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cross-immunity and antigenic relationships among five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum in young leghorn chickens.five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were tested for their cross-protection, virulence, and antigenic relationship in young leghorn chickens. chickens vaccinated at 1 day of age by eye drop with the f or r strain of mg had good protection against aerosol challenge with the f, r, or s-6 strain at 4 weeks postvaccination. chickens vaccinated at 1 day of age with the 503 or 730 strain had only partial protection against challenge with r, f, or s-6; the degree of cross-protection was relate ...19827150144
the effects of different concentrations of glucose and horse serum on the growth of mycoplasma gallisepticum in broth culture. 19817240266
immunological response of chickens to mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.the cellular, humoral, and local immune responses of chickens to mycoplasma gallisepticum infection were studied at weekly intervals for 10 weeks. a cellular response was indicated by significant leukocyte migration inhibition (lmi) was demonstrated as early as one week postinfection (pi), but the maximum lmi of 36.4% was observed at seven weeks pi. induction of cellular response was further confirmed by positive-delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction, observed in all infected birds tested. t ...19817259674
vaccination with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum to reduce production losses in layer chickens.the effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection or vaccination of conn. f-strain mg on 45 weeks of egg production was analyzed using production records from 132 flocks of commercial layer hens. the flocks were located in pennsylvania, and the data were collected for two years. on the average, layers maintained free from infection with mg laid 15.7 more eggs/hen housed than the mg-infected layers; figures were adjusted for layer-strain effect. this adjusted advantage decreased to 8.7 eggs/h ...19817259680
evaluation of a vaccine against mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial broilers.the efficacy of live mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vaccine against respiratory mycoplasmosis was studied in three laboratory trials with commercial broilers. broiler chickens were infected with the f or r strain of mg by eyedrop at 1 day of age, and challenged by aerosol exposure to the r strain of mg along with eyedrop vaccination against newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis at 30 or 34 days of age. observations were made of macroscopic lesions, severity of airsacculitis, isolations of m ...19807271643
pathogenicity of strains of the ijknqr group of avian mycoplasmas for turkey embryos and poults.strains of mycoplasmas isolated from turkey embryos and identified as belonging to the ijknqr group of avian mycoplasmas were found to produce lethal infections in experimentally exposed turkey embryos. some strains produced exudative airsacculitis in experimentally exposed poults. of 4 strains used to inoculate poults, two produced moderate airsacculitis, one produced a slight airsacculitis, and one had little or no effect on turkey poult air sacs. microscopic examination revealed that the air- ...19817271648
the effects of growth in broth containing different concentrations of glucose and horse serum on mycoplasma gallisepticum rapid serum agglutination antigens. 19817275994
isolation and characterization of mycoplasma and acholeplasma from apparently healthy and diseased (infectious sinusitis) turkeys.investigation of 136 turkeys (24 manifesting infra-orbital sinusitis, 112 apparently healthy) resulted in isolation of 79 strains of mycoplasma and 4 of acholeplasma. by the disc growth inhibition test with 16 reference antisera of avian serogroups, 55 strains were identified serologically and 28 remained unidentified. thirteen strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum, 1 of m. meleagridis, and 2 of acholeplasma laidlawii were isolated from turkey sinusitis whereas serogroups c (2), d (19), f (8), m. ...19817278710
microagglutination test for the detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae in avian sera. 19827150146
wildlife surveillance during a mycoplasma gallisepticum epornitic in domestic turkeys.during a major mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) epornitic in domestic turkeys, tracheal swabs were collected and cultured from 477 and 770 potentially exposed wild mammals and birds, respectively. all culture attempts were negative. serum-plate (sp) and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests on 770 bird sera revealed low titers (less than or equal to 1:40) in 0.9% of tested house sparrows, 1.1% of brown-headed cowbirds, 35.7% of common grackles, 1.0% of starlings, and 16.6% of eastern meadowlarks. ...19827159324
vaccination of chickens with nonpathogenic mycoplasma gallisepticum as a means for displacement of pathogenic strains.attempts to solve the problem of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection of poultry by a combination of eradication and antibiotic treatment have at best met with only partial success. as a result of the continuing economic burden of the disease, there has been a renewed interest in vaccination as a tool in the control of mg. a particularly pressing problem exists in the commercial egg industry, where the occurrence of mg infection of layer hens at the onset of egg production leads to a marked d ...19817287410
mycoplasmosis in poultry.mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma meleagridis are the most widespread pathogenic poultry mycoplasmas. the epidemiology of the infections, and clinical signs, lesions, pathogenesis, diagnosis and control of disease are described. in epidemiology, the constant antigenic composition, variation in virulence, tropism, survival of the mycoplasma outside and within the host and susceptibility to drugs are outlined. the significance of species, age and immune status of the hos ...19817287415
light microscopic, scanning electron microscopic, and histomorphometric evaluation of mycoplasma gallisepticum-induced airsacculitis in chickens. 19817294464
sequential pathology of genital tract in chickens experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.unsexed day-old white leghorn chicks hatched from eggs pre-treated with erythromycin were infected via the yolk sac with a 48-hr broth culture of pathogenic mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6). fourteen of the 57 experimental female birds had gross lesions in the oviduct, characterized by the presence of grayish-white caseous plugs of various sizes in a segment or throughout the length of the oviduct. forty-six of the infected female birds had microscopic lesions, detected primarily as mild heterophil ...19817316912
determination of cholesterol asymmetry by rapid kinetics of filipin-cholesterol association: effect of modification in lipids and proteins.the rapid kinetic behavior of filipin association with cholesterol was unaffected by binding of water-soluble proteins to vesicle and mycoplasma membranes and by proteolytic digestion of mycoplasma membrane proteins. the kinetic properties were, however, dependent on the membrane phospholipids, in that the initial rate of filipin association with cholesterol was enhanced by phospholipase a2 treatment by the incorporation of lysophosphatidylcholine, and by increasing the degree of unsaturation in ...19817236612
