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cross-hybridization between the cytadhesin genes of mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium and genomic dna of mycoplasma gallisepticum.immunological cross-reactivity was observed between the cytadhesin proteins of mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium and a 155 kda protein of mycoplasma gallisepticum. furthermore, the cytadhesin genes of m. pneumoniae and m. genitalium were used to demonstrate homology with m. gallisepticum genomic dna under low stringency conditions suggesting that a family of adhesin-related genes exists among these pathogenic mycoplasmas.19902120539
health survey of backyard poultry and other avian species located within one mile of commercial california meat-turkey flocks.a survey was conducted to characterize domestic and exotic bird populations, estimate seroprevalence to selected disease agents, and describe health management practices on 62 premises containing "backyard" flocks located within one mile of 22 commercial california meat-turkey flocks participating in national animal health monitoring system (nahms). chickens were present on 56 backyard premises and turkeys on seven. antibodies were identified against mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. mel ...19911854324
detection of serum antibodies against mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by a dot-immunobinding technique.both mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) antigens prepared for the routine haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test were diluted and absorbed to the separate pieces of durapore membrane for the measurement of dot-immunobinding (dib) titers of test sera. besides, durapore strips bearing both antigens were employed for a dib test with chicken sera definitely diluted 100-fold. shortening of reaction time of chicken sera with antigens as well as with the secondary serum markedly elimina ...19902348588
antigenic determinants of the attachment protein of mycoplasma pneumoniae shared by other pathogenic mycoplasma species.in previous studies with hyperimmune rabbit antisera, we found evidence of serologic cross-reactivity among mycoplasma pneumoniae, mycoplasma genitalium, and mycoplasma gallisepticum. because of certain biologic and morphologic similarities of these species, attempts were made to determine if this cross-reactivity related to the attachment protein (p1) of m. pneumoniae. monoclonal and monospecific antibodies against p1 were used to probe proteins of the other species by immunoblotting. one of th ...19862417956
safety of temperature sensitive mutant mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.a temperature sensitive (ts) vaccine strain designated ts-11 was selected after exposure of a low passage culture of the immunogenic australian field isolate (strain 80083) of mycoplasma gallisepticum to 100 mg/ml of n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine. viable counts (assayed as colour changing units (ccu)/25 microliters) of a thawed stock culture of ts-11 were typically log10 3 to log10 5 higher when incubated at 33 degrees c (the permissive temperature) than duplicate viable counts incubated a ...19902143067
genetic and antigenic relatedness between mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.the two avian pathogens mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae were found, by southern blot hybridization of their digested dnas, to share genomic nucleotide sequences additional to those of the highly conserved ribosomal rna genes. the assumption that some of the shared sequences encode for antigens or epitopes common to both mycoplasmas was supported by western immunoblot analysis of cell proteins of one mycoplasma with specific antiserum to the other mycoplasma. interestingly, the b ...19892466367
further studies of mycoplasma gallisepticum serum plate agglutination antigen grown in medium with artificial liposomes substituting for serum.frey's medium supplemented with artificial liposomes substituting for serum was evaluated for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) serum plate agglutination (spa) antigen. antigens prepared in batch (static) culture were compared with antigens grown in a fermenter. all batch-grown mg liposome antigens were highly sensitive, specific, and resulted in a greater yield compared with fermenter-grown liposome antigens. compared with antigens prepared in frey's medium with 12% swine serum (regular fms) or wit ...19892467643
comparison of a modified edward-type medium and a modified sp4-type medium for primary isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from chickens vaccinated with the f strain of mg.the efficacy of two media, an edward-type medium (epj) and a modified sp4-type medium (sp4-ps), were compared for primary isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from commercial layer chickens (n = 58) vaccinated with the live f strain of mg. three groups of chickens that differed in the interval after vaccinal exposure to the f strain (32, 41, and 102 weeks) were studied at necropsy. mycoplasma isolation was attempted from the trachea, sinus, and cloaca using lavage and swab techniques but w ...19911953581
immunogenicity of a temperature sensitive mutant mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.the immunogenicity of the ts-11 vaccine strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum was assessed following eye drop or coarse aerosol administration in chickens of various ages. protection was evalualted following intra-abdominal (ia) or fine droplet aerosol administration of virulent m. gallisepticum, usually the ap3as strain and was measured mainly by the scoring of gross air sac lesions or by egg production. vaccination of chickens with ts-11 did not elicit a substantial serum antibody response as mea ...19902143068
identification of f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates by detection of an immunoreactive protein.commercial laying hens were examined microbiologically at necropsy 31 or 42 weeks after aerosol vaccination with the f strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). mycoplasma isolates were studied in western blots probed with polyclonal antiserum raised in rabbits to f strain immunogen. the persistence of the vaccine strain was demonstrated by detection of a 75-kilodalton immunoreactive protein, which was present in all mg isolates and thought to be a unique marker of the f strain. use of pca-f to p ...19911953583
