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reduction of hydrogen peroxide accumulation and toxicity by a catalase from mycoplasma iowae.mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. one potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of h2o2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. previous sequencing of m. iowae serovar i strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for h2o2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degr ...201425127127
infection with mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.when wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. the suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. we examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (bka) in wild birds (house finches haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring i ...201424642543
extended survival times of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae on kanekalon synthetic hair fibres.the survival times of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) on washed and unwashed natural and synthetic kanekalon hair samples over a 5-d period were evaluated using the color changing unit method for comparison with results of previous studies conducted on natural hair. regardless of whether synthetic or natural hair samples prewashed with a disinfectant shampoo were spiked with mg or ms, all viable organisms rapidly dropped below a count of 1 × 10(1)/ml of culture. unwash ...201424570416
sequencing analysis of mycoplasma gallisepticum wild strains in vaccinated chicken breeder flocks.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection is still of continuing economic concern in commercial broiler breeder chicken flocks in egypt. mg infection continues to emerge despite the application of vaccination programs in breeder flocks. this prompted flock surveillance including mg isolation and molecular characterization of the circulating mg strains. the present study was concerned with 15 broiler breeder flocks of different ages (5-51 weeks). three flocks were apparently healthy and 12 flocks w ...201424525899
is mycoplasma synoviae outrunning mycoplasma gallisepticum? a viewpoint from the netherlands.mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae are the most relevant mycoplasma species for commercial poultry from the clinical and economic point of view. although the importance of m. gallisepticum was recognized many decades ago, the relevance of m. synoviae has been a matter of debate. until the turn of the century, only the respiratory and synovitis forms of the disease were reported, while the majority of infections were subclinical. since the year 2000 m. synoviae strains with oviduct tropism, ...201424397240
preparation of reference stocks suitable for evaluation of alternative nat-based mycoplasma detection methods.the aim of this study was to optimize conditions for preparation and cryopreservation of mycoplasma reference materials suitable to evaluate alternative nucleic acid testing (nat)-based assays and to compare their limits of detection (lods) with those of conventional culture-based methods.201424112653
transcriptome analysis reveals novel regulatory mechanisms in a genome-reduced bacterium.the avian bacterial pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum is a good model for systems studies due to small genome and simplicity of regulatory pathways. in this study, we used rna-seq and ms-based proteomics to accurately map coding sequences, transcription start sites (tsss) and transcript 3'-ends (t3es). we used obtained data to investigate roles of tsss and t3es in stress-induced transcriptional responses. we identified 1061 tsss at a false discovery rate of 10% and showed that almost all transcr ...201425361977
[amyloidosis in turkeys (meleagris gallopavo f. domestica)--a case report].high prevalence of leg disorders in fattening meat turkey farm was observed. four birds as well as tracheal and joint swabs were submitted to the bavarian health and food safety authority in oberschleissheim and to the institute of poultry diseases, faculty of veterinary medicine, free university of berlin. at the post-mortem, all birds showed an inflammation of the hock joints (intertarsal joint). the histopatholical investigations revealed a chronic inflammation of the joint and amyloid deposi ...201424881274
effects of live and killed vaccines against mycoplasma gallisepticum on the performance characteristics of commercial layer chickens.different vaccine strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum have been used on multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect birds against virulent field-strain infections. use of the f-strain of m. gallisepticum (fmg), as an overlay vaccine during lay, may be necessary because of the lower level of protection afforded by m. gallisepticum vaccines of low virulence given before lay. two replicate trials were conducted to investigate effects of live and killed m. gallisepticum vaccines admi ...201424879690
polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable <i>mycoplasma gallisepticum</i>.the present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) of the 16s ribosomal nucleic acid (rrna) of mycoplasma for detection of viable mycoplasma gallisepticum. to determine the stability of m. gallisepticum 16s rrna in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. the 16s rrna of m. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20-25 h at 37 °c, 22-25 h at 16 °c, and 23-27 h at 4 °c. the test, therefor ...201428235276
first identification of proteins involved in motility of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum, the most pathogenic mycoplasma in poultry, is able to glide over solid surfaces. although this gliding motility was first observed in 1968, no specific protein has yet been shown to be involved in gliding. we examined m. gallisepticum strains and clonal variants for motility and found that the cytadherence proteins gapa and crma were required for gliding. loss of gapa or crma resulted in the loss of motility and hemadsorption and led to drastic changes in the characteri ...201425323771
molecular detection of avian pathogens in poultry red mite (dermanyssus gallinae) collected in chicken farms.poultry red mite (prm, dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. in this study, to define the role of prm in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: avipox virus (apv), fowl adenovirus (fadv), marek's disease virus (mdv), erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (er), salmonella enterica (se), mycoplasma synoviae (ms) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). ...201425649939
high seroprevalence of respiratory pathogens in hobby poultry.seroprevalence studies on respiratory pathogens have been done extensively in commercial laying hens, broilers, and, to a lesser extent, backyard poultry. in europe, seroprevalence studies in backyard and fancy breed poultry flocks are scarce and limited to a few pathogens, such as mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg); others, such as ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ort), are missing. a commercial elisa for detection of antibodies against six selected pathogens was performed on 460 serum samples from ...201425619008
