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humoral immune response of turkeys to strain s6 and a variant mycoplasma gallisepticum studied by immunoblotting.two putative variant mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains (m876 and m35), originally isolated from commercial turkeys, were compared with eight well-characterized mg strains by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). sds-page protein profiles indicated that the variant strains were correctly classified as mg based on homologous patterns in species-specific regions of the electrophoretic profiles. however, differences in protein profiles also indicated that variant ...19921567313
meningoencephalitis in commercial meat turkeys associated with mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection was diagnosed in three different flocks of 12-to-16-week-old commercial meat turkeys displaying torticollis and/or opisthotonos. mg was isolated from the brain, air sacs, trachea, and sinus of one bird with neurological signs. histological examination of brains in all three cases revealed moderate-to-severe encephalitis with lymphoplasmacytic cuffing of vessels, fibrinoid vasculitis, focal parenchymal necrosis, and meningitis. birds with neurological signs ...19911786029
detection of serum antibodies against mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by a dot-immunobinding technique.both mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) antigens prepared for the routine haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test were diluted and absorbed to the separate pieces of durapore membrane for the measurement of dot-immunobinding (dib) titers of test sera. besides, durapore strips bearing both antigens were employed for a dib test with chicken sera definitely diluted 100-fold. shortening of reaction time of chicken sera with antigens as well as with the secondary serum markedly elimina ...19902348588
antigenic determinants of the attachment protein of mycoplasma pneumoniae shared by other pathogenic mycoplasma species.in previous studies with hyperimmune rabbit antisera, we found evidence of serologic cross-reactivity among mycoplasma pneumoniae, mycoplasma genitalium, and mycoplasma gallisepticum. because of certain biologic and morphologic similarities of these species, attempts were made to determine if this cross-reactivity related to the attachment protein (p1) of m. pneumoniae. monoclonal and monospecific antibodies against p1 were used to probe proteins of the other species by immunoblotting. one of th ...19862417956
sensitivity and specificity of mycoplasma gallisepticum agglutination antigens prepared from medium with artificial liposomes substituting for serum.three batches of strain a5969 mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) serum-plate-agglutination (spa) antigen grown in regular frey's medium with 12% swine serum, three batches grown in frey's medium containing artificial liposomes instead of serum, and one commercial spa antigen were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. sensitivity was measured using chickens exposed to mg by intraocular and intranasal inoculation. specificity was measured in uninoculated controls and in groups inoculated with the ...19882461697
genetic and antigenic relatedness between mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.the two avian pathogens mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae were found, by southern blot hybridization of their digested dnas, to share genomic nucleotide sequences additional to those of the highly conserved ribosomal rna genes. the assumption that some of the shared sequences encode for antigens or epitopes common to both mycoplasmas was supported by western immunoblot analysis of cell proteins of one mycoplasma with specific antiserum to the other mycoplasma. interestingly, the b ...19892466367
further studies of mycoplasma gallisepticum serum plate agglutination antigen grown in medium with artificial liposomes substituting for serum.frey's medium supplemented with artificial liposomes substituting for serum was evaluated for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) serum plate agglutination (spa) antigen. antigens prepared in batch (static) culture were compared with antigens grown in a fermenter. all batch-grown mg liposome antigens were highly sensitive, specific, and resulted in a greater yield compared with fermenter-grown liposome antigens. compared with antigens prepared in frey's medium with 12% swine serum (regular fms) or wit ...19892467643
biological activities of monoclonal antibodies to mycoplasma pneumoniae membrane glycolipids.a purified preparation of membranes was obtained by using a unique method of treating mycoplasma pneumoniae with the atpase inhibitor, diethylstilbestrol. this method was shown to yield highly purified membranes with little or no cytoplasmic contamination. these membranes were used to immunize mice for subsequent productions of monoclonal antibodies (mabs). hybridoma culture supernatants were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole-cell m. pneumoniae and lipid extract antigens. ...19892494111
experimental infection of turkeys with mycoplasma gallisepticum of low virulence, transmissibility, and immunogenicity.three-week-old turkeys were inoculated intranasally with approximately 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of putative variant mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains m876, m35, or the virulent s6 reference strain. uninoculated turkeys in each group served as contact sentinels. the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were used to determine serologic responses. mg was isolated from 100% and 92% of s6- and m876-inoculated turkeys, respectively, on day 7 p ...19911786021
[antimycoplasmal activities of ofloxacin and commonly used antimicrobial agents on mycoplasma gallisepticum].in vitro activities of ofloxacin (oflx), a new quinolone derivative, against 29 strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum was compared with those of 4 commonly used antimicrobial agents, doxycycline (doxy), tylosin (ts), spectinomycin (spcm) and thiamphenicol (tp). antimycoplasmal activities of the drugs were evaluated on the mic (final mic) and mpc (minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration) values which were determined by a broth dilution procedure. the following results were obtained. 1. the mic90s of ...19892526260
examination of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from chickens with respiratory disease in a commercial flock vaccinated with a living m. gallisepticum vaccine. 19902076073
evaluation of the efficacy of chlortetracycline for the control of chronic respiratory disease caused by escherichia coli and mycoplasma gallisepticum.using different variations of challenge, three trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlortetracycline in the control of chronic respiratory disease (crd) caused by escherichia coli and mycoplasma gallisepticum. experimentally infected birds were offered either food containing chlortetracycline at 300 ppm or water containing the drug at 120 mg litre-1. in each trial, medicated food and water were effective in the control of crd as assessed by reduction in clinical signs, lower mortal ...19892531906
