of the avian stress hormone corticosterone across four winter months (december-march) over two years in three eastern north american house finch populations (carpodacus mexicanus) along a latitudinal gradient. because ...200515922346
induction of macrolide resistance in mycoplasma gallisepticum in vitro and its resistance-related mutations within domain v of 23s rrna.antibiotic-resistant mutants of mycoplasma gallisepticum were selected in vitro from the susceptible strains s6 and bg44t by serial passages in stepwise concentrations of erythromycin, tylosin, or tilmicosin. high resistance to erythromycin or tilmicosin developed readily, whereas resistance to tylosin developed only after greater numbers of passages. three mutants selected by each selector antibiotic were cloned and detected, and all cloned mutants exhibited cross-resistance to the three select ...200515936901
use of molecular diversity of mycoplasma gallisepticum by gene-targeted sequencing (gts) and random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis for epidemiological studies.a total of 67 mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates from the usa, israel and australia, and 10 reference strains, were characterized by gene-targeted sequencing (gts) analysis of portions of the putative cytadhesin pvpa gene, the cytadhesin gapa gene, the cytadhesin mgc2 gene, and an uncharacterized hypothetical surface lipoprotein-encoding gene designated genome coding dna sequence (cds) mga_0319. the regions of the surface-protein-encoding genes targeted in this analysis were found to be sta ...200515941996
gordon memorial lecture. poultry mycoplasmas: sophisticated pathogens in simple guise.mycoplasmas are a genus within the class mollicutes (trivial name mollicutes), which are the smallest known prokaryotes capable of self-replication. they have a very small genome, and have evolved to this 'minimalist' status by losing non-essential genes, including those involved in cell wall synthesis. the mollicutes exploit their limited genetic material to the maximum and many are successful pathogens in man, animals, birds and plants. most of those of veterinary importance are in the genus m ...200515957431
swine and poultry pathogens: the complete genome sequences of two strains of mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of mycoplasma synoviae.this work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (j) strain of the swine pathogen mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. these genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. strain-specific region ...200516077101
use of mgc2-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for rapid differentiation between field isolates and vaccine strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum in israel.increasing use of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) live vaccines has led to a need for a rapid test for differentiation of mg field strains from the live vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85. we examined the differentiating potential of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers targeted to the gene mgc2, encoding a cytadherence-related surface protein uniquely present in mg. the mgc2-pcr diagnostic primers are specific for mg in tests of all avian mycoplasmas or bacteria present in the chicken t ...200516094829
comparison of culture, pcr, and different serologic tests for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae infections.in this study, the technical performance of culture, two commercially available polymerase chain reaction (pcr) tests, rapid plate agglutination (rpa) test, hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test, and eight commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were compared for the detection of avian mycoplasma infections from 3 days postinfection (d.p.i.) through 35 d.p.i. the tests were carried out on samples from specified pathogen-free layers that were infected at 66 wk of age wi ...200516094832
susceptibility of wild songbirds to the house finch strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum.conjunctivitis in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus), caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), was first reported in 1994 and, since this time, has become endemic in house finch populations throughout eastern north america. although the house finch is most commonly associated with mg-related conjunctivitis, mg has been reported from other wild bird species, and conjunctivitis (not confirmed as mg related) has been reported in over 30 species. to help define the host range of the house finch st ...200516107666
re-exposure of captive house finches that recovered from mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.fourteen house finches were reinoculated (re-exposed) with 0.05 ml (3.24x10(5) colony forming units/ml) of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in the conjunctival sac of each eye. all birds used in this reinoculation study had recovered from previous infection between 27 and 83 days after inoculation. recovery was based on the absence of clinical signs of conjunctivitis and/ or the inability to detect mg in conjunctival or choanal samples. birds were maintained in individual cages under controlled env ...200516107667
correlates of immune protection in chickens vaccinated with mycoplasma gallisepticum strain gt5 following challenge with pathogenic m. gallisepticum strain r(low).colonization of the avian respiratory tract with mycoplasma gallisepticum results in a profound inflammatory response in the trachea, air sacs, conjunctiva, and lungs. a live attenuated m. gallisepticum vaccine strain, gt5, was previously shown to be protective in chickens upon challenge; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine and others confer protection remain largely unknown. the current study evaluated several potential correlates of gt5 vaccine-mediated immune protection following ch ...200516113257