estimates of quantitative genetic parameters of immunological traits in the chicken.three in vivo assays were used to measure the immunocompetence of chickens in two generations of a selection experiment. the obtained data were used to estimate the variance components for sire and dam for antibody production to pasteurella multocida and mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines, for t-cell-mediated immunity evaluated by a phytohemagglutinin wing web assay, and for clearance of foreign particles from the circulatory system. heritabilities of and genetic correlations among these immunolo ...19911956847
the genome size of a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism resembles those of animal mycoplasmas.the genome size of a mycoplasmalike organism was determined by comparing fluorescence intensities of restriction fragments. its genome size was similar to that of mycoplasma gallisepticum and much smaller than that of acholeplasma laidlawii. although the genome size is "mycoplasmalike," other molecular data indicate a closer evolutionary relationship to a. laidlawii.19912002012
evaluation of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain exhibiting reduced virulence for prevention and control of poultry mycoplasmosis.two experiments were conducted to evaluate the virulence and vaccination efficacy of a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolate designated mg intervet 6/85. virulence of the strain was determined by evaluation of airsacculitis scores following aerosol exposure to the isolate before and after 10 sequential passes in either commercial broiler chickens or commercial turkeys. two-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by aerosol exposure. the birds were challenged with the r' strain o ...19921385698
immunogenicity of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the serological response and protective immunity elicited in the chicken by the pathogenic ap3as strain and the moderately pathogenic 80083 strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum and variants of strain 80083 attenuated by repeated passage in mycoplasma broth were investigated. strain 80083 elicited a substantial serum antibody response after administration either in drinking water or by conjunctival sac instillation to 7-week-old spf chickens. no vaccinated chickens developed air sac lesions when ch ...19892540737
synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of amides and amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline.a series of both aliphatic and aromatic amides and aromatic amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline (3) according to the topliss scheme were synthesized and subsequently tested for antimycoplasmal potency. although the compounds themselves showed no activity, in the presence of a nontoxic copper concentration of 40 microm all compounds appeared to be very active against mycoplasma gallisepticum k154. the most active compounds were found in the amide series and show growth inhibition in ...19912002460
construction of the mycoplasma evolutionary tree from 5s rrna sequence data.the 5s rrna sequences of eubacteria and mycoplasmas have been analyzed and a phylogenetic tree constructed. we determined the sequences of 5s rrna from clostridium innocuum, acholeplasma laidlawii, acholeplasma modicum, anaeroplasma bactoclasticum, anaeroplasma abactoclasticum, ureaplasma urealyticum, mycoplasma mycoides mycoides, mycoplasma pneumoniae, and mycoplasma gallisepticum. analysis of these and published sequences shows that mycoplasmas form a coherent phylogenetic group that, with c. ...19852579388
role of harderian glands in resistance against mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge.harderian glands of one-day-old chickens were surgically removed. at one week old, these chickens and controls from which these tissues were not removed, were vaccinated intranasally with a temperature-sensitive mutant of mycoplasma gallisepticum. humoral and local immunity were measured by means of antibody in sera and tracheal washings, respectively. protection was measured by resistance to intra-air-sac challenge with the s6 strain of m gallisepticum. there was no discernible difference in ei ...19892595091
nucleotide sequence of the tuf gene from mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19892602129
mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination-challenge: an egg-production model.specific-pathogen-free layer hens in maximum lay were exposed by aerosol to a broth culture of mycoplasma gallisepticum r' strain. egg-production loss of greater than 50% was evident 7-14 days following challenge of unvaccinated chickens, with a gradual recovery during the next several days. various vaccine preparations were tested to determine the effect in the model. all vaccinated chickens exhibited significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower egg-production loss than the unvaccinated controls. the mo ...19921485879
monoclonal antibodies that recognize specific antigens of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.the polypeptide profiles of the type strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (pg 31) and m. synoviae (wvu 1853) resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were compared. except for a few discrete peptides that were similar, the species varied considerably in peptide profiles. congruence was observed between the type strains of each species and homologous cloned serotypes. protein blots of each species were probed with 2 mouse monoclonal antibodies. monoclonal antibody g 46 ...19892649056
evaluation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis purified proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae as antigens in a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.selected immunogenic proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strain r and m. synoviae (ms) isolate f10-2as were purified from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. purified mg proteins of 65 to 63 (p64) kilodaltons (kda), and 26 and 24 (p26/24) kda, and purified ms proteins of 53 (p53) kda, 41 (p41) kda, and 22 (p22) kda were evaluated as potential antigens for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). chicken antisera to mg, ms, or oil-emulsion vaccines were used to evaluate these p ...19902241683
a survey of infectious diseases in wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) from arkansas.wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) trapped as part of a relocation program by the arkansas game and fish commission were tested for selected infectious diseases and parasites. the 45 birds were trapped at four locations in pope, scott, and montgomery counties (arkansas, usa). forty-four blood samples for serology, 27 blood smears and 12 fecal samples were collected. of the serum samples tested, 20 of 44 (45%) were positive for pasteurella multocida by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...19902250323
