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inhibition of nadh oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase of mycoplasma gallisepticum by copper complexes of 2,2'-bipyridyl analogues.in the presence of copper, 2,2'-bipyridyl analogues possess growth-inhibitory activity against mycoplasma gallisepticum. inhibition of the energy yielding metabolism plays a role in the mechanism of action. we showed that probably inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase and nadh oxidase is involved. both enzymes were inhibited in vitro and in vivo by several copper 2,2'-bipyridyl complexes. a two-step mechanism of action is proposed, i.e. first a copper complex enters the cell, then after dissociati ...19873663238
a species-specific dna probe for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.an 800-base-pair dna fragment from a partial genomic library of mycoplasma gallisepticum was selected and used as a probe for the selective detection of this avian pathogen. the specificity and sensitivity of this probe were demonstrated by using dot blot and southern hybridizations.19873666965
sealed vesicles prepared by fusing mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes and preformed lipid vesicles.sealed vesicles were obtained by fusing mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes with asolectin-cholesterol vesicles. the fusion was induced by freezing and thawing followed by a brief sonication treatment and was detected using a fluorescence sedimentation behavior in a sucrose density gradient and were shown to be impermeable to small solutes. the advantages of such fused preparations for transport studies in mycoplasmas are discussed.19873667215
kinetics of cholesterol and phospholipid exchange between mycoplasma membranes and lipid vesicles.the following modifications in the lipid composition of mycoplasma gallisepticum or m. capricolum membranes led to changes in the rates of [14c]cholesterol and [14c]phospholipid exchange between cell membranes and an excess of small unilamellar vesicles: 1) increase in the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio from 0.25 to 0.92; 2) incorporation of synthetic, cross-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (pe) derivatives, 3) incorporation of sphingomyelin (spm); and 4) increase in the phosphatidylglycero ...19873667216
comparison of culturing mycoplasma gallisepticum from fresh eggs and 18-day-old embryos.twenty-four 70-week-old and sixteen 27-week-old white leghorn hens were challenged with r strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) by injection into the caudal thoracic air sac and infraorbital sinus. eggs were collected daily and cultured within 7 days or incubated for 18 days. vitelline membranes of eggs were cultured directly; in 18-day-old embryos, cultures were taken from the yolk sac, air sacs, and oral cavity. culture of vitelline membrane of eggs within 2 days was compared with culture of eg ...19873675426
development of a biotinylated probe for the rapid detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum causes respiratory diseases in the form of tracheitis and air sacculitis in chickens and turkeys. it is a major cause of reduced egg production, reduced hatchability, and downgrading of carcasses. current means of diagnosis depend on the isolation and identification of the organisms, or on serological assays to detect serum antibodies. the evaluation of avian sera for m. gallisepticum antibodies is becoming more difficult to interpret, and thus less useful, due to the in ...19873667241
evaluation of factors associated with infection of commercial layers with mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.information on factors possibly associated with the risk of infection with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) or m. synoviae (ms) were collected from nearly 400 layer flocks in california. factors associated with the probability of flock infection with either mg or ms were identified, and their magnitude was quantified by statistical analysis. more frequent administration of several vaccines was associated with decreased probability of both mg and ms infection of flocks. also identified were housing ...19873675422
economic impact of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae in commercial layer flocks.an egg-production function was constructed, using data collected from 366 commercial layer flocks in california, to predict the impact of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) on egg production while controlling for confounding factors. in the first and second cycles, respectively, an mg-infected flock produced 12 and 5 fewer eggs per hen than an uninfected flock. flocks that became infected with mg after f-strain vaccination produced 6 eggs/hen more than unvaccinated infected flock ...19873675423
infectious sinusitis in coturnix quails in brazil.in brazil, mycoplasmas were isolated from the sinuses of japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica) from two commercial flocks affected with sinusitis. the major respiratory signs and gross lesions are described. based on serological and biochemical results, the mycoplasmas isolated were identified as mycoplasma gallisepticum. one of the isolates was pathogenic for chickens.19863729866
observations on commercial layers vaccinated with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin on a multiple-age site endemically infected with mg.a commercially available inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin was administered to chickens on a multiple-age farm endemically infected with mg. a total of 3400 mg-free pullets were vaccinated with the mg bacterin at 19 weeks of age, and 4300 unvaccinated pullets served as controls. the vaccinated group became serologically positive by the rapid plate agglutination (rpa) test within 3 weeks, and the unvaccinated group became positive in 7 weeks. the hemagglutination-inhibition test ...19863729876