differential detection of turkey coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and bovine coronavirus by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.the objective of the present study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method for differential detection of turkey coronavirus (tcov), infectious bronchitis coronavirus (ibv), and bovine coronavirus (bcov). primers were designed from conserved or variable regions of nucleocapsid (n) or spike (s) protein gene among tcov, ibv, and bcov and used in the same pcr reaction. reverse transcription followed by the pcr reaction was used to amplify a portion of n or s gene of the cor ...200616137773
safety and efficacy of mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine for the protection of layer pullets against challenge with virulent m. gallisepticum r-strain.mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine was studied for its safety and protective ability in 49-day-old m. gallisepticum-free and mycoplasma synoviae-free commercial tetra sl layer chickens. sixty birds were distributed into four groups: 15 were unvaccinated but were challenged with m. gallisepticum r-strain, 15 were vaccinated by eye drop and then challenged with virulent m. gallisepticum r-strain 4 weeks post vaccination, 15 were designated as controls without vaccination and challenge, and 15 ...200516147571
real-time polymerase chain reaction for the qualitative and quantitative detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and the detection limit of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-pcr) developed for the qualitative and quantitative detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum. no cross-reactivity was observed with dna from other important avian mycoplasmas, including mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma meleagridis. however, the q-pcr could not distinguish between m. gallisepticum and mycoplasma imitans. the q-pcr had detection limits 10 to 1000 times lower tha ...200516147572
an experimental model to quantify horizontal transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum.before interventions to control horizontal transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum can be tested, a suitable experimental model should be available. transmission dynamics in a flock can be quantified by two parameters: the average number of secondary cases infected by one typical infectious case (r0) and the number of new infections that occur due to one infectious animal per unit of time (beta). the transmission dynamics of m. gallisepticum have not been studied experimentally, so the aim of t ...200516147573
genotyping of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis and digitalized random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) are the cause of considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. molecular differentiation of avian mycoplasma strains may be helpful in tracing infections and in the evaluation of implemented intervention strategies. amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) has shown to be a powerful typing technique but the application for poultry mycoplasma strains is very limited. the aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and discr ...200516236471
age related differences in the immune response to vaccination and infection with mycoplasma gallisepticum.several studies have suggested that there are age related differences in the responses of chickens to vaccination and infection with mycoplasma gallisepticum, but there have not been any systematic comparisons of the responses of young birds to vaccination with those of birds the same age to infection. the aim of the studies described here was to examine the immune responses of chickens between 1 and 6 weeks of age to vaccination and to infection with m. gallisepticum. birds under 4 weeks of age ...200616288936
mycoplasma gallisepticum hemagglutinin v1ha, pyruvate dehydrogenase pdha, lactate dehydrogenase, and elongation factor tu share epitopes with mycoplasma imitans homologues.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major pathogen of poultry. mycoplasma imitans is genetically and antigenically closely related to m. gallisepticum, but so far, only a few proteins of m. imitans have been identified as sharing epitopes with m. gallisepticum. in this study, we identified three proteins of m. gallisepticum that share with m. imitans epitopes defined by monoclonal antibodies (mabs). mab 9d4 reacted with the 67-kd hemagglutinin v1ha (previously termed pmga) of m. gallisepticum and with ...200516404991
the cellular immune response in the tracheal mucosa to mycoplasma gallisepticum in vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens in the acute and chronic stages of disease.mycoplasma gallisepticum causes a lymphoproliferative response in the tracheal mucosa of infected birds. the studies reported here aimed to determine, using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining, which lymphocyte subsets were infiltrating the mucosa during the acute and chronic phases of disease and to determine whether these subsets differed in birds that had been vaccinated with strain ts-11. in vaccinates there was no detectable infiltration of t or b lymphocytes between 1 and 6 ...200616406173