preliminary data on efficacy of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines containing different adjuvants in laying hens.chickens were vaccinated subcutaneously twice, at 13 and 17 weeks of age. the vaccines used were the whole organisms of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) adjuvanted with multilamellar positively charged (mpc) liposomes or oil-emulsion. other chickens received the same bacterins but supplemented with salmonella typhimurium cell wall protein mitogen (stp) (50 micrograms/dose). at 21 weeks of age, each bird was challenged in the right and left caudal thoracic air sacs. the challenge dose/chicken was 1. ...19902260278
glycoconjugate heterogeneity among five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum.five strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and western blot analysis for the presence of carbohydrate-containing components. staining with periodic acid-schiff (pas) demonstrated carbohydrate components in three of the five strains studied. the pas-reactive bands counterstained for protein, indicating a possible glycoprotein nature. western blot analysis using three biotinylated lectin probes demonstrated th ...19902282023
examination of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from chickens with respiratory disease in a commercial flock vaccinated with a living m. gallisepticum vaccine. 19902076073
transmembrane diffusion channels in mycoplasma gallisepticum induced by tetanolysin.the permeability properties of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells treated with a purified preparation of tetanolysin were investigated by determining the initial swelling rates of cells suspended in an isoosmotic solution of electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. the swelling, initiated by the tetanolysin, depended on the tetanolysin concentration and was markedly affected by the molecular size of the various osmotic stabilizers utilized. thus, the initial swelling rates in an isoosmotic solution of monos ...19902307513
evidence that uga is read as a tryptophan codon rather than as a stop codon by mycoplasma pneumoniae, mycoplasma genitalium, and mycoplasma gallisepticum.molecular cloning and sequencing showed that mycoplasma gallisepticum, like mycoplasma capricolum, contains both trna(uca) and trna(cca) genes, while mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium each appear to have only a trna(uca) gene. therefore, these mycoplasma species contain a trna with the anticodon uca that can translate both uga and ugg codons.19902104612
an avidin-biotin enhanced dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae serum antibodies in chickens.a dot-immunobinding assay was enhanced by the incorporation of avidin and biotin reagents into the test system (dab assay). this assay was used to detect serum antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) from chickens. serum samples were tested by rapid serum plate (rsp), hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), and dab assay methods. these results were compared. the dab assay was at least 20 times more sensitive in detecting antibodies for ms and at least 75 times more sensitive i ...19902322229
sensitivity and specificity of mycoplasma gallisepticum agglutination antigens prepared from medium with artificial liposomes substituting for serum.three batches of strain a5969 mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) serum-plate-agglutination (spa) antigen grown in regular frey's medium with 12% swine serum, three batches grown in frey's medium containing artificial liposomes instead of serum, and one commercial spa antigen were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. sensitivity was measured using chickens exposed to mg by intraocular and intranasal inoculation. specificity was measured in uninoculated controls and in groups inoculated with the ...19882461697
development of a simplified method for subclass isotyping and screening monoclonal antibodies.a simplified dot-blot procedure for screening and subclass isotyping of monoclonal antibodies is described in which only 0.5-50 ng of antigen and 1 microliter of antibody are needed to perform the test. the results on the nitrocellulose membrane can be stored indefinitely for future reference. this method is less expensive, uses smaller quantities of antigen and antibody, and is faster than presently used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques or other dot-blot methods. monoclonal antibodi ...19911910771
[efficacy of spiramycin and tylosin in preventing mycoplasmosis in chicks experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum].in order to evaluate the activity of two drugs (spiramycin and tylosin), one-day-old chicks are inoculated with a virulent strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and given spiramycin (3 different doses) or tylosin (1 dose) for two or three days. effectiveness is assessed on different criteria: mortality, symptoms, weight gains, gross lesions, mg tracheal recovery and serology. results show that spiramycin and tylosin have the potential of reducing mortality, symptoms and lesions. weight gains o ...19892797880
comparative study of mycoplasma pulmonis and mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in turkey sinus.infraorbital sinuses of young turkeys were injected with virulent strains of mycoplasma pulmonis and mycoplasma gallisepticum to compare the diseases caused by the 2 agents. mycoplasma pulmonis did not cause visible swelling from large quantities of mucous exudate in the sinuses, such as occurs with m gallisepticum, and it could not be recovered by bacteriologic culture technique after 3 weeks. however, slight exudate did accompany the m pulmonis infection. similarities between the disease caus ...19751163884
nonspecific reactions to mycoplasma serum plate antigens induced by inactivated poultry disease vaccines.nonspecific serum plate agglutination reactions to some avian mycoplasma antigens were induced by injecting chickens with several commercial poultry disease vaccines. all of the vaccines were inactivated, and most of them had oil-emulsion adjuvants. the serum plate agglutination reactions appeared within 2 to 3 weeks post-vaccination and generally persisted for several weeks. the plate test reactions were noted with both mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms) antigens, although the d ...19892522768
