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comparative study of mycoplasma pulmonis and mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in turkey sinus.infraorbital sinuses of young turkeys were injected with virulent strains of mycoplasma pulmonis and mycoplasma gallisepticum to compare the diseases caused by the 2 agents. mycoplasma pulmonis did not cause visible swelling from large quantities of mucous exudate in the sinuses, such as occurs with m gallisepticum, and it could not be recovered by bacteriologic culture technique after 3 weeks. however, slight exudate did accompany the m pulmonis infection. similarities between the disease caus ...19751163884
interference of mycoplasma gallisepticum with multiplication of newcastle disease virus in chickens. 19751164323
antimicrobial activities of 81.723 hfu, a new pleuromutilin derivative.the new pleuromutilin derivative 81.723 hfu is extremely active against gram-positive organisms such as streptococci, staphylococci, and against mycoplasmas. a number of shigella, klebsiella, and escherichia coli strains were also found to be quite susceptible to this new agent, whereas other gram-negative organisms like pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus species, and alcaligenes faecalis proved to be naturally resistant to 81.723 hfu. the new compound acts bacteriostatically. bactericidal effects ...19751170807
nanaomycins, new antibiotics produced by a strain of streptomyces. iii. a new component, nanaomycin c, and biological activities of nanaomycin derivatives.a new component, nanaomycin c, has been isolated from culture medium of streptomyces rosa var. notoensis, which had been found to produce nanaomycins a and b. nanaomycin c is an amide of nanaomycin a. biological activities of nanaomycin c and several derivatives of nanaomycin a are also shown. acetylnanaomycin a exhibits as strong activities against gram-positive bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma gallisepticum as nanaomycin a.19751206004
dissociation of mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes with lithium diiodosalicylate and isolation of glycoprotein.m. gallisepticum membranes were treated with 0.3m lithium diiodosalicylate (lis) and, on average, 43% of the original membrane proteins were extracted. the extract contained particles with a sedimentation coefficient of 13s and some aggregated proteins. this lis extract was immunogenic, stimulating the production of haemagglutination-inhibiting, growth-inhibiting and precipitating antibodies in rabbits. it was devoid of haemagglutinating (ha) activity for chicken erythrocytes but did inhibit the ...19751211714
efficacy trials in turkey poults with tylosin tartrate against mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma meleagridis.tylosin tartrate, administered in the drinking water at a concentration of 0.55 g/litre for the first three days after hatching, was highly effective in controlling the adverse consequences of a mycoplasma gallisepticum infection, established by air sac injection at one day of age, in turkey poults. tylosin was ineffective in controlling m meleagridis infections established in embryo or at one day of age when administered in the drinking water of poults. both mycoplasma isolates used were inhibi ...19751215688
a comparison of commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum antigens in the rapid serum agglutination test.twenty-three chickens, aged 9 weeks, were housed in contact with a similar group of chickens which were infected with m. gallisepticum. the onset and development of the serum agglutinin responses which were detected by 3 commercial antigens using rapid serum agglutination tests up to 20 weeks of age, differed greatly both between the infected and in-contact groups and, within the latter group, between the antigens. few reactions, which were weak and transient, were detected in 2 similar groups o ...19751222006
clinical, cultural, and serologic observations of avian mycoplasmosis in two chicken breeder flocks.two chicken breeding flocks from different breeding lines were studied serologically and culturally for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) throughout their growing and laying period. infection was proven by successful isolation of mg from both breeders and progeny originating from these two flocks. observations of these flocks which were serologically and culturally negative for mycoplasma synoviae (ms) further disclosed that: 1) negative plate tests of large numbers of day-old progeny may sometimes ...19761259662
role of arginine deiminase in growth of mycoplasma hominis.arginine has been considered as the major energy source of nonglycolytic arginine-utilizing mycoplasmata. when three strains of mycoplasma arginini, and one strain each of mycoplasma arthritidis, mycoplasma fermentans, mycoplasma gallinarum, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma hominis were grown in the medium with high arginine concentration (34 mm) compared with low arginine (4 mm), both the protein content of the organisms and the specific activity of arginine deiminase increased. m. ferme ...19761262306
evaluation of broiler breeder flocks for nonspecific mycoplasma synoviae reaction.serums from 65 broiler breeder flocks were evaluated for mycoplasma synoviae (ms) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) antibodies by serum plate agglutination (spa), micro hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), and agar gel precipitin (agp) tests. the nonspecific spa reaction in serum from breeder flocks was eliminated by diluting the serum 1:5 in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs), ph 7.2, before testing provided that the ms antigen reacted with 1:10 dilution of the ms antiserums. the nonspecific spa reac ...1976816342
use of the agar-gel precipitin test to evaluate broiler breeder and commercial layer flocks for mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.in the absence of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolation, the importance of agar-gel precipitin (agp) tests along with microhemagglutination-inhibition (mhi) and serum plate agglutination (spa) tests for the evaluation of poultry flocks for mg infection was demonstrated. a good correlation between agp, mhi, and spa tests for the early confirmation of mg in a flock was observed, except for the breeder flocks from which wvu 907 was isolated. the serums of such breeder flocks were positive for spa ...1976822817
