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novel arrangement of rrna genes in mycoplasma gallisepticum: separation of the 16s gene of one set from the 23s and 5s genes.large restriction fragments from the dna of mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 and pg31, which were prepared by digestion with bgli, bsshii, smai, or xhoi and which were separated by pulsed-field electrophoresis, were hybridized with probes containing most, or different parts, of an rrna operon of mycoplasma capricolum. the results showed that the genomes contained three widely separated rrna loci. one locus contained genes for all three rrna species and another contained 23s and probably 5s rrna genes ...19892708324
effect of adrenal blocking chemicals on viral and respiratory infections of chickens.in a series of experiments chickens were treated with chemicals which block the production of corticosterone by the adrenal cortex prior to being challenged with respiratory disease (and other) agents in order to determine if the course of the diseases could be altered. some chickens received a single intramuscular injection (14 mg/kg) of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis/p-chlorophenyl/ethane (abc) dissolved in corn oil (20 mg/ml) at least 12 h before challenge. other chickens received feed containing 500 m ...19892536580
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum subunit and whole organism vaccines containing different adjuvants by western immunoblotting.chickens were vaccinated with subunit (adhesin protein) or whole organisms of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) adjuvanted with multilamellar positively charged liposomes or oil-emulsion. sera were collected before and following the first (13 weeks of age) and second (17 weeks of age) vaccination. the chicken sera were used in western immunoblotting against whole mg polypeptides. vaccination with the subunit (mg-adhesin) bacterin containing positively charged liposomes resulted in antibody response ...19892683358
binding of thyrotropin to selected mycoplasma species: detection of serum antibodies against a specific mycoplasma membrane antigen in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.radiolabeled human (htsh) and bovine (btsh) thyroid stimulating hormone was shown to bind to five species of mycoplasma, the wall-less prokaryotes. the maximum binding capacity of 125i-btsh to these five species was about 7.9 x 10(-13) moles-1.4 x 10(-12) moles for 50-100 micrograms protein with dissociation constants of approximately 1.7 to 2.2 x 10(-7)m. approximately 50% of the 125i-btsh binding was displaced by excess, unlabeled btsh or htsh, but labeled btsh was not effectively displaced by ...19892754187
biological activities of monoclonal antibodies to mycoplasma pneumoniae membrane glycolipids.a purified preparation of membranes was obtained by using a unique method of treating mycoplasma pneumoniae with the atpase inhibitor, diethylstilbestrol. this method was shown to yield highly purified membranes with little or no cytoplasmic contamination. these membranes were used to immunize mice for subsequent productions of monoclonal antibodies (mabs). hybridoma culture supernatants were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole-cell m. pneumoniae and lipid extract antigens. ...19892494111
immunogenicity of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the serological response and protective immunity elicited in the chicken by the pathogenic ap3as strain and the moderately pathogenic 80083 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum and variants of strain 80083 attenuated by repeated passage in mycoplasma broth were investigated. strain 80083 elicited a substantial serum antibody response after administration either in drinking water or by conjunctival sac instillation to 7-week-old spf chickens. no vaccinated chickens developed air sac lesions when ch ...19892540737
practical application of nucleic acid techniques to avian disease problems.a workshop in which 17 practicing scientists participated was intended to address primarily people who use or could use biotechnology in their work and was confined to five techniques. endonuclease fingerprinting and mapping involved cleaving nucleic acid with a specific restriction enzyme and separating the nucleic acid fragments by electrophoresis. field and vaccine isolates of pasteurella multocida could be distinguished; salmonella enteritidis could be divided into three groups; chlamydia co ...19892559697
nonspecific reactions to mycoplasma serum plate antigens induced by inactivated poultry disease vaccines.nonspecific serum plate agglutination reactions to some avian mycoplasma antigens were induced by injecting chickens with several commercial poultry disease vaccines. all of the vaccines were inactivated, and most of them had oil-emulsion adjuvants. the serum plate agglutination reactions appeared within 2 to 3 weeks post-vaccination and generally persisted for several weeks. the plate test reactions were noted with both mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) antigens, although the d ...19892522768
[antimycoplasmal activities of ofloxacin and commonly used antimicrobial agents on mycoplasma gallisepticum].in vitro activities of ofloxacin (oflx), a new quinolone derivative, against 29 strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum was compared with those of 4 commonly used antimicrobial agents, doxycycline (doxy), tylosin (ts), spectinomycin (spcm) and thiamphenicol (tp). antimycoplasmal activities of the drugs were evaluated on the mic (final mic) and mpc (minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration) values which were determined by a broth dilution procedure. the following results were obtained. 1. the mic90s of ...19892526260
volume regulation in mycoplasma gallisepticum: evidence that na+ is extruded via a primary na+ pump.the primary extrusion of na+ from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells was demonstrated by showing that when na+-loaded cells were incubated with both glucose (10 mm) and the uncoupler sf6847 (0.4 microm), rapid acidification of the cell interior occurred, resulting in the quenching of acridine orange fluorescence. no acidification was obtained with na+-depleted cells or with cells loaded with either kcl, rbcl, licl, or cscl. acidification was inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (50 microm) and diet ...19892526806
evaluation of the efficacy of chlortetracycline for the control of chronic respiratory disease caused by escherichia coli and mycoplasma gallisepticum.using different variations of challenge, three trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlortetracycline in the control of chronic respiratory disease (crd) caused by escherichia coli and mycoplasma gallisepticum. experimentally infected birds were offered either food containing chlortetracycline at 300 ppm or water containing the drug at 120 mg litre-1. in each trial, medicated food and water were effective in the control of crd as assessed by reduction in clinical signs, lower mortal ...19892531906
the isolation and attenuation of a virus causing rhinotracheitis in turkeys in south africa.in march 1978, a number of turkeys with severe respiratory symptoms affecting over 80% of the flock were investigated for a possible causative agent. with the standard techniques used for the isolation of bacteriae, mycoplasmae and viruses, only mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and newcastle disease virus were isolated. tracheal organ cultures were subsequently prepared from 27-day-old turkey embryos and inoculated with sinus exudate from affected turkeys. after an incubation per ...19892748138