identification of a virulence-associated determinant, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (lpd), in mycoplasma gallisepticum through in vivo screening of transposon mutants.to effectively analyze mycoplasma gallisepticum for virulence-associated determinants, the ability to create stable genetic mutations is essential. global m. gallisepticum mutagenesis is currently limited to the use of transposons. using the gram-positive transposon tn4001mod, a mutant library of 110 transformants was constructed and all insertion sites were mapped. to identify transposon insertion points, a unique primer directed outward from the end of tn4001mod was used to sequence flanking g ...200616428737
the effect of vaccination with a bacterin on the horizontal transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the effect of an inactivated vaccine on the horizontal transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum was quantified in a transmission model. twenty non-vaccinated and 20 vaccinated 23-week-old specific pathogen free hens were housed in pairs, while five individually housed hens acted as a negative control group. each pair consisted of a challenged chicken (10(4) colony forming units intratracheally) and a non-challenged susceptible contact bird. infection was monitored by serology, quantitative polym ...200616448940
effects of s6-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at ten, twenty-two, or forty-five weeks of age on the performance characteristics of commercial egg laying hens.experimental inoculation of commercial laying hens, maintained under controlled conditions, with the s6-strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6mg) at 10 wk of age has previously been shown to affect the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract without affecting subsequent performance. two trials were conducted to compare the effects of s6mg inoculation at 10 wk of age (prior to lay), 22 wk of age (onset of lay), and 45 wk of age (during lay) on performance characteristics ...200516463961
identification of fibronectin-binding proteins in mycoplasma gallisepticum strain r.we have determined that virulent mycoplasma gallisepticum strain rlow is capable of binding the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. fibronectin was found to be present in m. gallisepticum rlow protein extracts by western blotting and peptide sequencing. mycoplasma gallisepticum rhigh, the attenuated, high-passage derivative of rlow, is deficient in this ability. mga_1199, the m. gallisepticum homologue of the cytadherence-associated protein p65 from mycoplasma pneumoniae, and mga_0928, the ...200616495551
transfer of maternal immunoglobulins and antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae to the allantoic and amniotic fluid of chicken embryos.maternal antibodies can protect avian embryos against vertically transmitted pathogens during embryogenesis and also young birds after hatching. in contrast to the well-known transfer of maternal immunoglobulin (ig) g (also termed igy) from the yolk to embryonic blood, information about the transfer of iga, igg and igm from the egg albumen to the extra-embryonic fluids is very limited. in our study, iga, igg and igm to mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae were detected in oviduct was ...200516537160
ultrastructure and ribosomes of mycoplasma gallisepticum.maniloff, jack (yale university, new haven, conn.), harold j. morowitz, and russell j. barrnett. ultrastructure and ribosomes of mycoplasma gallisepticum. j. bacteriol. 90:193-204. 1965.-the ultrastructure of mycoplasma gallisepticum strain a5969 has been studied by electron microscopy (thin-section and negative staining), ultracentrifugation, and chemical analysis. the list of ultrastructure is: membrane, nuclear material, ribosomes, ribosomal structures, infra-bleb region, and blebs. the nucle ...196516562017
characterization of experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in captive house finch flocks.the use of controlled, horizontal-transmission experiments provides detailed information on the spread of disease within fixed social groups, which informs our understanding of disease dynamics both in an empirical and theoretical context. for that reason, we characterized in 2002, horizontal transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in two flocks of 11 wild-caught house finches housed in outdoor aviaries over a 6-mo period. all birds were initially free of mg by a polymerase chain reaction ...200616617979
a cdna macroarray approach to parasite-induced gene expression changes in a songbird host: genetic response of house finches to experimental infection by mycoplasma gallisepticum.in 1994, the bacterial parasite mycoplasma gallisepticum expanded its host range and swept through populations of a novel host--eastern us populations of the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus). this epizootic caused a dramatic decline in finch population numbers, has been shown to have caused strong selection on house finch morphology, and presumably caused evolutionary change at the molecular level as finches evolved enhanced resistance. as a first step toward identifying finch genes that respo ...200616626453
effects of s6-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at 10, 22, or 45 weeks of age on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.experimental inoculation of commercial laying hens with the s6-strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6mg) at 20 wk of age, while being maintained under ideal conditions, has previously been shown to affect the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract. two trials were conducted in the current study to compare the effects of s6mg inoculation prior to lay at 10 wk of age, during onset of lay at 22 wk of age, and during lay at 45 wk of age on the digestive and reproductive or ...200616673758