[the "vaccination reaction" syndrome of broilers after vaccination against newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis (author's transl)].in a part of the broiler flocks vaccinated against newcastle disease (n.c.d) and infectious bronchitis (i.b.), disease symptoms of lingering nature have been observed, generally in the second half of the rearing period. in a practical investigation with weekly examinations of chickens, supplemented by a serological examination of twenty-four animals per flock at the age of six weeks, it was hoped to establish the factors responsible for this "vaccination reaction". in the district under notice t ...1976179162
the resistance and carrier status of meat-type hens exposed to mycoplasma synoviae.forty-eight 32-week-old meat-type females, free from mycoplasma synoviae (ms.) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg.) were aerosol exposed with a 24-hour broth culture of ms. 1331 and placed in 3 pens. 16 birds per pen. two males were placed in each of the 3 pens and used as contact birds. all birds were bled at 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 24, 26, and 30 weeks post ms. exposure. after the 24-week bleeding, the females were equally divided into 4 pens. all females in 2 of the pens were given a foot pad injectio ...1976934989
pathogenicity studies in poultry with an undefined serotype of mycoplasma.pathogenicity trials in poultry are reported with an isolate of mycoplasma, designated 'w8', which is serologically unrelated to mycoplasma gallisepticum, m synoviae or m meleagridis. w8 killed fowl and turkey embryos when injected into the yold sacs of embryonating eggs. infection of one-day-old fowls, turkeys and pheasants by the air sac route caused marked growth depression and a high incidence of osteomyelitis of the vertebral column in all species. a large proportion of infected turkeys and ...1976935670
evaluation of avian mycoplasma membranes as antigens.mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae membranes were obtained by lysing mycoplasma cells with carbonate bicarbonate buffer at ph 10. membrane preparations were compared with whole-cell preparations as to efficacy in the plate and tube agglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. membrane antigens were somewhat more sensitive in the plate and tube agglutination tests, whereas the hemagglutination-inhibition test showed no major difference between whole and membrane antigens. the membra ...1976938381
growth, cytopathogenicity and morphology of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. gallinarum in tracheal explants. 1976939830
in vitro anti-mycoplasmal activity of amphotericin b methyl ester.the polyene macrolide antibiotic amphotericin b (ab) and its chemically modified derivative amphotericin b methyl ester (ame) were tested for in vitro activity against acholeplasma laidlawii, spiroplasma citri and mycoplasma gallisepticum. both polyene macrolide preparations demonstrated anti-mycoplasmal activity. however, ame was mycoplasmacidal toward all three strains of mycoplasma at levels which previous studies have indicated would be permissible for most cell culture systems, whereas the ...1976950321
a comparison of the virulence of three strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum and one strain of mycoplasma gallinarum in chicks, turkey poults, tracheal organ cultures and embryonated fowl eggs.the virulence of three strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6 of low broth passage, s6 of high broth passage and a514) and of one strain of m gallinarum was investigated in specific pathogen free chicks, turkey poults, chick embryo tracheal organ cultures and embryonated fowl eggs. one strain of m gallisepticum, s6, of low passage, caused high mortality in newly hatched chicks, and turkey poults, high embryo mortality, and rapid suppression of ciliary activity in tracheal organ cultures. the ot ...1976951527
further observations on the use of a bivalent bacterin against haemophilus gallinarum.chickens vaccinated with two doses of a bivalent haemophilus gallinarum bacterin were protected against seven strains of the organism. vaccinated and unvaccinated birds with antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum had increased hi titers when challenged with h. gallinarum. birds positive for antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum which were not challenged showed no increase in hi titer.1976962761
mycoplasma gallisepticum antigen. 1976985229
temperature sensitivity studies on selected strains on mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg324), a tylosin resistant strain of low virulence, was compared with four other strains with respect to their survival at temperatures from 46.1 to 48.9 degrees c. mg324 was found to be more resistant than the other strains tested.19761000381
[studies on the specificity of the hemagglutination inhibition test using mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in experimentally inoculated chickens]. 1977340190
identification of avian mycoplasma isolates by the agar-gel precipitin test.recent isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae were readily typed by the agar-gel precipitin test with antigens prepared by freezing and thawing, sonic vibration, or sodium dodecyl sulfate. specific antisera prepared in rabbits or in foot-pad-inoculated chickens were adequate for culture typing. relatively few sera from chickens and turkeys in naturally infected flocks reacted positively. the precipitin reaction was highly specific, however.1977410403
[identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum with a hemadsorption inhibition test]. 1977842193
attachment of mycoplasma gallisepticum to the tracheal epithelium of fowls.an electron microscopical study of fowl trachea infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum showed slight to moderate changes at the cellular level. mycoplasmas were demonstrated extra-cellularly and showed triple membranes, intracytoplasmic spaces, fibrillar nuclear areas and blebs. blebs were seen attached to the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells.1977860098
the lytic effect of lysolecithin on acholeplasmas and mycoplasmas.lysolecithin exhibits a lytic activity on acholeplasmas and mycoplasmas. the acholeplasmas studied, viz. acholeplasma laidlawii a and b, were found less susceptible than were the mycoplasmas, viz. mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. pneumoniae. the sensitivity to lysis was found to differ according to species, growth temperature and number of organisms used. variations in age of the population and the concentration of bivalent ions in the test medium had but little influence. the greatest lytic acti ...1977899794
lack of repair of ultraviolet light damage in mycoplasma gallisepticum. 1977599562