demonstration of the genetic stability of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain following in vivo passage.a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain designated 6/85 (mgi) exhibiting reduced virulence for both chickens and turkeys was sequentially passaged 10 times in each species. dna extracted from organisms before passage and those isolated after the third, sixth, and 10th passages was studied by restriction endonuclease dna analysis using bamhi, bglii, ecori, hindiii, and psti endonucleases. the virulent-type strain designated s6 was used as a comparison. comparison of dna fragment patterns of mgi and s6 ...19921329707
elimination of mycoplasmal plate agglutination cross-reactions in sera from chickens inoculated with infectious bursal disease viruses.sera from chickens inoculated with various challenge infectious bursal disease viruses or infectious bursal disease vaccines were found to cross-react in the mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) serum plate agglutination (spa) tests. two-fold dilutions of these cross-reacting sera with phosphate-buffered saline before retesting eliminated all non-specific agglutination in the mg and ms spa tests. cross-reactions were observed in the spa test using sera from chickens inocula ...19902173535
fingerprinting of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from multiple-age layers vaccinated with live f strain.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolates were obtained from three multiple-age commercial layer farms on which live f strain vaccine had been administered to each replacement flock for at least 2 years. all such isolates had restriction endonuclease dna and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein patterns characteristic of f strain. these cultures also hybridized in dot blot assays with both the mg strain-specific and species-specific dna probes. in contrast, the original ...19902177979
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains by hemagglutination-inhibition and restriction endonuclease analysis.mycoplasma gallisepticum strains, including a series of field strains from north carolina, were examined by homologous and heterologous hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests and by restriction endonuclease dna analysis to determine whether they were closely related. hi results indicated wide antigenic diversity. generally, homologous hi titers were higher than heterologous titers; exceptions were probably due to relative insensitivity of individual antigen batches. strain a5969, commonly used a ...19882849403
a comparison of flow cytometry and other techniques used for diagnosing mycoplasma infections.mycoplasma isolates from chickens are usually identified by a fluorescent antibody (fa) technique that requires 7 to 10 days from sampling to the completion of identification. the fa procedure uses mycoplasma-positive antibodies conjugated with fluoroisothiocyanate (fitc) to identify the colonies of the organism on agar. this paper describes a flow cytometric procedure that uses the same antibody-fitc conjugate and can be completed in 3 or 4 days. broilers and egg-type hens inoculated with mycop ...19902235826
intraspecies genotypic heterogeneity among mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.the dna cleavage patterns and protein profiles of six mycoplasma gallisepticum strains from various parts of the world were compared. obvious differences among the strains were obtained by dna restriction analysis. reflection of genotypic variations in the polypeptide patterns was less pronounced; slight differences in the protein profiles of the strains were found. the data presented here indicate that some intraspecies polymorphism exists among m. gallisepticum strains.19882895605
research note: mycoplasma gallisepticum isolations resulting from dry versus wet swabs.commercial leghorns vaccinated with f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum were used to determine the effect of hydration of swab material with frey's broth media on m. gallisepticum isolation. twenty-four hens from each of four 10,000 bird houses were randomly selected and swabbed from the choanal cleft region. twelve birds from each house were swabbed with ethylene-oxide-sterilized, 2.4-mm diameter rayon-tipped swabs, and 12 hens were swabbed with the same type swabs wetted with sterile frey's brot ...19912017415
volume regulation in mycoplasma gallisepticum: evidence that na+ is extruded via a primary na+ pump.the primary extrusion of na+ from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells was demonstrated by showing that when na+-loaded cells were incubated with both glucose (10 mm) and the uncoupler sf6847 (0.4 microm), rapid acidification of the cell interior occurred, resulting in the quenching of acridine orange fluorescence. no acidification was obtained with na+-depleted cells or with cells loaded with either kcl, rbcl, licl, or cscl. acidification was inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (50 microm) and diet ...19892526806
pathological and immunological studies on chicken embryos and day-old chicks experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19862953204
spiroplasma membrane lipids.membranes of six spiroplasma strains belonging to different spiroplasma species and subgroups were isolated by a combination of osmotic lysis and sonication in the presence of edta to block endogenous phospholipase activity. analysis of membrane lipids showed that in addition to free and esterified cholesterol the spiroplasmas incorporated exogenous phospholipids from the growth medium. sphingomyelin was preferentially incorporated from phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin vesicles or from the seru ...19852981796
influence of a 12.5 per cent rapeseed diet and an avian reovirus on the production of leg abnormalities in male broiler chickens.the incidence of different forms of leg abnormality were recorded in reovirus (s1133) infected and control male broiler chickens fed on a normal commercial diet or one of similar nutritive value containing 12.5 per cent rapeseed meal. regular serological examination showed that birds remained free from mycoplasma gallisepticum and m synoviae infection throughout the 10 week period of investigation. precipitating antibodies to the reovirus were detected in 90 per cent of the infected birds betwee ...19852983408
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum subunit and whole organism vaccines containing different adjuvants by western immunoblotting.chickens were vaccinated with subunit (adhesin protein) or whole organisms of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) adjuvanted with multilamellar positively charged liposomes or oil-emulsion. sera were collected before and following the first (13 weeks of age) and second (17 weeks of age) vaccination. the chicken sera were used in western immunoblotting against whole mg polypeptides. vaccination with the subunit (mg-adhesin) bacterin containing positively charged liposomes resulted in antibody response ...19892683358
