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a comparison of danofloxacin and tylosin in the control of induced mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler chicks.experimental mycoplasmosis was induced in 1-day-old chicks by intrapulmonary inoculation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). this method of infection proved to be useful for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial medication, by measuring mortality, weight gain, pathological responses, frequency of reisolation of mg, and seroconversion. using this model, the efficacies of danofloxacin (a novel fluoroquinolone) and tylosin were compared for two mg isolates, a reference isolate (the r-strain) and a ...19938395804
protection against airsacculitis with sequential systemic and local immunization of chickens using killed mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin with iota carrageenan adjuvant.the induction of protective immunity to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) by bacterins containing 0.2% iota carrageenan (icgn) as an adjuvant has been studied. various combinations of intracoelomic (i.c.), intratracheal (i.t.), intranasal (i.n.), intravenous (i.v.), subcutaneous (s.c.) and oral immunization routes were evaluated. vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups were compared with a group vaccinated s.c. with a commercial bacterin. primary i.c. immunization with the bacterin was as effective as ...19938447159
mycoplasma gallisepticum f-vaccine strain-specific polymerase chain reaction.a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) f-vaccine strain polymerase chain reaction (pcr) (mgf-pcr) was developed and standardized. the origin of the primers was a clone (p08-m6#17) that contained an mg f-strain-specific dna fragment of 6.0 kilobase pairs designated fmgf-1. both ends of fmgf-1 (bamhi and ecori) were sequenced, and regions adequate for the primers were chosen. seven 25-base primers were synthesized, and two near the ecori end (mgf-p1 left [l] and right [r]) were selected for mgf-pcr, mgf- ...19938452497
[serologic monitoring of pullet and laying hen flocks in switzerland: results from the years 1990 and 1991].in 1990 and 1991 4522 blood samples from 398 pullet flocks and 1338 blood samples from 128 laying flocks were monitored for antibody against infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, adenovirus, reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, newcastle disease virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae. the results are discussed for pullets and laying hens.19938211056
cloning and dna sequence of a 29 kilodalton polypeptide gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum as a possible protective antigen.a lambda gt11 clone, designated m1 and having a 0.8 kilobase (kb) insert, was selected by screening a mycoplasma gallisepticum (m.g.) genomic dna library with antisera against m.g. cells and their membrane proteins. the sequence of a 1.7 kb ecori fragment of genomic dna covering the entire m1 insert revealed a long open reading frame, tm-1, that encoded a polypeptide with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kda. an antiserum raised in chicken against the tm-1 polypeptide, which was produced by reco ...19938212828
mycoplasma imitans sp. nov. is related to mycoplasma gallisepticum and found in birds.a mycoplasma designated strain 4229t (t = type strain) was isolated in 1984 from the turbinate of a duck in france, and similar strains were isolated from geese in france and from a partridge in england. all of these strains were originally identified as mycoplasma gallisepticum by immunofluorescence and growth inhibition tests, but subsequent serological and molecular studies indicated only a partial relationship to this species and dna-dna hybridization studies revealed only approximately 40 t ...19938240954
monoclonal antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were prepared to study the immunogenesis of mycoplasma gallisepticum. balb/c mice were immunized with m. gallisepticum immunostimulating complexes and the supernatant of heterokaryotes screened with m. gallisepticum and closely related m. synoviae as antigens in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. all selected mabs proved to be m. gallisepticum species-specific when they were tested against 10 different avian mycoplasma species. after immunoblotting analysis, ...19938257358
protective immune response to mycoplasma gallisepticum demonstrated in respiratory-tract washings from m. gallisepticum-infected chickens.chickens inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) produced iga, igm, and igg detectable in washings from the upper respiratory tract (urtw; nasal sinuses and turbinates) and lower respiratory tract (lrtw; trachea, lungs, and air sacs). urtw and lrtw from infected chickens had significant protective effects in a mg-inoculated tracheal-ring-organ-culture system. protective effects in vitro correlated positively with total mg-specific immunoglobulin titer, but not iga titer, as determined by e ...19938257359
inhibition of mycoplasma gallisepticum growth and attachment to chick tracheal rings by antibodies to a 64-kilodalton membrane protein of m. gallisepticum.a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strain r protein of 64 kilodaltons (p64) was partially digested from the surface of the bacterium by trypsin. monospecific polyclonal anti-p64 igg inhibited attachment of mg to chick tracheal rings by as much as 69%. however, trypsin treatment of viable mg cells did not reduce attachment to tracheal rings or hemagglutination titer. anti-p64 igg inhibited growth of mg strain r in broth and on solid media, inhibited the uptake of radiolabeled thymidine, but did not ...19938257360
phylogenetic diversity of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms.by using specific primers, the 16s rrna genes of japanese mycoplasmalike organisms (mlos) were amplified by polymerase chain reactions from mlo-enriched fractions of plants infected with each of six different mlos. each of the polymerase chain reaction fragments (length, 1,370 nucleotides) was directly sequenced in both strands by using 17 oligonucleotide primers. a phylogenetic tree constructed by using the sequence data showed that these japanese mlos are phylogenetically diverse microorganism ...19938347505
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in field samples using a species-specific dna probe.species-specific dna probes for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared with serologic and isolation procedures as a routine diagnostic tool on field specimens acquired from chicken flocks experiencing egg-production losses and suspected of mg infection. the mg dna probe clearly identified mg directly from tracheal specimens within 2 days, unlike the 7 to 10 days required for culture procedures. cross-reaction of mg with m. synoviae continues to be a stumbling block in the serum plate agglut ...19938257385
monoclonal antibodies species-specific to mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.two species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae. the mab against m. synoviae recognizes an antigen of 90,000 molecular weight present in strain wvu 1853 and in two brazilian field isolates. the mab produced against m. gallisepticum recognizes a surface antigen in strains s6 and r and in three brazilian field isolates of different molecular weights. the mabs do not recognize antigens in m. gallinarum and m. iowae.19938257387