[respiratory diseases of the fowl:principles of histopathological diagnosis].groups of specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with five strains of newcastle disease virus, one strain of adenovirus, four strains of infectious bronchitis virus, one strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum and with infectious bronchitis virus together with mycoplasma gallisepticum. lungs and tracheas were taken at regular intervals for histopathological examination. a diagnosis could be based on tracheal lesions at different periods of their development. newcastle disease was distinguish ...197718770313
survival of mycoplasma gallisepticum in mains water.the survival of two strains of mycoplasma gallispeticum in mains water at room temperature depended on the initial number of organisms and the incorporation of mycoplasma broth in the suspending medium. seven to 8 log(10) colony forming units (cfu) ml were needed for survival for 1 day in sterile water. in water with 1% (vol/vol) broth at least 6 log(10 )cfu/ml were needed for survival, which was prolonged to 4 days. in water with 10% broth 1 to 4 log(10) cfu/ml could survive for 9 to 10 days, w ...197718770315
the detection of maternal antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in chicks by the rapid serum agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests.eggs from hens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum and hens free from m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae were hatched and samples of blood were taken between 1 to 21 days after hatching. antibodies (m. gallisepticum) responsible for both rapid serum agglutination (rsa) and haemagglutination inhibition were detected in the sera of progeny of infected hens, but these declined until they were undetectable by 18 days of age. by 4 days after hatching only approximately 65% of the birds were positive ...197718770325
incidence of pasteurella haemolytica in the respiratory tract of apparently healthy chickens and chickens with infectious bronchitis. characterisation of 213 strains.the tracheal flora of healthy chickens consisted mainly of gram-positive microorganisms. a shift to a predominantly gram-negative flora, mainly due to escherichia, was observed in chickens with respiratory symptoms caused by infectious bronchitis. most of the chickens in which e. coli formed a predominant part of the tracheal flora also showed a positive serological reaction to mycoplasma gallisepticum. a raised incidence of pasteurella haemolytica with increase in age was noted both with regard ...197718770338
serological studies on flocks showing depressed egg production.a serological investigation was undertaken of flocks with depressed egg production. no obvious correlation was found between antibody to adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus and this syndrome. no antibody was detected to newcastle disease virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum or in most cases to mycoplasma synoviae. a relationship was found between the development of antibody to a haemagglutinating virus, 127, and depressed egg production. a retrospective survey o ...197718770349
inhibition of mycoplasma cell division by cytochalasin b.mycoplasma gallisepticum has subcellular organelles which may function as a primitive "mitotic-like" apparatus. to investigate these further, we have studied the effects of cytochalasin b (cb) on m. gallisepticum. we found that cb inhibits cell division; this is the only procaryote thus far reported to be inhibited by cb. cb does not inhibit glucose or macromolecule precursor uptake. it stops cellular dna synthesis, however, although rna and protein synthesis continue (at a reduced rate). cb rem ...1978620423
infectious coryza: preventing complicated coryza with haemophilus gallinarum and mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterins.three types of infectious coryza were produced in unvaccinated chickens by challenge inoculums containing different combinations of haemophilus gallinarum (hg) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). monovalent and combination bacterins of hg and mg were tested to determine their efficacy against chronic complicated infectious coryza. challenge exposure of vaccinates with mg and hg showed protection against the hg component to be immunotype-specific. some protection against complicated coryza resulte ...1978646755
inhibition of avian mycoplasmal hemagglutination by igm type antibody.intravenous exposure of turkeys to mycoplasma synoviae resulted in development of hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) activity in serums within 4 days. treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol and gel-filtration separation of serum immunoglobulins indicated that the activity was due to igm type antibody. similar early hi activity was demonstrated in serums from turkeys exposed intravenously to mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma meleagridis.1978674042
differences in incorporation of nucleic acid bases and nucleosides by various mycoplasma and acholeplasma species.eight species representative of the serological diversity of the mycoplasmatales were tested for their ability to incorporate radiolabeled nucleic acid precursors into acid-insoluble material. cultures in complex growth medium were centrifuged and resuspended in minimal essential medium (eagle). for acholeplasma laidlawii, labeling occurred mainly during the first 4 h of incubation, with substrate saturation at 20 micron. all organisms tested incorporated uracil, adenine, and guanine; none incor ...1978681280
the isolation of lentogenic strains of newcastle disease virus in australia.twelve isolations of newcastle disease virus were made from 77 clinical samples from chickens from conjunctivitis, respiratory disease, proventriculitis and bursal atrophy. nine of the isolations were made from chickens with conjunctivitis. the viruses were identified as newcastle disease virus by inhibition of their haemagglutinins with specific antiserum to newcastle disease virus. the viruses failed to kill chicken embryos after inoculation into the allantoic cavity and they were judged to be ...1978687276
experimental infection of ducklings with mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma anatis.two groups of day-old ducklings were infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum and m anatis respectively by air sac inoculation. clinical disease was not produced but air sacculitis was produced by both infections. m gallisepticum could be recovered readily from respiratory tissue 10 and 30 days after infections but rsa tests were negative. m anatis was not reisolated from these tissues or from the cloaca but a positive rsa test was observed on the serum of a few ducklings.1978705054