effect of adrenal blocking chemicals on viral and respiratory infections of chickens.in a series of experiments chickens were treated with chemicals which block the production of corticosterone by the adrenal cortex prior to being challenged with respiratory disease (and other) agents in order to determine if the course of the diseases could be altered. some chickens received a single intramuscular injection (14 mg/kg) of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis/p-chlorophenyl/ethane (abc) dissolved in corn oil (20 mg/ml) at least 12 h before challenge. other chickens received feed containing 500 m ...19892536580
immunogenicity of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the serological response and protective immunity elicited in the chicken by the pathogenic ap3as strain and the moderately pathogenic 80083 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum and variants of strain 80083 attenuated by repeated passage in mycoplasma broth were investigated. strain 80083 elicited a substantial serum antibody response after administration either in drinking water or by conjunctival sac instillation to 7-week-old spf chickens. no vaccinated chickens developed air sac lesions when ch ...19892540737
prevalence of certain antibodies to selected disease-causing agents in wild turkeys in texas.in texas in 1976 and 1977, rio grande turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from seven counties and eastern turkeys (m. g. silvestris) from one county were tested for antibodies to selected poultry pathogens. standardized serological tests disclosed reactors to salmonella pullorum (2.4%), s. typhimurium (2.3%), and mycoplasma gallisepticum (4.8%). there were no reactors to newcastle disease virus or chlamydia psittaci. prevalence of m. gallisepticum antibody in wild turkeys was significantly ...1979384989
mycoplasma gallisepticum as a model to assess efficacy of inhalant therapy in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).one hundred budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) were infected in the nares (0.02 ml/naris), eye (0.02 ml/eye), and throat (0.2 ml) with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) r strain (3.175 x 10(7) colony-forming units/ml). fifty birds were treated with sterile broth and served as the controls; 25 of those were exposed to an inhalant, and the others were not treated. infected birds were divided into four groups; 1) no treatment, 2) penicillin in drinking water, 3) inhalant, 4) both penicillin and inha ...19911786013
comparison of a modified edward-type medium and a modified sp4-type medium for primary isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from chickens vaccinated with the f strain of mg.the efficacy of two media, an edward-type medium (epj) and a modified sp4-type medium (sp4-ps), were compared for primary isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from commercial layer chickens (n = 58) vaccinated with the live f strain of mg. three groups of chickens that differed in the interval after vaccinal exposure to the f strain (32, 41, and 102 weeks) were studied at necropsy. mycoplasma isolation was attempted from the trachea, sinus, and cloaca using lavage and swab techniques but w ...19911953581
nucleotide sequence of the tuf gene from mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19892602129
identification of f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates by detection of an immunoreactive protein.commercial laying hens were examined microbiologically at necropsy 31 or 42 weeks after aerosol vaccination with the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). mycoplasma isolates were studied in western blots probed with polyclonal antiserum raised in rabbits to f strain immunogen. the persistence of the vaccine strain was demonstrated by detection of a 75-kilodalton immunoreactive protein, which was present in all mg isolates and thought to be a unique marker of the f strain. use of pca-f to p ...19911953583
monoclonal antibodies that recognize specific antigens of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.the polypeptide profiles of the type strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (pg 31) and m. synoviae (wvu 1853) resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were compared. except for a few discrete peptides that were similar, the species varied considerably in peptide profiles. congruence was observed between the type strains of each species and homologous cloned serotypes. protein blots of each species were probed with 2 mouse monoclonal antibodies. monoclonal antibody g 46 ...19892649056
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum subunit and whole organism vaccines containing different adjuvants by western immunoblotting.chickens were vaccinated with subunit (adhesin protein) or whole organisms of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) adjuvanted with multilamellar positively charged liposomes or oil-emulsion. sera were collected before and following the first (13 weeks of age) and second (17 weeks of age) vaccination. the chicken sera were used in western immunoblotting against whole mg polypeptides. vaccination with the subunit (mg-adhesin) bacterin containing positively charged liposomes resulted in antibody response ...19892683358
the humoral immune response of chickens to mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae studied by immunoblotting.the humoral immune response over time of white leghorn chickens experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum or m. synoviae by an aerosol inoculation or a contact exposure were compared by immunoblotting. the response of chickens infected with m. gallisepticum were similar with respect to proteins recognized and intensity of response, regardless of mode of infection. on the other hand, chickens infected by aerosolization of m. synoviae responded to more proteins and with greater intensi ...19902146797
novel arrangement of rrna genes in mycoplasma gallisepticum: separation of the 16s gene of one set from the 23s and 5s genes.large restriction fragments from the dna of mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 and pg31, which were prepared by digestion with bgli, bsshii, smai, or xhoi and which were separated by pulsed-field electrophoresis, were hybridized with probes containing most, or different parts, of an rrna operon of mycoplasma capricolum. the results showed that the genomes contained three widely separated rrna loci. one locus contained genes for all three rrna species and another contained 23s and probably 5s rrna genes ...19892708324
research note: mycoplasma gallisepticum isolations resulting from dry versus wet swabs.commercial leghorns vaccinated with f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum were used to determine the effect of hydration of swab material with frey's broth media on m. gallisepticum isolation. twenty-four hens from each of four 10,000 bird houses were randomly selected and swabbed from the choanal cleft region. twelve birds from each house were swabbed with ethylene-oxide-sterilized, 2.4-mm diameter rayon-tipped swabs, and 12 hens were swabbed with the same type swabs wetted with sterile frey's brot ...19912017415
the isolation and attenuation of a virus causing rhinotracheitis in turkeys in south africa.in march 1978, a number of turkeys with severe respiratory symptoms affecting over 80% of the flock were investigated for a possible causative agent. with the standard techniques used for the isolation of bacteriae, mycoplasmae and viruses, only mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and newcastle disease virus were isolated. tracheal organ cultures were subsequently prepared from 27-day-old turkey embryos and inoculated with sinus exudate from affected turkeys. after an incubation per ...19892748138