metabolomic analysis of three mollicute species.we present a systematic study of three bacterial species that belong to the class mollicutes, the smallest and simplest bacteria, spiroplasma melliferum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, and acholeplasma laidlawii. to understand the difference in the basic principles of metabolism regulation and adaptation to environmental conditions in the three species, we analyzed the metabolome of these bacteria. metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the proteogenomic annotation data provided by our lab. the ...201424595068
simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel gexp analyzer-based multiplex pcr assay.a new, rapid, and high-throughput genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyzer-based multiplex pcr method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. the respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes h5, h7, and h9, infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), newcastle disease virus (ndv), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms) and haemophilus paragallinarum ...201425025815
cardiolipin synthetase is involved in antagonistic interaction (reverse camp phenomenon) of mycoplasma species with staphylococcus aureus beta-hemolysis.mycoplasma hyorhinis has been implicated in a variety of swine diseases. however, little is known about the hemolytic capabilities of mycoplasma species in general or m. hyorhinis in particular. in this study, we show that m. hyorhinis possesses beta-hemolytic activity which may be involved in the invasion process. m. hyorhinis also possesses antagonistic cooperativity (reverse camp phenomenon) with staphylococcus aureus beta-hemolysis, resulting in the protection of erythrocytes from the beta-h ...201424599982
decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.the objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. a total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. these chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. maternal antibody titers were measured by elisa for avian encephalomyelitis (aev), avian in ...201323960115
development and application of a multiplex pcr assay for rapid detection of 4 major bacterial pathogens in ducks.infections with pasteurella multocida, salmonella enterica, riemerella anatipestifer, and escherichia coli result in high morbidity and mortality, which cause significant economic loss in the poultry industry. it can be difficult to distinguish these pathogens based on clinical signs because these pathogens can cause similar clinical signs and coinfections can occur. thus, rapid and sensitive detection of these 4 major bacterial pathogens are important in ducks. the aim of this study was to deve ...201323571324
demonstration of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in pheasants (phasianus colchicus) with pneumonia and airsacculitis.outbreaks of respiratory disease were investigated in reared pheasants (phasianus colchicus) aged approximately 18 to 32 weeks, released into the semi-wild on four shooting estates in southern england. the clinical signs in the affected birds included swelling of the face and eyes, loss of condition, gasping respirations and coughing. the gross pathology findings included sinusitis, airsacculitis, pleural oedema and lung lesions. the histopathological findings in the affected lungs were characte ...201323581445
development of a site-directed integration plasmid for heterologous gene expression in mycoplasma gallisepticum.deciphering the molecular basis of the interactions between the parasite mycoplasma gallisepticum and its avian hosts suffers from the lack of genetic tools available for the pathogen. in the absence of well established methods for targeted disruption of relevant m. gallisepticum genes, we started to develop suicide vectors and equipped them with a short fragment of m. gallisepticum origin or replication (oric mg). we failed to create a disruption vector, although by adding a further short fragm ...201324278444
serologic, parasitic, and bacteriologic assessment of captive cracids (aves: galliformes: cracidae) in brazil.captive cracids (aves: galliformes: cracidae), including endangered species, were studied (n = 130) for the assessment of health status, including aburria jacutinga (black-fronted piping-guan, n = 42), crax blumenbachii (red-knobbed curassow, n = 54), craxfasciolata (bare-faced curassow, n = 28), and penelope obscura (dusky-legged guan, n = 6). the exposure to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms), salmonella pullorum (sp), salmonella gallinarum (sg), avian paramyxovirus-1 (apm ...201323505700
a multiplex real-time pcr for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in clinical samples from brazilian commercial poultry flocks.mycoplasma gallisepticum (ms) and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) are important avian pathogens and cause economic losses to the poultry industry. molecular biology techniques are currently used for a rapid detection of these pathogens and the adoption of control measures of the diseases. the aim of this study was to develop and validate a technique for simultaneous detection of mg and ms by multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the complete assay (multiplex mgms) was designed with prime ...201324294247
prevalence and differentiation of diseases in maryland backyard flocks.several epidemiologic surveillance studies have implicated backyard flocks as a reservoir for poultry diseases; however, much debate still exists over the risk these small flocks pose. to evaluate this concern, the prevalence of newcastle disease (nd), infectious laryngotracheitis (ilt), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), and salmonella was determined in 39 maryland backyard flocks. serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds throughout nine counties in maryland. throug ...201324283123
the mycoplasma gallisepticum virulence factor lipoprotein msla is a novel polynucleotide binding protein.although lipoproteins of mycoplasmas are thought to play a crucial role in interactions with their hosts, very few have had their biochemical function defined. the gene encoding the lipoprotein msla in mycoplasma gallisepticum has recently been shown to be required for virulence, but the biochemical function of this gene is not known. although this gene has no significant sequence similarity to any gene of known function, it is located within an operon in m. gallisepticum that contains a homolog ...201323798535
plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in experimentally infected chickens with mycoplasma gallisepticum and escherichia coli.the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in chickens experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum and escherichia coli were studied. marbofloxacin was given to 66 infected chickens by oral administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w., once a day for three days. plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were collected and marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography method. in the infected chickens, maximal marbofloxacin ...201323550715