effect of acriflavine on ultraviolet inactivation of acholeplasma laidlawii.an increased sensitivity to inactivation was observed when ultraviolet light-irradiated acholeplasma laidlawii cells were plated on medium containing either acriflavine or chloramphenicol. chloramphenicol reduced liquid holding recovery (dark repair) to about 10% of that in untreated irradiated cells. in acriflavine treated cells no dark repair could be observed and there was a progressive degradation of cell dna during holding. while the primary effect of acriflavine may be to inhibit excision ...1978718990
isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum from sinuses of three quails (coturnix coturnix japonica). 1978741620
suppression of immunoresponses to haemophilus gallinarum with nonviable mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.the suppressive effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) on haemophilus gallinarum (hg) immune response was shown. antibody response to hg was highly suppressed when chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with hg-mg combined bacterin. findings were similar in chickens injected intramuscularly with hg and mg bacterin separately at adjacent sites. no immunosuppressive effect was recognized when injections with hg and mg bacterins were in the left and right thigh muscles, respectively, or from int ...1978749885
effect of tiamulin in chickens and turkeys infected experimentally with avian mycoplasma.tiamulin was compared, under a variety of experimental conditions, with 4 water-soluble antibiotic preparations available commercially for the control and treatment of mycoplasmal infections in poultry. in chickens, tiamulin was more effective than the reference antibiotics in preventing and eradicating airsacculitis caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum and preventing airsacculitis and synovitis caused by m. synoviae. in turkeys, tiamulin and tylosin were equally active in preventing airsacculitis ...1978749887
a new allergic (intradermal) test for the diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection--a preliminary note. 1978751978
adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum to human erythrocytes.pathogenic mycoplasmas adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the respiratory and genital tracts of infected animals. an experimental system suitable for the quantitative study of mycoplasma adherence has been developed by us. the system consists of human erythrocytes (rbc) and the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum, in which membrane lipids were labeled. the amount of mycoplasma cells attached to the rbc, which was determined according to radioactivity measurements, decreased on i ...197829007
ultrastructural features of mycoplasma gallisepticum in tracheal explants under transmission and stereoscan electron microscopy.ultrastructural features of mycoplasma gallisepticum in tracheal explants were examined using the transmission and stereoscan electron microscope. the organisms were characteristically cocco-bacilliform except when in close contact with the host cells when they assumed an elongated and irregular form characteristically terminating in a bleb which was often embedded in the cell surface. in such organisms there were peripherally aligned fibrillar structures oriented towards the bleb which may have ...1978565944
[studies of nucleic acid metabolism in cultured chick embryo cells infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum].m. gallisepticum infection of cultured chick embryo cells led to a sharp reduction the rate of 3h-thymidine and 3h-uridine incorporation into dna and rna cells, and almost completely suppressed the transposition of uridine label from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, this pointing to the inhibition of escape of rna synthesized de novo into the infected cells cytoplasm. as suggested, weak labeling of the cytoplasm after prolonged (about several hours) incubation of cultured cells with labeled urine ...1978566996
[mycoplasma synoviae control. i. studies on the thermal sensitivity of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas (mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepicum and mycoplasma meleagridis)].a number of experiments were carried out to study the thermal sensitivity of mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma gallisepticum as well as that of young embryos in vitro and in ovo. a full mycoplasmacidal effect was attained after heating in bouillon cultures for six hours at 45 degrees c (including cultures of mycoplasma meleagridis), for two and a half hours at 50 degrees c, for ninety minutes at 52 degrees c and for thirty minutes at 55 degrees c. yoder's method of heating to control these myco ...1978568833
culturing anomalies associated with mycoplasma recovered from the tissues of chicks and turkey poults experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum or mycoplasma gallinarum.tissues of mycoplasma infected chicks and turkey poults were cultured and subcultured on mycoplasma agar. usually, colonies which grew on the agar initially inoculated could be subcultured, but sometimes they could not. at other times, colonies were not seen on the agar initially inoculated but appeared on the subcultured plate.1978353927
sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescent antibody technique for detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.the specificity of a fluorescent conjugate to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was examined using chick trachea organ culture or tissue sections infected with other avian viruses (adenovirus, infectious bronchitis, poxvirus, reovirus, newcastle disease virus, marek's disease virus, avian encephalomyelitis and infectious bursal agent) or mycoplasma gallisepticum. confirmation of virus replication in these preparations was obtained by either 1) demonstration of virus titre increase or 2) demonst ...1978206327
cholesterol distribution and movement in the mycoplasma gallisepticum cell membrane.the time course and extent of transfer of [14c]-cholesterol from resting mycoplasma gallisepticum cells or membrane preparations to high-density lipoproteins were studied. more than 90% of the total cholesterol in isolated, unsealed membrane preparations was exchanged in a single kinetic process. in intact cells, however, cholesterol exists in two different environments. cholesterol in one environment, representing approximately 50% of the total unesterified cholesterol, is readily exchanged wit ...1978210781
control of mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial laying chickens using artificial exposure to connecticut f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum. 1979298929