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains and identification of immunogenic integral membrane proteins with triton x-114 by immunoblotting.pooled chicken antisera from 33 and 77 days post mycoplasma gallisepticum strain r contact-exposure reacted with cell proteins of 19 m. gallisepticum strains. these pooled antisera reacted with more proteins and with greater intensity to reference strains (r, pg31, s6, and a5969) and nine field strains than they did with six other field strains including three (703, 503, and 730) that have been described as serological variants. following extraction with triton x-114 the majority of immunogenic ...19911771754
binding of thyrotropin to selected mycoplasma species: detection of serum antibodies against a specific mycoplasma membrane antigen in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.radiolabeled human (htsh) and bovine (btsh) thyroid stimulating hormone was shown to bind to five species of mycoplasma, the wall-less prokaryotes. the maximum binding capacity of 125i-btsh to these five species was about 7.9 x 10(-13) moles-1.4 x 10(-12) moles for 50-100 micrograms protein with dissociation constants of approximately 1.7 to 2.2 x 10(-7)m. approximately 50% of the 125i-btsh binding was displaced by excess, unlabeled btsh or htsh, but labeled btsh was not effectively displaced by ...19892754187
[mutual location of the rrna operon and tuf gene in the mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 genome].the genomic library of mycoplasma gallisepticum was constructed and two clones, selected by hybridization on e. coli 16s rrna, were analyzed. the restriction map of the clones indicate that both clones belong to the same region of the m. gallisepticum genome. the results of southern hybridization with either e. coli 16s rrna, or e. coli 23s rrna, or oligonucleotide synthesized as a part of m. gallisepticum 5s rrna, led to the conclusion that the unspliced rrna operon was cloned. the order of gen ...19911813806
development of a simplified method for subclass isotyping and screening monoclonal antibodies.a simplified dot-blot procedure for screening and subclass isotyping of monoclonal antibodies is described in which only 0.5-50 ng of antigen and 1 microliter of antibody are needed to perform the test. the results on the nitrocellulose membrane can be stored indefinitely for future reference. this method is less expensive, uses smaller quantities of antigen and antibody, and is faster than presently used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques or other dot-blot methods. monoclonal antibodi ...19911910771
the effect of biological isolation and a molt-inducing regimen on the recovery of mycoplasma gallisepticum from commercial leghorn hens.two trials were conducted to determine the effect of induced molt on the reisolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from commercial leghorn hens that had been eyedrop-inoculated with mg at 10 weeks of age. chickens were maintained in a conventional floored chicken house on dry litter through 100 weeks of age. at age 64 weeks, 4 days (trial 1), and at 100 weeks (trial 2), hens were swabbed and cultured for mg and then molted in biological isolation units. swabs were again taken at the end of ea ...19892775101
[efficacy of spiramycin and tylosin in preventing mycoplasmosis in chicks experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum].in order to evaluate the activity of two drugs (spiramycin and tylosin), one-day-old chicks are inoculated with a virulent strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and given spiramycin (3 different doses) or tylosin (1 dose) for two or three days. effectiveness is assessed on different criteria: mortality, symptoms, weight gains, gross lesions, mg tracheal recovery and serology. results show that spiramycin and tylosin have the potential of reducing mortality, symptoms and lesions. weight gains o ...19892797880
estimates of quantitative genetic parameters of immunological traits in the chicken.three in vivo assays were used to measure the immunocompetence of chickens in two generations of a selection experiment. the obtained data were used to estimate the variance components for sire and dam for antibody production to pasteurella multocida and mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines, for t-cell-mediated immunity evaluated by a phytohemagglutinin wing web assay, and for clearance of foreign particles from the circulatory system. heritabilities of and genetic correlations among these immunolo ...19911956847
control of sodium fluxes in mycoplasma gallisepticum.swelling of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells when incubated in a glucose-free isoosmotic nacl buffer was shown to be due to the entrance of nacl into the cell. volume regulation therefore depends on na+ extrusion. the mechanism of na+ extrusion in cells and proteoliposomes, prepared from m. gallisepticum membrane fragments, was investigated by following both 22na+ efflux and ph changes. our results indicate that na+ is expelled from cells via two separate mechanisms, an na+/cation exchange mechani ...19872822608
animal viruses are able to fuse with prokaryotic cells. fusion between sendai or influenza virions and mycoplasma.sendai and influenza virions are able to fuse with mycoplasmata. virus-mycoplasma fusion was demonstrated by the use of fluorescently labeled intact virions and fluorescence dequenching, as well as by electron microscopy. a high degree of fusion was observed upon incubation of both virions with mycoplasma gallisepticum or mycoplasma capricolum. significantly less virus-cell fusion was observed with acholeplasma laidlawii, whose membrane contains relatively low amounts of cholesterol. the require ...19882826447
polymerase chain reaction for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a species-specific 760-base pair (bp) bamhi to ecori dna fragment (fmg-2) was isolated from a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) genomic library constructed in plasmid puc8. based on the dna sequence data of fmg-2, a pair of 25 base primers, designated amplification (amp) left (l) and right (r) primers, was synthesized. when used in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the amp l and r primers directed amplification of dna of 16 mg strains yielding an expected 732-bp product, but did not amplify dna o ...19912029263
protein phosphorylation in mycoplasma gallisepticum.incubation of the soluble fraction derived from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells with [gamma-32p]atp results in the phosphorylation of several endogenous proteins. one protein with an apparent molecular mass of 55 kda was the acceptor of more than 95% of the radioactive phosphate. this protein was also found to be radiolabeled in intact cells grown in the presence of [32p]orthophosphate. acid hydrolysis of the phosphorylated 55-kda protein followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that ...19882843367