molecular cloning of a member of the gene family that encodes pmga, a hemagglutinin of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a hemagglutinin with an m(r) of 67,000 (pmga) from mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 was purified by using monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography. purified pmga was treated with a number of enzymes, the resultant peptides were purified, and their amino acid sequence was determined by using an applied biosystems (model 471a) protein sequencer. the dna sequence encoding two peptides was used to dictate the sequences of synthetic oligonucleotides which were used to screen a library of ecori-cut m. g ...19938432610
recombinant dna probes and polymerase chain reaction for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.two recombinant dna clones, pmg286.2 and pmg301.1, were isolated from the partial genomic library of mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6. recombinant m. gallisepticum specific fragments were used as probes in southern hybridisation with 10 m. gallisepticum strains whose dna was digested by ecori, hindiii, bglii, rsai and bamhi. the 1.5 kb fragment pmg301.1 did not show polymorphism in hybridisation patterns with m. gallisepticum strains, while the 3.5 kb fragment pmg286.2 enabled differentiation ...19947958781
direct and correlated responses to multitrait, divergent selection for immunocompetence.leghorn lines had been selected for an immunocompetence index based on four traits: antibody production to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and pasteurella multocida (pm) vaccines, reticuloendothelial clearance of colloidal carbon (cca), and cell-mediated, wing web response to phytohemagglutinin (pha). the purpose of this study was to produce replicated lines of chickens with divergent levels of multitrait immunocompetence by index selection. the objectives of analyses of generations 5 to 7 of this ...19948165163
differences in major histocompatibility complex frequencies after multitrait, divergent selection for immunocompetence.white leghorn chickens from lines selected for four immune-response traits (ir lines) were serotyped for b system alloantigens characterizing the haplotypes and genotypes to examine the effect of divergent selection for multitrait immunocompetence on mhc haplotype and genotype frequencies. the selected lines were derived from the ottawa strain 7. the selection index included four immunocompetence traits: antibody production against mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and pasteurella multocida, inflamm ...19948165171
diseases and management of backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, zimbabwe.to gather information on backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, an urban center in zimbabwe, 85 flock owners were interviewed. the mean flock size was 53 birds (range 1-650), and most birds were kept for meat, for either domestic consumption or local sale. mean age at slaughter was 12.4 weeks (range 8-24). none of the owners vaccinated their birds, and reported mortality rates were high (mean 25%), most commonly being associated with diseases causing eye and respiratory problems. most owners co ...19947832719
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in turkey blood samples by elisa and by the slide agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests.comparative examination of a total of 1,030 blood samples from six turkey flocks of three eastern hungarian turkey farms was performed by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and slide agglutination (sa) tests and by a competitive elisa visualizing the inhibition by a positive test serum of the reaction between a monoclonal antibody and the specific epitope of mycoplasma gallisepticum recognized by it. all the three tests detected the flocks which were certainly infected. the highe ...19947810403
differentiation of two strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry.identification of infecting mycoplasma spp. is difficult and not routine for strain. this paper describes a procedure for the rapid identification of the strain of m. gallisepticum. monoclonal antibodies were prepared against m. gallisepticum f and m. gallisepticum s6. aliquots of 24-hour broth cultures of these organisms were incubated briefly with either of the monoclonal antibodies. a second incubation was made with anti-mouse immunoglobulin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate. fluoresce ...19947832707
analysis and characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from pennsylvania.because mycoplasma gallisepticum f strain vaccine can be pathogenic in chickens and is pathogenic in turkeys, we monitored the spread of mg f strain into unvaccinated flocks by screening field and experimental isolates. thirteen mg isolates obtained from various sources in pennsylvania were screened using several techniques capable of differentiating between mg strains. dna restriction enzyme analysis (rea), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) protein profiles, n ...19947832700
effect of bentonite incorporated in a feed ration with tilmicosin in the prevention of induced mycoplasma gallisepticum airsacculitis in broiler chickens.a factorial arrangement of tilmicosin and bentonite was evaluated for efficacy in broiler chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum and correlated to tilmicosin recovery in a feed assay method. tilmicosin at 300-500 g/ton prevented development of airsacculitis. the addition of 2% bentonite to the ration caused tilmicosin at 300 g/ton to be ineffective in controlling air-sac lesions, whereas 400 and 500 g/ton were moderately effective. six percent bentonite rendered tilmicosin completely in ...19947832702
a serosurvey using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in ostriches (struthio camelus) from zimbabwe.horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-ostrich igg was raised and used in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to detect antibodies reactive with 11 poultry pathogens in sera from 149 ostriches from nine farms around zimbabwe. antibodies were detected to turkey rhinotracheitis virus (99%), newcastle disease virus (23%), avian reovirus (19%), infectious bursal disease virus (15%), avian encephalomyelitis virus (15%), mycoplasma gallisepticum and/or m. synoviae (11%), reticuloend ...19947832718
complicated infectious coryza outbreaks in argentina.seventeen complicated outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer, broiler-breeder, and broiler flocks were studied. in the layer flock outbreaks, drops in egg production of up to 35% were seen. in the broiler flocks and several of the layer flocks, losses due to persistent mortality and/or culling varied between 2 and 5%. signs of infectious coryza in both layers and broiler-breeders were typical; in broilers, however, swollen head-like syndrome was seen. except in one flock, no viral diseases were ...19947832727
preparation and characterization of lectin-latex conjugates for specific bioadhesion.this paper reports on the preparation and characterization of certain bioadhesive model drug deliver systems formed by a carrier (e.g. modified nanoparticles of polystyrene) and a ligand (e.g. tomato lectin, asparagus pea lectin, mycoplasma gallisepticum lectin or albumin). three different manufacturing methods (carbodiimide and glutaraldehyde coupling and physical adsorption) were studied. the activity of the lectin-latex conjugates and albumin-latex conjugate (control) were tested with gastric ...19947833437