transmissibility of the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum in leghorn chickens.leghorn pullets free of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were infected with the f strain of mg at approximately 18 weeks of age. at various times up to 27 weeks postinfection, infected chickens were placed in a pen with uninfected controls. infected chickens remained tracheal carriers up to 49 weeks postinfection. infection was readily transmitted to penmates during the first 4 weeks postinfection; in most instances from 6 through 27 weeks postinfection, transmission to penmates became progressivel ...19817337604
a mycoplasma gallisepticum epornitic in turkeys: its epidemiology and eradication. 19817337605
immunogenic potency of oil-emulsified mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterins.immunogenicity of an aqueous mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin and two oil-emulsified bacterins with aqueous-phase-to-oil-phase ratios of 1:2 and 1:4 were evaluated in 3 groups of 5-week-old mg-free white leghorn chickens. group 4 chickens were nonimmunized controls. group 1, 2, and 3 chickens received primary immunizations with 0.5 ml of bacterin subcutaneously (sc). six weeks later, half of the vaccinated chickens received a second immunization (0.5 ml sc). six weeks after the last dose o ...19817337609
characterization of an isolate of mycoplasma wvu 907 which possesses common antigens to mycoplasma gallisepticum.antigenic characteristics of an isolate of mycoplasma wvu 907 were compared with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae. mycoplasma wvu 907 and mg share common agglutinating and precipitin antigens. although hemagglutinin is an integral part of wvu 907, hemagglutinating-inhibited antibody was not detected in sera of chickens inoculated with wvu 907. the clinical symptoms observed in chickens inoculated with wvu 907 were mild. viral infections of chickens helped spread wvu 907 to c ...19817337614
[microscopic and ultramicroscopic lesions from experimental mycoplasma infection in respiratory tract of chickens. possible difference between pathogenic and non pathogenic strains (author's transl)].for three weeks after experimental infection of trachea and scroll bone with mycoplasma gallisepticum no lesions were detected in scroll bone, but only an abundant mucous secretion. mycoplasmas were present and adhered to cilia of epithelial cells. in trachea an almost complete destruction of cilia was observed allowing swollen epithelial cells to appear with mycoplasmas adhering to villi. strain w31 serotype c caused no lesions but cells and cilia were covered with a thick layer of mucous.19817342836
ultrastructural study of the interaction between acholeplasma laidlawii and antibody.the ultrastructure of agar-grown acholeplasma laidlawii incubated with specific antiserum or igm fractions of this antiserum has been investigated by the thin-sectioning technique. antiserum treatment resulted in the development of giant cells along the colony circumferences and in the coating of normal-size mycoplasmas with a periodically arranged extramembranous layer, consisting of attached immunoglobulins as shown by indirect immunoferritin labelling. the regular structure of the coat was no ...19807373282
the growth and cilia-stopping effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum 1rf in chicken tracheal organ cultures.the growth and pathogenicity of mycoplasma gallisepticum 1rf were studied in chicken tracheal organ cultures. the organism propagated only in the presence of tracheal rings in culture fluids. presence of metabolic products from rings seems to be an important factor for the growth of organism. production of hydrogen peroxide was not detected. there were no differences in the growth and cilia-stopping effects among organisms maintained in vitro, stored at -18 degrees c, and recovered from air sac, ...19807375737
a survey of mycoplasma infections in domestic poultry.a survey of mycoplasma infections of chickens, turkeys and ducks was made on tissues from a variety of sources and birds of various ages, and from pipped and dead-in-shell turkey embryos. the tissues examined consisted mainly of respiratory tissue and the cloaca and contents and also a small number of joint lesions and other tissues. from chickens, mycoplasmas were isolated from a total of 138 tissues with mycoplasma gallisepticum in preponderance. this was followed by m gallinarum, untyped orga ...19807375739
effect of sex and mycoplasma synoviae infection on chicken red blood cells used for hemagglutination-inhibition test.a total of 10 male and 10 female 9-week-old commercial mycoplasma-free broiler chickens was used in this test. five males and 5 females were artificially infected by aerosol with a broth culture of mycoplasma synoviae (ms) f10-2as. the other 5 males and 5 females were used as noninfected controls. at 3, 9, and 12 weeks postinfection all birds were bled, and the blood was pooled into 4 groups: infected male, noninfected male, infected female, and noninfected female. hemagglutination-inhibition (h ...19807393863
development of a microtitration complement-fixation test for diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.a direct microtitration complement-fixation (cf) test was developed for diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens. cf titers were demonstrated three weeks postinoculation in chickens inoculated intratracheally with m. gallisepticum. the direct microtitration cf test appeared comparable to the hemagglutination-inhibition test in sensitivity and specificity. addition of fresh chicken serum to lyophilized guinea pig complement (gpc') was not necessary to enhance fixaton of gpc' by ...19807436960
preliminary clinical pharmacological investigations of tylosin and tiamulin in chickens.the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) of tiamulin and tylosin for mycoplasma, gram-positive, and gram-negative micro-organisms isolated from chickens were determinated by the agar dilution method. median mic values for tiamulin against mycoplasma gallisepticum (0.05 microgram/ml) and mycoplasma synoviae (0.10 microgram/ml) were 2 to 4 times lower than the corresponding values for tylosin. tiamulin was also slightly more effective in vitro in inhibiting escherichia coli, pasteurella multoci ...19807444918
comparison of mycoplasma synoviae hemagglutinating antigens by the hemagglutination-inhibition test.mycoplasma synoviae (ms) strains were isolated from the trachea of hens from ms-positive broiler breeder flocks having progeny condemnations due to airsacculitis. hemagglutinating (ha) antigens were made from several strains. the ha antigen made from the 95th medium passage of ms fmt strain was compared with that of the standard ms wvu 1853 strain by the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test. sixty-six sera from 10 ms-positive flocks, 4 mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg)-positive sera, and 7 normal s ...19807447835
[effect of selected solvents on mycoplasma gallisepticum]. 19807456534
evaluation of a monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum-specific antibodies.a monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking-elisa) was developed to detect antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in poultry sera with the help of a peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody (mab) recognizing an epitope of a 56-kilodalton polypeptide (p56) of mg. immunoglobulins from undiluted mg-positive sera prevent the mab conjugate from attaching to its specific binding site on p56, which results in no color development. the opposite result--a strong color reaction--w ...19937504918