cross-hybridization between the cytadhesin genes of mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium and genomic dna of mycoplasma gallisepticum.immunological cross-reactivity was observed between the cytadhesin proteins of mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium and a 155 kda protein of mycoplasma gallisepticum. furthermore, the cytadhesin genes of m. pneumoniae and m. genitalium were used to demonstrate homology with m. gallisepticum genomic dna under low stringency conditions suggesting that a family of adhesin-related genes exists among these pathogenic mycoplasmas.19902120539
safety of temperature sensitive mutant mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.a temperature sensitive (ts) vaccine strain designated ts-11 was selected after exposure of a low passage culture of the immunogenic australian field isolate (strain 80083) of mycoplasma gallisepticum to 100 mg/ml of n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine. viable counts (assayed as colour changing units (ccu)/25 microliters) of a thawed stock culture of ts-11 were typically log10 3 to log10 5 higher when incubated at 33 degrees c (the permissive temperature) than duplicate viable counts incubated a ...19902143067
intraspecies genotypic heterogeneity among mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.the dna cleavage patterns and protein profiles of six mycoplasma gallisepticum strains from various parts of the world were compared. obvious differences among the strains were obtained by dna restriction analysis. reflection of genotypic variations in the polypeptide patterns was less pronounced; slight differences in the protein profiles of the strains were found. the data presented here indicate that some intraspecies polymorphism exists among m. gallisepticum strains.19882895605
immunogenicity of a temperature sensitive mutant mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.the immunogenicity of the ts-11 vaccine strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum was assessed following eye drop or coarse aerosol administration in chickens of various ages. protection was evalualted following intra-abdominal (ia) or fine droplet aerosol administration of virulent m. gallisepticum, usually the ap3as strain and was measured mainly by the scoring of gross air sac lesions or by egg production. vaccination of chickens with ts-11 did not elicit a substantial serum antibody response as mea ...19902143068
an adhesion-hemadsorption test for screening and identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19892927029
pathological and immunological studies on chicken embryos and day-old chicks experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19862953204
transmembrane diffusion channels in mycoplasma gallisepticum induced by tetanolysin.the permeability properties of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells treated with a purified preparation of tetanolysin were investigated by determining the initial swelling rates of cells suspended in an isoosmotic solution of electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. the swelling, initiated by the tetanolysin, depended on the tetanolysin concentration and was markedly affected by the molecular size of the various osmotic stabilizers utilized. thus, the initial swelling rates in an isoosmotic solution of monos ...19902307513
an investigation of the persistence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in an eastern population of wild turkeys.mycoplasma gallisepticum infection had been confirmed by culture and serology among wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in close association with domestic fowl on cumberland island, georgia (usa) in 1980. in 1988, wild turkeys were surveyed by serologic and cultural methods for evidence of m. gallisepticum. chickens (gallus gallus) and guinea fowl (numida meleagris) from the site where the disease was originally detected also were tested by serologic and cultural methods for m. gallisepticum infe ...19912023330
efficacy of experimental inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum oil-emulsion bacterin in egg-layer chickens.six groups of white leghorn pullets were studied to determine the ability of beta-propiolactone-inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) oil-emulsion bacterins to counteract reductions in egg production caused by mg infection. the pullets were inoculated with 0.5 ml of mg bacterin subcutaneously in the neck at about 20 weeks of age and were challenged with mg near 28 weeks of age, when they were in peak egg production. various challenge schemes with infectious bronchitis virus were used at the ...19852992434
demonstration of the genetic stability of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain following in vivo passage.a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain designated 6/85 (mgi) exhibiting reduced virulence for both chickens and turkeys was sequentially passaged 10 times in each species. dna extracted from organisms before passage and those isolated after the third, sixth, and 10th passages was studied by restriction endonuclease dna analysis using bamhi, bglii, ecori, hindiii, and psti endonucleases. the virulent-type strain designated s6 was used as a comparison. comparison of dna fragment patterns of mgi and s6 ...19921329707
evaluation of the specificity and sensitivity of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, the serum plate agglutination test, and the hemagglutination-inhibition test for antibodies formed in response to mycoplasma gallisepticum.two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits, seven serum plate agglutination (spa) antigens, and the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared for sensitivity and specificity using known mg-positive and mg-negative sera from leghorn chickens. all spa antigens proved to be highly sensitive when testing mg-positive sera. laboratory-prepared spa antigens yielded fewer positive reactions when testing mg-negative sera than co ...19883041957
identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by flow cytometry.immunofluorescence and flow cytometric methods were examined to detect and distinguish mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae. the procedure employed 24-hr broth cultures of each organism, direct immunofluorescence staining with either homologous or heterologous antiserum, and analyses by flow cytometry. the organisms were distinguishable on the basis of fluorescent profiles when stained with the appropriate antiserum.19883058112
an adhesion-hemadsorption inhibition test for the detection of serum antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum.a simple adhesion-hemadsorption inhibition (ahai) test was developed for the detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in the chicken sera. the ahai antibody was detected simultaneously with hi antibody from sera of chickens intratracheally inoculated with viable cells of m. gallisepticum. a good correlation between hi and ahai antibody titers was obtained with 382 (84.7%) of 451 sera from chickens reared on farms spontaneously contaminated with m. gallisepticum, whereas the remainder, ...19892761140
presence of anaplerotic reactions and transamination, and the absence of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mollicutes.cell extracts of the fermentative mollicutes acholeplasma laidlawii b-pg9, acholeplasma morum s2, mycoplasma capricolum 14, mycoplasma gallisepticum s6, mycoplasma pneumoniae fh, mycoplasma hyopneumoniae j and m. genitalium g-37, and the non-fermentative mycoplasma hominis pg-21, mycoplasma hominis 1620 and mycoplasma bovigenitalium pg-11 were examined for 39 cytoplasmic enzyme activities associated with the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle, transamination, anaplerotic reactions and other enzyme a ...19883141576