effect of mixed live vaccine (newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis) and mycoplasma gallisepticum on the chicken respiratory tract and on escherichia coli infection.interaction between mixed live vaccine (newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and escherichia coli (ec) was studied in specific-pathogen-free chickens, aged 7 days, inoculated intranasally. in the tracheas of chickens inoculated with vaccine, mg and ec, profuse multiplication of ec occurred together with severe and persisent histological lesions, and some birds died from ec infection. similar though less dramatic effects occurred in birds that received vacci ...19947962725
transformation of mycoplasma gallisepticum with tn916, tn4001, and integrative plasmid vectors.mycoplasma gallisepticum causes respiratory disease in avian species, but little is known about its mechanism(s) of pathogenesis. these studies were undertaken in order to develop genetic systems for analysis of potential virulence factors. m. gallisepticum was transformed with plasmids containing one of the gram-positive transposons tn916 or tn4001, which inserted randomly into the mycoplasmal chromosome. plasmids containing cloned chromosomal dna were also constructed and tested for integratio ...19948021232
tubular structures of mycoplasma gallisepticum and their possible participation in cell motility.in five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum, a protein with a molecular mass of about 40 kda was detected by immunoblotting with anti-pig brain tubulin polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. in eight other mycoplasma species similarly tested no reaction was observed. thin serial sections of m. gallisepticum and acholeplasma laidlawii cells examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed a submembrane system of tubules in m. gallisepticum but not in a. laidlawii. the intracellular spatial di ...19948012588
mycoplasma gallisepticum strain differentiation by arbitrary primer pcr (rapd) fingerprinting.we demonstrate here that the arbitrary primer polymerase-chain-reaction-based dna fingerprinting method (also termed random amplified polymorphic dna or rapd) can be used to distinguish among strains of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum. ten base oligonucleotide primers were used individually to prime dna synthesis from genomic dnas. strain-specific arrays of dna fragments were generated, which allowed us to identify and group isolates. isolates of m. synoviae, m. gallinarum and m. ine ...19947870072
[identification of a mycoplasma strain using fingerprinting of restriction enzyme hydrolysates of chromosomal dna].the heterogeneity among mycoplasma gallisepticum strains was characterized by comparing genomic dna from different strains. two criteria were used for the comparison. 1. analysis of smai and bgli restriction patterns. a method using a dialysis sack for preparation of mycoplasma dna suitable for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is described. 2. comparison of "fingerprinting" patterns obtained as a result of southern transfer of hindiii-digested dna followed by hybridization with cloned repetitive ...19947885330
the organisation of the multigene family which encodes the major cell surface protein, pmga, of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the genome of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum contains a number of related genes for putative adhesion molecules (pmga). cloning and sequence analysis of several pmga genes suggested that all of them might be transcriptionally and translationally functional. analysis of the gene sequence encoding the sole pmga variant expressed in vitro in the s6 strain (pmga1.1) revealed no unambiguous feature that could account for its unique expression. it is estimated that the pmga gene family ma ...19947925999
transformation of mollicutes with single-stranded tn4001 dna.acholeplasma oculi ism1499 and mycoplasma gallisepticum were transformed with single-stranded and double-stranded plasmids containing tn4001. the transposon mobilized to the chromosome using both single-stranded and double-stranded dna at the same frequency. m. gallisepticum transformed at a 2 log lower frequency than did a. oculi ism1499. restriction enzyme digestion of single-stranded dna indicated homologous base pairing in the inverted repeat regions, which could account for the transpositio ...19947991677
physical map of mycoplasma gallisepticum.physical chromosomal maps of two mycoplasma gallisepticum strains, r and atcc 19610, were constructed by using field inversion gel electrophoresis. to assist in the ordering of chromosomal fragments and the construction of the chromosomal maps, the gram-positive transposon tn4001 was modified to serve as a mobile restriction site. the total sizes of the m. gallisepticum r and atcc 19610 genomes were estimated to be 1,037 and 998 kb, respectively. the restriction enzyme locations for eagi and sma ...19948021195
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chukar partridges, pheasants, and peafowl.mycoplasma gallisepticum infection was diagnosed in a group of chukar partridges, pheasants, and peafowl based on serology and isolation techniques. the farm also had quail, chickens, and ducks. clinical signs in growing birds consisted of foamy eyes, swollen infraorbital sinuses, respiratory distress, and death. breeding birds experienced a severe drop in egg production. histologically, the growing birds exhibited lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the conjunctiva, sinus, and trachea. the most l ...19947702531
expression of mycoplasma gallisepticum f-strain surface epitope.the expression of a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) f-strain surface epitope was studied using monoclonal antibody 6f10. different f strain colonies were cloned based on positive or negative expression of the 6f10-recognized epitope. clones selected for the lack of expression of this epitope (negative clones) reverted rapidly to positive expression. on the other hand, negative clones derived from f-strain-vaccinated chickens expressed the 6f10-recognized epitope variably. after in vitro passages, ...19947530442
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in drug-treated chickens: comparison of diagnosis methods including polymerase chain reaction.ten chickens were inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and treated with enrofloxacine. on eight different dates post-inoculation (pi), tracheal swab samples were collected for mycoplasma culture or detection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and blood samples were analysed by slide-agglutination test (sa) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). results showed that culture and pcr detected mg from 14/80 or 20/80 samples, respectively. the last culture-positive sample was collect ...19947740859
analysis of the variability in expression of mycoplasma gallisepticum surface antigens.the in vitro expression of surface epitopes for different strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was studied with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) using indirect colony immunostaining and western blot (wb) analyses. immunostaining of colonies with mabs showed that five epitopes had different degrees of variable expression, while one epitope was permanently expressed in vitro. colonies that failed to express the studied epitopes had the potential of phenotypically switching the expressio ...19947533961
a surface epitope undergoing high-frequency phase variation is shared by mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma bovis.we have recently reported that three distinct size- and phase-variable surface lipoproteins (vsps) of the bovine pathogen mycoplasma bovis possess a common epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 1e5. in the present study, we show that this epitope is also present on a size-variant protein (pvpa) of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum. application of monoclonal antibody 1e5 in western immunoblot analysis of triton x-114 phase-fractionated proteins and in colony immunoblots, as well as ...19947523302