an adhesion-hemadsorption inhibition test for the detection of serum antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum.a simple adhesion-hemadsorption inhibition (ahai) test was developed for the detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in the chicken sera. the ahai antibody was detected simultaneously with hi antibody from sera of chickens intratracheally inoculated with viable cells of m. gallisepticum. a good correlation between hi and ahai antibody titers was obtained with 382 (84.7%) of 451 sera from chickens reared on farms spontaneously contaminated with m. gallisepticum, whereas the remainder, ...19892761140
identification of the antigenic components of the virulent mycoplasma gallisepticum (r) in chickens: their role in differentiation from the vaccine strain (f).the antibody response to different proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was studied in chickens experimentally infected with virulent mg r strain. the chickens were challenged at 8 weeks of age by the intranasal route. each cockerel received 1.3 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu). mg strains (r and f) were banded by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the banding pattern was distinctively different between the two strains in the range of 92.5 to 200 kilodal ...19892773299
the effect of biological isolation and a molt-inducing regimen on the recovery of mycoplasma gallisepticum from commercial leghorn hens.two trials were conducted to determine the effect of induced molt on the reisolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from commercial leghorn hens that had been eyedrop-inoculated with mg at 10 weeks of age. chickens were maintained in a conventional floored chicken house on dry litter through 100 weeks of age. at age 64 weeks, 4 days (trial 1), and at 100 weeks (trial 2), hens were swabbed and cultured for mg and then molted in biological isolation units. swabs were again taken at the end of ea ...19892775101
dna probes for mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae: application in experimentally infected chickens.dna probes specific for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae were selected from genomic libraries prepared in the puc13 vector. the probes hybridized with the dna of a wide spectrum of strains within each homologous species, but did not react with the heterologous species or with dna from any other avian mycoplasma or bacteria tested. experimental infection and contact exposure of chickens to m. gallisepticum served as models to test the effectiveness of the dna probe in diagnosis as compare ...19892800306
genetic and antigenic relatedness between mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.the two avian pathogens mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae were found, by southern blot hybridization of their digested dnas, to share genomic nucleotide sequences additional to those of the highly conserved ribosomal rna genes. the assumption that some of the shared sequences encode for antigens or epitopes common to both mycoplasmas was supported by western immunoblot analysis of cell proteins of one mycoplasma with specific antiserum to the other mycoplasma. interestingly, the b ...19892466367
synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of 1-amino-3-(2-pyridyl)isoquinoline derivatives. 2. amidines.in our search for new compounds with antimycoplasmal activity, a series of aromatic amidines derived from 1-amino-3-(2-pyridyl)isoquinoline (1) was synthesized. in the presence of 40 microm copper the most active compounds show growth inhibition of mycoplasma gallisepticum in the nanomolar range. these compounds are 3 times as active as tylosin, an antimycoplasmal therapeutic agent that is used in veterinary practice. in the presence of copper, amidines derived from 1 are 2-3 times more active t ...19892913309
an adhesion-hemadsorption test for screening and identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19892927029
role of harderian glands in resistance against mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge.harderian glands of one-day-old chickens were surgically removed. at one week old, these chickens and controls from which these tissues were not removed, were vaccinated intranasally with a temperature-sensitive mutant of mycoplasma gallisepticum. humoral and local immunity were measured by means of antibody in sera and tracheal washings, respectively. protection was measured by resistance to intra-air-sac challenge with the s6 strain of m gallisepticum. there was no discernible difference in ei ...19892595091
the effect of oxytetracycline on the severity of airsacculitis in chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.four groups of mycoplasma-free commercial broilers were challenged with the r strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) at 14 days of age. groups received feed containing either no medication, or 500 ppm or 1000 ppm oxytetracycline (otc) beginning at age 13 days, or 1000 ppm otc beginning at age 15 days. all broilers were vaccinated with a live mild massachusetts infectious bronchitis vaccine at 17 days of age. air sac lesions were scored at age 24 days. in two almost identical experiments, all ot ...19892619666
role of na+ cycle in cell volume regulation of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the mechanism for the extrusion of na+ from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells was examined. na+ efflux from cells was studied by diluting 22na+-loaded cells into an isoosmotic nacl solution and measuring the residual 22na+ in the cells. uphill 22na+ efflux was found to be glucose dependent and linear with time over a 60-s period and showed almost the same rate in the ph range of 6.5 to 8.0. 22na+ efflux was markedly inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (dccd, 10 microm), but not by the proton-cond ...19892753860
cross-hybridization between the cytadhesin genes of mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium and genomic dna of mycoplasma gallisepticum.immunological cross-reactivity was observed between the cytadhesin proteins of mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium and a 155 kda protein of mycoplasma gallisepticum. furthermore, the cytadhesin genes of m. pneumoniae and m. genitalium were used to demonstrate homology with m. gallisepticum genomic dna under low stringency conditions suggesting that a family of adhesin-related genes exists among these pathogenic mycoplasmas.19902120539
safety of temperature sensitive mutant mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.a temperature sensitive (ts) vaccine strain designated ts-11 was selected after exposure of a low passage culture of the immunogenic australian field isolate (strain 80083) of mycoplasma gallisepticum to 100 mg/ml of n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine. viable counts (assayed as colour changing units (ccu)/25 microliters) of a thawed stock culture of ts-11 were typically log10 3 to log10 5 higher when incubated at 33 degrees c (the permissive temperature) than duplicate viable counts incubated a ...19902143067
immunogenicity of a temperature sensitive mutant mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.the immunogenicity of the ts-11 vaccine strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum was assessed following eye drop or coarse aerosol administration in chickens of various ages. protection was evalualted following intra-abdominal (ia) or fine droplet aerosol administration of virulent m. gallisepticum, usually the ap3as strain and was measured mainly by the scoring of gross air sac lesions or by egg production. vaccination of chickens with ts-11 did not elicit a substantial serum antibody response as mea ...19902143068