mycoplasma genitalium mg200 and mg386 genes are involved in gliding motility but not in cytadherence.isolation and characterization of transposon-generated mycoplasma genitalium gliding-deficient mutants has implicated mg200 and mg386 genes in gliding motility. the proposed role of these genes was confirmed by restoration of the gliding phenotype in deficient mutants through gene complementation with their respective mg386 or mg200 wild-type copies. mg200 and mg386 are the first reported gliding-associated mycoplasma genes not directly involved in cytadherence. orthologues of mg200 and mg386 pr ...200616796684
ultrastructure and gliding motility of mycoplasma amphoriforme, a possible human respiratory pathogen.despite their small size and reduced genomes, many mycoplasma cells have complex structures involved in virulence. mycoplasma pneumoniae has served as a model for the study of virulence factors of a variety of mycoplasma species that cause disease in humans and animals. these cells feature an attachment organelle, which mediates cytadherence and gliding motility and is required for virulence. an essential component of the architecture of the attachment organelle is an internal detergent-insolubl ...200616804191
genotypic analyses of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from songbirds by random amplification of polymorphic dna and amplified-fragment length polymorphism.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) conjunctivitis emerged in 1994 as a disease of free-ranging house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in north america and has also been isolated from other songbirds with conjunctivitis. random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd) of house finch and other songbird isolates has suggested that a single 'strain' initiated this outbreak. to explore the possibility of genomic variability among house finch isolates of mg and to evaluate the utility of a second technique fo ...200616870869
further western spread of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of house finches.mycoplasma gallisepticum, an important pathogen of poultry, especially chickens and turkeys, emerged in 1994 as the cause of conjunctivitis in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in their eastern range of north america. the resulting epidemic of m. gallisepticum conjunctivitis severely decreased house finch abundance and the continuing endemic disease in the eastern range has been associated with repeating seasonal peaks of conjunctivitis and limitation of host populations. mycoplasma gallisept ...200616870870
effects of s6-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at ten, twenty-two, or forty-five weeks of age on the egg yolk composition of commercial egg-laying hens.commercial laying hens maintained under controlled conditions were experimentally inoculated with the s6 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6mg) at 45 wk of age. this resulted in depressed liver lipid concentration, and inoculations at 20 and 45 wk affected the size of various portions of the reproductive tract. in 2 consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of age of application of s6mg inoculation on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers similarly housed and maintained ...200616903485
serological survey of the infectious disease status of old english game fowl in the lower north island, new zealand.to investigate the serological status of old english game (oeg) cockerels for a range of infectious diseases of poultry.200616915341
the effect of a live vaccine on the horizontal transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the effect of a live mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on the horizontal transmission of this mycoplasma species was quantified in an experimental animal transmission model in specific pathogen free white layers. two identical trials were performed, each consisting of two experimental groups and one control group. the experimental groups each consisted of 20 birds 21 weeks of age, which were housed following a pair-wise design. one group was vaccinated twice with a commercially available live att ...200616990145
effects of s6-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at ten, twenty-two, or forty-five weeks of age on the blood characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.in 2 consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of the age of application of s6-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6mg) inoculation on the blood characteristics of commercial layers housed and maintained under controlled conditions was determined. the ages of inoculation compared were those before lay at 10 wk of age, during onset of lay at 22 wk of age, and during postpeak lay at 45 wk of age. in each trial, hematocrit, plasma protein, and serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and ca were d ...200617032838
molecular characterization of mg isolates using rapd and pfge isolated from chickens in brazil.in the present study, 27 primers were screened under different cycles by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) method. mathematical models were used for analysis of the genetic relationships among strains, including vaccinal, reference strains and nine field isolates previously characterized as mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg)f by rapd and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the pfge was considered as laborious, expensive and time-consuming than rapd method. these methods improved the typeab ...200617062123