susceptibility of avian mycoplasmas isolated in taiwan to 21 antimicrobial agents.twenty-one antimicrobial agents were incorporated individually into frey's agar to evaluate their inhibitory activities against 86 isolates of avian mycoplasmas recently detected in taiwan. among them, 45 and 37 isolates were found positive with mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae fluorescent antibody conjugate, respectively. twenty-one other isolates were unable to be identified by the above 2 conjugates. all of the field isolates were highly sensitive (with mic50 < 1 microgram/ml) ...19949747335
variable expression of epitopes on the surface of mycoplasma gallisepticum demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies.twelve monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains f, r, s6(208) and pet2 were used for analysis of epitopes of 22 mg strains. six mabs recognized surface epitopes in the majority of strains, but did not react with variant strains like k 503 and k 703. two mabs reacted with epitopes on about 56 kilodalton (kda) proteins and showing consistent expression on mg colonies. three mabs recognized three different variable surface epitopes associated with about 67 kda prot ...199418671069
in vitro evaluation of various antimicrobials against mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by the micro-broth method, and comparison with a commercially-prepared test system.the efficacy of danofloxacin, a new quinolone antimicrobial agent, was tested in vitro by the micro-broth method with nine field strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and eight of m. synoviae (ms) and comparison was made with oxytetracycline and tylosin tartrate. the virulent s6 strain of mg was also included for reference. all mycoplasma strains, including a strain of mg that was resistant to tylosin tartrate, were susceptible to danofloxacin with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging fr ...199418671075
investigations into the survival of mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma iowae on materials found in the poultry house environment.following preliminary experiments to determine suitable methods for studying mycoplasma survival, suspensions of mycoplasma gallisepticum (four strains), mycoplasma synoviae (two strains) or mycoplasma iowae (two strains) were seeded onto replicate samples of cotton, rubber, straw, shavings, timber, food, feathers and human hair. the organisms were also seeded onto human skin, ear and nasal mucosa. all samples were cultured for viability after 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, and then daily up to 6 days. the ...199418671077
evaluation of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies.sensitivity and specificity of two commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits, rapid slide agglutination (sa) and haemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests were compared using sera from specific pathogen free chickens, turkeys or ducks which had been inoculated with various avian mycoplasmas, bacteria or with a reovirus. results show that sensitivity of sa was superior to elisa and hi tests in the ability to detect antibodies formed in early response to ...199418671097
the 64 kda lipoprotein of mycoplasma gallisepticum has two distinct epitopes responsible for haemagglutination and growth inhibition.a major mycoplasma gallisepticum polypeptide of 64 kda (p64) was characterized using two distinct monoclonal antibodies (mabs), mab ki produced in our laboratory and mab myg 001 produced by avakian & ley (1993). the p64 antigen was shown to be a lipoprotein in a radioimmunoprecipitation assay using [(3)h] palmitic acid-labelled m. gallisepticum cultures. the two mabs inhibited the growth of m. gallisepticum in liquid medium and reacted to two distinct epitopes on the same p64 antigen in competit ...199518645766
expression studies on four members of the pmga multigene family in mycoplasma gallisepticum s6.a large family of related genes known as pmga exists in the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum but only a single member of this family was previously found to be expressed in one strain of this bacterium. in this work two unrelated strains of m. gallisepticum were also shown by amino-terminal sequencing to express a unique pmga polypeptide in both cases. to investigate pmga gene selection in m. gallisepticum, mrna expression was analysed in m. gallisepticum strain 56 using reverse transcrip ...19958535528
ribotyping of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains with a 16s ribosomal rna gene probe.ribotyping with a 16s ribosomal rna gene (rdna) probe was applied to 25 mycoplasma gallisepticum strains composed of nine originally isolated in the us and uk, and 16 field isolates from japan. four distinct ribotypes were identified among the m. gallisepticum strains on the basis of sizes of the bands produced by digesting genomic dna with restriction enzymes hindiii, ecori, bglii and ecorv. three ribotypes were recognized among the 16 japanese isolates. the original and vaccine f strains were ...199518645820
the influence of type of swab and laboratory method on the recovery of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in broth medium.swabs are often used to collect material for avian mycoplasma culture. such swabs, when inoculated into broth medium, are usually discarded prior to incubation of the broth. in this study the effect on growth of low numbers of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae was compared in broths with and without retention of the swab. plain or charcoal cotton swabs on wooden or plastic sticks were more likely to give growth if retained in the medium for incubation, but rayon swabs on aluminium ...199518645826
in vivo variation of mycoplasma gallisepticum antigen expression in experimentally infected chickens.the antigen expression profiles of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates obtained from tracheal swabs of chickens after aerosol-inoculation with m. gallisepticum strain r or clonal variant r/e were examined in western immunoblots. a reference anti-m. gallisepticum chicken antiserum and antisera from individual infected chickens as well as monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for surface proteins were used to monitor in vivo antigenic variation. mabs 1e5 and 12d8, recognizing pvpa and p67a, recently ...19957571373
detection of specific antibodies directed against a consistently expressed surface antigen of mycoplasma gallisepticum using a monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.sera from 14 groups of chickens inoculated with different laboratory and field strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were used to compare the diagnostic potential of the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test and a recently developed monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). hi was performed with strain a5969, commonly used as hemagglutinating antigen, and it could detect 62.7% of the inoculated chickens as positive. of all sera, 83% proved to be positive when examined wit ...19957794187
dna diversity among isolates of campylobacter jejuni detected by pcr-based rapd fingerprinting.a pcr-based randomly amplified polymorphic dna method was used to amplify campylobacter jejuni dna using a single oligonucleotide primer derived from either a homologous source or from mycoplasma gallisepticum. the method was able to detect the heterogeneity of amplified dna from human, chicken and turkey sources and can be used as a tool to study the epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni infection.19957571378