experimental induction and oral transmission of avian aa amyloidosis in vaccinated white hens.avian aa amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds afflicted with bacterial infections or chronic inflammatory disorders. experimental aa amyloidosis in birds can be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as injection with casein or vaccination with oil-emulsified bacterins. however, the transmission of amyloidosis among avian species has not been studied well to date. in the present study, we confirm the potential induction of avian aa amyloidosis by inoculation of salmonella ...201323548152
factors influencing the cell adhesion and invasion capacity of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the cell invasiveness of mycoplasma gallisepticum, the causative agent of respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, may be a substantial factor in the well-known chronicity of these diseases and in the systemic spread of infection. to date, not much is known about the host factors and mechanisms involved in promotion or obstruction of m. gallisepticum adherence and/or cell invasion.in the current study, the influence of extracellular matrix (ecm) proteins such as fibro ...201324011130
cis-regulatory sequence variation and association with mycoplasma load in natural populations of the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus).characterization of the genetic basis of fitness traits in natural populations is important for understanding how organisms adapt to the changing environment and to novel events, such as epizootics. however, candidate fitness-influencing loci, such as regulatory regions, are usually unavailable in nonmodel species. here, we analyze sequence data from targeted resequencing of the cis-regulatory regions of three candidate genes for disease resistance (cd74, hsp90α, and lcp1) in populations of the ...201323532859
deposition of pathogenic mycoplasma gallisepticum onto bird feeders: host pathology is more important than temperature-driven increases in food intake.although ambient temperature has diverse effects on disease dynamics, few studies have examined how temperature alters pathogen transmission by changing host physiology or behaviour. here, we test whether reducing ambient temperature alters host foraging, pathology and the potential for fomite transmission of the bacterial pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), which causes seasonal outbreaks of severe conjunctivitis in house finches (haemorhous mexicanus). we housed finches at temperatures wit ...201323966599
the development and application of a mycoplasma gallisepticum sequence database.molecular analysis was conducted on 36 mycoplasma gallisepticum dna extracts from tracheal swab samples of commercial poultry in seven south african provinces between 2009 and 2012. twelve unique m. gallisepticum genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer region (igsr), m. gallisepticum cytadhesin 2 (mgc2), mga_0319 and gapa genetic regions. the dna sequences of these genotypes were distinct from those of m. gallisepticum is ...201323889487
role of the gapa and crma cytadhesins of mycoplasma gallisepticum in promoting virulence and host colonization.mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important avian pathogen that commonly induces chronic respiratory disease in chicken. to better understand the mycoplasma factors involved in host colonization, chickens were infected via aerosol with two hemadsorption-negative (ha(-)) mutants, mhad3 and rcl2, that were derived from a low passage of the pathogenic strain r (rlow) and are both deficient in the two major cytadhesins gapa and crma. after 9 days of infection, chickens were monitored for air sac lesion ...201323460514
multiple host transfers, but only one successful lineage in a continent-spanning emergent pathogen.emergence of a new disease in a novel host is thought to be a rare outcome following frequent pathogen transfers between host species. however, few opportunities exist to examine whether disease emergence stems from a single successful pathogen transfer, and whether this successful lineage represents only one of several pathogen transfers between hosts. we examined the successful host transfer and subsequent evolution of the bacterial pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum, an emergent pathogen of ho ...201323843387
prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?the rapid spread of the bacterial disease, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), throughout the introduced range of house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern north america, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. we conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from arizona (within the western range) and f ...201323807632
parallel patterns of increased virulence in a recently emerged wildlife pathogen.the evolution of higher virulence during disease emergence has been predicted by theoretical models, but empirical studies of short-term virulence evolution following pathogen emergence remain rare. here we examine patterns of short-term virulence evolution using archived isolates of the bacterium mycoplasma gallisepticum collected during sequential emergence events in two geographically distinct populations of the host, the north american house finch (haemorhous [formerly carpodacus] mexicanus) ...201323723736
a soe-pcr method of introducing multiple mutations into mycoplasma gallisepticum neuraminidase.a modified splicing with overlap extension pcr (soe-pcr) was generated to introduce 21 tga to tgg at mycoplasma gallisepticum mga_0329 gene. the recombinant protein was successfully expressed and retained neuraminidase activities, indicating that soe-pcr is a rapid and highly efficient method of introducing multiple mutations into large m. gallisepticum genes.201323707236
retrospective study of mycoplasma gallisepticum meningoencephalitis in six turkey flocks in western france.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in six turkey flocks, from 1998 to 2005, in the western part of france. affected birds were 8-11 weeks old and all displayed neurological signs, especially torticollis, with more than half having concomitant respiratory signs. microscopical examination of brain samples from birds in all six flocks revealed similar lesions of acute to subacute multifocal parenchymal necrosis, perivascular cuffing, leptomeningitis and vasculitis. bird ...201322878056
immunity, resistance and tolerance in bird-parasite interactions.interacting pathogens and hosts have evolved reciprocal adaptations whose function is to allow host exploitation (from the pathogen stand point) or minimize the cost of infection (from the host stand point). once infected, two strategies are offered to the host: parasite clearing (resistance) and withstanding the infection while paying a low fitness cost (tolerance). in both cases, the immune system plays a central role. interestingly, whatever the defence strategy adopted by the host, this is l ...201323800152
chronic mycoplasma conjunctivitis in house finches: host antibody response and m. gallisepticum vlha expression.previous studies have shown that house finch field isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vary in virulence and ability to induce an antibody response. after experimental inoculation, mg causes persistent, severe disease in a subset of individuals. in this study, we further characterized mg infection using five field isolates, with an emphasis on chronically diseased birds. after experimental inoculation of house finches, mg load was measured by quantitative pcr and anti-mg antibody responses ...201323764469