development and evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction method for diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method specific for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was evaluated. the pcr method was found to detect as few as two colour changing units (ccu) of mg and did not give false positive reactions with other avian mycoplasmas. in chickens inoculated with either mg or mycoplasma synoviae (ms), the pcr method was found to closely correlate with mg culture reisolation methods in chicken intranasally inoculated with mg. all chickens inoculated with ms tested negative using ...19937511790
a surface epitope undergoing high-frequency phase variation is shared by mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma bovis.we have recently reported that three distinct size- and phase-variable surface lipoproteins (vsps) of the bovine pathogen mycoplasma bovis possess a common epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 1e5. in the present study, we show that this epitope is also present on a size-variant protein (pvpa) of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum. application of monoclonal antibody 1e5 in western immunoblot analysis of triton x-114 phase-fractionated proteins and in colony immunoblots, as well as ...19947523302
expression of mycoplasma gallisepticum f-strain surface epitope.the expression of a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) f-strain surface epitope was studied using monoclonal antibody 6f10. different f strain colonies were cloned based on positive or negative expression of the 6f10-recognized epitope. clones selected for the lack of expression of this epitope (negative clones) reverted rapidly to positive expression. on the other hand, negative clones derived from f-strain-vaccinated chickens expressed the 6f10-recognized epitope variably. after in vitro passages, ...19947530442
analysis of the variability in expression of mycoplasma gallisepticum surface antigens.the in vitro expression of surface epitopes for different strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was studied with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) using indirect colony immunostaining and western blot (wb) analyses. immunostaining of colonies with mabs showed that five epitopes had different degrees of variable expression, while one epitope was permanently expressed in vitro. colonies that failed to express the studied epitopes had the potential of phenotypically switching the expressio ...19947533961
sequence and transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding the class-ii topoisomerase of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the gyrab genes encoding the entire b and a portion of the a subunit of dna gyrase (e.c. 5.99.1.3) from mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), strain s6, were cloned and sequenced. these gyrab genes are co-transcribed as a single, polycistronic mrna transcript. the mg gyrb appears unique among prokaryotic gyrb in its use of gug as a start codon.19957557470
in vivo variation of mycoplasma gallisepticum antigen expression in experimentally infected chickens.the antigen expression profiles of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates obtained from tracheal swabs of chickens after aerosol-inoculation with m. gallisepticum strain r or clonal variant r/e were examined in western immunoblots. a reference anti-m. gallisepticum chicken antiserum and antisera from individual infected chickens as well as monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for surface proteins were used to monitor in vivo antigenic variation. mabs 1e5 and 12d8, recognizing pvpa and p67a, recently ...19957571373
dna diversity among isolates of campylobacter jejuni detected by pcr-based rapd fingerprinting.a pcr-based randomly amplified polymorphic dna method was used to amplify campylobacter jejuni dna using a single oligonucleotide primer derived from either a homologous source or from mycoplasma gallisepticum. the method was able to detect the heterogeneity of amplified dna from human, chicken and turkey sources and can be used as a tool to study the epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni infection.19957571378
antigenic relatedness between seven avian mycoplasma species as revealed by western blot analysis.cross-reactivities among seven avian mycoplasma species (mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. meleagridis, m. iowae, m. anatis, m. gallinarum, and m. iners) were examined using rabbit polyclonal antisera and two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against m. pneumoniae: myc-9 and myc-4. the major antigens and cross-reacting antigens of the seven mycoplasma species were demonstrated by immunoblotting assay using homologous and heterologous antisera. two-way cross-reacting antigens of ms and mg, wit ...19957677645
effect of isolation and sanitation on the recovery of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum from chronically infected hens held in biological isolation units.two trials were conducted to determine if individual housing or improved sanitation would enable hens to clear mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection. in each of the two trials, 40 commercial leghorn hens were infected with f strain mg (f-mg) and confined in biological isolation units in two groups: 1) hens housed individually in each of eight isolation units and 2) hens housed in groups of four in each of eight other units. each of these two groups was further subdivided into two groups: 1) no ...19957677646
species identification of avian mycoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis were used to detect and differentiate four pathogenic species (mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. iowae, m. meleagridis, and m. synoviae) and ten nonpathogenic species of avian mycoplasma. a sequence of 1026 base pairs within the gene for 16s ribosomal rna (16s rrna) from avian mycoplasmas was successfully amplified by pcr with oligonucleotide primers (m16spcr5' and m16spcr3') common to all avian mycoplasmas t ...19957677664
evidence for a common epitope on the surface of mycoplasma gallisepticum defined by monoclonal antibody.an antigen containing a common epitope in most strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum was purified by isoelectric focusing and used in the production of monoclonal antibodies (mab). of several mab produced, only one mab reacted with focused component and with all six strains of m. gallisepticum except strain 6/85. this mab was designated mg3d6.a5, and it was subsequently purified with immobilized rprotein atm. the mg3d6.a5 mab recognized a common epitope on a molecule with relative molecular weight ...19937689775
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chukar partridges, pheasants, and peafowl.mycoplasma gallisepticum infection was diagnosed in a group of chukar partridges, pheasants, and peafowl based on serology and isolation techniques. the farm also had quail, chickens, and ducks. clinical signs in growing birds consisted of foamy eyes, swollen infraorbital sinuses, respiratory distress, and death. breeding birds experienced a severe drop in egg production. histologically, the growing birds exhibited lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the conjunctiva, sinus, and trachea. the most l ...19947702531