physical mapping of the mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 genome with localization of selected genes.we report the construction of a physical map of the mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 genome by field-inversion gel electrophoresis of dna fragments generated by digestion of genomic dna with rare-cutting restriction endonucleases. the size of the m. gallisepticum s6 genome was calculated to be approximately 1,054 kb. the loci of several genes have been assigned to the map by southern hybridization utilizing specific gene probes.19957798142
mycoplasma gallisepticum 16s rrna genes.the genome of mycoplasma gallisepticum a5969 contains a truncated pseudogene for 16s rrna in addition to a single unsplit rrna-operon and a second discontinuous set of rrna genes. other m. gallisepticum strains tested do not possess the truncated gene. this gene is almost identical to full-size isolated 16s rrna gene starting from at least 500 nucleotides upstream of the coding sequence and ending at the 977th nucleotide within the structural part of 16s rrna.19957781981
[cloning and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the segment in the mycoplasma gallisepticum genome containing the gene for the atp-binding subunit of dna topoisomerase type ii (topiib)].m. gallisepticum genome fragment carrying complete coding sequence for atp-binding subunit of topoisomerase ii (topiib), partial coding sequence for n-terminal part of a-subunit of topoisomerase ii and region upstream of topiib gene (open reading frame encoding 99 amino acids) was sequenced. the nucleotide sequence of topiib has significant homology with previously reported gyrase genes and pare gene of e. coli. no protein sequence significantly similar to the open reading frame upstream from th ...19957783737
sequence and transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding the class-ii topoisomerase of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the gyrab genes encoding the entire b and a portion of the a subunit of dna gyrase (e.c. 5.99.1.3) from mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), strain s6, were cloned and sequenced. these gyrab genes are co-transcribed as a single, polycistronic mrna transcript. the mg gyrb appears unique among prokaryotic gyrb in its use of gug as a start codon.19957557470
antigenic relatedness between seven avian mycoplasma species as revealed by western blot analysis.cross-reactivities among seven avian mycoplasma species (mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. meleagridis, m. iowae, m. anatis, m. gallinarum, and m. iners) were examined using rabbit polyclonal antisera and two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against m. pneumoniae: myc-9 and myc-4. the major antigens and cross-reacting antigens of the seven mycoplasma species were demonstrated by immunoblotting assay using homologous and heterologous antisera. two-way cross-reacting antigens of ms and mg, wit ...19957677645
effect of isolation and sanitation on the recovery of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum from chronically infected hens held in biological isolation units.two trials were conducted to determine if individual housing or improved sanitation would enable hens to clear mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection. in each of the two trials, 40 commercial leghorn hens were infected with f strain mg (f-mg) and confined in biological isolation units in two groups: 1) hens housed individually in each of eight isolation units and 2) hens housed in groups of four in each of eight other units. each of these two groups was further subdivided into two groups: 1) no ...19957677646
species identification of avian mycoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis were used to detect and differentiate four pathogenic species (mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. iowae, m. meleagridis, and m. synoviae) and ten nonpathogenic species of avian mycoplasma. a sequence of 1026 base pairs within the gene for 16s ribosomal rna (16s rrna) from avian mycoplasmas was successfully amplified by pcr with oligonucleotide primers (m16spcr5' and m16spcr3') common to all avian mycoplasmas t ...19957677664
occurrence of keratoconjunctivitis apparently caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum in layer chickens.natural cases of keratoconjunctivitis, apparently caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), in layer chickens are described. the disease occurred in a commercial flock consisting of 36,000 pullets (babcock), first appearing around 30 days of age. clinically, affected chickens showed unilateral or bilateral swelling of the facial skin and the eyelids, increased lacrimation, congestion of conjunctival vessels, and respiratory rales. some of the severely affected chickens closed their eyes. the morb ...19957725593
evaluation of the efficacy of zwitterionic dodecyl carboxybetaine surfactants for the extraction and the separation of mycoplasma membrane protein antigens.the ability to extract mycoplasma membrane protein antigens using the alkyl carboxybetaine surfactants (n-dodecyl-n,n-dimethylammonio)butyrate (ddmab, cmc = 4.3 mm) and (n-dodecyl-n,n-dimethylammonio)undecanoate (ddmau, cmc = 0.13 mm) was assessed by protein titration and sds-page analysis. the maximum yields of membrane protein solubilization ranged from 20 to 90%, depending upon both the mycoplasma membrane investigated and the surfactant used. in five of six cases, the extraction was optimal ...19957733453
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, and m. iowae by multi-species polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.a single set of oligonucleotide primers was designed from known 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) sequences of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), m. synoviae (ms), and m. iowae (mi). this set of primers selectively amplifies a 780-base-pair dna fragment within the 16s rrna gene of mg, ms, and mi but does not amplify other avian mycoplasmas or other bacteria. the detection limit of the multi-species polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was approximately 100 mycoplasma (mg, ms, mi) colony-forming units per pcr reac ...19958561747
metabolic radiolabelling of mycoplasma gallisepticum on vero cells and radioimmunoprecipitation assay.a monoclonal antibody (mab) a2 was produced against a major polypeptide of mycoplasma gallisepticum with a molecular mass of 64 kda. mab a2 reacted in immunoblot at a titre of 10(4.33) and had a titre of 10(4.5) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. in a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (ripa) using metabolic [35s]methionine radiolabelling of m. gallisepticum suspension in vero cell culture, mab a2 was able to precipitate the 64 kda protein and another protein of 47 kda. the present study invol ...19957829865
acylation and immunological properties of mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins.the acylation of mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins was studied by electrophoresis after in vivo labelling with different 14c-fatty acids and by chemical analysis. the immunological properties of these proteins were investigated by western blotting and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. among the ca. 200 membrane polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 35 components (including the major protein p67) were covalently modified with acyl chains. these acylated proteins displaye ...19958584796