evaluation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis purified proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae as antigens in a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.selected immunogenic proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strain r and m. synoviae (ms) isolate f10-2as were purified from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. purified mg proteins of 65 to 63 (p64) kilodaltons (kda), and 26 and 24 (p26/24) kda, and purified ms proteins of 53 (p53) kda, 41 (p41) kda, and 22 (p22) kda were evaluated as potential antigens for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). chicken antisera to mg, ms, or oil-emulsion vaccines were used to evaluate these p ...19902241683
factors affecting the development of respiratory disease complex in chickens.factors playing a part in the development of respiratory disease complex in chickens were investigated in a series of experiments. the experimental infection was produced by exposing chickens to mycoplasma gallisepticum and the b1 vaccine strain of newcastle disease virus and later exposing them to aerosols containing the o1:k1 serotype of escherichia coli. chickens became susceptible (pericarditis or death) to e. coli 8 days after mixed respiratory disease challenge. one day after respiratory d ...19902241688
dna probes for mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae: application in experimentally infected chickens.dna probes specific for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae were selected from genomic libraries prepared in the puc13 vector. the probes hybridized with the dna of a wide spectrum of strains within each homologous species, but did not react with the heterologous species or with dna from any other avian mycoplasma or bacteria tested. experimental infection and contact exposure of chickens to m. gallisepticum served as models to test the effectiveness of the dna probe in diagnosis as compare ...19892800306
new biotin-conjugated antisera for quantitation of mycoplasma gallisepticum-specific immunoglobulin a in chicken.the biotinylation of goat anti-alpha-chains of chicken immunoglobulin a (iga), suitable for use in an avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is described. the optimum conditions for the use of the developed conjugate in determining local and systemic iga specific to mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens were established.19883196259
the effect of oxytetracycline on the severity of airsacculitis in chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.four groups of mycoplasma-free commercial broilers were challenged with the r strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) at 14 days of age. groups received feed containing either no medication, or 500 ppm or 1000 ppm oxytetracycline (otc) beginning at age 13 days, or 1000 ppm otc beginning at age 15 days. all broilers were vaccinated with a live mild massachusetts infectious bronchitis vaccine at 17 days of age. air sac lesions were scored at age 24 days. in two almost identical experiments, all ot ...19892619666
rapid identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum using a simple method of nucleic acid hybridization. 19883247004
lectin-induced damage to the enterocyte brush border. an electron-microscopic study in rabbits.the ultrastructural effects of 11 lectins on the intestinal brush border were examined by means of an in vitro rabbit ileal mucosal explant culture system. five of the lectins that bind to oligosaccharides containing either n-acetylglucosamine (phytohaemagglutinin, euonymus europaeus lectin, pokeweed mitogen, and wheat germ agglutinin) or n-acetylneuraminic acid (mycoplasma gallisepticum lectin) all had a specific effect on microvilli. the effects varied in accordance with the lectin and include ...19883249912
synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of amides and amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline.a series of both aliphatic and aromatic amides and aromatic amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline (3) according to the topliss scheme were synthesized and subsequently tested for antimycoplasmal potency. although the compounds themselves showed no activity, in the presence of a nontoxic copper concentration of 40 microm all compounds appeared to be very active against mycoplasma gallisepticum k154. the most active compounds were found in the amide series and show growth inhibition in ...19912002460
[detection and identification of mycoplasma infections by dna hybridization].infection of cell cultures by mycoplasmas can be detected by hybridization of the dna of suspected cell cultures with recombinant plasmids containing fragments of the mycoplasma dna. the test is very sensitive and allows detection of as little as 1 ng of mycoplasmal dna, roughly equivalent to the dna amount of 10(6) mycoplasmas. this approach turns out to be effective for detection and identification of mycoplasmas in clinical material, plant and insect tissues. a set of dna probes for detection ...19873318046
serological monitoring of eastern wild turkeys for antibodies to mycoplasma spp. and avian influenza viruses.from 1981 through 1986, plasma or serum samples were obtained from 322 wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from georgia (n = 111), kentucky (n = 21), louisiana (n = 22), north carolina (n = 118), tennessee (n = 19), missouri (n = 24) and iowa (n = 7). these samples were tested for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and in most instances, m. synoviae (ms), m. meleagridis (mm), and avian influenza (ai) virus. all 322 turkeys were seronegative for mg by the rapid plate agglutination (rpa) t ...19883373642
volume regulation in mycoplasma gallisepticum: evidence that na+ is extruded via a primary na+ pump.the primary extrusion of na+ from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells was demonstrated by showing that when na+-loaded cells were incubated with both glucose (10 mm) and the uncoupler sf6847 (0.4 microm), rapid acidification of the cell interior occurred, resulting in the quenching of acridine orange fluorescence. no acidification was obtained with na+-depleted cells or with cells loaded with either kcl, rbcl, licl, or cscl. acidification was inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (50 microm) and diet ...19892526806
practical application of nucleic acid techniques to avian disease problems.a workshop in which 17 practicing scientists participated was intended to address primarily people who use or could use biotechnology in their work and was confined to five techniques. endonuclease fingerprinting and mapping involved cleaving nucleic acid with a specific restriction enzyme and separating the nucleic acid fragments by electrophoresis. field and vaccine isolates of pasteurella multocida could be distinguished; salmonella enteritidis could be divided into three groups; chlamydia co ...19892559697
construction of the mycoplasma evolutionary tree from 5s rrna sequence data.the 5s rrna sequences of eubacteria and mycoplasmas have been analyzed and a phylogenetic tree constructed. we determined the sequences of 5s rrna from clostridium innocuum, acholeplasma laidlawii, acholeplasma modicum, anaeroplasma bactoclasticum, anaeroplasma abactoclasticum, ureaplasma urealyticum, mycoplasma mycoides mycoides, mycoplasma pneumoniae, and mycoplasma gallisepticum. analysis of these and published sequences shows that mycoplasmas form a coherent phylogenetic group that, with c. ...19852579388