simplified preparation of mycoplasmas, an acholeplasma, and a spiroplasma for scanning electron microscopy.a simple, effective procedure was developed for scanning electron microscopic examination of mycoplasmas and similar organisms. cultivation of several mycoplasmal species, an acholeplasma, and a spiroplasma in broth media in leighton tubes with cover slips resulted in attachment of the organisms to the cover slips. the attached cells were easily processed for either scanning electron microscopy or light microscopy. by eliminating the need for centrifugation, which was used in previously describe ...1979370106
prevalence of certain antibodies to selected disease-causing agents in wild turkeys in texas.in texas in 1976 and 1977, rio grande turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from seven counties and eastern turkeys (m. g. silvestris) from one county were tested for antibodies to selected poultry pathogens. standardized serological tests disclosed reactors to salmonella pullorum (2.4%), s. typhimurium (2.3%), and mycoplasma gallisepticum (4.8%). there were no reactors to newcastle disease virus or chlamydia psittaci. prevalence of m. gallisepticum antibody in wild turkeys was significantly ...1979384989
immunoperoxidase technique for identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.the direct immunoperoxidase technique was applied to the identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by staining colonies on the agar plate. the results of this technique applied to 50 isolates of m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae correlated with those of the agar gel precipitation test to the same isolates. the immunoperoxidase technique was proved to be a specific and reliable method for the identification of m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae.1979395443
electron microscopical study of antibody binding to mycoplasma gallisepticum: indirect immunoferritin labelling.the ultrastructural aspects of the interaction of mycoplasma gallisepticum with specific rabbit antibody have been studied. in particular, fixation conditions which allow the simultaneous preservation of cellular fine structure and membrane antigenicity have been established and applied in a procedure of indirect immunological labelling of the antibody-coated organisms with ferritin conjugated sheep anti-rabbit igg. the advantages of working with agar embedded organisms in a multistep labelling ...1979433599
isolation and identification of avian mycoplasmas in singapore.two hundred and forty batches of chickens with chronic respiratory syndrome were tested for mycoplasmas. one hundred and five batches (43.8%) were found to have mycoplasmosis. a total of 110 isolates of mycoplasma was cultured, of which nine isolates were identified as mycoplasma gallisepticum, 48 avian sero-group d, 45 m. gallinarum, one m. iners and seven unclassified. 2. identification of the mycoplasmas isolated was carried out by biochemical and serological tests (disc growth inhibition and ...1979455110
membrane lipids of mycoplasma gallisepticum: a disaturated phosphatidylcholine and a phosphatidylglycerol with an unusual positional distribution of fatty acids. 1979465448
effects of feeding tylosin to layers exposed to mycoplasma gallisepitcum.two experiments are reported in which the effect of tylosin upon the development of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection in replacement layers was monitored by serological and cultural methods. concentrations of tylosin tested included 0, 22, 38.5, and 55 ppm. egg production and feed consumption data were collected for one year. tylosin slowed the rate of spread of mg infection as measured by serological and cultural methods. the effect of tylosin on the spread of mg infection was dose relate ...1979471896
haemadsorption inhibition test for the identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.colonies of the avian mycoplasma strains mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 and mycoplasma synoviae wvu 1853 and two mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory were shown to be haemadsorption positive for chicken erythrocytes. three mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory proved to be haemadsorption and haemagglutination negative. the haemadsorption of the mycoplasma colonies mentioned above was inhibited with specific antisera of either high or low titre. no cross-inhibition was obser ...1979473153
an ultrastructural study on the interaction of mycoplasma gallisepticum with the chicken tracheal epithelium.seven-day-old chickens wee intratracheally inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum. the tracheas collected 6 and 14 days after chickens were inoculated were subjected to titration of mycoplasma and examination by light and electron microscopy. the mycoplasma organisms grew well; 10(7) to 10(8) color-changing units in a milligram of tissue were determined. tracheal lesions occurred in close association with the presence of mycoplasmas and were characterized by degeneration of the epithelial cell ...1979507485
adaptation of chickens to their handler, and experimental results.chickens were adapted to their handler before the experiment. adapted birds produced more antibody, had more blood protein, gained more weight, and were more resistant to mycoplasma gallisepticum than unadapted birds. the antibody response to sheep red blood cells was not reduced for fasting for 48 hours in adapted birds but was in unadapted birds. differences in antibody titers, blood protein, and weight gains between controls and birds fed 80 ppm of deoxycorticosterone could be demonstrated on ...1979526204
adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum to glass.attachment of washed mycoplasma gallisepticum cells to glass was quantified with organisms in which membrane lipids were labelled with 3h. siliconization of the test tubes decreased attachment, while centrifugation increased it. attachment increased with temperature, decreased with increasing ph and ionic strength of the attachment mixture, but was unaffected by ca2+, mg2+ and edta. this suggests that ionic bonds, but not salt bridges, participate in the attachment process. glycophorin, the majo ...197937284
immunoprecipitation of triton x-100-solubilized mycoplasma mycoides proteins.mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (pg1 and strain y) proteins were solubilized in triton x-100, and the antigenic proteins were precipitated from this complex mixture by addition of antiserum and then separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. of the 300 proteins solubilized, about 10 were precipitated. proteins of pg1, a slow-growing, small colony (sc) strain, were precipitated by antiserum to pg1 and by antiserum to strain y, a fast-growing, large colony (lc) strain. similarly, strain ...197993614