studies on the efficacy of combined immunostimulant-antibiotic therapy against experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.josamycin is an antibiotic known to become selectively concentrated intracellularly and in respiratory organs, the habitate of mycoplasma gallisepticum. the aim of this present work was to evaluate the efficacy of josamycin when given alone or combined with an immunostimulant cornebacterium cutis ultralysate. groups of chickens were given josamycin alone or corynebacterium ultralysate alone or both agents or nothing immediately before induction of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. birds were s ...19958591743
the effect of route of inoculation on protection by killed vaccines in chickens.the effect of various routes of immunization on protection against challenge by virulent agents was examined in chickens. chickens were immunized intratracheally, intranasally, per os, by crop gavage, and intramuscularly. agents examined were killed haemophilus paragallinarum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, and infectious bursal disease virus. results of immunization by intratracheal administration were equivalent to those produced by parenteral administration. all vaccines effectively induced produc ...19958561734
application of polymerase chain reaction with arbitrary primers to strain identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum.dna heterogeneity among strains and isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was demonstrated with the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-pcr) method. this method involves three cycles of low-stringency amplification followed by pcr at higher stringency. reproducible dna fragments of 25 different mg strains or isolates were generated with three arbitrarily chosen primers. the mg strains or isolates were distinguished according to the banding patterns of their amplified dna on agar ...19958719206
evaluation of enrofloxacin against egg transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum.five groups of 20 commercial leghorn hens near peak production were challenged with mycoplasma gallisepticum, and medicated with enrofloxacin in the drinking water at 7-11, 21-25, or 7-11 and 21-25 days postchallenge (pc), a combination of lincomycin/spectinomycin at 7-11 and 21-25 days pc, or left as untreated controls. egg production records were maintained, and all eggs produced during the 63 days following challenge were incubated for 18 days and then cultured for m. gallisepticum. all group ...19958719217
identification of mycoplasma membrane proteins by systematic tn phoa mutagenesis of a recombinant library.wall-less prokaryotes in the genus mycoplasma include over 90 species of infectious agents whose pathogenicity for humans and other animals is currently being assessed. molecular characterization of surface proteins is critical in this regard but is hampered by the lack of genetic systems in these organisms. we used tnphoa transposition to systematically mutagenize, in escherichia coli, a genomic plasmid library constructed from mycoplasma fermentans, a potential human pathogen. the strategy cir ...19958709847
[a physical map of mycoplasma gallisepticum strain a5969 genome and determination of its positions on certain genes]. 19968754006
mycoplasma gallisepticum isolated from house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) with conjunctivitis.an epornitic of conjunctivitis in free-flying house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) occurred in several mid-atlantic and eastern states of the usa in 1994. clinical signs and gross lesions ranged from mild to severe unilateral or bilateral conjunctival swelling with serous to mucopurulent drainage and nasal exudate. microscopic lesions consisted of chronic lymphoplasmacytic conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis. notably slow-growing mycoplasmas were isolated from conjunctival and/or infraorbita ...19968790904
size and genomic location of the pmga multigene family of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the pmga multigene family encodes variant copies of the cell surface haemagglutinin of mycoplasma gallisepticum. quantitative southern blotting, using an oligonucleotide probe complementary to a region conserved in the leader sequence of all known pmga genes, was used to estimate the number of members of the family in the genome of seven strains of m. gallisepticum. the number of copies estimated to be present in the genome varied from 32 in strain f to 70 in strain r, indicating that the pmga g ...19968704982
optimising the conditions for isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum collected on applicator swabs.an experiment to compare the recovery of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) on dry swabs and swabs wet with mycoplasma broth (mb) was carried out by swabbing choanal clefts of mg infected turkey poults at days 3, 6, 9, 12 post-infection. wet swabs yielded significantly greater numbers of mycoplasmas than dry swabs on three out of four sampling days. when low numbers of mycoplasmas were collected on wet or dry swabs (in vitro) and then stored at room temperature (rt) or 4 degrees c for various interva ...19968861642
pathogenicity and cytadherence of mycoplasma imitans in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures.two strains of the avian organism mycoplasma imitans were examined for pathogenicity and cytadherence in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures, and a virulent strain of the related pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum was included for comparison. all consistently cause ciliostasis in tracheal explants from both hosts, and examination of infected tissues by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that m. imitans proliferated on the epithelial surface and adhere ...19968550208
experimental reproduction of mycoplasma gallisepticum disease in chukar partridges (alectoris graeca).an outbreak of conjunctivitis and severe respiratory disease occurred in an integrated chukar partridge (alectoris graeca) operation that involved about 8000 birds. the main clinical features were conjunctivitis and sinusitis and frequent mouth breathing, but almost no gasping or coughing. in 1000 breeders, egg production declined from 73% to 20%. morbidity reached 100%, and losses from mortality and culling approached 60%. at necropsy, a conjunctivitis (often bilateral) and extensive caseated s ...19968790893
development and application of dna probes and pcr tests for haemophilus paragallinarum.a genomic dna library of haemophilus paragallinarum strain modesto was created. screening of this library identified four clones that reacted specifically with all 56 isolates of h. paragallinarum tested and failed to react with 24 closely related bacteria from the genera pasteurella and actinobacillus. all four clones also failed to react with dna extracted from one field isolate each of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae. the probes based on these four clones were approximately 1 ...19968790892
california national animal health monitoring system for meat turkey flocks-1988-89 pilot study: management practices, flock health, and production.a pilot project for a meat turkey national animal health monitoring system was undertaken in california in 1988-89 to explore data gathering techniques and to estimate the frequency, magnitude, and variability of management, flock health (including administration of pharmaceuticals for prevention and treatment of disease), and production variables in order to facilitate planning for future food animal monitoring systems. enteritis, which occurred in over one-third of the flocks, and colibacillos ...19968790875