comparison of multiple genes and 16s-23s rrna intergenic space region for their capacity in high resolution melt curve analysis to differentiate mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 from field strains.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is an important avian pathogen causing significant economic losses in the global poultry industry. in an attempt to compare and evaluate existing genotyping methods for differentiation of mg strains/isolates, high resolution melt (hrm) curve analysis was applied to 5 different pcr methods targeting vlha, pvpa, gapa, mgc2 genes and 16s-23s rrna intergenic space region (igsr). to assess the discriminatory power of pcr-hrm of examined genes and igsr, mg strains ts-11, ...201324238667
influences of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.the influences of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with fmg (fmg-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with fmg (fmg-free group). body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. egg weight ...201323687149
impact of fowlpox-vectored mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine vectormune fp mg on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.this study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with vectormune fp mg on egg production and egg quality characteristics of single comb white leghorn hens. due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with f-strain m. gallisepticum (fmg) vaccination was also investigated. vaccination with vectormune fp mg did not result in any sign ...201324235227
malf is essential for persistence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in vivo.there is limited understanding of the molecular basis of virulence in the important avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum. to define genes that may be involved in colonization of chickens, a collection of mutants of the virulent ap3as strain of m. gallisepticum were generated by signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis. the collection included mutants with single insertions in the genes encoding the adhesin gapa and the cytadherence-related protein crma, and western blotting confirmed that thes ...201323657682
modelling of control options for an outbreak of mycoplasma gallisepticum in egg production: a decision support tool.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is a bacterium that causes respiratory disease in chickens, leading to reduced egg production. a dynamic simulation model was developed that can be used to assess the costs and benefits of control using antimicrobials or vaccination in caged or free range systems. the intended users are veterinarians and egg producers. a user interface is provided for input of flock specific parameters. the economic consequence of an mg outbreak is expressed as a reduction in expect ...201324206630
dna repair in mycoplasma gallisepticum.dna repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of dna repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. the bacteria of the mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. a small number of genes make mollicutes a good model for a "minimal cell" concept.201324148612
house finch populations differ in early inflammatory signaling and pathogen tolerance at the peak of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.host individuals and populations often vary in their responses to infection, with direct consequences for pathogen spread and evolution. while considerable work has focused on the mechanisms underlying differences in resistance-the ability to kill pathogens-we know little about the mechanisms underlying tolerance-the ability to minimize fitness losses per unit pathogen. here, we examine patterns and mechanisms of tolerance between two populations of house finches (haemorhous [formerly carpodacus ...201323594550
ketocarotenoid circulation, but not retinal carotenoid accumulation, is linked to eye disease status in a wild songbird.pathogenic or parasitic infections pose numerous physiological challenges to organisms. carotenoid pigments have often been used as biomarkers of disease state and impact because they integrate multiple aspects of an individual's condition and nutritional and health state. some diseases are known to influence carotenoid uptake from food (e.g. coccidiosis) and carotenoid use (e.g. as antioxidants/immunostimulants in the body, or for sexually attractive coloration), but there is relatively little ...201324080319
semi-automated curation of metabolic models via flux balance analysis: a case study with mycoplasma gallisepticum.primarily used for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, genome-scale metabolic modeling shows tremendous potential as a tool for fundamental research and curation of metabolism. through a novel integration of flux balance analysis and genetic algorithms, a strategy to curate metabolic networks and facilitate identification of metabolic pathways that may not be directly inferable solely from genome annotation was developed. specifically, metabolites involved in unknown reactions can be de ...201324039564
can american goldfinches function as reservoirs for mycoplasma gallisepticum?we performed experiments to test if american goldfinches (spinus tristis) could be a competent reservoir for mycoplasma gallisepticum and play a role in the epidemic spread of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis among house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in north america. we infected one of two individuals housed together in a cage and determined if transmission occurred to the second bird. probability of transmission between an american goldfinch and a house finch (in either direction) was similar to th ...201323307371
isolation and molecular characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in chickens in sudan.the current study described the isolation and molecular detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae from tracheal swabs of diseased birds showing signs of respiratory distress in selected commercial (layer and broiler) farms and from yolk and an open air of pens of vaccinated breeder flocks in sudan. a number of 45 mycoplasma isolates were recovered from chickens in khartoum, gezira, and equatoria states in sudan. of these, eight mg and three ms isolates were identified us ...201326464902
the effect of the air sampling method on the recovery of mycoplasma gallisepticum from experimentally produced aerosols.a reliable air sampling method is a prerequisite to calculate the inhaled aerosol dose by animals exposed to the aerosol as precise as possible.[comp]: set abstract according to the journal style.[/comp]201323705990
within-host dynamics of mycoplasma infections: conjunctivitis in wild passerine birds.the host-pathogen interaction drives infectious disease dynamics at the individual, population and community levels. here i present and analyze a model of the vertebrate immune response to mycoplasma infections, and use it to identify which pathogen and host immune characteristics drive patterns of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infections in the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus) and other passerine birds. i also address which host and pathogen characteristics most affect host infectiousness and ...201222726809