the humoral immune response of chickens to mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae studied by immunoblotting.the humoral immune response over time of white leghorn chickens experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum or m. synoviae by an aerosol inoculation or a contact exposure were compared by immunoblotting. the response of chickens infected with m. gallisepticum were similar with respect to proteins recognized and intensity of response, regardless of mode of infection. on the other hand, chickens infected by aerosolization of m. synoviae responded to more proteins and with greater intensi ...19902146797
elimination of mycoplasmal plate agglutination cross-reactions in sera from chickens inoculated with infectious bursal disease viruses.sera from chickens inoculated with various challenge infectious bursal disease viruses or infectious bursal disease vaccines were found to cross-react in the mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) serum plate agglutination (spa) tests. two-fold dilutions of these cross-reacting sera with phosphate-buffered saline before retesting eliminated all non-specific agglutination in the mg and ms spa tests. cross-reactions were observed in the spa test using sera from chickens inocula ...19902173535
transmembrane diffusion channels in mycoplasma gallisepticum induced by tetanolysin.the permeability properties of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells treated with a purified preparation of tetanolysin were investigated by determining the initial swelling rates of cells suspended in an isoosmotic solution of electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. the swelling, initiated by the tetanolysin, depended on the tetanolysin concentration and was markedly affected by the molecular size of the various osmotic stabilizers utilized. thus, the initial swelling rates in an isoosmotic solution of monos ...19902307513
evidence that uga is read as a tryptophan codon rather than as a stop codon by mycoplasma pneumoniae, mycoplasma genitalium, and mycoplasma gallisepticum.molecular cloning and sequencing showed that mycoplasma gallisepticum, like mycoplasma capricolum, contains both trna(uca) and trna(cca) genes, while mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium each appear to have only a trna(uca) gene. therefore, these mycoplasma species contain a trna with the anticodon uca that can translate both uga and ugg codons.19902104612
a survey of infectious diseases in wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) from arkansas.wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) trapped as part of a relocation program by the arkansas game and fish commission were tested for selected infectious diseases and parasites. the 45 birds were trapped at four locations in pope, scott, and montgomery counties (arkansas, usa). forty-four blood samples for serology, 27 blood smears and 12 fecal samples were collected. of the serum samples tested, 20 of 44 (45%) were positive for pasteurella multocida by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...19902250323
evaluation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis purified proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae as antigens in a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.selected immunogenic proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strain r and m. synoviae (ms) isolate f10-2as were purified from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. purified mg proteins of 65 to 63 (p64) kilodaltons (kda), and 26 and 24 (p26/24) kda, and purified ms proteins of 53 (p53) kda, 41 (p41) kda, and 22 (p22) kda were evaluated as potential antigens for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). chicken antisera to mg, ms, or oil-emulsion vaccines were used to evaluate these p ...19902241683
factors affecting the development of respiratory disease complex in chickens.factors playing a part in the development of respiratory disease complex in chickens were investigated in a series of experiments. the experimental infection was produced by exposing chickens to mycoplasma gallisepticum and the b1 vaccine strain of newcastle disease virus and later exposing them to aerosols containing the o1:k1 serotype of escherichia coli. chickens became susceptible (pericarditis or death) to e. coli 8 days after mixed respiratory disease challenge. one day after respiratory d ...19902241688
a comparison of flow cytometry and other techniques used for diagnosing mycoplasma infections.mycoplasma isolates from chickens are usually identified by a fluorescent antibody (fa) technique that requires 7 to 10 days from sampling to the completion of identification. the fa procedure uses mycoplasma-positive antibodies conjugated with fluoroisothiocyanate (fitc) to identify the colonies of the organism on agar. this paper describes a flow cytometric procedure that uses the same antibody-fitc conjugate and can be completed in 3 or 4 days. broilers and egg-type hens inoculated with mycop ...19902235826
cloning and expression in escherichia coli of mycoplasma gallisepticum antigens recognized by sera from infected chickens.a clone bank of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strain a5969 dna was prepared in the expression vector phage lambda gt11. approximately 75% of the resulting phages were recombinants, based upon the insertional inactivation of the lacz gene of the vector. clones were screened immunologically with serum prepared from specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens that had been infected with aerosolized mg. approximately 250 clones, or less than 1% of the recombinant phage, reacted positively to vario ...19902142422
glycoconjugate heterogeneity among five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum.five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and western blot analysis for the presence of carbohydrate-containing components. staining with periodic acid-schiff (pas) demonstrated carbohydrate components in three of the five strains studied. the pas-reactive bands counterstained for protein, indicating a possible glycoprotein nature. western blot analysis using three biotinylated lectin probes demonstrated th ...19902282023
fingerprinting of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from multiple-age layers vaccinated with live f strain.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolates were obtained from three multiple-age commercial layer farms on which live f strain vaccine had been administered to each replacement flock for at least 2 years. all such isolates had restriction endonuclease dna and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein patterns characteristic of f strain. these cultures also hybridized in dot blot assays with both the mg strain-specific and species-specific dna probes. in contrast, the original ...19902177979
examination of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from chickens with respiratory disease in a commercial flock vaccinated with a living m. gallisepticum vaccine. 19902076073
preliminary data on efficacy of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines containing different adjuvants in laying hens.chickens were vaccinated subcutaneously twice, at 13 and 17 weeks of age. the vaccines used were the whole organisms of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) adjuvanted with multilamellar positively charged (mpc) liposomes or oil-emulsion. other chickens received the same bacterins but supplemented with salmonella typhimurium cell wall protein mitogen (stp) (50 micrograms/dose). at 21 weeks of age, each bird was challenged in the right and left caudal thoracic air sacs. the challenge dose/chicken was 1. ...19902260278