synthesis of deoxyribomononucleotides in mollicutes: dependence on deoxyribose-1-phosphate and ppi.cell extracts of acholeplasma laidlawii b-pg9, acholeplasma morum s2, mycoplasma capricolum 14, and mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 were examined for 37 cytoplasmic enzyme activities involved in the salvage and biosynthesis of purines. all of these organisms had adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (ec 2.4.2.7) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (ec 2.4.2.8). all of these organisms had purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity (ec 2.4.2.1) in the synthetic direction using ribos ...19873038846
the isolation and attenuation of a virus causing rhinotracheitis in turkeys in south africa.in march 1978, a number of turkeys with severe respiratory symptoms affecting over 80% of the flock were investigated for a possible causative agent. with the standard techniques used for the isolation of bacteriae, mycoplasmae and viruses, only mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and newcastle disease virus were isolated. tracheal organ cultures were subsequently prepared from 27-day-old turkey embryos and inoculated with sinus exudate from affected turkeys. after an incubation per ...19892748138
identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by flow cytometry.immunofluorescence and flow cytometric methods were examined to detect and distinguish mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae. the procedure employed 24-hr broth cultures of each organism, direct immunofluorescence staining with either homologous or heterologous antiserum, and analyses by flow cytometry. the organisms were distinguishable on the basis of fluorescent profiles when stained with the appropriate antiserum.19883058112
detection of antigenic variation among strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay (elisia) and western blot analysis.polyclonal antisera (pca) to three mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains (f, s6, and a5969) produced in rabbits were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay (elisia) and western blot analysis to examine antigenic variability among these strains of mg. in elisia, inhibiting antigen of the same strain used for immunization always led to the greatest percentage inhibition of pca reactivity. western blot analysis of antigens of four mg strains demonstrated both common and restricted pat ...19883060088
[antimycoplasmal activities of ofloxacin and commonly used antimicrobial agents on mycoplasma gallisepticum].in vitro activities of ofloxacin (oflx), a new quinolone derivative, against 29 strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum was compared with those of 4 commonly used antimicrobial agents, doxycycline (doxy), tylosin (ts), spectinomycin (spcm) and thiamphenicol (tp). antimycoplasmal activities of the drugs were evaluated on the mic (final mic) and mpc (minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration) values which were determined by a broth dilution procedure. the following results were obtained. 1. the mic90s of ...19892526260
role of na+ cycle in cell volume regulation of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the mechanism for the extrusion of na+ from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells was examined. na+ efflux from cells was studied by diluting 22na+-loaded cells into an isoosmotic nacl solution and measuring the residual 22na+ in the cells. uphill 22na+ efflux was found to be glucose dependent and linear with time over a 60-s period and showed almost the same rate in the ph range of 6.5 to 8.0. 22na+ efflux was markedly inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (dccd, 10 microm), but not by the proton-cond ...19892753860
identification of the antigenic components of the virulent mycoplasma gallisepticum (r) in chickens: their role in differentiation from the vaccine strain (f).the antibody response to different proteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was studied in chickens experimentally infected with virulent mg r strain. the chickens were challenged at 8 weeks of age by the intranasal route. each cockerel received 1.3 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu). mg strains (r and f) were banded by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the banding pattern was distinctively different between the two strains in the range of 92.5 to 200 kilodal ...19892773299
the effect of biological isolation and a molt-inducing regimen on the recovery of mycoplasma gallisepticum from commercial leghorn hens.two trials were conducted to determine the effect of induced molt on the reisolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) from commercial leghorn hens that had been eyedrop-inoculated with mg at 10 weeks of age. chickens were maintained in a conventional floored chicken house on dry litter through 100 weeks of age. at age 64 weeks, 4 days (trial 1), and at 100 weeks (trial 2), hens were swabbed and cultured for mg and then molted in biological isolation units. swabs were again taken at the end of ea ...19892775101
new biotin-conjugated antisera for quantitation of mycoplasma gallisepticum-specific immunoglobulin a in chicken.the biotinylation of goat anti-alpha-chains of chicken immunoglobulin a (iga), suitable for use in an avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is described. the optimum conditions for the use of the developed conjugate in determining local and systemic iga specific to mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens were established.19883196259
species-specific biotinylated dna probe for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a 5.5 kilobase dna fragment from an eco ri digest of the mycoplasma gallisepticum genome was specific for the detection of m. gallisepticum. this 5.5 kb fragment was initially cloned into bacteriophage lambda gt11 followed by subcloning into the plasmid vector pgem-3z. the incorporation of a biotin label was accomplished by utilizing biotin-11-dutp in a nick translation reaction. this probe, designated pmg6, reacts specifically with m. gallisepticum when tested against various mycoplasma dnas in ...19883221885
biological activities of monoclonal antibodies to mycoplasma pneumoniae membrane glycolipids.a purified preparation of membranes was obtained by using a unique method of treating mycoplasma pneumoniae with the atpase inhibitor, diethylstilbestrol. this method was shown to yield highly purified membranes with little or no cytoplasmic contamination. these membranes were used to immunize mice for subsequent productions of monoclonal antibodies (mabs). hybridoma culture supernatants were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole-cell m. pneumoniae and lipid extract antigens. ...19892494111