occurrence of keratoconjunctivitis apparently caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum in layer chickens.natural cases of keratoconjunctivitis, apparently caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), in layer chickens are described. the disease occurred in a commercial flock consisting of 36,000 pullets (babcock), first appearing around 30 days of age. clinically, affected chickens showed unilateral or bilateral swelling of the facial skin and the eyelids, increased lacrimation, congestion of conjunctival vessels, and respiratory rales. some of the severely affected chickens closed their eyes. the morb ...19957725593
evaluation of the efficacy of zwitterionic dodecyl carboxybetaine surfactants for the extraction and the separation of mycoplasma membrane protein antigens.the ability to extract mycoplasma membrane protein antigens using the alkyl carboxybetaine surfactants (n-dodecyl-n,n-dimethylammonio)butyrate (ddmab, cmc = 4.3 mm) and (n-dodecyl-n,n-dimethylammonio)undecanoate (ddmau, cmc = 0.13 mm) was assessed by protein titration and sds-page analysis. the maximum yields of membrane protein solubilization ranged from 20 to 90%, depending upon both the mycoplasma membrane investigated and the surfactant used. in five of six cases, the extraction was optimal ...19957733453
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in drug-treated chickens: comparison of diagnosis methods including polymerase chain reaction.ten chickens were inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and treated with enrofloxacine. on eight different dates post-inoculation (pi), tracheal swab samples were collected for mycoplasma culture or detection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and blood samples were analysed by slide-agglutination test (sa) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). results showed that culture and pcr detected mg from 14/80 or 20/80 samples, respectively. the last culture-positive sample was collect ...19947740859
mycoplasma gallisepticum 16s rrna genes.the genome of mycoplasma gallisepticum a5969 contains a truncated pseudogene for 16s rrna in addition to a single unsplit rrna-operon and a second discontinuous set of rrna genes. other m. gallisepticum strains tested do not possess the truncated gene. this gene is almost identical to full-size isolated 16s rrna gene starting from at least 500 nucleotides upstream of the coding sequence and ending at the 977th nucleotide within the structural part of 16s rrna.19957781981
symmetrical distribution and rapid transbilayer movement of cholesterol in mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes.the exchange of cholesterol between [14c]cholesterol-labeled mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and an excess of sonicated egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol vesicles (molar ratio of 0.9) was measured. more than 90% of the radioactive cholesterol underwent transfer from intact cells to the vesicles. the kinetics of the transfer was biphasic. about 50% of the radioactive cholesterol was exchanged with a half-time of about 4 h. the residual was exchanged at a slower rate with a half-time of about 9 h ...19817317418
detection of specific antibodies directed against a consistently expressed surface antigen of mycoplasma gallisepticum using a monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.sera from 14 groups of chickens inoculated with different laboratory and field strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were used to compare the diagnostic potential of the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test and a recently developed monoclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). hi was performed with strain a5969, commonly used as hemagglutinating antigen, and it could detect 62.7% of the inoculated chickens as positive. of all sera, 83% proved to be positive when examined wit ...19957794187
physical mapping of the mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 genome with localization of selected genes.we report the construction of a physical map of the mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 genome by field-inversion gel electrophoresis of dna fragments generated by digestion of genomic dna with rare-cutting restriction endonucleases. the size of the m. gallisepticum s6 genome was calculated to be approximately 1,054 kb. the loci of several genes have been assigned to the map by southern hybridization utilizing specific gene probes.19957798142
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in turkey blood samples by elisa and by the slide agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests.comparative examination of a total of 1,030 blood samples from six turkey flocks of three eastern hungarian turkey farms was performed by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and slide agglutination (sa) tests and by a competitive elisa visualizing the inhibition by a positive test serum of the reaction between a monoclonal antibody and the specific epitope of mycoplasma gallisepticum recognized by it. all the three tests detected the flocks which were certainly infected. the highe ...19947810403
metabolic radiolabelling of mycoplasma gallisepticum on vero cells and radioimmunoprecipitation assay.a monoclonal antibody (mab) a2 was produced against a major polypeptide of mycoplasma gallisepticum with a molecular mass of 64 kda. mab a2 reacted in immunoblot at a titre of 10(4.33) and had a titre of 10(4.5) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. in a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (ripa) using metabolic [35s]methionine radiolabelling of m. gallisepticum suspension in vero cell culture, mab a2 was able to precipitate the 64 kda protein and another protein of 47 kda. the present study invol ...19957829865
analysis and characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from pennsylvania.because mycoplasma gallisepticum f strain vaccine can be pathogenic in chickens and is pathogenic in turkeys, we monitored the spread of mg f strain into unvaccinated flocks by screening field and experimental isolates. thirteen mg isolates obtained from various sources in pennsylvania were screened using several techniques capable of differentiating between mg strains. dna restriction enzyme analysis (rea), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) protein profiles, n ...19947832700
effect of bentonite incorporated in a feed ration with tilmicosin in the prevention of induced mycoplasma gallisepticum airsacculitis in broiler chickens.a factorial arrangement of tilmicosin and bentonite was evaluated for efficacy in broiler chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum and correlated to tilmicosin recovery in a feed assay method. tilmicosin at 300-500 g/ton prevented development of airsacculitis. the addition of 2% bentonite to the ration caused tilmicosin at 300 g/ton to be ineffective in controlling air-sac lesions, whereas 400 and 500 g/ton were moderately effective. six percent bentonite rendered tilmicosin completely in ...19947832702
differentiation of two strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry.identification of infecting mycoplasma spp. is difficult and not routine for strain. this paper describes a procedure for the rapid identification of the strain of m. gallisepticum. monoclonal antibodies were prepared against m. gallisepticum f and m. gallisepticum s6. aliquots of 24-hour broth cultures of these organisms were incubated briefly with either of the monoclonal antibodies. a second incubation was made with anti-mouse immunoglobulin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate. fluoresce ...19947832707