response of chickens to inoculation with a temperature-sensitive mutant of mycoplasma gallisepticum.newly hatched chickens were inoculated intranasally with either the s6 or ts 100 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) or they were left uninoculated. the three groups of chickens did not differ discernibly in body, spleen, or bursa weight during the 27-day sampling period. however, the s6-inoculated chickens showed a more pronounced cellular response in the nasal passages and had nearly complete lymphoid depletion in the spleens. the ts 100-inoculated birds expressed only a mild cellular reac ...19863729884
a statistical model to optimize enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay parameters for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae antibodies in egg yolk.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to quantify mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) antibodies in egg-yolk extract. various parameters of elisa were evaluated and optimized. a statistical model was developed to study the relationship between elisa absorbance (a) and antigen concentration, antibody concentration, and time of reading of the test. these factors explained 62% of the variability in a for the mg antigen and 74% of the variability in a for the ms a ...19863729885
comparison of egg yolk and serum for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.egg yolk was evaluated in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) as an alternative source of antibodies for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) infections in chickens. there was no statistically significant difference (p greater than 0.05) between the elisa geometric mean titers (gmts) of saline-diluted egg yolk and chloroform-extracted egg yolk, and both preparations had a high correlation coefficient (0.87 for mg; 0.97 for ms). the saline-diluted and chlorofo ...19863729886
triton x-100-solubilized mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae elisa antigens.triton x-100-solubilized mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae elisa antigens were found to be more specific and sensitive than six other antigens at a concentration of 250 ng protein/0.1 ml per microtiter plate well.19863729864
detection and differentiation of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae antibodies in chicken serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.affinity-purified sheep igg anti-chicken igg horseradish peroxidase conjugate was utilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect mycoplasma gallisepticum- and m. synoviae-specific antibodies in chicken sera. antigen, conjugate and substrate concentrations, and incubation times were adjusted to provide maximum differentiation between positive and negative sera. use of phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.05% tween 20 for washing and diluting steps and use of normal sheep ser ...19863729859
evaluation of protection against mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens vaccinated with the f strain of m. gallisepticum.the effect of vaccination with the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) on protection against challenge with a tylosin-resistant strain of mg was evaluated. white leghorn chickens vaccinated via eyedrop at 6 weeks of age were subsequently challenged with various dilutions of the tylosin-resistant mg strain, as were unvaccinated controls. three days later, tracheal swabs were collected and cultured in medium with and without tylosin to distinguish between the vaccine and challenge strains. t ...19863729860
effects of dose of antigen and social environment on antibody response of high and low antibody response chickens.chickens selected for high (ha) and low (la) antibody response were exposed to 10-fold doses of red blood cell and killed bacterial antigens while in three different social environments. antibody responses of the ha and la line chickens differed most in the socialized environment and at lower doses of antigen. dose effects were most pronounced in la-line chickens whereas relationship of humans to chickens was most important to ha-line chickens. socialized chickens were more consistent than ignor ...19863737505
31p-nmr studies of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells using a continuous perfusion technique.31p-nmr studies of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells have been carried out using a continuous perfusion technique; these are the first such studies with this organism. using this technique, glucose metabolism was monitored in the intact organisms, and cell extracts were prepared to identify the intermediates. under glycolytic conditions, high levels of fructose-1,6-diphosphate were observed, indicating that this sugar may play a key role in the regulation of metabolism. the level of phosphoenolpyru ...19863732520
infectious sinusitis associated with mycoplasma gallisepticum in game-birds. 19863753348
a historical account of the diagnosis and characterization of strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum of low virulence.numerous chicken flocks were studied beginning in 1970 because of questionable results on their serologic tests for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). typically a low number of hens in the flocks were positive reactors to the rapid serum plate test and rarely had hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) titers over 1:80. usually no clinical signs were observed. isolates of mg eventually were cultured from most of the flocks that exhibited that type of marginal serologic pattern. in the laboratory, the mg is ...19863767812