discrepancy between minimal inhibitory concentration to enrofloxacin and mutations present in the quinolone-resistance determining regions of mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains.molecular characterization of the quinolone-resistance determining regions (qrdrs) of dna gyrase and topoisomerase iv in 93 mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains isolated in different geographic regions revealed discrepancies between minimal inhibitory concentration values and presence of amino acid substitutions within the qrdrs of gyra and parc in 9/93 (10%) strains. this may delimitate applicability of a gene-based assay to detect fluoroquinolone resistance in this avian pathogen.201222655973
conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis in cliff swallows (petrochelidon pyrrhonota) found in association with mycoplasma sturni infection and cryptosporidiosis.fledgling cliff swallows were cared for at a rehabilitation facility when clinical signs of ocular disease, characterized by conjunctivitis, epiphora, and hyperaemia of palpebrae and nictitans, were recognized. treatment consisted of topical and oral antibiotic therapy and one topical steroid administration. however, one cliff swallow died and three were killed due to poor therapeutic response. conjunctival swabs were obtained ante-mortem from the three cliff swallows and were submitted for myco ...201222834555
extensive variation in surface lipoprotein gene content and genomic changes associated with virulence during evolution of a novel north american house finch epizootic strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum, a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry, has since 1994 been recognized as an emergent pathogen of the american house finch (carpodacus mexicanus). epizootic spread and pathognomonic characteristics of house finch-associated mycoplasma gallisepticum (hfmg) have been studied as a model of an emergent to endemic pathogen in a novel host. here we present comparative analysis of eight hfmg genomes, including one from an index isolate and seve ...201222628486
evaluation of mycoplasma gallisepticum k-strain as a live vaccine in chickens.we evaluated the pathogenicity of three live mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vaccine candidates by infection via aerosol of 3-wk-old chickens with log phase broth cultures (trial 1). two of the candidates (k3020 and k4649a) colonized only 10% and 20% of the chickens, respectively, unlike k2101 (k-strain), which was reisolated from all of the vaccinated chickens tested. k-strain inoculation did not result in significant air sac or tracheal lesions in chickens at 10 and 39 days postinfection (p < or ...201222545527
understanding the origin of seasonal epidemics of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis.1. many host-pathogen systems show regular seasonal oscillations. 2. seasonal variation in mycoplasmal conjunctivitis prevalence in house finches is an example of such oscillations. 3. an annual pulse of mycoplasma gallisepticum-naïve juveniles increasing the number of susceptibles, seasonal changes in flocking behaviour increasing transmission rate and a gradual loss of resistance to reinfection with time are sufficient to model the observed seasonal variation in disease prevalence. nevertheles ...201222524311
innate immunity and the evolution of resistance to an emerging infectious disease in a wild bird.innate immunity is expected to play a primary role in conferring resistance to novel infectious diseases, but few studies have attempted to examine its role in the evolution of resistance to emerging pathogens in wild vertebrate populations. here, we used experimental infections and cdna microarrays to examine whether changes in the innate and/or acquired immune responses likely accompanied the emergence of resistance in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in the eastern united states subject t ...201222512302
seroprevalence of newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in eastern shewa zone, ethiopia.this study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of newcastle disease (nd), pasteurella multocida (pm) infection, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection, and infectious bursal disease (ibd) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. in total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of eastern shewa zone, et ...201222399725
ultrafast evolution and loss of crisprs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, mycoplasma gallisepticum.measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (carpodacus mexicanus), a common north american songbird. for the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in house finch isolates of mg, ...201222346765
contrasting epidemic histories reveal pathogen-mediated balancing selection on class ii mhc diversity in a wild songbird.the extent to which pathogens maintain the extraordinary polymorphism at vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes via balancing selection has intrigued evolutionary biologists for over half a century, but direct tests remain challenging. here we examine whether a well-characterized epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis resulted in balancing selection on class ii mhc in a wild songbird host, the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus). first, we confirmed the potential for pathogen-med ...201222291920
a comparative study of live attenuated f strain-derived mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines.commercially available attenuated strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) are commonly used within the layer industry to control mg-induced mycoplasmosis. among these are two live mg vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic mg "chick f" strain. in the present study, the commercially available f strain derivatives were compared for their ability to elicit seroconversion, persist in vivo, and protect against virulent mg-induced airsacculitis. in addition, a noncommercial laboratory-derived ...201222856200
influence of swab material on the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by real-time pcr.recent reports have shown an increased recovery of cells from flocked nylon swabs which may improve the specimen quality and the real sensitivity of diagnostic tests in a clinical setting. in this study, the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms), using dry swabs of different materials (nylon flocked, cotton, and polyester), was investigated using real-time taqman pcr protocols. different types of samples, including dilutions of pure broth cultures of mg and ms as well a ...201222856187