a serosurvey using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in ostriches (struthio camelus) from zimbabwe.horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-ostrich igg was raised and used in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to detect antibodies reactive with 11 poultry pathogens in sera from 149 ostriches from nine farms around zimbabwe. antibodies were detected to turkey rhinotracheitis virus (99%), newcastle disease virus (23%), avian reovirus (19%), infectious bursal disease virus (15%), avian encephalomyelitis virus (15%), mycoplasma gallisepticum and/or m. synoviae (11%), reticuloend ...19947832718
diseases and management of backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, zimbabwe.to gather information on backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, an urban center in zimbabwe, 85 flock owners were interviewed. the mean flock size was 53 birds (range 1-650), and most birds were kept for meat, for either domestic consumption or local sale. mean age at slaughter was 12.4 weeks (range 8-24). none of the owners vaccinated their birds, and reported mortality rates were high (mean 25%), most commonly being associated with diseases causing eye and respiratory problems. most owners co ...19947832719
complicated infectious coryza outbreaks in argentina.seventeen complicated outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer, broiler-breeder, and broiler flocks were studied. in the layer flock outbreaks, drops in egg production of up to 35% were seen. in the broiler flocks and several of the layer flocks, losses due to persistent mortality and/or culling varied between 2 and 5%. signs of infectious coryza in both layers and broiler-breeders were typical; in broilers, however, swollen head-like syndrome was seen. except in one flock, no viral diseases were ...19947832727
preparation and characterization of lectin-latex conjugates for specific bioadhesion.this paper reports on the preparation and characterization of certain bioadhesive model drug deliver systems formed by a carrier (e.g. modified nanoparticles of polystyrene) and a ligand (e.g. tomato lectin, asparagus pea lectin, mycoplasma gallisepticum lectin or albumin). three different manufacturing methods (carbodiimide and glutaraldehyde coupling and physical adsorption) were studied. the activity of the lectin-latex conjugates and albumin-latex conjugate (control) were tested with gastric ...19947833437
mycoplasma gallisepticum strain differentiation by arbitrary primer pcr (rapd) fingerprinting.we demonstrate here that the arbitrary primer polymerase-chain-reaction-based dna fingerprinting method (also termed random amplified polymorphic dna or rapd) can be used to distinguish among strains of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum. ten base oligonucleotide primers were used individually to prime dna synthesis from genomic dnas. strain-specific arrays of dna fragments were generated, which allowed us to identify and group isolates. isolates of m. synoviae, m. gallinarum and m. ine ...19947870072
[identification of a mycoplasma strain using fingerprinting of restriction enzyme hydrolysates of chromosomal dna].the heterogeneity among mycoplasma gallisepticum strains was characterized by comparing genomic dna from different strains. two criteria were used for the comparison. 1. analysis of smai and bgli restriction patterns. a method using a dialysis sack for preparation of mycoplasma dna suitable for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is described. 2. comparison of "fingerprinting" patterns obtained as a result of southern transfer of hindiii-digested dna followed by hybridization with cloned repetitive ...19947885330
the organisation of the multigene family which encodes the major cell surface protein, pmga, of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the genome of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum contains a number of related genes for putative adhesion molecules (pmga). cloning and sequence analysis of several pmga genes suggested that all of them might be transcriptionally and translationally functional. analysis of the gene sequence encoding the sole pmga variant expressed in vitro in the s6 strain (pmga1.1) revealed no unambiguous feature that could account for its unique expression. it is estimated that the pmga gene family ma ...19947925999
recombinant dna probes and polymerase chain reaction for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.two recombinant dna clones, pmg286.2 and pmg301.1, were isolated from the partial genomic library of mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6. recombinant m. gallisepticum specific fragments were used as probes in southern hybridisation with 10 m. gallisepticum strains whose dna was digested by ecori, hindiii, bglii, rsai and bamhi. the 1.5 kb fragment pmg301.1 did not show polymorphism in hybridisation patterns with m. gallisepticum strains, while the 3.5 kb fragment pmg286.2 enabled differentiation ...19947958781
effect of mixed live vaccine (newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis) and mycoplasma gallisepticum on the chicken respiratory tract and on escherichia coli infection.interaction between mixed live vaccine (newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and escherichia coli (ec) was studied in specific-pathogen-free chickens, aged 7 days, inoculated intranasally. in the tracheas of chickens inoculated with vaccine, mg and ec, profuse multiplication of ec occurred together with severe and persisent histological lesions, and some birds died from ec infection. similar though less dramatic effects occurred in birds that received vacci ...19947962725
transformation of mollicutes with single-stranded tn4001 dna.acholeplasma oculi ism1499 and mycoplasma gallisepticum were transformed with single-stranded and double-stranded plasmids containing tn4001. the transposon mobilized to the chromosome using both single-stranded and double-stranded dna at the same frequency. m. gallisepticum transformed at a 2 log lower frequency than did a. oculi ism1499. restriction enzyme digestion of single-stranded dna indicated homologous base pairing in the inverted repeat regions, which could account for the transpositio ...19947991677
tubular structures of mycoplasma gallisepticum and their possible participation in cell motility.in five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum, a protein with a molecular mass of about 40 kda was detected by immunoblotting with anti-pig brain tubulin polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. in eight other mycoplasma species similarly tested no reaction was observed. thin serial sections of m. gallisepticum and acholeplasma laidlawii cells examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed a submembrane system of tubules in m. gallisepticum but not in a. laidlawii. the intracellular spatial di ...19948012588
physical map of mycoplasma gallisepticum.physical chromosomal maps of two mycoplasma gallisepticum strains, r and atcc 19610, were constructed by using field inversion gel electrophoresis. to assist in the ordering of chromosomal fragments and the construction of the chromosomal maps, the gram-positive transposon tn4001 was modified to serve as a mobile restriction site. the total sizes of the m. gallisepticum r and atcc 19610 genomes were estimated to be 1,037 and 998 kb, respectively. the restriction enzyme locations for eagi and sma ...19948021195