lectin-induced damage to the enterocyte brush border. an electron-microscopic study in rabbits.the ultrastructural effects of 11 lectins on the intestinal brush border were examined by means of an in vitro rabbit ileal mucosal explant culture system. five of the lectins that bind to oligosaccharides containing either n-acetylglucosamine (phytohaemagglutinin, euonymus europaeus lectin, pokeweed mitogen, and wheat germ agglutinin) or n-acetylneuraminic acid (mycoplasma gallisepticum lectin) all had a specific effect on microvilli. the effects varied in accordance with the lectin and include ...19883249912
genetic analysis of immunocompetence measures in a white leghorn chicken line.immunocompetence of the iowa state university s1 white leghorn chicken line was studied. this line was divided into eight sublines based upon erythrocyte antigen b (ea-b) allele (b1b1 or b19b19), antibody response to glutamic acid60-alanine30-tyrosine10 (gat) (high or low), and response to rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors (progression or regression). antibody responses to pasteurella multocida (pm), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), and infectious bursal disease virus vaccines were evaluated by en ...19883265514
control of sodium fluxes in mycoplasma gallisepticum.swelling of mycoplasma gallisepticum cells when incubated in a glucose-free isoosmotic nacl buffer was shown to be due to the entrance of nacl into the cell. volume regulation therefore depends on na+ extrusion. the mechanism of na+ extrusion in cells and proteoliposomes, prepared from m. gallisepticum membrane fragments, was investigated by following both 22na+ efflux and ph changes. our results indicate that na+ is expelled from cells via two separate mechanisms, an na+/cation exchange mechani ...19872822608
animal viruses are able to fuse with prokaryotic cells. fusion between sendai or influenza virions and mycoplasma.sendai and influenza virions are able to fuse with mycoplasmata. virus-mycoplasma fusion was demonstrated by the use of fluorescently labeled intact virions and fluorescence dequenching, as well as by electron microscopy. a high degree of fusion was observed upon incubation of both virions with mycoplasma gallisepticum or mycoplasma capricolum. significantly less virus-cell fusion was observed with acholeplasma laidlawii, whose membrane contains relatively low amounts of cholesterol. the require ...19882826447
evaluation of the efficacy of chlortetracycline for the control of chronic respiratory disease caused by escherichia coli and mycoplasma gallisepticum.using different variations of challenge, three trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlortetracycline in the control of chronic respiratory disease (crd) caused by escherichia coli and mycoplasma gallisepticum. experimentally infected birds were offered either food containing chlortetracycline at 300 ppm or water containing the drug at 120 mg litre-1. in each trial, medicated food and water were effective in the control of crd as assessed by reduction in clinical signs, lower mortal ...19892531906
influence of f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum infection on response of commercial layers to heat exposure.commercial layers were inoculated with f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and housed in either conventional chicken houses or the lower-stress environment of biological isolation units. at the end of 2 weeks, all treatment groups were placed in environmental chambers and subjected to 4 hr of heat stress (40 c with a dew point of 21 c). rectal temperature, an indicator of response to high heat, was monitored. rectal temperatures of f strain mg-inoculated hens housed in the conventional chicke ...19883401170
ribosomal rna gene probes to detect intraspecies heterogeneity in mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.intraspecies genotypic heterogeneity among strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae was tested using genomic fingerprints with a ribosomal rna (rrna) gene probe. the organism's dna was digested by a restriction endonuclease, electrophoresed, transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet, and hybridized with 32p-labeled pmc5 plasmid carrying the highly conserved rrna genes of m. capricolum. the resulting hybridization patterns indicated a degree of genotypic heterogeneity among m. gallisepticu ...19882840880
effect of adrenal blocking chemicals on viral and respiratory infections of chickens.in a series of experiments chickens were treated with chemicals which block the production of corticosterone by the adrenal cortex prior to being challenged with respiratory disease (and other) agents in order to determine if the course of the diseases could be altered. some chickens received a single intramuscular injection (14 mg/kg) of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis/p-chlorophenyl/ethane (abc) dissolved in corn oil (20 mg/ml) at least 12 h before challenge. other chickens received feed containing 500 m ...19892536580
practical application of nucleic acid techniques to avian disease problems.a workshop in which 17 practicing scientists participated was intended to address primarily people who use or could use biotechnology in their work and was confined to five techniques. endonuclease fingerprinting and mapping involved cleaving nucleic acid with a specific restriction enzyme and separating the nucleic acid fragments by electrophoresis. field and vaccine isolates of pasteurella multocida could be distinguished; salmonella enteritidis could be divided into three groups; chlamydia co ...19892559697
the beta-subunit of the f1f0-atpase is conserved in mycoplasmas.monospecific polyclonal antibodies that were generated against the beta-subunit of escherichia coli atpase (f1fo) cross-reacted with a protein present in the cells of several mycoplasma and acholeplasma species. in mycoplasma gallisepticum, the reactive protein was found almost exclusively in the cell membrane. this protein had an apparent molecular mass of approximately 52 kda and could not be released from the membranes by repeated washings with either low or high salt solutions in the presenc ...19862872212
the effect of oxytetracycline on the severity of airsacculitis in chickens infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.four groups of mycoplasma-free commercial broilers were challenged with the r strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) at 14 days of age. groups received feed containing either no medication, or 500 ppm or 1000 ppm oxytetracycline (otc) beginning at age 13 days, or 1000 ppm otc beginning at age 15 days. all broilers were vaccinated with a live mild massachusetts infectious bronchitis vaccine at 17 days of age. air sac lesions were scored at age 24 days. in two almost identical experiments, all ot ...19892619666