the minimum inhibitory concentration of tilmicosin and tylosin for mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae and a comparison of their efficacy in the control of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler chicks.the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tylosin tartrate and a new macrolid antimicrobial agent, tilmicosin, were assessed for six strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and three strains of mycoplasma synoviae (ms) in vitro by the microbroth method. for four of the strains of mg, tilmicosin showed a slightly lower minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) than did tylosin at both the initial reading (when ph 7.0 is first seen in the dilutions under test) and the final reading at 14 days of incu ...19968790882
field investigation of mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) from maryland and georgia.a field study investigating the occurrence of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) was conducted in maryland and georgia. eighty-eight finches were captured and examined grossly and microscopically for mg-related conjunctivitis. serum samples were obtained for serum plate agglutination (spa) and hemagglutination inhibition (hi) testing. swabs from conjunctiva, sinus, and choanal cleft were inoculated into two mycoplasma broth media for culture and polymerase chai ...19968790883
cloning and characterization of a putative cytadhesin gene (mgc1) from mycoplasma gallisepticum.a 150-kda cytadhesin-like protein from mycoplasma gallisepticum has been identified. a previously described 583-bp fragment (j.e. dohms, l.l. hnatow, p. whetzel, r. morgan and c.l. keeler, jr., avian dis. 37:380-388, 1993) was used to probe a genomic library of m. gallisepticum dna. an 8.0-kb saci fragment was identified, cloned, and partially sequenced. analysis of the resulting 3,750-bp sequence revealed the presence of a 3,366-nucleotide open reading frame, mgc1. the 1,122-amino-acid protein ...19968613358
monoclonal antibodies specific to mycoplasma iowae.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against mycoplasma iowae (mi) were produced to identify common immunogenic determinants shared between antigenically heterogenous mi. twenty-four mabs were produced against mi. with western immunoblotting, all 24 mabs recognized a 45,000-mw protein (p45) of mi strain i-695. one of the mabs characterized, mab 2c, identified p45 antigen in western immunoblots with six laboratory strains and 24 field isolates of mi. mab 2c did not cross-react with mycoplasma galliseptic ...19968883792
comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination-inhibition for detection of antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial broiler, fair and exhibition, and experimentally infected birds.hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) assay and a new affinity-purified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) compared for use as confirmatory tests for the national poultry improvement plan program. samples from three different poultry populations with different prevalences of mg infection were studied: commercial broiler breeder birds (low prevalence of infection), fair and exhibition birds (moderate prevalence of infection), and experi ...19968713026
polymerase chain reaction optimization for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae diagnosis.mycoplasma gallisepticum- or m. synoviae-challenged chickens were monitored with serological assays (serum plate agglutination, hemagglutination inhibition, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the tracheal swabs from m. gallisepticum-challenged chickens received three different treatments (phosphate-buffered saline [pbs], frey's broth, or 10 mm tris-hcl/250 mm ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/ 2.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate [ste]) prior to dna purification. a ...19968713037
development of a polymerase chain reaction and a nonradioactive dna probe for infectious laryngotracheitis virus.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed using infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) primers made from a portion of the iltv thymidine kinase gene. dna from various iltv field isolates, from the usda challenge strain of iltv, and from commercial iltv vaccines was specifically amplified. no amplification occurred using template dna from uninfected chicken-embryo liver cells (celc), several nonavian alphaher-pesviruses, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae, pasteurella hemoly ...19968713048
[determination of the nucleotide sequence of the part of the mycoplasma gallisepticum genome, containing the rpob gene, during the use of the bal-ptm method for obtaining sequential deletions of the sequenced fragment]. 19968714123
standardized method of aerosol challenge for testing the efficacy of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines.a special chamber was constructed with the goal of controlling the process of aerosol infection of chickens with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). the virulent australian mg field strain ap3as was used in each of three experiments. the response to infection of layer-strain pullets was measured serologically, by the incidence and severity of gross lesions in tracheas and air sacs, and by the relative numbers of mg isolated from tracheas and air sacs 2 wk after challenge. in two of the experiments tr ...19968883797
antibody responses of chickens to inoculation with mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins in immunostimulating complexes.membrane proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strain r were extracted with the detergent mega-10 and incorporated into immunostimulating complexes (iscoms). a membrane protein of approximately 64 kd (p64) molecular weight was a major component of mg iscoms. six-week-old specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens were inoculated by various routes (subcutaneous; combined intranasal and eyedrop; and combined subcutaneous, intranasal, and eyedrop) with 10 micrograms mg proteins in iscoms, or inocu ...19968980811
mycoplasmoses in poultry.the most important mycoplasmas isolated from domestic avian species include mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), m. synoviae (ms), m. meleagridis (mm) and m. iowae (mi). mg causes chronic respiratory disease of chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, resulting in economic losses. ms causes infectious synovitis or mild upper respiratory disease. mm infects only turkeys, causing airsacculitis and sub-optimal production and hatchability. mi is associated with reduced hatchability in turkey flocks. ...19969190023
control of avian mycoplasmoses by vaccination.vaccination is an option for controlling mycoplasma gallisepticum or m. synoviae when biosecurity measures fail to prevent the infection of poultry flocks with these mycoplasmas. both killed vaccines (bacterins) and living vaccines are currently in commercial use. bacterins usually contain an oil emulsion adjuvant and are administered by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. they can reduce the decline in egg production associated with m. gallisepticum, although they do not prevent infection. ...19969190024