experimental evidence for distinct costs of pathogenesis and immunity against a natural pathogen in a wild bird.protective immunity is expected to evolve when the costs of mounting an immune response are less than those of harbouring pathogens. estimating the costs of immunity vs. pathogenesis in natural systems is challenging, however, because they are typically closely linked. here we attempt to disentangle the relative cost of each using experimental infections in a natural host-parasite system in which hosts (house finches, carpodacus mexicanus) differ in resistance to a bacterium (mycoplasma gallisep ...201222924889
mycoplasma gallisepticum transmission: comparison of commercial f-strain vaccine versus layer complex-derived field strains in a tunnel ventilated house.two simultaneous trials were conducted using a commercially available, live, f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) vaccine (trial 1) or 2 inocula of layer complex-derived mg strains (lcd-mg; trial 2). in each of the 2 trials, 4 commercial turkeys were housed in each of 2 adjoining pens immediately adjacent to air inlets. the turkeys (8/trial) were inoculated in the right eye with either a 1× dose of fmg (trial 1) or with 0.02 ml of 1 of 2 actively growing lcd-mg inocula (4 turkeys/inoculum; tr ...201223155015
the efficacy of three commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in laying hens.the efficacy of three commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) immunizing agents-a bacterin, a recombinant fowlpox-mg vaccine, and a live f-strain vaccine-was compared in specific-pathogen-free hens in egg production. three groups of 25 chickens were vaccinated with one of the vaccines at 10 wk of age and 25 birds were not vaccinated. at 25 wk of age (and approximately 50% egg production), 20 birds from each of the three vaccinated groups and 15 nonvaccinated controls were challenged with virule ...201222856181
identification of biofilm formation by mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens and of infectious sinusitis in turkeys, chickens, game birds, pigeons, and passerine birds of all ages. this study investigated the biofilm-producing ability of m. gallisepticum strains in an attempt to explain its intriguing persistence in commercial flocks. eleven strains of m. gallisepticum were investigated for their biofilm formation, which varied considerably. strains nobilis mg 6/85, s(6) (p(5) and ...201222840542
a novel transposon construct expressing phoa with potential for studying protein expression and translocation in mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major poultry pathogen and causes severe economic loss to the poultry industry. in mycoplasmas lipoproteins are abundant on the membrane surface and play a critical role in interactions with the host, but tools for exploring their molecular biology are limited.201222770122
effect of low-pathogenicity influenza virus h3n8 infection on mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens.mycoplasma infection is still very common in chicken and turkey flocks. several low-pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) viruses are circulating in wild birds that can be easily transmitted to poultry flocks. however, the effect of lpai on mycoplasma infection is not well understood. the aim of the present study was to investigate the infection of lpai virus h3n8 (a/mallard/hungary/19616/07) in chickens challenged with mycoplasma gallisepticum. two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with ...201222845321
effect of infection route and concurrent infectious bronchitis virus vaccination on mycoplasma gallisepticum disease pathology in an experimental model.the study of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection is needed, not only to understand the disease process but also to understand the mechanisms by which mg vaccines protect the host. many model systems have been used to study the mg disease process. this work compared two different routes of infection (intratracheal versus eye drop) in commercial pullets, looking for differences in the pathology (air sac and tracheal lesion scores, and tracheal mucosal thickness) and the humoral immune response ...201223025670
health assessment of captive tinamids (aves, tinamiformes) in brazil.ninety-five (95) captive tinamids (aves, tinamiformes) of species crypturellus obsoletus (brown tinamou), crypturellus parvirostris (small-billed tinamou), crypturellus tataupa (tataupa tinamou), crypturellus undulatus (undulated tinamou), rhynchotus rufescens (red-winged tinamou), and tinamus solitarius (solitary tinamou) were evaluated for diseases of mandatory control in the brazilian poultry health program (pnsa). antibodies were detected by serum agglutination test (sat) in 4 birds for myco ...201223082518
development of fpv140 antigen-specific elisa differentiating fowlpox virus isolates from all other viral pathogens of avian origin.the fpv140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (fpv). in this study, the fpv140 gene of fpv chinese isolate hh2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other fpv isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all fpv isolates. a recombinant plasmid pet-fpv140 carrying fpv140 gene was constructed and transformed into escherichia coli. the optimal expression condition for the fpv140 gene was developed and purified fpv140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit ...201222991535
extracellular vesicles derived from acholeplasma laidlawii pg8.extracellular vesicle production is believed to be a ubiquitous process in bacteria, but the data on such a process in mollicutes are absent. we report the isolation of ultramicroforms - extracellular vesicles from supernatants of acholeplasma laidlawii pg8 (ubiquitous mycoplasma; the main contaminant of cell culture). considering sizes, morphology, and ultrastructural organization, the ultramicroforms of a. laidlawii pg8 are similar to membrane vesicles of gram-positive and gram-negative bacter ...201121623458
effects of single and combined mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens.a previous study from our laboratory on f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum-inoculated layers showed a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (po(2)), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation. the aim of this study was to determine whether a killed (bacterin) and live ts-11-strain m. gallisepticum (ts-11-mg) vaccine treatment combination could further enhance the arterial po(2) levels in layer chickens. the experiment was conduct ...201121248332
gapa+ mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11 has improved vaccine characteristics.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is an important poultry pathogen that causes respiratory disease and loss of production worldwide, and is currently controlled with live attenuated vaccines. these vaccines have limitations as they vary in their pathogenicity, the protection afforded and their transmissibility, but have been shown to effectively reduce losses associated with challenge in the field. a live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of m. gallisepticum in several countri ...201121310786
change in antimicrobial susceptibility of mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.this study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolates from the same geographical area. minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of mg isolates from chickens. group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ôëñ 0.031/ôëñ 64, ôëñ 0.031/2, ôëñ 0.0 ...201121382675