an avidin-biotin enhanced dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae serum antibodies in chickens.a dot-immunobinding assay was enhanced by the incorporation of avidin and biotin reagents into the test system (dab assay). this assay was used to detect serum antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) from chickens. serum samples were tested by rapid serum plate (rsp), hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), and dab assay methods. these results were compared. the dab assay was at least 20 times more sensitive in detecting antibodies for ms and at least 75 times more sensitive i ...19902322229
detection of serum antibodies against mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by a dot-immunobinding technique.both mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) antigens prepared for the routine haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test were diluted and absorbed to the separate pieces of durapore membrane for the measurement of dot-immunobinding (dib) titers of test sera. besides, durapore strips bearing both antigens were employed for a dib test with chicken sera definitely diluted 100-fold. shortening of reaction time of chicken sera with antigens as well as with the secondary serum markedly elimina ...19902348588
studies in vivo on the efficacy of enrofloxacin against mycoplasma gallisepticum.after a 5-day medication with drinking water containing 50 ppm enrofloxacin, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was culturally reisolated in only one of 80 broiler chicks and specific antibodies to mg were detected in none of the 40 birds tested. medication with 50 ppm for 3 days and 25 ppm for 5 days was only slightly less effective. a significant decline in efficacy was observed, however, when enrofloxacin was added to the drinking water at 50 ppm for 1 day or 12.5 ppm for 5 days. tiamulin was also ...199018679962
estimates of quantitative genetic parameters of immunological traits in the chicken.three in vivo assays were used to measure the immunocompetence of chickens in two generations of a selection experiment. the obtained data were used to estimate the variance components for sire and dam for antibody production to pasteurella multocida and mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines, for t-cell-mediated immunity evaluated by a phytohemagglutinin wing web assay, and for clearance of foreign particles from the circulatory system. heritabilities of and genetic correlations among these immunolo ...19911956847
the genome size of a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism resembles those of animal mycoplasmas.the genome size of a mycoplasmalike organism was determined by comparing fluorescence intensities of restriction fragments. its genome size was similar to that of mycoplasma gallisepticum and much smaller than that of acholeplasma laidlawii. although the genome size is "mycoplasmalike," other molecular data indicate a closer evolutionary relationship to a. laidlawii.19912002012
comparison of a modified edward-type medium and a modified sp4-type medium for primary isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from chickens vaccinated with the f strain of mg.the efficacy of two media, an edward-type medium (epj) and a modified sp4-type medium (sp4-ps), were compared for primary isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from commercial layer chickens (n = 58) vaccinated with the live f strain of mg. three groups of chickens that differed in the interval after vaccinal exposure to the f strain (32, 41, and 102 weeks) were studied at necropsy. mycoplasma isolation was attempted from the trachea, sinus, and cloaca using lavage and swab techniques but w ...19911953581
identification of f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates by detection of an immunoreactive protein.commercial laying hens were examined microbiologically at necropsy 31 or 42 weeks after aerosol vaccination with the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). mycoplasma isolates were studied in western blots probed with polyclonal antiserum raised in rabbits to f strain immunogen. the persistence of the vaccine strain was demonstrated by detection of a 75-kilodalton immunoreactive protein, which was present in all mg isolates and thought to be a unique marker of the f strain. use of pca-f to p ...19911953583
mycoplasma gallisepticum as a model to assess efficacy of inhalant therapy in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).one hundred budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) were infected in the nares (0.02 ml/naris), eye (0.02 ml/eye), and throat (0.2 ml) with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) r strain (3.175 x 10(7) colony-forming units/ml). fifty birds were treated with sterile broth and served as the controls; 25 of those were exposed to an inhalant, and the others were not treated. infected birds were divided into four groups; 1) no treatment, 2) penicillin in drinking water, 3) inhalant, 4) both penicillin and inha ...19911786013
experimental infection of turkeys with mycoplasma gallisepticum of low virulence, transmissibility, and immunogenicity.three-week-old turkeys were inoculated intranasally with approximately 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of putative variant mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains m876, m35, or the virulent s6 reference strain. uninoculated turkeys in each group served as contact sentinels. the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were used to determine serologic responses. mg was isolated from 100% and 92% of s6- and m876-inoculated turkeys, respectively, on day 7 p ...19911786021
polymerase chain reaction for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a species-specific 760-base pair (bp) bamhi to ecori dna fragment (fmg-2) was isolated from a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) genomic library constructed in plasmid puc8. based on the dna sequence data of fmg-2, a pair of 25 base primers, designated amplification (amp) left (l) and right (r) primers, was synthesized. when used in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the amp l and r primers directed amplification of dna of 16 mg strains yielding an expected 732-bp product, but did not amplify dna o ...19912029263
research note: mycoplasma gallisepticum isolations resulting from dry versus wet swabs.commercial leghorns vaccinated with f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum were used to determine the effect of hydration of swab material with frey's broth media on m. gallisepticum isolation. twenty-four hens from each of four 10,000 bird houses were randomly selected and swabbed from the choanal cleft region. twelve birds from each house were swabbed with ethylene-oxide-sterilized, 2.4-mm diameter rayon-tipped swabs, and 12 hens were swabbed with the same type swabs wetted with sterile frey's brot ...19912017415
an investigation of the persistence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in an eastern population of wild turkeys.mycoplasma gallisepticum infection had been confirmed by culture and serology among wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in close association with domestic fowl on cumberland island, georgia (usa) in 1980. in 1988, wild turkeys were surveyed by serologic and cultural methods for evidence of m. gallisepticum. chickens (gallus gallus) and guinea fowl (numida meleagris) from the site where the disease was originally detected also were tested by serologic and cultural methods for m. gallisepticum infe ...19912023330
detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in egg yolk versus serum samples.serum (n = 1,636) and egg yolk (n = 802) samples collected from hens on four commercial egg farms in florida were tested for the presence of specific antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. no significant differences were noted between serum and egg yolk samples with respect to distribution of positive, suspect, and negative test results or for the mean sample/positive control ratio values of positive, suspect, and negative test resul ...19911757571
identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum by use of monoclonal antibody in a rapid slide agglutination test.monoclonal antibody (mab) against mycoplasma gallisepticum strain pg31 was produced in balb/c mice. the mab (designated m9) was of igg3 isotype and reacted with an epitope in m gallisepticum antigens with molecular weights of 35, 90, 95, and 98 kilodaltons (kda). the m9 reacted with m gallisepticum antigens in the dot-blot elisa and in western blot assays. it agglutinated m gallisepticum strains pg31, f, r, s6, a5969, and 9 field isolates from various sources. a coagglutination assay, using stap ...19911722654
meningoencephalitis in commercial meat turkeys associated with mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection was diagnosed in three different flocks of 12-to-16-week-old commercial meat turkeys displaying torticollis and/or opisthotonos. mg was isolated from the brain, air sacs, trachea, and sinus of one bird with neurological signs. histological examination of brains in all three cases revealed moderate-to-severe encephalitis with lymphoplasmacytic cuffing of vessels, fibrinoid vasculitis, focal parenchymal necrosis, and meningitis. birds with neurological signs ...19911786029
health survey of backyard poultry and other avian species located within one mile of commercial california meat-turkey flocks.a survey was conducted to characterize domestic and exotic bird populations, estimate seroprevalence to selected disease agents, and describe health management practices on 62 premises containing "backyard" flocks located within one mile of 22 commercial california meat-turkey flocks participating in national animal health monitoring system (nahms). chickens were present on 56 backyard premises and turkeys on seven. antibodies were identified against mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. mel ...19911854324
mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 genome contains three regions hybridizing with 16 s rrna and two regions hybridizing with 23 s and 5 s rrna.southern hybridization and cloning experiments revealed existence of 3 regions hybridizing with 16 s rrna and 2 regions hybridizing with 23 s and 5 s rrna in mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 genome thus forming 4 separate contiguous regions. one set of a putative rrna genes is organized classically for eubacteria order 16 s-23 s-5 s. the other two 16 s rrna and the other one 23 s-5 s rrna hybridizing regions are separated from each other and from the complete rrna operon for a distance of more ...19911718781
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains and identification of immunogenic integral membrane proteins with triton x-114 by immunoblotting.pooled chicken antisera from 33 and 77 days post mycoplasma gallisepticum strain r contact-exposure reacted with cell proteins of 19 m. gallisepticum strains. these pooled antisera reacted with more proteins and with greater intensity to reference strains (r, pg31, s6, and a5969) and nine field strains than they did with six other field strains including three (703, 503, and 730) that have been described as serological variants. following extraction with triton x-114 the majority of immunogenic ...19911771754
[mutual location of the rrna operon and tuf gene in the mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 genome].the genomic library of mycoplasma gallisepticum was constructed and two clones, selected by hybridization on e. coli 16s rrna, were analyzed. the restriction map of the clones indicate that both clones belong to the same region of the m. gallisepticum genome. the results of southern hybridization with either e. coli 16s rrna, or e. coli 23s rrna, or oligonucleotide synthesized as a part of m. gallisepticum 5s rrna, led to the conclusion that the unspliced rrna operon was cloned. the order of gen ...19911813806
development of a simplified method for subclass isotyping and screening monoclonal antibodies.a simplified dot-blot procedure for screening and subclass isotyping of monoclonal antibodies is described in which only 0.5-50 ng of antigen and 1 microliter of antibody are needed to perform the test. the results on the nitrocellulose membrane can be stored indefinitely for future reference. this method is less expensive, uses smaller quantities of antigen and antibody, and is faster than presently used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques or other dot-blot methods. monoclonal antibodi ...19911910771
species identification and characterization of an acanthamoeba strain from human cornea.the isoenzyme pattern of an acanthamoeba, stock h-1, isolated from a patient with keratitis (krankenhaus heidberg, hamburg) was compared with that of two strains of a. quina-a. lugdunensis (302-2, 312-1), two stocks of a. lenticulata (45, 89-1) and one strain of a. rhysodes (302-1). the isolated stock showed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g-6-pdh), beta-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (beta-hbdh), alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) and superoxide dismutase (sod) isoenzyme patterns similar to those of ...19911924251
synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of amides and amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline.a series of both aliphatic and aromatic amides and aromatic amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline (3) according to the topliss scheme were synthesized and subsequently tested for antimycoplasmal potency. although the compounds themselves showed no activity, in the presence of a nontoxic copper concentration of 40 microm all compounds appeared to be very active against mycoplasma gallisepticum k154. the most active compounds were found in the amide series and show growth inhibition in ...19912002460
demonstration of the genetic stability of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain following in vivo passage.a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain designated 6/85 (mgi) exhibiting reduced virulence for both chickens and turkeys was sequentially passaged 10 times in each species. dna extracted from organisms before passage and those isolated after the third, sixth, and 10th passages was studied by restriction endonuclease dna analysis using bamhi, bglii, ecori, hindiii, and psti endonucleases. the virulent-type strain designated s6 was used as a comparison. comparison of dna fragment patterns of mgi and s6 ...19921329707
efficacy of danofloxacin in the therapy of experimental mycoplasmosis in chicks.specific pathogen free day-old chicks were inoculated with a virulent strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum. birds received either danofloxacin (50 ppm), tylosin (500 ppm) or no medication in the drinking water from 24 hours after infection for three days. the effects of medication on mortality, weight gain, serology, lesions and reisolation of m gallisepticum 21 days following infection were studied. treatment with danofloxacin and tylosin significantly decreased mortality and increased weight gai ...19921332154
evaluation of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain exhibiting reduced virulence for prevention and control of poultry mycoplasmosis.two experiments were conducted to evaluate the virulence and vaccination efficacy of a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolate designated mg intervet 6/85. virulence of the strain was determined by evaluation of airsacculitis scores following aerosol exposure to the isolate before and after 10 sequential passes in either commercial broiler chickens or commercial turkeys. two-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by aerosol exposure. the birds were challenged with the r' strain o ...19921385698