role of harderian glands in resistance against mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge.harderian glands of one-day-old chickens were surgically removed. at one week old, these chickens and controls from which these tissues were not removed, were vaccinated intranasally with a temperature-sensitive mutant of mycoplasma gallisepticum. humoral and local immunity were measured by means of antibody in sera and tracheal washings, respectively. protection was measured by resistance to intra-air-sac challenge with the s6 strain of m gallisepticum. there was no discernible difference in ei ...19892595091
investigation into the mechanism of copper uptake by mycoplasma gallisepticum in the presence of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline.in the presence of copper certain 2,2'-bipyridyls show antimycoplasmal activity, whereas copper itself causes a toxic effect. in this paper results are presented to elucidate the mechanism of copper uptake in the presence of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline. the time course of copper and/or ligand uptake under the applied conditions is consistent with a carrier transport mechanism in which 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline operates as a carrier for copper ions. the influence of valinomycin on cop ...19873432040
virulence and transmissibility of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the virulence of 4 low passage strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum obtained from different sources within australia was studied by experimental infection of chickens. strain ap3as, originally isolated from the air sac of a broiler chicken, produced severe air sac lesions following injection into the abdominal air sacs of 2-week or 3-week-old chickens, and adult hens. strain 80083 which was isolated from a clinically normal broiler breeder hen was also capable of producing gross air sac lesions f ...19892712773
preliminary data on efficacy of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines containing different adjuvants in laying hens.chickens were vaccinated subcutaneously twice, at 13 and 17 weeks of age. the vaccines used were the whole organisms of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) adjuvanted with multilamellar positively charged (mpc) liposomes or oil-emulsion. other chickens received the same bacterins but supplemented with salmonella typhimurium cell wall protein mitogen (stp) (50 micrograms/dose). at 21 weeks of age, each bird was challenged in the right and left caudal thoracic air sacs. the challenge dose/chicken was 1. ...19902260278
delineation of the lateral spread of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.lateral spread of s6 strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was studied in small populations of chickens. one experimentally exposed bird served as the source of infection, and the presence of mg-agglutinating antibody was evidence of infection in individuals. the results were subjected to survival data analysis. in the seven experiments, four similar but not identical phases of lateral spread were observed: phase 1, a generally long latent phase (median 15, range 12-21 days) before antibody was f ...19873442533
identification of the antigenic components of the virulent mycoplasma gallisepticum (r) in chickens: their role in differentiation from the vaccine strain (f).the antibody response to different proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was studied in chickens experimentally infected with virulent mg r strain. the chickens were challenged at 8 weeks of age by the intranasal route. each cockerel received 1.3 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu). mg strains (r and f) were banded by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the banding pattern was distinctively different between the two strains in the range of 92.5 to 200 kilodal ...19892773299
an avidin-biotin enhanced dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae serum antibodies in chickens.a dot-immunobinding assay was enhanced by the incorporation of avidin and biotin reagents into the test system (dab assay). this assay was used to detect serum antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) from chickens. serum samples were tested by rapid serum plate (rsp), hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), and dab assay methods. these results were compared. the dab assay was at least 20 times more sensitive in detecting antibodies for ms and at least 75 times more sensitive i ...19902322229
a quantitative study of single and mixed infection of the chicken trachea by mycoplasma gallisepticum.the interaction between mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and the tracheal mucosa of the young chicken was studied. the use of a selective plating method permitted differentiation between a pathogenic tylosin-resistant strain (227) and a less pathogenic tylosin-sensitive vaccine strain (f). both mg strains adhered to the tracheal mucosa and colonized equally well. in mixed infection, the presence or absence of the second strain did not change the efficiency of colonization by either strain. when chi ...19873579778
immunity induced with an aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin in chickens.the protective effect of an inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin was evaluated in chickens subsequently challenged intratracheally (it) with the homologous strain. antibody responses in sera and tracheal washings (tws) from these chickens were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. a group of chickens was vaccinated intramuscularly (im) with two doses of the bacterin containing aluminum hydroxide gel (im + im). another group was vaccinated im with the same bacterin fol ...19873579785
differentiation of the vaccine f-strain from other strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum by restriction endonuclease analysis.the electrophoretic patterns of the nucleic acids (dna) of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains digested with the restriction enzymes bam hi, eco ri and hind iii were useful for differentiating the vaccine f-strain from other strains of m. gallisepticum. the procedure was more sensitive than the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) technique. the vaccine f-strain, represented by cultures designated f-k810 and f-f2f10 was clearly differentiated from other strains of m. ...19892705291
decrease in catalase activity of cultured cells by mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.the effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection on the host cell catalase activity was histochemically examined in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts (cef) and kidney cells. the activity in normal cells was detected as fine, brown granules in the cytoplasm, which appeared ultrastructurally to correspond to anucleoid microbodies. by infecting cultured cells with a cef-passaged strain of m. gallisepticum, the catalase-positive granules clearly decreased in amount, whereas the uv light-killed myc ...19873604054