effect of medicated feed on tracheal infection and population of mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.six-week-old broilers were fed 50 g tylosin/ton, 400 g chlortetracycline (ctc)/ton, or unmedicated feed and then challenged intratracheally with r strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). feed-grade antibiotic medication did not prevent infection, but medication did lower the number of isolations from treated birds compared with controls. only tylosin significantly lowered mg counts in the trachea. the log10 id50 of birds receiving tylosin, ctc, or unmedicated feed were 5.8, 4.4, and 2.9, respectiv ...19863767816
a radioimmunoassay for the detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum.a radioimmunoassay technique was developed to determine the antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in sera, yolk fluids, and tracheal washings.19863767822
prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae in commercial layers in southern and central california.the prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) in commercial pullet and layer flocks in southern and central california was estimated by testing serum and egg-yolk samples from 360 sample flocks in southern california and 41 sample flocks in central california. data relating to potential risk factors associated with mg and ms infections were collected. the estimated true prevalence rate of mg was 73% in southern california and 3% in central california. the estimated true pr ...19863767813
antibody responses in sera and respiratory secretions from chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.antibodies in sera and respiratory secretions from chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). chickens intratracheally inoculated with 10(5) cells of mg showed a correlation between severity of tracheal lesions and extent of mg colonization in the tracheas in the first 3 weeks postinoculation. antibody titers in tracheal washings (tws) of the infected chickens increased during this phase. thereafter, isolation of mg from th ...19863767815
prophylactic efficacy of 3-acetyl-4''-isovaleryl tylosin in a mycoplasma gallisepticum-induced airsacculitis infection.formulations of 3-acetyl-4''-isovaleryl tylosin (aiv) were evaluated for oral efficacy in a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) airsacculitis infection. aiv administered by gavage, feed, or water was more effective than tylosin in preventing airsacculitis. an aiv tartrate formulation administered in drinking water to chickens infected with a macrolide-sensitive or macrolide-resistant strain of mg resulted in no detection of mycoplasma in the air sacs and in mg-negative sera.19863767811
properties of mycoplasma gallisepticum grown in a medium supplemented with liposomes as a substitute for serum. 19863796324
bacterin to control the vertical transmission of mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.a mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin was prepared and used in mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg)-positive primary breeders to control vertical transmission of mg. two generations were vaccinated, but the third generation was not vaccinated and was monitored serologically. results showed no evidence of mg at 1 day, 6 weeks, 11 weeks, 16 weeks, or 31 weeks of age. this procedure may offer small breeder organizations and showbird fanciers a way to eliminate mg.19853833226
stability of the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum in various diluents at 4, 22, and 37 c.the stability of the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum was determined in reconstituted powdered skim milk, phosphate-buffered saline, tryptose phosphate broth, and distilled water at 4, 22, and 37 c. the culture was stable for up to 24 hr in all diluents at 4 and 22 c. at 37 c, the culture was stable up to 24 hr in phosphate-buffered saline, but there was a slight reduction of viability in tryptose phosphate broth at 8 and 24 hr, and the titer was reduced in skim milk at 24 hr. in distilled w ...19853833228
evaluation of protection against colonization of the chicken trachea following administration of mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin.twelve-week-old commercial white leghorn pullets were given one or two doses of an inactivated oil-emulsion mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vaccine or kept as unvaccinated controls. at 24 weeks of age, all groups were challenged intratracheally with one of six dilutions of a low-passage r strain of mg. three days postchallenge, the tracheas from all chickens were cultured for mg to determine the number of challenge organisms required to initiate infection. the log10 id50 of chickens vaccinated 0, ...19853833239
effect of temperature-sensitive mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine preparations and routes of inoculation on resistance of white leghorns to challenge.one-week-old chickens were vaccinated with live or formalin-killed temperature-sensitive (ts) mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) either intranasally (in) or subcutaneously (sq). live ts mg protected chickens against s6 strain challenge directly into the air sacs, regardless of route of vaccination. killed mg, however, protected chickens only when administered sq. antibody to mg was detected in sera and in the tracheal and air-sac washings of only the chickens given live vaccine in. the antibody prese ...19863814015
influence of hatcher holding times on several physiological parameters associated with the immune system of chickens.two experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to study the effects of posthatch holding time in the incubator on physiological and disease parameters. in each experiment, half of the chicks were removed shortly after hatching and half of the chicks were allowed to remain in the hatcher for an additional 30 hr. bursa weights, hematocrits, total plasma protein, and blood glucose concentrations were measured at various times up to 35 and 28 days of age in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. in ...19863822996