the response of the harderian gland of the fowl to antigen given by the ocular route. ii. antibody production.after ocular administration to young chickens of sheep erythrocytes (srbc), newcastle disease virus (ndv), infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) or mycoplasma gallisepticum, homologous antibody was detected in serum and in saline extracts of harderian glands. parenteral immunisation with srbc or ndv stimulated moderately high serum antibody titres but did not evoke a measurable antibody response by the harderian gland.197918770464
haemadsorption inhibition test for the identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.summary colonies of the avian mycoplasma strains mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 and mycoplasma synoviae wvu 1853 and two mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory were shown to be haemadsorption positive for chicken erythrocytes. three mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory proved to be haemadsorption and haemagglutination negative. the haemadsorption of the mycoplasma colonies mentioned above was inhibited with specific antisera of either high or low titre. no cross-inhibition ...197922039774
egg production in relation to the results of a long term serological survey of 73 flocks of fowl.summary seventy-three flocks of fowl were tested at regular intervals for the presence of precipitins to fowl adenovirus (av) and infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), haem-agglutinating inhibiting antibodies to bc14 virus, and of agglutinins to mycoplasma gallisepticum (m.g.) and mycoplasma synoviae (m.s.). in all the eight flocks affected with egg drop syndrome (eds '76), egg production problems were associated with increasing numbers of bci4 virus reactors and av reactors. in flocks showing p ...198022039854
preliminary clinical pharmacological investigations of tylosin and tiamulin in chickens.summary the minimal inhibitory concentrations (m1c) of tiamulin and tylosin for mycoplasma. gram-positive, and gram-negative micro-organisms isolated from chickens were determinated by the agar dilution method. median m1c values for tiamulin against mycoplasma gallisepticum (0.05 µg/ml) and mycoplasma synoviae (0.10 µg/ml) were 2 to 4 times lower than the corresponding values for tylosin. tiamulin was also slightly more effective in vitro in inhibiting escherichia coli, pasteurella multocida, ...198022039981
interaction of mycoplasma gallisepticum with sialyl glycoproteins.the binding of several glycoproteins to freshly grown and harvested cells of mycoplasma gallisepticum was examined. only human glycophorin, the major sialoglycoprotein of the erythrocyte membrane, bound tightly as judged by direct binding assays with 125i-labeled glycoproteins. neuraminidase-treated glycophorin did not bind, suggesting that binding is mediated through sialic acid groups. although other sialoglycoproteins did not appear to bind m. gallisepticum by direct binding assays, some inhi ...19806160107
egg production in relation to the results of a long term serological survey of 73 flocks of fowl.seventy-three flocks of fowl were tested at regular intervals for the presence of precipitins to fowl adenovirus (av) and infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), haemaggluinating inhibiting antibodies to bc in 14 virus, and of agglutinins to mycoplasma gallisepticum (m.g.) and mycoplasma synoviae (m.s.). in all the eight flocks affected with egg drop syndrome (eds '76), egg production problems were associated with increasing numbers of bc14 virus reactors and av reactors. in flocks showing production ...19806243424
performance of 3 successive generations of specified-pathogenfree chickens maintained as a closed flock.no antibodies against salmonella pullorum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae, haemophilus gallinarum, fowl pox virus, marek's disease virus, herpes virus of turkey, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian adenovirus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian leukosis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus and newcastle disease virus were detectable in the sera obtained from these chickens in 3 generations at various ages. antibodies against i ...19806253742
pathogenicity of two strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum in broilers.strains f and r of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared in two laboratory trials for their relative pathogenicity in terms of inducing airsacculitis and antibody production to mg. chickens exposed to the r strain had significantly higher incidence of air-sac lesions (p less than 0.05) and greater severity of airsacculitis than did chicks exposed to the f strain. in both trials, chickens vaccinated simultaneously with newcastle disease-infectious bronchitis vaccine and exposed to mg had mo ...19806268040
disposition of exposed antigens on the faces of isolated mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes.the transverse disposition of exposed protein antigens on the two faces of isolated mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes have been investigated by using indirect immunoferritin labeling to accomplish visualization of the antigens at the ultrastructural level. comparison between the labeling patterns obtained with unabsorbed specific mycoplasma antiserum and antiserum from which antibodies directed against outer side determinants had been removed revealed that the majority of protein antigens were ...19806991483
[in vitro susceptibility of mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains to tiamulin and tylosin (author's transl)]. 19806995088
production and persistence of antibodies in chickens to sheep erythrocytes. 2. resistance to infectious diseases.a line of chickens selected for ability to product high antibody titers to sheep red blood cells exhibited stronger antibody to newcastle disease, was more resistant to mycoplasma gallisepticum, eimeria necatrix, a splenomeglia virus, and feather mites and less resistant to escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus infection than a line selected for a lack of ability to produce antibody titers. a line of chickens selected for a nonpersistance of antibody titers to sheep red blood cells was rela ...19806997852
[clinical and pharmacological studies of technical tylosin phosphate from pharmachem in poultry diseases].investigations on the healing anbd prophylactic effectiveness of the technical tylosine phosphate "pharmachim" with 50 iu/mg activity (pharmazin t-50) in some bird diseases were carried out. it was established that a dose of 20 g/kg fodder pharmazin t-50 applied 2 days pre- and 3 days post chicken mycoplasma gallisepticum infection protects the chickens completely from respiratory mycoplasmosis. in order to attain a sure healing and prophylactic effect in hen spirohetosis control 10 g/kg fodder ...19806998102