mycoplasma gallisepticum strain variations detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.various strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. minor but distinct and reproducible differences in protein banding patterns were detected between strains, which included the vaccine f strain from various sources, an atypical (variant) strain, and the standard (a5969, s6) strains.19873619825
evaluation of respiratory lesions in chickens induced by mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19873626242
role of na+ cycle in cell volume regulation of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the mechanism for the extrusion of na+ from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells was examined. na+ efflux from cells was studied by diluting 22na+-loaded cells into an isoosmotic nacl solution and measuring the residual 22na+ in the cells. uphill 22na+ efflux was found to be glucose dependent and linear with time over a 60-s period and showed almost the same rate in the ph range of 6.5 to 8.0. 22na+ efflux was markedly inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (dccd, 10 microm), but not by the proton-cond ...19892753860
a species-specific dna probe for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.an 800-base-pair dna fragment from a partial genomic library of mycoplasma gallisepticum was selected and used as a probe for the selective detection of this avian pathogen. the specificity and sensitivity of this probe were demonstrated by using dot blot and southern hybridizations.19873666965
sealed vesicles prepared by fusing mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes and preformed lipid vesicles.sealed vesicles were obtained by fusing mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes with asolectin-cholesterol vesicles. the fusion was induced by freezing and thawing followed by a brief sonication treatment and was detected using a fluorescence sedimentation behavior in a sucrose density gradient and were shown to be impermeable to small solutes. the advantages of such fused preparations for transport studies in mycoplasmas are discussed.19873667215
synthesis of deoxyribomononucleotides in mollicutes: dependence on deoxyribose-1-phosphate and ppi.cell extracts of acholeplasma laidlawii b-pg9, acholeplasma morum s2, mycoplasma capricolum 14, and mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 were examined for 37 cytoplasmic enzyme activities involved in the salvage and biosynthesis of purines. all of these organisms had adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (ec 2.4.2.7) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (ec 2.4.2.8). all of these organisms had purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity (ec 2.4.2.1) in the synthetic direction using ribos ...19873038846
development of a biotinylated probe for the rapid detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum causes respiratory diseases in the form of tracheitis and air sacculitis in chickens and turkeys. it is a major cause of reduced egg production, reduced hatchability, and downgrading of carcasses. current means of diagnosis depend on the isolation and identification of the organisms, or on serological assays to detect serum antibodies. the evaluation of avian sera for m. gallisepticum antibodies is becoming more difficult to interpret, and thus less useful, due to the in ...19873667241
the beta-subunit of the f1f0-atpase is conserved in mycoplasmas.monospecific polyclonal antibodies that were generated against the beta-subunit of escherichia coli atpase (f1fo) cross-reacted with a protein present in the cells of several mycoplasma and acholeplasma species. in mycoplasma gallisepticum, the reactive protein was found almost exclusively in the cell membrane. this protein had an apparent molecular mass of approximately 52 kda and could not be released from the membranes by repeated washings with either low or high salt solutions in the presenc ...19862872212
species-specific biotinylated dna probe for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a 5.5 kilobase dna fragment from an eco ri digest of the mycoplasma gallisepticum genome was specific for the detection of m. gallisepticum. this 5.5 kb fragment was initially cloned into bacteriophage lambda gt11 followed by subcloning into the plasmid vector pgem-3z. the incorporation of a biotin label was accomplished by utilizing biotin-11-dutp in a nick translation reaction. this probe, designated pmg6, reacts specifically with m. gallisepticum when tested against various mycoplasma dnas in ...19883221885
comparison of culturing mycoplasma gallisepticum from fresh eggs and 18-day-old embryos.twenty-four 70-week-old and sixteen 27-week-old white leghorn hens were challenged with r strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) by injection into the caudal thoracic air sac and infraorbital sinus. eggs were collected daily and cultured within 7 days or incubated for 18 days. vitelline membranes of eggs were cultured directly; in 18-day-old embryos, cultures were taken from the yolk sac, air sacs, and oral cavity. culture of vitelline membrane of eggs within 2 days was compared with culture of eg ...19873675426
detection and differentiation of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae antibodies in chicken serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.affinity-purified sheep igg anti-chicken igg horseradish peroxidase conjugate was utilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect mycoplasma gallisepticum- and m. synoviae-specific antibodies in chicken sera. antigen, conjugate and substrate concentrations, and incubation times were adjusted to provide maximum differentiation between positive and negative sera. use of phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.05% tween 20 for washing and diluting steps and use of normal sheep ser ...19863729859
evaluation of protection against mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens vaccinated with the f strain of m. gallisepticum.the effect of vaccination with the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) on protection against challenge with a tylosin-resistant strain of mg was evaluated. white leghorn chickens vaccinated via eyedrop at 6 weeks of age were subsequently challenged with various dilutions of the tylosin-resistant mg strain, as were unvaccinated controls. three days later, tracheal swabs were collected and cultured in medium with and without tylosin to distinguish between the vaccine and challenge strains. t ...19863729860
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains by hemagglutination-inhibition and restriction endonuclease analysis.mycoplasma gallisepticum strains, including a series of field strains from north carolina, were examined by homologous and heterologous hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests and by restriction endonuclease dna analysis to determine whether they were closely related. hi results indicated wide antigenic diversity. generally, homologous hi titers were higher than heterologous titers; exceptions were probably due to relative insensitivity of individual antigen batches. strain a5969, commonly used a ...19882849403
synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of 1-amino-3-(2-pyridyl)isoquinoline derivatives. 2. amidines.in our search for new compounds with antimycoplasmal activity, a series of aromatic amidines derived from 1-amino-3-(2-pyridyl)isoquinoline (1) was synthesized. in the presence of 40 microm copper the most active compounds show growth inhibition of mycoplasma gallisepticum in the nanomolar range. these compounds are 3 times as active as tylosin, an antimycoplasmal therapeutic agent that is used in veterinary practice. in the presence of copper, amidines derived from 1 are 2-3 times more active t ...19892913309