tracheal populations of mycoplasma gallisepticum after challenge of bacterin-vaccinated chickens.chickens vaccinated once or twice with inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) or left unvaccinated were challenged intratracheally with the r strain of mg. the population of mg organisms was determined by enumerating tracheal cultures periodically up to 28 weeks postchallenge (pc). the number of organisms in the respiratory tract increased rapidly after 4 days pc, and the number tended to decrease after 4 weeks pc. tracheal populations of mg varied considerably am ...19853833213
swab absorbability--effect on mycoplasma gallisepticum isolation.a single strain of commercial leghorn vaccinated with f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was used in two trials to determine the effect of swab absorbability on mg isolation. for each of the two trials, 34 birds from each of five 10,000 bird houses were randomly selected and swabbed from the choanal cleft region; 17 birds from each house were swabbed with ethylene-oxide sterilized, 2.4-mm diameter calcium alginate-tipped swabs, while the remaining 17 birds were swabbed with similarly sized a ...19853906617
in ovo pathogenicity of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains in the presence and absence of maternal antibody.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains showing marked variation in pathogenicity were examined for virulence in ovo. no correlation was found between in ovo pathogenicity and other in vivo or in vitro methods for pathogenicity evaluation. for certain highly pathogenic strains, there was a clear relationship between the titer of mg inoculated and the embryo mortality and time of death; an ld50 for these strains could be calculated by yolk-sac inoculation. however, not every strain that caused lesi ...19853985874
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in experimentally infected chickens.an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed and tested for its ability to detect humoral response to mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens. two antigens were used in the solid phase of the assay. antigen 1 was a membrane-derived sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds)-solubilized preparation; antigen 2 was prepared in the same manner as antigen 1 but was passed through an immunoadsorbent column containing rabbit anti-medium antibodies. test conditions were optimized for incubation ti ...19853985883
interaction of albumin and phospholipid:cholesterol liposomes in growth of mycoplasma spp.mycoplasma spp., sterol and fatty acid auxotrophs, are conventionally grown in complex media containing high concentrations of serum. serum supplies the required lipids, but its presence complicates studies on the metabolism and antigenicity of mycoplasmas as well as the membrane dynamics of these organisms. in the present work, fetal bovine serum was replaced with dilipidated albumin and liposomes containing high concentrations of cholesterol. the liposomes were produced from phosphatidylcholin ...19863954343
evaluation of cytopathologic changes induced in chicken tracheal epithelium by mycoplasma gallisepticum in vivo and in vitro.changes in tracheal epithelial surfaces induced by mycoplasma infection in vivo and in vitro included release of mucous granules followed by exfoliation of ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells. light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the loss of cilia from individual cells was infrequent. epithelial cells typically lost their intercellular connections, rounded up, exfoliated, and then lysed--giving rise to a population of cellular ...19853970413
evaluation of serologic tests for mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys. 19853981747
kinetics of cholesterol and phospholipid exchange from membranes containing cross-linked proteins or cross-linked phosphatidylethanolamines.mono- and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine derivatives have been synthesized and used to evaluate the role of cross-links between the amino groups of two phospholipid molecules in the rate of cholesterol movement between membranes. incorporation of the cross-linked phospholipids into small unilamellar vesicles (the donor species) decreased the rate of spontaneous cholesterol exchange with acceptor membranes (small unilamellar vesicles or mycoplasma gallisepticum cells). these results suggest ...19853986182
sodium and proton transport in mycoplasma gallisepticum.when washed cells of mycoplasma gallisepticum were incubated at 37 degrees c in 250 mm 22nacl, the intracellular na+ increased, and the k+ decreased. the addition of glucose to these na+-loaded cells caused na+ efflux and k+ uptake (both ions moving against concentration gradients). this effect of glucose was blocked by the atpase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which prevents the generation of a proton motive force in these cells. in additional experiments, na+ extrusion was studied by dilu ...19854030695
comparison of the antimycoplasma activity of two commercially available tylosin premixes.two tylosin premixes (referred to in this report as premix a and tylosin premix b), obtained as commercial products from japan, were analyzed microbiologically for tylosin and by high pressure liquid chromatography (hplc) for macrolide content. they were evaluated in the feed at concentrations of 550 and 1100 ppm antibiotic activity for the treatment of chickens with induced mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection. the tylosin microbiological assay value for premix a was 3.0% below and for premi ...19853991415
mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination: further studies on egg transmission and egg production.leghorn hens vaccinated twice with an inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin before egg production and subsequently challenged with virulent mg were protected against transmission of mg through the egg. unvaccinated control hens transmitted mg through the egg at a high rate. when unvaccinated hens were vaccinated with mg bacterin 2 weeks after challenge with mg, there was no significant decrease in egg transmission. hens vaccinated twice before laying did not suffer as severe egg-pro ...19854026735
cell volume regulation in mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum cells incubated in 250 mm nacl solutions in the absence of glucose showed a progressive fall in intracellular atp concentration over a period of 2 to 3 h. when the atp level fell below 40 microm the cell began to swell and become progressively permeable to [14c]inulin and leak intracellular protein and nucleotides. the addition of nondiffusable substances such as mgso4 or disaccharides prevented swelling, suggesting that nacl (and water) entry was due to gibbs-donnan for ...19854030694
presumptive diagnosis of subclinical infections utilizing computer-assisted analysis of sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays against multiple antigens.one-hundred-seventy-two serum samples, collected sequentially from four flocks of egg- and meat-type chickens, were evaluated for antibodies to multiple infectious agents by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (melisa). the melisa system used provided simultaneous measurement of antibody titers against avian infectious bronchitis (ib), infectious bursal disease (bd), newcastle disease, avian encephalomyelitis and reovirus infections, and mycoplasma gallisepticum. the use of computer-generated grap ...19854048057
egg production, egg weight, eggshell strength, and mortality in three strains of commercial layers vaccinated with f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.three strains of commercial leghorns vaccinated at 17 to 22 weeks of age with f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were maintained through 117 weeks of age. the three strains differed in both mortality and percent egg production per hen housed; however, the strains did not differ in egg weight (ew), eggshell strength (ess), or percent daily egg production. results of this study indicate ew and ess for f strain mg-vaccinated hens follow patterns previously reported for uninfected layers. furthe ...19854074249
the absorption of -globulins to mycoplasma gallisepticum and the possible role in non-specific serological reactions. 19714106502
the effect of hypotonic solutions on the morphology of cells of mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19714107162
studies on the adsorption of certain medium proteins to mycoplasma gallisepticum and their influence on agglutination and haemagglutination reactions.serum proteins from mycoplasma gallisepticum culture medium could be detected on the organisms as a result of incubation at low ph. only certain of the serum proteins, including igg and igm, were found, and the adsorption appears to depress the haemagglutinating activity of the organisms. there was no obvious effect on slide agglutination (sa) sensitivity but an incidental finding was that brief acid treatment enhanced the sa sensitivity of an antigen prepared from a young culture.19724113479
immunity and mortality in chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum: influence of the bursa of fabricius. 19734120327
electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of mycoplasma gallisepticum (strain tt) organisms grown on glass surface. 19734125678
non-specific agglutination of mycoplasma gallisepticum by rheumatoid factor-like antiglobulin in chickens infected with streptococcus faecalis or staphylococcus aureus. 19734199909
new method for the isolation of membranes from mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum lysed readily in carbonate bicarbonate buffer at ph 9.2 to 10.5. the hemagglutination titer of the lysates was 2- to 16-fold greater than a cell suspension at the same protein concentration in buffered saline. membranes prepared from cells lysed by this method at ph 10 were relatively free from cytoplasmic contaminants as shown by electron microscopy of thin sections. the membranes retained their hemagglutination activity, gave reactions in immunodiffusion tests identica ...19734200862
histochemical localization of phosphatases in mycoplasma gallisepticum.histochemical studies of adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase activity were performed on mycoplasma gallisepticum. the adenosine triphosphatase activity appears to be localized in the bleb and infrableb regions exclusively and is associated with the cell membrane; acid phosphatase activity is localized in the infrableb region and does not appear to be membrane-associated. these findings are consistent with data from biochemical studies of mycoplasma cell fractions but, unlike them, reve ...19674225891
[morphological differentiation of some strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum against different mycoplasma species on solid medium]. 19724145213
comparison of hemagglutination inhibition and serum plate agglutination tests to detect antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19724258551