a novel method for the determination of electrical potentials across cellular membranes. ii. membrane potentials of acholeplasmas, mycoplasmas, streptococci and erythrocytes.the membrane potentials of acholeplasma laidlawii, mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, mycoplasma gallisepticum, streptococcus faecalis and human erythrocytes have been determined by applying a novel technique. the membrane potentials were calculated simply from potassium concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and gravimetry. the versatility of the new technique is demonstrated by comparing our results with data obtained by different techniques.19806773575
scanning electron microscopy of mycoplasmas adhering to erythrocytes.the interaction of mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma gallisepticum with human erythrocytes (rbc) was studied by scanning electron microscopy. the tight nature of the attachment of the microorganisms to the rbc was indicated by the indentation of the rbc surface at the site of attachment of m. gallisepticum cells and by traction and resulting distortion in the shape of the rbc at the point of its attachment to m. pneumoniae filaments growing on glass or plastic. in many cases attachment took p ...19806777306
evaluation of a vaccine against mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial broilers.the efficacy of live mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vaccine against respiratory mycoplasmosis was studied in three laboratory trials with commercial broilers. broiler chickens were infected with the f or r strain of mg by eyedrop at 1 day of age, and challenged by aerosol exposure to the r strain of mg along with eyedrop vaccination against newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis at 30 or 34 days of age. observations were made of macroscopic lesions, severity of airsacculitis, isolations of m ...19807271643
ultrastructural study of the interaction between acholeplasma laidlawii and antibody.the ultrastructure of agar-grown acholeplasma laidlawii incubated with specific antiserum or igm fractions of this antiserum has been investigated by the thin-sectioning technique. antiserum treatment resulted in the development of giant cells along the colony circumferences and in the coating of normal-size mycoplasmas with a periodically arranged extramembranous layer, consisting of attached immunoglobulins as shown by indirect immunoferritin labelling. the regular structure of the coat was no ...19807373282
the growth and cilia-stopping effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum 1rf in chicken tracheal organ cultures.the growth and pathogenicity of mycoplasma gallisepticum 1rf were studied in chicken tracheal organ cultures. the organism propagated only in the presence of tracheal rings in culture fluids. presence of metabolic products from rings seems to be an important factor for the growth of organism. production of hydrogen peroxide was not detected. there were no differences in the growth and cilia-stopping effects among organisms maintained in vitro, stored at -18 degrees c, and recovered from air sac, ...19807375737
a survey of mycoplasma infections in domestic poultry.a survey of mycoplasma infections of chickens, turkeys and ducks was made on tissues from a variety of sources and birds of various ages, and from pipped and dead-in-shell turkey embryos. the tissues examined consisted mainly of respiratory tissue and the cloaca and contents and also a small number of joint lesions and other tissues. from chickens, mycoplasmas were isolated from a total of 138 tissues with mycoplasma gallisepticum in preponderance. this was followed by m gallinarum, untyped orga ...19807375739
effect of sex and mycoplasma synoviae infection on chicken red blood cells used for hemagglutination-inhibition test.a total of 10 male and 10 female 9-week-old commercial mycoplasma-free broiler chickens was used in this test. five males and 5 females were artificially infected by aerosol with a broth culture of mycoplasma synoviae (ms) f10-2as. the other 5 males and 5 females were used as noninfected controls. at 3, 9, and 12 weeks postinfection all birds were bled, and the blood was pooled into 4 groups: infected male, noninfected male, infected female, and noninfected female. hemagglutination-inhibition (h ...19807393863
development of a microtitration complement-fixation test for diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.a direct microtitration complement-fixation (cf) test was developed for diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens. cf titers were demonstrated three weeks postinoculation in chickens inoculated intratracheally with m. gallisepticum. the direct microtitration cf test appeared comparable to the hemagglutination-inhibition test in sensitivity and specificity. addition of fresh chicken serum to lyophilized guinea pig complement (gpc') was not necessary to enhance fixaton of gpc' by ...19807436960
preliminary clinical pharmacological investigations of tylosin and tiamulin in chickens.the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) of tiamulin and tylosin for mycoplasma, gram-positive, and gram-negative micro-organisms isolated from chickens were determinated by the agar dilution method. median mic values for tiamulin against mycoplasma gallisepticum (0.05 microgram/ml) and mycoplasma synoviae (0.10 microgram/ml) were 2 to 4 times lower than the corresponding values for tylosin. tiamulin was also slightly more effective in vitro in inhibiting escherichia coli, pasteurella multoci ...19807444918
comparison of mycoplasma synoviae hemagglutinating antigens by the hemagglutination-inhibition test.mycoplasma synoviae (ms) strains were isolated from the trachea of hens from ms-positive broiler breeder flocks having progeny condemnations due to airsacculitis. hemagglutinating (ha) antigens were made from several strains. the ha antigen made from the 95th medium passage of ms fmt strain was compared with that of the standard ms wvu 1853 strain by the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test. sixty-six sera from 10 ms-positive flocks, 4 mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg)-positive sera, and 7 normal s ...19807447835
[effect of selected solvents on mycoplasma gallisepticum]. 19807456534
pathogenicity of strains of the ijknqr group of avian mycoplasmas for turkey embryos and poults.strains of mycoplasmas isolated from turkey embryos and identified as belonging to the ijknqr group of avian mycoplasmas were found to produce lethal infections in experimentally exposed turkey embryos. some strains produced exudative airsacculitis in experimentally exposed poults. of 4 strains used to inoculate poults, two produced moderate airsacculitis, one produced a slight airsacculitis, and one had little or no effect on turkey poult air sacs. microscopic examination revealed that the air- ...19817271648