humoral immune response of turkeys to strain s6 and a variant mycoplasma gallisepticum studied by immunoblotting.two putative variant mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains (m876 and m35), originally isolated from commercial turkeys, were compared with eight well-characterized mg strains by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). sds-page protein profiles indicated that the variant strains were correctly classified as mg based on homologous patterns in species-specific regions of the electrophoretic profiles. however, differences in protein profiles also indicated that variant ...19921567313
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of specific igg antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum in sera and tracheobronchial washes.a sensitive indirect elisa is reported for the detection and quantitation of specific igg to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in sera and tracheobronchial washes (tbw) of mg-infected chickens. the sensitivity of the assay was ensured by the use of mouse monoclonal antibody to chicken igg bound to a prospective anti-mg containing sample that was complexed with mg antigen immobilized on a solid phase. the level of specific igg antibody in a test sample was detected by using peroxidase-conjugated goat ...19921569215
mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination-challenge: an egg-production model.specific-pathogen-free layer hens in maximum lay were exposed by aerosol to a broth culture of mycoplasma gallisepticum r' strain. egg-production loss of greater than 50% was evident 7-14 days following challenge of unvaccinated chickens, with a gradual recovery during the next several days. various vaccine preparations were tested to determine the effect in the model. all vaccinated chickens exhibited significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower egg-production loss than the unvaccinated controls. the mo ...19921485879
antigenic variation of mycoplasma gallisepticum, as detected by use of monoclonal antibodies.a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mab) developed against mycoplasma gallisepticum strain pg31 was used to probe the antigenic profiles of 5 recognized strains (pg31, r, s6, f, a5969) and 6 field isolates of m gallisepticum. monoclonal antibody g9 predominantly recognized antigens at apparent molecular mass positions of 90 to 98 kda. the mab reacted with all strains and isolates, but the molecular mass position of the antigens varied among some mycoplasmas. monoclonal antibody g12 reacted with al ...19921497181
localization of an immunodominant 64 kda lipoprotein (lp 64) in the membrane of mycoplasma gallisepticum and its role in cytadherence.a 64 kda lipoprotein (lp 64) haemagglutinin (pi 4.9-5.0) was isolated from the membrane of mycoplasma gallisepticum. triton x-114 phase partitioning has demonstrated that the hydrophobic nature of this haemagglutinin is due to a lipid portion of the molecule. autoradiography of [3h]-palmitate-labelled m. gallisepticum revealed the presence of several additional lipoproteins. immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated the localization of lp 64 to the base of the terminal structure. densitometric scan ...19921406251
characterization of a major hemagglutinin protein from mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum cell membranes were used to immunize mice to produce monoclonal antibodies to cell surface proteins. three monoclonal antibodies were chosen for further characterization. all three reacted in immunoblots with an m. gallisepticum protein band of m(r) approximately 67,000 (designated pmga). by using immunoelectron microscopy, pmga was shown to be located on the cell surface. when m. gallisepticum whole cells were treated with up to 250 micrograms of trypsin per ml for 30 m ...19921379991
[molecular biological differences between strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum].differences in virulence of two mycoplasma gallisepticum strains, s6 and a5969, are confirmed in experiments with chickens. macromolecular discrepancies detected between these two strains are concerning the genomic size, electrophoretic spectra of dna and proteins. cross immunoblotting data with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies reveal major immunogens of protein nature in both the strains. homologous proteins with different electrophoretic mobility are detected in other four m. gallisepticum ...19921455557
sequential intracoelomic and intrabursal immunization of chickens with inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin and iota carrageenan adjuvant.chickens immunized by sequential intracoelomic (analogous to intraperitoneal route in mammals) and intrabursal (i.c./i.b.) routes with inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin mixed with 0.2% iota carrageenan (icgn) as an adjuvant were resistant to airsacculitis induced by a subsequent aerosol challenge with virulent r strain mg. in contrast, immunization by the i.c./i.b. routes with inactivated bacterin without the adjuvant or with 0.2% icgn did not confer significant protection. chic ...19921523875
[tubular structures in mycoplasma gallisepticum and the localization of a tubulin-like protein].in all the strains of m. gallisepticum investigated, a protein with apparent molecular weight 40 kda was revealed by immunoblotting with polyclonal anti-calf brain tubulin antibodies and monoclonal anti-chicken alpha-tubulin antibodies. in other 8 investigated mycoplasma species no positive reactions with the same antibodies were found. the m. gallisepticum cells were examined under electron microscope on fine serial sections and on some sections going at different angles to the long cell axis. ...19921440927
simultaneous treatment of chickens with salinomycin and tiamulin in feed.laboratory and field experiments involving more than 100,000 birds were performed to assess the effect of simultaneous in-feed medication of chickens with salinomycin and tiamulin at various concentrations. in an artificial infection study with mycoplasma gallisepticum, low levels of tiamulin (10-40 ppm) did not induce signs of ionophore intoxication with salinomycin at 60 ppm in the feed, whereas levels of 50 ppm caused early signs with a mild growth depression. a level of 20 ppm gave a maximum ...19921533113
combination of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques for serotyping mixtures of mycoplasma species.we describe a method for the simultaneous identification of up to three mycoplasma species by the use of contrast-labeled fluorescent antibodies against two species and peroxidase-labeled antibody against a third species. the procedure enabled the rapid identification of colonies of three artificially mixed avian mycoplasma species on agar blocks and also mixtures of species in cultures from naturally infected chickens. furthermore, it was possible to quantitate the components of a mixture of my ...19921537910
serological and microbial survey of mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from six western states.from 1986 to 1989, sera from wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo), including three subspecies (m. gallopavo intermedia, m. gallopavo merriami and m. gallopavo mexicana) trapped in six western states were tested for antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) (n = 724), m. synoviae (ms) (n = 461) and m. meleagridis (mm) (n = 354) using the rapid plate agglutination (rpa) assay. subsamples of these sera were also evaluated using the hemagglutination inhibition (hi) assay for antibody to mg (n = 664) a ...19921548787