preparation of reference strains for validation and comparison of mycoplasma testing methods.aims: to optimize growth conditions for preparation of stocks of mycoplasma reference strains to obtain highly viable and disperse samples with low ratios of genomic copy (gc) number to that of colony forming units (cfu). these stocks are required for assessment of relative limits of detection (lod) of alternative nucleic acid testing (nat)-based methods in comparison to the conventional microbiological methods. methods and results: a kinetics study was used to assess the changes in ratios bet ...201121794032
biological characterization of russian mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.an earlier study on commercial chickens and turkeys with a history of respiratory disease established mycoplasma gallisepticum infection rates on 164 poultry farms of the russian federation. forty-seven (29%) of these poultry farms were m. gallisepticum-positive by polymerase chain reaction but isolation of the mycoplasma was successful only on 10 farms. five field isolates from different farms were selected for pathogenicity studies in specific pathogen-free chicks. clinical signs, seroconversi ...201121500042
mycoplasma gallisepticum produces a histone-like protein that recognizes base mismatches in dna.mycoplasmas are the smallest known microorganisms, with drastically reduced genome sizes. one of the essential biochemical pathways lost in mycoplasmas is methylation-mediated dna repair (mmr), which is responsible for correction of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions in both bacteria and higher organisms. we found that the histone-like protein encoded by the hima/hup_2 gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mghu) recognizes typical mmr substrates, in contrast to homologues from other speci ...201121877760
Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species.Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain ...201121860605
experimental infection of domestic canaries (serinus canaria domestica) with mycoplasma gallisepticum: a new model system for a wildlife disease.the ethical and logistical challenges inherent in experimental infections of wild-caught animals present a key limitation to the study of wildlife diseases. here we characterize a potentially useful domestic model for a wildlife disease that has been of particular interest in recent decades; that is, infection of north american house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) with mycoplasma gallisepticum, more commonly known as a worldwide poultry pathogen. seven domestic canaries (serinus canaria domestic ...201121711192
Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time.Spray application is a commonly used, time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray-vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and the vaccine suspension droplet trajectory. In this study, a total of 48 Hy-Line W-36 males were placed individually in isolation units following eye-drop application of gradient levels (1 x, 10(-1) x, 10(-2) x, 10(-3) ...201122017053
local immunity of the respiratory mucosal system in chickens and turkeys.this review article presents fundamental mechanisms of the local mucosal immunity in selected regions of the respiratory tract in healthy birds and in some pathological conditions. the respiratory system, whose mucosa come into direct contact with microorganisms contaminating inhaled air, has some associated structures, such as harderian gland (hg), conjunctive-associated lymphoid tissue (calt) and paranasal glands (pg), whose participation in local mechanisms of the mucosal immunity has been co ...201121721419
towards a genome based taxonomy of mycoplasmas.mycoplasmas are gram-positive wall-less bacteria with a wide environmental and host distribution, causing disease in man and in (wild and farmed) animals. the aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of a genomic taxonomic approach in mycoplasma systematics. multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa), average amino acid identity (aai), and karlin genomic signature allowed a clear identification of species. for instance, mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium had only 71% mlsa similarity ...201121840423
mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants and the efficacy of tylvalosin to treat the disease.infectious sinusitis, a common condition seen in adult pheasants, is primarily caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum. the aims of the present study were to investigate the pathogenicity of m. gallisepticum in 14-day-old pheasants and evaluate the macrolide antibiotic tylvalosin (tvn) as a treatment for infectious sinusitis. the minimum inhibitory concentration of tvn for five isolates of m. gallisepticum taken from pheasants confirmed their susceptibility to tvn (range: 0.002 to 0.008 µg/ml). one o ...201122107092
the mycoplasma gallisepticum α-enolase is cell surface-exposed and mediates adherence by binding to chicken plasminogen.the α-enolase protein is reported to be an adhesin in several pathogenic bacterial species, but its role in mycoplasma gallisepticum is unknown. in this study, the m. gallisepticum α-enolase gene was adapted to heterologous expression in escherichia coli by performing overlapping polymerase chain reaction with site-directed mutagenesis to introduce a960g and a1158g mutations in the nucleotide sequence. the full-length mutated gene was cloned into a pgem-t easy vector and subcloned into the ex ...201121664449
development and immunogenicity of recombinant gapa(+) mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-s1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. a live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of mg in several countries. the efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. to improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a d ...201121354248
comparison of blood values and health status of floreana mockingbirds (mimus trifasciatus) on the islands of champion and gardner-by-floreana, galápagos islands.the floreana mockingbird (mimus trifasciatus) is one of the rarest bird species in the world, with an estimated 550 individuals remaining on two rocky islets off the coast of floreana, galápagos, ecuador, from which the main population was extirpated more than 100 yr ago. because they have been listed in critical danger of extinction, a plan to reintroduce this species to floreana has been initiated. determining the health status of the source mockingbird populations is a top priority within the ...201121270000
detection and differentiation of avian mycoplasmas by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy based on silver nanorod array.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a bacterial pathogen of poultry that is estimated to cause annual losses exceeding $780 million. the national poultry improvement plan guidelines recommend regular surveillance and intervention strategies to contain m. gallisepticum infections and ensure mycoplasma-free avian stocks, but several factors make its detection and diagnosis a major challenge. current techniques are laborious, require special expertise, and are typically plagued by false results. in this st ...201122210215