evolutionary genetics of carpodacus mexicanus, a recently colonized host of a bacterial pathogen, mycoplasma gallisepticum.we present molecular data documenting how introduction to the eastern united states and an epizootic involving a bacterial pathogen has affected the genetic diversity of house finches, a cardueline songbird. population bottlenecks during introduction can cause loss of genetic variation and may negatively affect a population's ability to adapt to novel stressors such as disease. although a genome-wide survey using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers suggests little loss of genet ...200717103248
genetic diversity predicts pathogen resistance and cell-mediated immunocompetence in house finches.evidence is accumulating that genetic variation within individual hosts can influence their susceptibility to pathogens. however, there have been few opportunities to experimentally test this relationship, particularly within outbred populations of non-domestic vertebrates. we performed a standardized pathogen challenge in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) to test whether multilocus heterozygosity across 12 microsatellite loci predicts resistance to a recently emerged strain of the bacterial ...200517148199
spatial spread of an emerging infectious disease: conjunctivitis in house finches.in this paper we quantify the rate of spread of the newly emerged pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum of the house finch, carpodacus mexicanus, in its introduced range. we compare and contrast the rapid, yet decelerating, rate of spread of the pathogen with the slower, yet accelerating rate of spread of the introduced host. comparing the rate of spread of this pathogen to pathogens in terrestrial mammalian hosts, we see that elevation and factors relating to host abundance restrict disease spread, ...200617249229
development and validation of a real-time taqman polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected birds.in this study, we report the development and validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay using a taqman-labeled probe for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mglp assay). the mglp assay was highly specific with a detection limit of 25 template copies per reaction and a quantification limit of 100 template copies per reaction. validation of the assay was completed with 1247 samples (palatine cleft and tracheal swabs) from m. gallisepticum-positive and -negative chicken ...200617274291
separating mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains from nonpathogenic avian mycoplasmas.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) has repeatedly emerged as a serious problem in u.s. broiler, layer, and turkey industries. tracing the source of an outbreak is essential if mg control is to be accomplished. amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp), random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) are valuable tools used to study mg epidemiology, allowing diagnosticians to determine the source of mg infections. in some past outbreaks, aflp, ra ...200617274301
differentiation of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using molecular methods.increasing use of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) live vaccines has led to a need for the differentiation of mg strains. the mg strains mk-7, ms-16, s6, fs-9 and r strains and the mg live vaccine strain f were compared by random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd) in this study. using rapd, different patterns were found among the mg strains. in addition to this, we examined the differentiating potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) primers ta ...200617278716
effects of supplemental dietary phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with the f-strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum.in 3 trials, the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase (phy) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on bw and the blood characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum were assessed at 34, 50, and 58 wk of age. experimental layer diets, which included either a basal control diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.025% phy and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, were fed from 20 through 58 wk of ...200717369552
experimental infection of chickens and turkeys with mycoplasma gallisepticum reference strain s6 and north carolina field isolate rapd type b.during an epidemic of mycoplasmosis in chicken and turkey flocks in north carolina between 1999 and 2001, isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from affected flocks were characterized by random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd), and eight distinct rapd types were identified. mg rapd type b accounted for more than 90% of the isolates and was associated with moderate-to-severe clinical signs and mortality. the virulence of mg rapd type b for chickens and turkeys was compared with sham-in ...200717461274
the mycoplasma gallisepticum osmc-like protein mg1142 resides on the cell surface and binds heparin.mycoplasma gallisepticum is an avian pathogen that causes a chronic respiratory disease of chickens and results in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. colonization of the host and the establishment of chronic disease are initiated by the cytadherence of m. gallisepticum to the host respiratory epithelium. while several proteins involved in cytadhesion have been characterized, molecules that interact with components of the host extracellular matrix, a process that is ce ...200717464059