differentiation of the vaccine f-strain from other strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum by restriction endonuclease analysis.the electrophoretic patterns of the nucleic acids (dna) of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains digested with the restriction enzymes bam hi, eco ri and hind iii were useful for differentiating the vaccine f-strain from other strains of m. gallisepticum. the procedure was more sensitive than the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) technique. the vaccine f-strain, represented by cultures designated f-k810 and f-f2f10 was clearly differentiated from other strains of m. ...19892705291
a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain-specific dna probe.total dna from the vaccine f strain (k810) and the reference s6-strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was cloned in escherichia coli using the plasmid puc8. a 6-kilobase fragment, specific for the vaccine strain, was identified by colony dot and southern hybridization analyses. when labeled and used as a probe, this fragment hybridized with the homologous and one other vaccine f-strain (f2f10), but it did not hybridize with other mg strains (fg38, s6, a5969, v503) or with three other species o ...19873442542
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum by direct immunofluorescence using a species-specific monoclonal antibody.a monoclonal antibody against mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) (strain s6) was prepared in mice and identified as isotype igg1 by standard procedures. although it did react at high titers (1:100,000) in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (the original method for its identification), it failed to react in the agglutination, hemagglutination-inhibition, and growth-inhibition tests. when conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, the monoclonal antibody reacted with the homologous and eight "atypica ...19863524541
virulence and transmissibility of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the virulence of 4 low passage strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum obtained from different sources within australia was studied by experimental infection of chickens. strain ap3as, originally isolated from the air sac of a broiler chicken, produced severe air sac lesions following injection into the abdominal air sacs of 2-week or 3-week-old chickens, and adult hens. strain 80083 which was isolated from a clinically normal broiler breeder hen was also capable of producing gross air sac lesions f ...19892712773
binding of thyrotropin to selected mycoplasma species: detection of serum antibodies against a specific mycoplasma membrane antigen in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.radiolabeled human (htsh) and bovine (btsh) thyroid stimulating hormone was shown to bind to five species of mycoplasma, the wall-less prokaryotes. the maximum binding capacity of 125i-btsh to these five species was about 7.9 x 10(-13) moles-1.4 x 10(-12) moles for 50-100 micrograms protein with dissociation constants of approximately 1.7 to 2.2 x 10(-7)m. approximately 50% of the 125i-btsh binding was displaced by excess, unlabeled btsh or htsh, but labeled btsh was not effectively displaced by ...19892754187
efficacy of commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin (mg-bac) in preventing air-sac lesions in chickens.one-week-old chickens were vaccinated with commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin subcutaneously and challenged with the s6 strain by the intra-air-sac route 3 weeks later. significantly fewer vaccinated chickens had air-sac lesions than controls.19873579788
an adhesion-hemadsorption inhibition test for the detection of serum antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum.a simple adhesion-hemadsorption inhibition (ahai) test was developed for the detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in the chicken sera. the ahai antibody was detected simultaneously with hi antibody from sera of chickens intratracheally inoculated with viable cells of m. gallisepticum. a good correlation between hi and ahai antibody titers was obtained with 382 (84.7%) of 451 sera from chickens reared on farms spontaneously contaminated with m. gallisepticum, whereas the remainder, ...19892761140
serologic response of rio grande wild turkeys to experimental infections of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the serologic response of rio grande wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was determined. free-ranging turkeys were caught in southern texas, shipped to the university of wisconsin, madison, and housed in isolation facilities. fourteen birds were exposed to mg, by intratracheal and intranasal inoculation. eight birds received sterile broth only. two wk prior to the end of the experiment, mg exposed turkeys were stressed by challenge with a serologically ...19883193562
dna probes for mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae: application in experimentally infected chickens.dna probes specific for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae were selected from genomic libraries prepared in the puc13 vector. the probes hybridized with the dna of a wide spectrum of strains within each homologous species, but did not react with the heterologous species or with dna from any other avian mycoplasma or bacteria tested. experimental infection and contact exposure of chickens to m. gallisepticum served as models to test the effectiveness of the dna probe in diagnosis as compare ...19892800306
identification of species-specific and interspecies-specific polypeptides of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.temporal antisera (ta) prepared in susceptible leg-horn-type chickens against mycoplasma gallisepticum and m synoviae were evaluated to determine the extent of cross-reactivity in elisa and hemagglutination inhibition tests. species-specific and interspecies-specific polypeptides were identified after electrophoretic separation and protein immunoblotting with reference antisera, ta, and a monoclonal antibody specific for m gallisepticum. mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserum cross-reacted with m sy ...19883377311