the effects of growth in broth containing different concentrations of glucose and horse serum on mycoplasma gallisepticum rapid serum agglutination antigens. 19817275994
isolation and characterization of mycoplasma and acholeplasma from apparently healthy and diseased (infectious sinusitis) turkeys.investigation of 136 turkeys (24 manifesting infra-orbital sinusitis, 112 apparently healthy) resulted in isolation of 79 strains of mycoplasma and 4 of acholeplasma. by the disc growth inhibition test with 16 reference antisera of avian serogroups, 55 strains were identified serologically and 28 remained unidentified. thirteen strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum, 1 of m. meleagridis, and 2 of acholeplasma laidlawii were isolated from turkey sinusitis whereas serogroups c (2), d (19), f (8), m. ...19817278710
mycoplasma-induced arthritis in poultry.mycoplasmaa-induced arthritis of poultry under field conditions is almost entirely caused by mycoplasm synoviae (ms) infection. experimentally, mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma iowae have all been shown to cause arthritis, tenosynovitis and lesions of periarticular tissue. however, greatest attention has been given to ms in this respect. the leg joints are most consistently involved, and of these particularly the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal and ...19817287403
antibiotic sensitivity patterns in field isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum as a guide to chemotherapy.control of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection in commercial poultry flocks has sometimes been achieved by the intensive use of antibiotics. in some cases, a single drug, tylosin tartrate, has been used repeatedly in prophylactic and therapeutic applications. it appears that this selective pressure can lead to the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to tylosin. this was observed in mg strains isolated in 1978 from turkey breeding flocks repeatedly treated with tylosin, but not in ...19817287408
vaccination of chickens with nonpathogenic mycoplasma gallisepticum as a means for displacement of pathogenic strains.attempts to solve the problem of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection of poultry by a combination of eradication and antibiotic treatment have at best met with only partial success. as a result of the continuing economic burden of the disease, there has been a renewed interest in vaccination as a tool in the control of mg. a particularly pressing problem exists in the commercial egg industry, where the occurrence of mg infection of layer hens at the onset of egg production leads to a marked d ...19817287410
mycoplasmosis in poultry.mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma meleagridis are the most widespread pathogenic poultry mycoplasmas. the epidemiology of the infections, and clinical signs, lesions, pathogenesis, diagnosis and control of disease are described. in epidemiology, the constant antigenic composition, variation in virulence, tropism, survival of the mycoplasma outside and within the host and susceptibility to drugs are outlined. the significance of species, age and immune status of the hos ...19817287415
light microscopic, scanning electron microscopic, and histomorphometric evaluation of mycoplasma gallisepticum-induced airsacculitis in chickens. 19817294464
sequential pathology of genital tract in chickens experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.unsexed day-old white leghorn chicks hatched from eggs pre-treated with erythromycin were infected via the yolk sac with a 48-hr broth culture of pathogenic mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6). fourteen of the 57 experimental female birds had gross lesions in the oviduct, characterized by the presence of grayish-white caseous plugs of various sizes in a segment or throughout the length of the oviduct. forty-six of the infected female birds had microscopic lesions, detected primarily as mild heterophil ...19817316912
symmetrical distribution and rapid transbilayer movement of cholesterol in mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes.the exchange of cholesterol between [14c]cholesterol-labeled mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and an excess of sonicated egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol vesicles (molar ratio of 0.9) was measured. more than 90% of the radioactive cholesterol underwent transfer from intact cells to the vesicles. the kinetics of the transfer was biphasic. about 50% of the radioactive cholesterol was exchanged with a half-time of about 4 h. the residual was exchanged at a slower rate with a half-time of about 9 h ...19817317418
transmissibility of the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum in leghorn chickens.leghorn pullets free of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were infected with the f strain of mg at approximately 18 weeks of age. at various times up to 27 weeks postinfection, infected chickens were placed in a pen with uninfected controls. infected chickens remained tracheal carriers up to 49 weeks postinfection. infection was readily transmitted to penmates during the first 4 weeks postinfection; in most instances from 6 through 27 weeks postinfection, transmission to penmates became progressivel ...19817337604
a mycoplasma gallisepticum epornitic in turkeys: its epidemiology and eradication. 19817337605
immunogenic potency of oil-emulsified mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterins.immunogenicity of an aqueous mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin and two oil-emulsified bacterins with aqueous-phase-to-oil-phase ratios of 1:2 and 1:4 were evaluated in 3 groups of 5-week-old mg-free white leghorn chickens. group 4 chickens were nonimmunized controls. group 1, 2, and 3 chickens received primary immunizations with 0.5 ml of bacterin subcutaneously (sc). six weeks later, half of the vaccinated chickens received a second immunization (0.5 ml sc). six weeks after the last dose o ...19817337609
characterization of an isolate of mycoplasma wvu 907 which possesses common antigens to mycoplasma gallisepticum.antigenic characteristics of an isolate of mycoplasma wvu 907 were compared with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae. mycoplasma wvu 907 and mg share common agglutinating and precipitin antigens. although hemagglutinin is an integral part of wvu 907, hemagglutinating-inhibited antibody was not detected in sera of chickens inoculated with wvu 907. the clinical symptoms observed in chickens inoculated with wvu 907 were mild. viral infections of chickens helped spread wvu 907 to c ...19817337614
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