sequence analysis of 56 kb from the genome of the bacterium mycoplasma pneumoniae comprising the dnaa region, the atp operon and a cluster of ribosomal protein genes.to sequence the entire 800 kilobase pair genome of the bacterium mycoplasma pneumoniae, a plasmid library was established with contained the majority of the ecor1 fragments from m.pneumoniae. the ecor1 fragments were subcloned from an ordered cosmid library comprising the complete m.pneumoniae genome. individual plasmid clones were sequenced in an ordered fashion mainly by primer walking. we report here the initial results from the sequence analysis of -56 kb comprising the dnaa region as a pote ...19968604303
avian mycoplasmosis in asia.since 1954, avian mycoplasmosis has been considered a significant problem in chicken flocks in japan and in other asian countries. in japan, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) infections were confirmed aetiologically in chicken flocks affected with respiratory disease or synovitis in 1962 and 1973, respectively. in other asian countries, including indonesia, the people's republic of china, korea, malaysia, the philippines, taipei china and thailand, the occurrence of mycoplasmosi ...19969190025
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodiesin the sera of village chickens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 19968809982
purification of mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins p52, p67 (pmga), and p77 by high-performance liquid chromatography.the plasma membrane of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum contains about 200 polypeptides including the major lipoprotein pmga. we have developed a simple and efficient procedure for the purification of three membrane proteins of this wall-less bacterium. proteins were selectively extracted from isolated plasma membranes with the mild zwitterionic detergent (n-dodecyl-n,n-dimethylammonio) undecanoate (ddmau) and subjected to size-exclusion chromatography (fplc) in the presence of the sa ...19968812852
protective immunity induced in chicken by a single immunization with mycoplasma gallisepticum immunostimulating complexes (iscoms).an experimental immunostimulating complex vaccine has been prepared from detergent (mega-10) solubilized mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) antigens. sucrose gradient centrifugation, sds-page and immunoblotting studies demonstrated that the iscom vaccine contained virtually all of the immunodominant mg membrane proteins, including p64 and p56. protective immunity generated by the experimental mg iscom vaccine was demonstrated in challenge experiments. chickens immunized with a single dose containing ...19968843631
bioadhesion of lectin-latex conjugates to rat intestinal mucosa.the specific interactions between three lectin-latex conjugates and different structures of rat intestinal mucosa have been studied ex vivo.19968956340
use of species-specific oligonucleotide probes to detect mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, and m. iowae pcr amplification products.three digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes, complementary to the variable region of the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, and m. iowae were designed. the oligonucleotides were used in a dot blot hybridization assay. the target dna is a 780-bp fragment of the 16s rrna gene of avian mycoplasmas amplified by a single set of primers (multispecies polymerase chain reaction [pcr]). the oligonucleotide probes were specific for their corresponding pcr products ...19969026082
detection of mycoplasma in avian live virus vaccines by polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was evaluated to detect mycoplasma contamination of avian live virus vaccines. the specificity of the primers showed that 34 strains belonging to nine species of avian mycoplasma dna could be detected. the sensitivity of pcr to detect mycoplasma dna was 10(0.2) colony forming units (cfu) of mycoplasma synoviae and 10(0.7) cfu of mycoplasma gallisepticum. when m. synoviae and m. gallisepticum were spiked into several avian live virus vaccines, pcr gave a positi ...19979467032
dna amplification methods for diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of avian mycoplasmosis.rapid, sensitive and specific tests that detect nucleic acid from pathogenic mycoplasmas are very attractive for the laboratory detection of infected flocks, and methods for direct detection of the four main pathogenic mycoplasmas have been developed. moreover, most avian mycoplasma species can be differentiated, according to their unique restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) patterns generated with different restriction enzymes. however, this method is limited to the identification of ...19979276996
detection and identification of avian mycoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with primers complementary to the 16s rrna genes was used to detect avian mycoplasmas. a primer pair designed for the detection of human and rodent mycoplasmal species was examined for its ability to detect the most important avian mycoplasmas. after testing the respective reference strains, we found that mycoplasma iowae, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma synoviae could be detected by pcr with this primer pair, and distinction could be made among them by ...19979451458
adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum involves variable surface membrane proteins.adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum to erythrocytes was examined by colony immunoblotting, detergent phase fractionation, trypsin treatment, comparison of protein profiles, and comparison of erythrocyte-bound mycoplasma protein fractions of hemadsorption-positive and -negative mutants. the binding of m. gallisepticum to chicken or human erythrocytes was found to be mediated via surface-exposed membrane proteins undergoing high-frequency phase variation.19979169793
national surveillance of poultry diseases in lebanon.from 1992 to mid-1996, a national survey of poultry diseases in lebanon was conducted. this surveillance included meat breeder, layer breeder, commercial layer and chicken broiler flocks. the history, signs, lesions and laboratory tests of poultry were used in the diagnosis of prevalent poultry diseases. culture techniques were used to screen for bacterial diseases; serological techniques and, to a lesser extent, culture techniques were used to diagnose viral diseases; and both serological and c ...19979567302
mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in a european starling.bilateral conjunctivitis and episcleritis were identified in an adult european starling (sturnus vulgaris). a novel mycoplasma species, mycoplasma sturni, was isolated in pure culture from the conjunctiva of both eyes. the clinical presentation was similar to that of conjunctivitis in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum. however, the histologic lesions were distinct, by the presence of ulceration and by the absence of epithelial hyperplasia and lymphoplasmacyt ...19979131571
molecular epidemiologic investigations of mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis in songbirds by random amplified polymorphic dna analyses.an ongoing outbreak of conjunctivitis in free-ranging house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) began in 1994 in the eastern united states. bacterial organisms identified as mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were isolated from lesions of infected birds. mg was also isolated from a blue jay (cyanocitta cristata) that contracted conjunctivitis after being housed in a cage previously occupied by house finches with conjunctivitis, and from free-ranging american goldfinches (carduelis tristis) in north caroli ...19979284386
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