isolation of mycoplasma gallopavonis from free-ranging wild turkeys in coastal north carolina seropositive and culture-negative for mycoplasma gallisepticum.serum samples and choanal cleft swabs were collected from livetrapped and hunter killed wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from martin and bertie counties, north carolina (usa). sera were tested for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma meleagridis by hemagglutination inhibition (hi). sera from 33% (five of 15) of livetrapped turkeys were positive for antibodies to m. gallisepticum by hi, and all were negative for antibodies to m. synoviae and m. meleagridis. ...19921548788
comparison of immunity induced with a mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin between high- and low-responder lines of chickens.chickens of the high-responder line gsp and low-responder line bm-c, which had been known to have different antibody responses to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) antigen, were immunized by intramuscular injection and by subsequent intratracheal instillation of mg bacterin. they were then challenged with the pathogenic strain sas of mg. the preventive effects of local antibodies detectable in the trachea, saliva, and lacrima were compared between the two lines of chickens. the local antibody respon ...19921567299
mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in south carolina (usa) during 1985 to 1990. sera were tested for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic mycoplasma spp., including m. gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. meleagridis, and m. iowae. however, m. gallopa ...19921602583
successful treatment of mycoplasmosis in layer chickens with single dose therapy.the efficacy of treatment with single dose administration of 5 drugs at different dosages to layer hens naturally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum was studied. the drugs were tiamulin, which was administered orally, tylosin (parenterally and orally), spiramycin (orally), long-acting oxytetracycline (parenterally) and tylosindihydrostreptomycin (parenterally). cure was assessed by the absence of nasal discharge. the cure rate was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in treated hens than ...19921379426
nucleotide sequence, organization and characterization of the atp genes and the encoded subunits of mycoplasma gallisepticum atpase.the nucleotide sequence of a 7.8 kbp dna fragment from the genome of mycoplasma gallisepticum has been determined. the fragment contains a cluster of nine tightly linked genes coding for the subunits of the m. gallisepticum atpase. the gene order is i (i-subunit), b (a-subunit), e (c-subunit), f (b-subunit), h (delta-subunit), a (alpha-subunit), g (gamma-subunit), d (beta-subunit) and c (epsilon-subunit). two open reading frames were identified in the flanking regions; one (orfu), preceding the ...19921386735
the effect of including anti-ig sera in the haemagglutination inhibition test for mycoplasma gallisepticum.addition of anti-immunoglobulin m (anti-igm), g (anti-igg) and a (anti-iga) sera to the haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test (anti-ig hi test) for mycoplasma gallisepticum resulted in 2- to 8-fold increases in the hi titres. on investigating the anti-ig hi reaction using igm and igg antibodies separated by affinity chromatography, it was confirmed that, in the enhanced hi titres, specificity existed between the chicken ig classes having antibody activity and the antisera used in the test. four ...19921413478
effects of ascorbic acid on stress and disease in chickens.white leghorn chickens were given feed containing 100 mg of ascorbic acid (aa)/kg. one day later, treated chickens and a similar group of unmedicated control chickens were chilled for 1 hour at 6 c, exposed to an unusual sound, fasted, or subjected to rough handling. heterophil:lymphocyte (h:l) ratios were determined one day later. the aa-treated birds had significantly lower h:l ratios than untreated controls. chickens that received a diet containing aa had lower h:l ratios than controls (0.86 ...19921417599
adaptation of the sensititre broth microdilution technique to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a technique is described for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mycoplasma gallisepticum, using the sensititre broth microdilution system. fourteen m. gallisepticum field isolates and one reference isolate (r-strain) were tested in duplicate against seven antimicrobials. isolates were susceptible to oxytetracycline, furaltadone, and lincomycin/spectinomycin, but not to amoxycillin and apramycin. susceptibility to erythromycin and tylosin varied. these data are in agreement with thos ...19921417601
breeder turkey hens seropositive and culture-negative for mycoplasma synoviae.four flocks of clinically normal turkey breeder hens were shown to have suspect and positive mycoplasma synoviae (ms) hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and, in some cases, serum plate agglutination serology in the absence of ms isolation. in all cases, hi serology for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. meleagridis was negative. acholeplasma laidlawii was isolated from some hens in each of these ms-seropositive culture-negative flocks. immunoblotting was used ...19921417615
exacerbation of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in turkeys by rhinotracheitis virus.groups of 1-day-old turkey poults from a parent flock free of antibodies to turkey rhinotracheitis virus (trtv) and the pathogenic mycoplasmas, were infected by eyedrop with virulent trtv, with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) or with both agents together. dual infection resulted in increased morbidity compared with those groups given single infections. the presence of the mg in the dual infection had no apparent effect on the pathogenesis of the virus, but the virus caused the mycoplasma to be mor ...199218670941
effect of duration of incubation of mycoplasma gallisepticum cultures on the sensitivity and specificity of antigens for elisa and microimmunofluorescence tests.in the production of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) antigens for elisa and microimmunofluorescence (mif) tests, two strains of mg, s6 and pg31, were grown in broth culture and harvested at intervals from 18 to 138 h. the effect of duration of incubation of culture on antigen sensitivity and specificity was assessed using homologous sera (against mg s6), and sera prepared against mycoplasma synoviae (ms), and against mycoplasma media. it was found, in both mg s6 and pg31 elisas, that in the period ...199318671032
indirect elisa for the detection of a specific antibody response against mycoplasma gallisepticum.an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for determining mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in chicken sera. the m. gallisepticum antigen was detergent extracted and incorporated into iscoms. sediment of broth medium treated with sarcosyl was used as control antigen. sera were tested before and after absorption with broth medium components and elisa titres are expressed as optical density (od) at 492 nm. sera from experimentally or naturally infected chickens, those v ...199318671034
the polymerase chain reaction for mycoplasma gallisepticum detection.on the basis of the aligned 16s rrna sequences of mollicutes, a pair of primers was chosen for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum. when used in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the primers detected a specific amplification of all mg strains tested, yielding an expected 330 bp product. amplification was not detected when other mollicutes or e. coli were used as pcr templates. spf chickens were experimentally inoculated with two strains of m. gallisepticum or mycoplasma iowae. tracheal ...199318671058