spiroplasma membrane lipids.membranes of six spiroplasma strains belonging to different spiroplasma species and subgroups were isolated by a combination of osmotic lysis and sonication in the presence of edta to block endogenous phospholipase activity. analysis of membrane lipids showed that in addition to free and esterified cholesterol the spiroplasmas incorporated exogenous phospholipids from the growth medium. sphingomyelin was preferentially incorporated from phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin vesicles or from the seru ...19852981796
experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.the effects of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo). three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to mg by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after i ...19883411710
a pathologic study of wild turkeys in connecticut.during the 1984 to 1986 spring hunting seasons in connecticut, viscera from 300 hunter-killed wild turkeys and blood samples from live-trapped wild turkeys were examined in order to establish a health profile on the state's wild turkey population. seven species of endoparasites were recovered from 224 (75%) of 300 birds: metroliasthes lucida, ascaridia dissimilis, heterakis gallinarum, syngamus trachea, capillaria species, trichomonas gallinarum, and eimeria species. the most prevalent parasites ...19883168472
serologic response of rio grande wild turkeys to experimental infections of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the serologic response of rio grande wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was determined. free-ranging turkeys were caught in southern texas, shipped to the university of wisconsin, madison, and housed in isolation facilities. fourteen birds were exposed to mg, by intratracheal and intranasal inoculation. eight birds received sterile broth only. two wk prior to the end of the experiment, mg exposed turkeys were stressed by challenge with a serologically ...19883193562
31p-nmr studies of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells using a continuous perfusion technique.31p-nmr studies of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells have been carried out using a continuous perfusion technique; these are the first such studies with this organism. using this technique, glucose metabolism was monitored in the intact organisms, and cell extracts were prepared to identify the intermediates. under glycolytic conditions, high levels of fructose-1,6-diphosphate were observed, indicating that this sugar may play a key role in the regulation of metabolism. the level of phosphoenolpyru ...19863732520
effects of dose of antigen and social environment on antibody response of high and low antibody response chickens.chickens selected for high (ha) and low (la) antibody response were exposed to 10-fold doses of red blood cell and killed bacterial antigens while in three different social environments. antibody responses of the ha and la line chickens differed most in the socialized environment and at lower doses of antigen. dose effects were most pronounced in la-line chickens whereas relationship of humans to chickens was most important to ha-line chickens. socialized chickens were more consistent than ignor ...19863737505
nonspecific reactions to mycoplasma serum plate antigens induced by inactivated poultry disease vaccines.nonspecific serum plate agglutination reactions to some avian mycoplasma antigens were induced by injecting chickens with several commercial poultry disease vaccines. all of the vaccines were inactivated, and most of them had oil-emulsion adjuvants. the serum plate agglutination reactions appeared within 2 to 3 weeks post-vaccination and generally persisted for several weeks. the plate test reactions were noted with both mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) antigens, although the d ...19892522768
ribosomal rna gene probes to detect intraspecies heterogeneity in mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.intraspecies genotypic heterogeneity among strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae was tested using genomic fingerprints with a ribosomal rna (rrna) gene probe. the organism's dna was digested by a restriction endonuclease, electrophoresed, transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet, and hybridized with 32p-labeled pmc5 plasmid carrying the highly conserved rrna genes of m. capricolum. the resulting hybridization patterns indicated a degree of genotypic heterogeneity among m. gallisepticu ...19882840880
evaluation of factors associated with infection of commercial layers with mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.information on factors possibly associated with the risk of infection with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) or m. synoviae (ms) were collected from nearly 400 layer flocks in california. factors associated with the probability of flock infection with either mg or ms were identified, and their magnitude was quantified by statistical analysis. more frequent administration of several vaccines was associated with decreased probability of both mg and ms infection of flocks. also identified were housing ...19873675422
detection of antigenic variation among strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay (elisia) and western blot analysis.polyclonal antisera (pca) to three mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains (f, s6, and a5969) produced in rabbits were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay (elisia) and western blot analysis to examine antigenic variability among these strains of mg. in elisia, inhibiting antigen of the same strain used for immunization always led to the greatest percentage inhibition of pca reactivity. western blot analysis of antigens of four mg strains demonstrated both common and restricted pat ...19883060088
antibody responses in sera and respiratory secretions from chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.antibodies in sera and respiratory secretions from chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). chickens intratracheally inoculated with 10(5) cells of mg showed a correlation between severity of tracheal lesions and extent of mg colonization in the tracheas in the first 3 weeks postinoculation. antibody titers in tracheal washings (tws) of the infected chickens increased during this phase. thereafter, isolation of mg from th ...19863767815
effect of medicated feed on tracheal infection and population of mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.six-week-old broilers were fed 50 g tylosin/ton, 400 g chlortetracycline (ctc)/ton, or unmedicated feed and then challenged intratracheally with r strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). feed-grade antibiotic medication did not prevent infection, but medication did lower the number of isolations from treated birds compared with controls. only tylosin significantly lowered mg counts in the trachea. the log10 id50 of birds receiving tylosin, ctc, or unmedicated feed were 5.8, 4.4, and 2.9, respectiv ...19863767816
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