an infection in chickens with a strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum of low virulence.a slow-spreading infection due to a strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum was detected serologically in a flock which remained free of clinical symptoms. the strain was shown to be tylosin resistant. serological studies indicated that vertical transmission occurred.19744277360
serology and gross lesions of turkeys inoculated with an avian influenza a virus, a paramyxovirus, and mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19704314006
membrane association of the deoxyribonucleic acid growing-point region in mycoplasma gallisepticum.newly replicated deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) in mycoplasma gallisepticum a5969 is membrane associated. cells pulse-labeled 1 to 3 min with (3)h-thymidine are lysed by a freeze-thaw procedure. after brief sonic treatment to shear the dna, differential centrifugation gives a cell fraction (p2) that is enriched sevenfold for pulse-labeled dna. p2 contains 80% of the total adenosine triphosphatase activity, 65% of the total cholesterol, and morphologically intact terminal bleb structures. three to f ...19724264449
pathogenicity of avian reovirus and its influence on the infection of mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens. 19704318212
mycoplasma gallisepticum in a commercial laryngotracheitis vaccine. 19674293195
partial purification of a membrane-associated deoxyribonucleic acid complex from mycoplasma gallisepticum.a mycoplasma gallisepticum subcellular fraction (p2), which contains the deoxyribonucleic acid replication complex, can be isolated by differential centrifugation of freeze-thaw-lysed cells. the nascent deoxyribonucleic acid is released from p2 by lubrol-wx, sodium dodecyl sulfate, pronase, and deoxyribonuclease, but not by saponin, ribonuclease, phospholipase c, or high-frequency sonic treatment. sonic treatment further fractionates the cell ghost and allows partial purification, on sucrose den ...19744420960
[possible etiological role of mycoplasma gallisepticum in viral hepatitis]. 19744465704
serological comparison of five arginine-utilizing mycoplasma species by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis.five arginine-utilizing, nonglycolytic mycoplasma species were compared serologically by two dimensional immunoelectrophoresis. the survey included: mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma arthritidis, mycoplasma gateae, mycoplasma gallinarum, and three strains of mycoplasma arginini. although the m. arginini strains showed strong cross-reactions, each strain produced a different antigenic profile which was distinct and which indicated significant antigenic differences between strains. the m. arginini st ...19744473427
local immunization in chicken respiratory tract with killed mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine. 19744474553
spiramycin- and tylosin-resistant strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolated from breeding chickens and pipped eggs. 19744444733
the use of microtiter hemagglutination-inhibition in mycoplasma gallisepticum testing program. 19734534737
a new subtype of type a influenzavirus isolated from turkeys.a new subtype of avian influenzavirus a was isolated in january 1967 from an epizootic in a turkey hatchery in ontario, canada. the disease was fatal in 65 of 2 500 hens involved. virus was isolated from lung and trachea tissue of three dead turkeys. sera from convalescent birds contained antibody against the viruses isolated from the outbreak but not against other known type a avian influenzaviruses, newcastle disease virus, myxovirus yucaipa, or mycoplasma gallisepticum.the strain designated a ...19724541004
occlusion of brain capillaries by endothelial swelling in mycoplasma infections.occlusion of cerebral capillaries due to acute swelling of the endothelial cells has been demonstrated in the brains of turkeys with encephalopathy caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum (s-6 strain) infection. similar capillary lesions were seen in rats with rolling disease, caused by m. neurolyticum toxin. such lesions may be the basis of ischemic necrosis of the brain.19734514983
isolation, ultrastructure and antigenicity of mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes.the cell membrane of mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated by lysing the cells with digitonin. chemical and density-gradient analyses and electron microscopy showed the isolated membranes to be relatively free of cytoplasmic contaminants. the density of the membranes exceeded that of other mycoplasma membranes, indicating a higher protein content. small vesicular extensions seen in the sectioned membranes were interpreted as empty blebs.the isolated membranes, but not the cytoplasmic fraction, e ...19734520511
nuclease activities of mycoplasma gallisepticum as a function of culture age in different media.levels of deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease activities in the supernatant (soluble plus ribosomes) fraction of mycoplasma gallisepticum were assayed and found to be a function of strain, nutrient, and culture age. in yeast hydrolysate-enriched broth, maximal nuclease activities occurred during exponential growth.19724550663
[effect of gradocycline on mycoplasma gallisepticum in experimentally infected chicks]. 19724554179
enhanced growth of mycoplasma gallisepticum, strain 801. 19724556822
escherichia coli serotypes isolated from chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19724559444
tropism of mycoplasma gallisepticum for arterial walls.the fatal encephalopathy associated with m. gallisepticum strain s6 in turkey poults was completely curable by treatment with tylosin or pleuromutilin. the lesions of cerebral polyarteritis disappeared after therapy. polyarthritis developed in some birds after recovery from encephalitis. immunofluorescent studies revealed that intravenously injected organisms became localized as microcolonies within the walls of cerebral and periarticular arteries, and in the glomeruli. turkey igg deposition was ...19734576023