molecular cloning of a member of the gene family that encodes pmga, a hemagglutinin of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a hemagglutinin with an m(r) of 67,000 (pmga) from mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 was purified by using monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography. purified pmga was treated with a number of enzymes, the resultant peptides were purified, and their amino acid sequence was determined by using an applied biosystems (model 471a) protein sequencer. the dna sequence encoding two peptides was used to dictate the sequences of synthetic oligonucleotides which were used to screen a library of ecori-cut m. g ...19938432610
evaluation of a monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum-specific antibodies.a monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking-elisa) was developed to detect antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in poultry sera with the help of a peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody (mab) recognizing an epitope of a 56-kilodalton polypeptide (p56) of mg. immunoglobulins from undiluted mg-positive sera prevent the mab conjugate from attaching to its specific binding site on p56, which results in no color development. the opposite result--a strong color reaction--w ...19937504918
development and evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction method for diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method specific for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was evaluated. the pcr method was found to detect as few as two colour changing units (ccu) of mg and did not give false positive reactions with other avian mycoplasmas. in chickens inoculated with either mg or mycoplasma synoviae (ms), the pcr method was found to closely correlate with mg culture reisolation methods in chicken intranasally inoculated with mg. all chickens inoculated with ms tested negative using ...19937511790
clinical mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in multiplier breeder and meat turkeys caused by f strain: identification by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, restriction endonuclease analysis, and the polymerase chain reaction.in february 1991, a flock of north carolina multiplier breeder turkeys experienced respiratory signs, sinusitis, airsacculitis, and increased mortality. mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was isolated, and appropriate control measures were initiated. ultimately, this outbreak involved several breeder flocks of an integrated turkey production company before the last infected flock was identified in may 1991. during this time, mg was also isolated from a flock of commercial layer-type chickens raised a ...19938257382
evidence for a common epitope on the surface of mycoplasma gallisepticum defined by monoclonal antibody.an antigen containing a common epitope in most strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum was purified by isoelectric focusing and used in the production of monoclonal antibodies (mab). of several mab produced, only one mab reacted with focused component and with all six strains of m. gallisepticum except strain 6/85. this mab was designated mg3d6.a5, and it was subsequently purified with immobilized rprotein atm. the mg3d6.a5 mab recognized a common epitope on a molecule with relative molecular weight ...19937689775
local reaction and serological response in commercial layer chickens injected intramuscularly in the leg with oil-adjuvanted mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin.the incidence of local vaccine reaction was investigated in three flocks of commercial layer chickens after they were vaccinated intramuscularly in the leg with oil-adjuvanted mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin by commercial crews. local vaccine reaction typically involved swelling due to a granulomatous cellulitis in the connective tissue above the tibiotarsal joint of the vaccinated leg. histopathology revealed that the inflammatory reaction was confined primarily to subcutis and muscle fa ...19938141726
immunoglobulin receptors used in avian mycoplasma identification.among 77 isolates of avian mycoplasma examined, igg receptors were demonstrated on six of the nine species represented. species identified with receptors were: mycoplasma gallisepticum (two receptors of approximately 84,000 and 75,000 molecular weight [mw]), m. gallinarum (one receptor of approximately 135,000 mw), m. pullorum (one receptor of approximately 130,000 mw), m. gallinaceum (one receptor of approximately 125,000 mw), m. iowae (two receptors of approximately 50,000 and 38,000 mw), and ...19938141737
a comparative study of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in young chickens.ten-day-old leghorn chickens were vaccinated with the f, ts-11, or 6/85 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) via the intraocular route or subcutaneously with mg bacterin and challenged by aerosol with the r strain of mg at 30, 60, or 90 days post-vaccination. respiratory reaction post-vaccination, serological response, persistence of the vaccine strain, and protection against aerosol challenge were compared. in general, the ts-11 and 6/85 strains induced a milder post-vaccination reaction tha ...19938141758
[serologic monitoring of pullet and laying hen flocks in switzerland: results from the years 1990 and 1991].in 1990 and 1991 4522 blood samples from 398 pullet flocks and 1338 blood samples from 128 laying flocks were monitored for antibody against infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, adenovirus, reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, newcastle disease virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae. the results are discussed for pullets and laying hens.19938211056
cloning and dna sequence of a 29 kilodalton polypeptide gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum as a possible protective antigen.a lambda gt11 clone, designated m1 and having a 0.8 kilobase (kb) insert, was selected by screening a mycoplasma gallisepticum (m.g.) genomic dna library with antisera against m.g. cells and their membrane proteins. the sequence of a 1.7 kb ecori fragment of genomic dna covering the entire m1 insert revealed a long open reading frame, tm-1, that encoded a polypeptide with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kda. an antiserum raised in chicken against the tm-1 polypeptide, which was produced by reco ...19938212828
mycoplasma imitans sp. nov. is related to mycoplasma gallisepticum and found in birds.a mycoplasma designated strain 4229t (t = type strain) was isolated in 1984 from the turbinate of a duck in france, and similar strains were isolated from geese in france and from a partridge in england. all of these strains were originally identified as mycoplasma gallisepticum by immunofluorescence and growth inhibition tests, but subsequent serological and molecular studies indicated only a partial relationship to this species and dna-dna hybridization studies revealed only approximately 40 t ...19938240954
monoclonal antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were prepared to study the immunogenesis of mycoplasma gallisepticum. balb/c mice were immunized with m. gallisepticum immunostimulating complexes and the supernatant of heterokaryotes screened with m. gallisepticum and closely related m. synoviae as antigens in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. all selected mabs proved to be m. gallisepticum species-specific when they were tested against 10 different avian mycoplasma species. after immunoblotting analysis, ...19938257358
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