interlaboratory comparison of ability to detect nucleic acid of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by polymerase chain reaction.in recent years polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays have become widely used as methods to confirm the presence of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in poultry flocks, but there has been limited standardization of the protocols used. thirteen laboratories from five different countries participated in an interlaboratory comparison of detection of m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae dna by pcr in samples that contained 10-fold dilutions of these bacteria. the concentration of bacteri ...200717479373
state-specific detection probabilities and disease prevalence.investigations of disease dynamics in wild animal populations often use estimated prevalence or incidence as a measure of true disease frequency. such indices, almost always based solely on raw counts of infected and uninfected individuals, are often used as the basis for analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of diseases. generally, such studies do not account for potential differences in observer detection probabilities of host individuals stratified by biotic and/or abiotic factors. we dem ...200717479842
survey of campylobacter, salmonella and mycoplasmas in house crows (corvus splendens) in malaysia.house crows (corvus splendens) in selangor, malaysia were examined for the presence of campylobacter species, salmonella species, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by serology, culture and pcr. for the detection of campylobacter and salmonella species swabs were taken either from the intestine or cloaca. for the detection of mycoplasmas, swabs were taken either from the choanal cleft or trachea for culture and pcr and serum samples were tested by the rapid serum agglutination (rsa ...200717483380
experimental evidence for transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches by fomites.ever since mycoplasma gallisepticum emerged among house finches in north america, it has been suggested that bird aggregations at feeders are an important cause of the epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis because diseased birds could deposit droplets of pathogen onto the feeders and thereby promote indirect transmission by fomites. in this paper we bring the first experimental evidence that such transmission (bird-to-feeder-to-bird) does actually take place. house finches infected via this rou ...200717497332
contrasting natural experiments confirm competition between house finches and house sparrows.after house finches were introduced from the western to the eastern united states and rapidly increased in numbers, house sparrows declined, leading to suggestions that the decline was caused by interspecific competition. however, other potential causes were not excluded. the rapid decline in house finches following the emergence of a new disease (mycoplasmal conjunctivitis) caused by a novel strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in 1994 has provided a natural experiment and an opportunity to ...200717536703
transcriptional responses of mycoplasma gallisepticum strain r in association with eukaryotic cells.mycoplasma gallisepticum is an etiologic agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. other than proteins important for cytadherence, few m. gallisepticum factors or pathways contributing to host cell interactions have been identified. in this study, an oligonucleotide-based microarray was utilized to investigate transcriptional changes in m. gallisepticum strain r(low) upon exposure to eukaryotic cells. fifty-eight genes were either up- or downregulated ...200717557819
synthetic biology. attempt to patent artificial organism draws a protest. 200717569837
molecular characterization and determination of antimicrobial resistance of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolated from chickens.in this study, three consecutive approaches of molecular characterization, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and antimicrobial tested on mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolated from chicken farms were investigated. these approaches were conducted between 2004 and 2005 to 134 mg samples collected from five different regions of the intensive farming area of thailand. twenty mg isolates and four reference strains including s6, f, ts-11, and 6/85 were classified according to ran ...200717570621
the mycoplasma gallisepticum 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer region sequence as a novel tool for epizootiological studies.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) contains two sets of rrna genes (5s, 16s and 23s) in its genome, but only one of the two is organized in an operon cluster and contains a unique 660-nucleotide intergenic spacer region (igsr) between the 16s and the 23s rrna genes. we designed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the specific amplification of the complete mg igsr segment. the mg igsr pcr was tested on 18 avian mollicute species and was confirmed as mg specific. the reaction sensitivity was demonstr ...200717626483
effects of supplemental dietary phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with the f-strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum.in 3 trials, the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase (phy) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-d3) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) were assessed at 58 wk of age. experimental layer diets that included a basal control diet or a control diet supplemented with 0.025% phy and 25-d3 were fed from 20 through 58 wk of age. a ...200717626828
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