transformation of mycoplasma gallisepticum with tn916, tn4001, and integrative plasmid vectors.mycoplasma gallisepticum causes respiratory disease in avian species, but little is known about its mechanism(s) of pathogenesis. these studies were undertaken in order to develop genetic systems for analysis of potential virulence factors. m. gallisepticum was transformed with plasmids containing one of the gram-positive transposons tn916 or tn4001, which inserted randomly into the mycoplasmal chromosome. plasmids containing cloned chromosomal dna were also constructed and tested for integratio ...19948021232
local reaction and serological response in commercial layer chickens injected intramuscularly in the leg with oil-adjuvanted mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin.the incidence of local vaccine reaction was investigated in three flocks of commercial layer chickens after they were vaccinated intramuscularly in the leg with oil-adjuvanted mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin by commercial crews. local vaccine reaction typically involved swelling due to a granulomatous cellulitis in the connective tissue above the tibiotarsal joint of the vaccinated leg. histopathology revealed that the inflammatory reaction was confined primarily to subcutis and muscle fa ...19938141726
immunoglobulin receptors used in avian mycoplasma identification.among 77 isolates of avian mycoplasma examined, igg receptors were demonstrated on six of the nine species represented. species identified with receptors were: mycoplasma gallisepticum (two receptors of approximately 84,000 and 75,000 molecular weight [mw]), m. gallinarum (one receptor of approximately 135,000 mw), m. pullorum (one receptor of approximately 130,000 mw), m. gallinaceum (one receptor of approximately 125,000 mw), m. iowae (two receptors of approximately 50,000 and 38,000 mw), and ...19938141737
a comparative study of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in young chickens.ten-day-old leghorn chickens were vaccinated with the f, ts-11, or 6/85 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) via the intraocular route or subcutaneously with mg bacterin and challenged by aerosol with the r strain of mg at 30, 60, or 90 days post-vaccination. respiratory reaction post-vaccination, serological response, persistence of the vaccine strain, and protection against aerosol challenge were compared. in general, the ts-11 and 6/85 strains induced a milder post-vaccination reaction tha ...19938141758
direct and correlated responses to multitrait, divergent selection for immunocompetence.leghorn lines had been selected for an immunocompetence index based on four traits: antibody production to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and pasteurella multocida (pm) vaccines, reticuloendothelial clearance of colloidal carbon (cca), and cell-mediated, wing web response to phytohemagglutinin (pha). the purpose of this study was to produce replicated lines of chickens with divergent levels of multitrait immunocompetence by index selection. the objectives of analyses of generations 5 to 7 of this ...19948165163
differences in major histocompatibility complex frequencies after multitrait, divergent selection for immunocompetence.white leghorn chickens from lines selected for four immune-response traits (ir lines) were serotyped for b system alloantigens characterizing the haplotypes and genotypes to examine the effect of divergent selection for multitrait immunocompetence on mhc haplotype and genotype frequencies. the selected lines were derived from the ottawa strain 7. the selection index included four immunocompetence traits: antibody production against mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and pasteurella multocida, inflamm ...19948165171
[serologic monitoring of pullet and laying hen flocks in switzerland: results from the years 1990 and 1991].in 1990 and 1991 4522 blood samples from 398 pullet flocks and 1338 blood samples from 128 laying flocks were monitored for antibody against infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, adenovirus, reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, newcastle disease virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae. the results are discussed for pullets and laying hens.19938211056
cloning and dna sequence of a 29 kilodalton polypeptide gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum as a possible protective antigen.a lambda gt11 clone, designated m1 and having a 0.8 kilobase (kb) insert, was selected by screening a mycoplasma gallisepticum (m.g.) genomic dna library with antisera against m.g. cells and their membrane proteins. the sequence of a 1.7 kb ecori fragment of genomic dna covering the entire m1 insert revealed a long open reading frame, tm-1, that encoded a polypeptide with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kda. an antiserum raised in chicken against the tm-1 polypeptide, which was produced by reco ...19938212828
mycoplasma imitans sp. nov. is related to mycoplasma gallisepticum and found in birds.a mycoplasma designated strain 4229t (t = type strain) was isolated in 1984 from the turbinate of a duck in france, and similar strains were isolated from geese in france and from a partridge in england. all of these strains were originally identified as mycoplasma gallisepticum by immunofluorescence and growth inhibition tests, but subsequent serological and molecular studies indicated only a partial relationship to this species and dna-dna hybridization studies revealed only approximately 40 t ...19938240954
monoclonal antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were prepared to study the immunogenesis of mycoplasma gallisepticum. balb/c mice were immunized with m. gallisepticum immunostimulating complexes and the supernatant of heterokaryotes screened with m. gallisepticum and closely related m. synoviae as antigens in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. all selected mabs proved to be m. gallisepticum species-specific when they were tested against 10 different avian mycoplasma species. after immunoblotting analysis, ...19938257358
protective immune response to mycoplasma gallisepticum demonstrated in respiratory-tract washings from m. gallisepticum-infected chickens.chickens inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) produced iga, igm, and igg detectable in washings from the upper respiratory tract (urtw; nasal sinuses and turbinates) and lower respiratory tract (lrtw; trachea, lungs, and air sacs). urtw and lrtw from infected chickens had significant protective effects in a mg-inoculated tracheal-ring-organ-culture system. protective effects in vitro correlated positively with total mg-specific immunoglobulin titer, but not iga titer, as determined by e ...19938257359
inhibition of mycoplasma gallisepticum growth and attachment to chick tracheal rings by antibodies to a 64-kilodalton membrane protein of m. gallisepticum.a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strain r protein of 64 kilodaltons (p64) was partially digested from the surface of the bacterium by trypsin. monospecific polyclonal anti-p64 igg inhibited attachment of mg to chick tracheal rings by as much as 69%. however, trypsin treatment of viable mg cells did not reduce attachment to tracheal rings or hemagglutination titer. anti-p64 igg inhibited growth of mg strain r in broth and on solid media, inhibited the uptake of radiolabeled thymidine, but did not ...19938257360