metabolic and growth inhibition of mycoplasma gallisepticum by antiserum. 19734578973
comparison of strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 19744592352
serum chemistry of chicks maintained at various environmental temperatures and inoculated with newcastle disease and mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19724645729
detection of cholesterol in cell membranes by use of bacterial toxins.a method is described for the detection of cholesterol in membranes from erythrocytes, mycoplasmas, and bacterial cells by a ferritin-labeling technique. membranes treated with cereolysin, a bacterial hemolysin which specifically binds to cholesterol, and then treated with ferritin-antitetanolysin, were specifically ferritin-labeled for cholesterol. a similar antigen-antibody system, streptolysin o-ferritin-antistreptolysin, was also used successfully with erythrocyte membranes. there was an une ...19724623312
[influence of the composition of the culture media on the growth speed of mycoplasma gallisepticum, s6]. 19734633936
comparative efficiency of 4 mycoplasma gallisepticum strains as antigens in detecting heterologous infection. 19724648993
effect of temperature on the growth of mycoplasma gallisepticum and on its inhibition by antiserum. 19744615128
neuraminidase activity in mycoplasma gallisepticum.the whole viable mycoplasma gallisepticum (strain tt) organisms were found to possess neuraminidase activity with a ph optimum of 5.8 on substrates such as human transferrin, human alpha(1)-glycoprotein, and rabbit serum. the enzyme operated optimally at ph 4.5 when n-acetylneuraminyl-lactose was used as the test substrate.19724673793
distribution of a phosphoenolypyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system in mycoplasms.a survey of 10 mycoplasma strains has shown that their capacity to accumulate radioactivity from alpha-methyl-d-glucopyranoside depends on the activity of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (pts), and that this system endows the organisms with a high affinity for glucose as a fermentation substrate. pts activity was found in mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. mycoides var. mycoides, and m. mycoides var. capri, but in none of the fermentative acholeplasma strains nor in some of t ...19734688137
[trial evaluation of a simple screening test for mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia by agglutination reaction with mycoplasma gallisepticum antigen]. 19724676769
avoidance of non-specific agglutination of mycoplasma gallisepticum by the use of a globulin-free antigen. 19734707485
non-specific agglutination of mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19734730113
deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in synchronously growing mycoplasma gallisepticum.early log-phase cells of mycoplasma gallisepticum a5969 were synchronized by holding in eagle minimal essential medium (mem) for 2 h. when transferred out of mem into tryptose medium, the cells exhibited synchronous growth. deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) synthesis proceeded continuously during this growth but stopped during the period of cell division. one round of dna replication was observed per cell doubling, and a unique region of dna was found to be permanently bound to the membrane.19734717510
[experimental mycoplasmosis in chickens. ii. pathological findings of chickens inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum (strain s6) by the air-sac and intravenous routes]. 19734799960
the effect of heat killed mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. meleagridis on plasma caeruloplasmin activity in the fowl. 19734792024
interference of mycoplasma gallisepticum with multiplication of newcastle disease virus in chicken tracheal organ cultures. 19734799666
effect of ammonia on mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens. 19734792401
the virulence of mycoplasma gallisepticum for embryonated fowl eggs. 19734805146
[comparative studies on fluorescent serological demonstration of mycoplasma gallisepticum inclusive of slide culture]. 19684880123
effect of lincomycin and spectinomycin water medication on chickens experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum and escherichia coli. 19694907438
electron microscope studies of turkey sinus epithelial cells infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19704917314
a ward hemagglutinin induced in chickens by inoculation with mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19694885342
role of complement in immune inactivation of mycoplasma gallisepticum.studies were undertaken to evaluate the role of complement in the interaction between mycoplasmas and antiserum. a suspension of the a-1 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum in pplo broth was incubated at 37 c with rabbit immune serum which had been heated for 30 min at 56 c. samples were removed from the mixture at timed intervals for 1 hr for titration of the mycoplasmas in broth. when normal guinea pig serum was included in the mixture at a final dilution of 1:40, the titer fell rapidly from 10 ...19674962702
[studies on mycoplasma gallisepticum by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis]. 19714942781
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in mice and cynomolgus monkeys. a histologic, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic study of the heart. 19684972501
a comparative study of single and multiple respiratory infections in the chicken: multiple infections (with mycoplasma gallisepticum, newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus). 19664961637
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