Effects of sialidase knockout and complementation on virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.Reannotation of the pathogenic Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R(low) genome identified the hypothetical gene MGA_0329 as a homolog of the sialidase gene MS53_0199 of Mycoplasma synoviae strain MS53. Potent sialidase activity was subsequently quantitated in several M. gallisepticum strains. Because sialidase activity levels correlate significantly with differing M. synoviae strain virulence, we hypothesized this enzyme may also influence the virulence of M. gallisepticum. MGA_0329 was disrupted ...201122197303
molecular characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from jordan.two groups of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolates (n = 24) from jordan were analyzed by molecular methods and compared with other middle eastern isolates, related international isolates, and reference strains. the first group (n = 19) was isolated from july 2004 to january 2005 (isolation period a), and the newer group (n = 5) from june 2007 to april 2008 (isolation period b). the groups of isolates are from chicken flocks from northern jordan, but are not from the same farms. none of the flo ...201121793435
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the grey partridge perdix perdix: outbreak description, histopathology, biochemistry and antioxidant parameters.the grey partridge is an important game bird in europe that has declined considerably over the last decades. the production and release of farm-bred birds can be threatened by infectious agents. the objective of this study was to describe the outbreak, pathology, and blood and tissue biochemical responses in a flock of grey partridges naturally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.201121740554
Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of three Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus).Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has become a common cause of conjunctivitis in free-living house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) since its emergence in the early 1990s. To date, temporal and spatial genotypic variation in MG has been documented, but phenotypic variation in pathogenicity and immunogenicity has not been examined. House finches were inoculated with MG isolates Virginia (VA)1994, California (CA)2006, or North Carolina (NC)2006, which were cultured from free-living house finches with co ...201121885217
an adhesion molecule-based colloidal gold immunochromatography assay strip for rapidly and specifically detecting chicken antibodies against mycoplasma gallisepticum.the fragment of the vlha1.2 gene was cloned from a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) dna library by serial pcrs after the same-sense mutagenesis of three tga codons encoding tryptophan (trp). following transforming the generated plasmid of pkg-vlha1.2, the recombinant vlha1.2-gst fusion protein of 92kda was induced and recognized by anti-mg sera. after gst-affinity chromatographic purification, the vlha-based colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (gica) strips were generated. the gica strips spe ...201120630551
analysis of the 16s to 23s rrna intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma synoviae field strains.mycoplasma synoviae has been associated with economic loss in the chicken and turkey industries. the molecular characterization of m. synoviae at strain level allows the analysis of relationships between strains that may be valuable in epidemiological investigations. in the present study, the intergenic spacer region (isr) between the 16s and 23s rrna genes was examined to see whether useful information about strains could be derived. m. synoviae has two copies of this region, which may not be e ...201121331951
seroprevalence of salmonella and mycoplasma infection in backyard chickens in the state of entre rios in argentina.the present work was conducted to study the seroprevalence of salmonella, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) infection in backyard chickens located in entre ríos, argentina, over 3 periods of time. a total of 2,441 sera samples were collected from backyard chickens belonging to 256 family farms in 16 counties in the state of entre ríos from january to may 2003 (first period), december 2004 to april 2005 (second period), and october 2006 to may 2007 (third period). the pr ...201121406358
dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (pf) and the combination of pf, phytase (phy), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(oh)d] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) were investigated in 2 trials. sham and fmg inoculations were administered at 12 wk (before lay) or 22 wk (onset of lay), dietary treatments [basal control diet (bcd); bcd with 0.75% supplemental pf (lpfd); bcd ...201121406365
biosecurity on a multiple-age egg production complex: a 15-year experience.a multiple-age egg production farm was conceived, designed, constructed, and managed with the goal of blocking the introduction of preventable poultry diseases and infestations. fifteen years after conception and 13 years after housing the first hens, the 4 million-hen farm remains free of mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis, and ornithonyssus sylviarum. annual savings in vaccine use exceed the estimated annual costs of the biosecurity program. the cumulative design, construct ...201121500651
[comparative proteomic characteristic of mycoplasmas (mollycutes)].saturating proteome identification and the study of post-translational protein modifications of acholeplasma laidlawii using combination of single- and two-dimension gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry analysis have been carried out. results were compared to the earlier identified proteome of mycoplasma gallisepticum. it was found that m. gallisepticum and a. laidlawii express 61 and 58% of the annotated orfs respectively. all subunits of dna-polymerase iii were identified during o ...201121460883
mycoplasma gallisepticum experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows and pigeons.the most effective approaches to control the spread of mycoplasma gallisepticum include strict biosecurity measures, continuous surveillance and eradication of infected flocks. the rapid expansion of the poultry industry worldwide in restricted geographical areas and severe economic losses due to m. gallisepticum outbreaks make it crucial to identify and better control the vectors responsible for the transmission of the disease. in the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of sparrows an ...201121812712
characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry.abstract: the macrolide class of antibiotics, including tylosin and tilmicosin, is widely used in the veterinary field for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. in vitro susceptibility testing of 50 strains of m. gallisepticum isolated in israel during the period 1997-2010 revealed that acquired resistance to tylosin as well as to tilmicosin was present in 50% of them. moreover, 72% (13/18) of the strains isolated from clinical samples since 2006 showed acquired resistance to enrofloxacin, ...201121810258
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