clinical mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in multiplier breeder and meat turkeys caused by f strain: identification by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, restriction endonuclease analysis, and the polymerase chain reaction.in february 1991, a flock of north carolina multiplier breeder turkeys experienced respiratory signs, sinusitis, airsacculitis, and increased mortality. mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was isolated, and appropriate control measures were initiated. ultimately, this outbreak involved several breeder flocks of an integrated turkey production company before the last infected flock was identified in may 1991. during this time, mg was also isolated from a flock of commercial layer-type chickens raised a ...19938257382
mycoplasma-induced arthritis in poultry.mycoplasmaa-induced arthritis of poultry under field conditions is almost entirely caused by mycoplasm synoviae (ms) infection. experimentally, mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma iowae have all been shown to cause arthritis, tenosynovitis and lesions of periarticular tissue. however, greatest attention has been given to ms in this respect. the leg joints are most consistently involved, and of these particularly the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal and ...19817287403
antibiotic sensitivity patterns in field isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum as a guide to chemotherapy.control of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection in commercial poultry flocks has sometimes been achieved by the intensive use of antibiotics. in some cases, a single drug, tylosin tartrate, has been used repeatedly in prophylactic and therapeutic applications. it appears that this selective pressure can lead to the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to tylosin. this was observed in mg strains isolated in 1978 from turkey breeding flocks repeatedly treated with tylosin, but not in ...19817287408
[cloning and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the segment in the mycoplasma gallisepticum genome containing the gene for the atp-binding subunit of dna topoisomerase type ii (topiib)].m. gallisepticum genome fragment carrying complete coding sequence for atp-binding subunit of topoisomerase ii (topiib), partial coding sequence for n-terminal part of a-subunit of topoisomerase ii and region upstream of topiib gene (open reading frame encoding 99 amino acids) was sequenced. the nucleotide sequence of topiib has significant homology with previously reported gyrase genes and pare gene of e. coli. no protein sequence significantly similar to the open reading frame upstream from th ...19957783737
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in field samples using a species-specific dna probe.species-specific dna probes for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared with serologic and isolation procedures as a routine diagnostic tool on field specimens acquired from chicken flocks experiencing egg-production losses and suspected of mg infection. the mg dna probe clearly identified mg directly from tracheal specimens within 2 days, unlike the 7 to 10 days required for culture procedures. cross-reaction of mg with m. synoviae continues to be a stumbling block in the serum plate agglut ...19938257385
monoclonal antibodies species-specific to mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.two species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae. the mab against m. synoviae recognizes an antigen of 90,000 molecular weight present in strain wvu 1853 and in two brazilian field isolates. the mab produced against m. gallisepticum recognizes a surface antigen in strains s6 and r and in three brazilian field isolates of different molecular weights. the mabs do not recognize antigens in m. gallinarum and m. iowae.19938257387
construction of tn4001lac derivatives to be used as promoter probe vectors in mycoplasmas.studies of gene expression in mycoplasmas has been difficult, because the elements involved in gene expression remain relatively undefined. in order to be able to examine these regulatory elements in vivo, derivatives of tn4001 containing the promoterless escherichia coli lacz reporter gene have been constructed. a tn4001lac derivative, tn4001.2062.2lac, transforms mycoplasma gallisepticum and acholeplasma strain ism1499. approximately 3% of the m. gallisepticum and 8% of the acholeplasma ism149 ...19938299950
phylogenetic diversity of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms.by using specific primers, the 16s rrna genes of japanese mycoplasmalike organisms (mlos) were amplified by polymerase chain reactions from mlo-enriched fractions of plants infected with each of six different mlos. each of the polymerase chain reaction fragments (length, 1,370 nucleotides) was directly sequenced in both strands by using 17 oligonucleotide primers. a phylogenetic tree constructed by using the sequence data showed that these japanese mlos are phylogenetically diverse microorganism ...19938347505
identification of the putative cytadhesin gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum and its use as a dna probe.a portion of the putative mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) cytadhesin gene was identified and used as a diagnostic dna probe. degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved regions of the cytadhesin proteins from two human mycoplasmas, m. pneumoniae and m. genitalium, were synthesized for use in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) on genomic mg dna. a 583-base-pair mg dna fragment was amplified and subsequently cloned and sequenced. the mg dna fragment is predicted to encode a 193-am ...19938363503
species-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to 16s rrna of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.mycoplasma gallisepticum and m synoviae are important avian pathogens causing respiratory diseases which result in great economic losses in poultry farming. two oligonucleotide probes, complementary to the variable region v8 of 16s rrna from the avian mycoplasmas m gallisepticum and m synoviae have, therefore, been designed and used in direct filter hybridisation experiments. both probes gave strong hybridisation signals with their homologous targets, whereas no cross-hybridisations were obtaine ...19938378607
a comparison of the efficacy of danofloxacin and tylosin in the control of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler chicks.groups of chicks were infected with a virulent strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and treated with either danofloxacin or tylosin while one infected group was left untreated and a further group was uninfected and untreated. control of clinical signs and mortality was better with danofloxacin than tylosin and there was significantly (p < 0.05) greater weight gain with danofloxacin at 21 days after infection. however at necropsy the prevalence of lesions of the airsac walls was similar in bot ...19938386777
efficacy of danofloxacin and tylosin in the control of mycoplasmosis in chicks infected with tylosin-susceptible or tylosin-resistant field isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the efficacy of danofloxacin was compared with that of tylosin in the control of induced mycoplasmosis. in three experiments, disease was induced in broiler chicks by intrapulmonary injection of field isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) originating from brazil, a different isolate being used for each experiment. starting the day after inoculation, groups of chicks were medicated for 3 days via the drinking water with danofloxacin (50 ppm) or tylosin (500 ppm) or were left as unmedicated co ...19938395803
a comparison of danofloxacin and tylosin in the control of induced mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler chicks.experimental mycoplasmosis was induced in 1-day-old chicks by intrapulmonary inoculation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). this method of infection proved to be useful for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial medication, by measuring mortality, weight gain, pathological responses, frequency of reisolation of mg, and seroconversion. using this model, the efficacies of danofloxacin (a novel fluoroquinolone) and tylosin were compared for two mg isolates, a reference isolate (the r-strain) and a ...19938395804
molecular cloning of a member of the gene family that encodes pmga, a hemagglutinin of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a hemagglutinin with an m(r) of 67,000 (pmga) from mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 was purified by using monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography. purified pmga was treated with a number of enzymes, the resultant peptides were purified, and their amino acid sequence was determined by using an applied biosystems (model 471a) protein sequencer. the dna sequence encoding two peptides was used to dictate the sequences of synthetic oligonucleotides which were used to screen a library of ecori-cut m. g ...19938432610
protection against airsacculitis with sequential systemic and local immunization of chickens using killed mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin with iota carrageenan adjuvant.the induction of protective immunity to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) by bacterins containing 0.2% iota carrageenan (icgn) as an adjuvant has been studied. various combinations of intracoelomic (i.c.), intratracheal (i.t.), intranasal (i.n.), intravenous (i.v.), subcutaneous (s.c.) and oral immunization routes were evaluated. vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups were compared with a group vaccinated s.c. with a commercial bacterin. primary i.c. immunization with the bacterin was as effective as ...19938447159
mycoplasma gallisepticum f-vaccine strain-specific polymerase chain reaction.a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) f-vaccine strain polymerase chain reaction (pcr) (mgf-pcr) was developed and standardized. the origin of the primers was a clone (p08-m6#17) that contained an mg f-strain-specific dna fragment of 6.0 kilobase pairs designated fmgf-1. both ends of fmgf-1 (bamhi and ecori) were sequenced, and regions adequate for the primers were chosen. seven 25-base primers were synthesized, and two near the ecori end (mgf-p1 left [l] and right [r]) were selected for mgf-pcr, mgf- ...19938452497
expression studies on four members of the pmga multigene family in mycoplasma gallisepticum s6.a large family of related genes known as pmga exists in the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum but only a single member of this family was previously found to be expressed in one strain of this bacterium. in this work two unrelated strains of m. gallisepticum were also shown by amino-terminal sequencing to express a unique pmga polypeptide in both cases. to investigate pmga gene selection in m. gallisepticum, mrna expression was analysed in m. gallisepticum strain 56 using reverse transcrip ...19958535528
pathogenicity and cytadherence of mycoplasma imitans in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures.two strains of the avian organism mycoplasma imitans were examined for pathogenicity and cytadherence in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures, and a virulent strain of the related pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum was included for comparison. all consistently cause ciliostasis in tracheal explants from both hosts, and examination of infected tissues by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that m. imitans proliferated on the epithelial surface and adhere ...19968550208
the effect of route of inoculation on protection by killed vaccines in chickens.the effect of various routes of immunization on protection against challenge by virulent agents was examined in chickens. chickens were immunized intratracheally, intranasally, per os, by crop gavage, and intramuscularly. agents examined were killed haemophilus paragallinarum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, and infectious bursal disease virus. results of immunization by intratracheal administration were equivalent to those produced by parenteral administration. all vaccines effectively induced produc ...19958561734
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, and m. iowae by multi-species polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.a single set of oligonucleotide primers was designed from known 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) sequences of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), m. synoviae (ms), and m. iowae (mi). this set of primers selectively amplifies a 780-base-pair dna fragment within the 16s rrna gene of mg, ms, and mi but does not amplify other avian mycoplasmas or other bacteria. the detection limit of the multi-species polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was approximately 100 mycoplasma (mg, ms, mi) colony-forming units per pcr reac ...19958561747
acylation and immunological properties of mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins.the acylation of mycoplasma gallisepticum membrane proteins was studied by electrophoresis after in vivo labelling with different 14c-fatty acids and by chemical analysis. the immunological properties of these proteins were investigated by western blotting and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. among the ca. 200 membrane polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 35 components (including the major protein p67) were covalently modified with acyl chains. these acylated proteins displaye ...19958584796
studies on the efficacy of combined immunostimulant-antibiotic therapy against experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.josamycin is an antibiotic known to become selectively concentrated intracellularly and in respiratory organs, the habitate of mycoplasma gallisepticum. the aim of this present work was to evaluate the efficacy of josamycin when given alone or combined with an immunostimulant cornebacterium cutis ultralysate. groups of chickens were given josamycin alone or corynebacterium ultralysate alone or both agents or nothing immediately before induction of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. birds were s ...19958591743
sequence analysis of 56 kb from the genome of the bacterium mycoplasma pneumoniae comprising the dnaa region, the atp operon and a cluster of ribosomal protein genes.to sequence the entire 800 kilobase pair genome of the bacterium mycoplasma pneumoniae, a plasmid library was established with contained the majority of the ecor1 fragments from m.pneumoniae. the ecor1 fragments were subcloned from an ordered cosmid library comprising the complete m.pneumoniae genome. individual plasmid clones were sequenced in an ordered fashion mainly by primer walking. we report here the initial results from the sequence analysis of -56 kb comprising the dnaa region as a pote ...19968604303
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