characterization and solubilization of the membrane-bound atpase of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the membrane-bound atpase of mycoplasma gallisepticum selectively hydrolyzed purine nucleoside triphosphates and datp. adp, although not a substrate, inhibited atp hydrolysis. the enzyme exhibited a ph optimum of 7.0 to 7.5 and an obligatory requirement for divalent cations. dicyclohexylcarbodiimide at a concentration of 1 mm inhibited 95% of the atpase activity at 37 degrees c, with 50% inhibition occurring at 22 microm dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. sodium or potassium (or both) failed to stimulate ...19853161871
efficacy of experimental inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum oil-emulsion bacterin in egg-layer chickens.six groups of white leghorn pullets were studied to determine the ability of beta-propiolactone-inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) oil-emulsion bacterins to counteract reductions in egg production caused by mg infection. the pullets were inoculated with 0.5 ml of mg bacterin subcutaneously in the neck at about 20 weeks of age and were challenged with mg near 28 weeks of age, when they were in peak egg production. various challenge schemes with infectious bronchitis virus were used at the ...19852992434
f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination of post-production-peak commercial leghorns and its effect on egg and eggshell quality.forty-five-week-old commercial leghorns negative for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae were vaccinated with high-passage f strain mg (fmg). hens were confined in modified horsfall-bauer isolation units through 60 weeks of age. egg production (% hen day) and parameters of egg and eggshell quality were monitored, including egg weight, eggshell strength, haugh unit score, pimpling, and blood/meat spot incidence. egg production was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) for ...19883401173
protein phosphorylation in mycoplasma gallisepticum.incubation of the soluble fraction derived from mycoplasma gallisepticum cells with [gamma-32p]atp results in the phosphorylation of several endogenous proteins. one protein with an apparent molecular mass of 55 kda was the acceptor of more than 95% of the radioactive phosphate. this protein was also found to be radiolabeled in intact cells grown in the presence of [32p]orthophosphate. acid hydrolysis of the phosphorylated 55-kda protein followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that ...19882843367
investigation into the mechanism of copper uptake by mycoplasma gallisepticum in the presence of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline.in the presence of copper certain 2,2'-bipyridyls show antimycoplasmal activity, whereas copper itself causes a toxic effect. in this paper results are presented to elucidate the mechanism of copper uptake in the presence of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline. the time course of copper and/or ligand uptake under the applied conditions is consistent with a carrier transport mechanism in which 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline operates as a carrier for copper ions. the influence of valinomycin on cop ...19873432040
effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin on egg-transmission and egg production.groups of white leghorn hens were vaccinated twice with a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin, once with bacterin, or left unvaccinated. four weeks after vaccination, they were challenged with virulent r strain mg. egg production was significantly higher in challenged vaccinated groups than in the challenged control group. four challenged control hens went out of production, whereas only one twice-vaccinated hen did. mg was first isolated directly from eggs 5 days postchallenge (pc) in twice- ...19873442529
delineation of the lateral spread of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.lateral spread of s6 strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was studied in small populations of chickens. one experimentally exposed bird served as the source of infection, and the presence of mg-agglutinating antibody was evidence of infection in individuals. the results were subjected to survival data analysis. in the seven experiments, four similar but not identical phases of lateral spread were observed: phase 1, a generally long latent phase (median 15, range 12-21 days) before antibody was f ...19873442533
synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of 1-amino-3-(2-pyridyl)isoquinoline derivatives. 2. amidines.in our search for new compounds with antimycoplasmal activity, a series of aromatic amidines derived from 1-amino-3-(2-pyridyl)isoquinoline (1) was synthesized. in the presence of 40 microm copper the most active compounds show growth inhibition of mycoplasma gallisepticum in the nanomolar range. these compounds are 3 times as active as tylosin, an antimycoplasmal therapeutic agent that is used in veterinary practice. in the presence of copper, amidines derived from 1 are 2-3 times more active t ...19892913309
evaluation of the specificity and sensitivity of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, the serum plate agglutination test, and the hemagglutination-inhibition test for antibodies formed in response to mycoplasma gallisepticum.two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits, seven serum plate agglutination (spa) antigens, and the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared for sensitivity and specificity using known mg-positive and mg-negative sera from leghorn chickens. all spa antigens proved to be highly sensitive when testing mg-positive sera. laboratory-prepared spa antigens yielded fewer positive reactions when testing mg-negative sera than co ...19883041957
novel arrangement of rrna genes in mycoplasma gallisepticum: separation of the 16s gene of one set from the 23s and 5s genes.large restriction fragments from the dna of mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 and pg31, which were prepared by digestion with bgli, bsshii, smai, or xhoi and which were separated by pulsed-field electrophoresis, were hybridized with probes containing most, or different parts, of an rrna operon of mycoplasma capricolum. the results showed that the genomes contained three widely separated rrna loci. one locus contained genes for all three rrna species and another contained 23s and probably 5s rrna genes ...19892708324
an adhesion-hemadsorption test for screening and identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum. 19892927029
presence of anaplerotic reactions and transamination, and the absence of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mollicutes.cell extracts of the fermentative mollicutes acholeplasma laidlawii b-pg9, acholeplasma morum s2, mycoplasma capricolum 14, mycoplasma gallisepticum s6, mycoplasma pneumoniae fh, mycoplasma hyopneumoniae j and m. genitalium g-37, and the non-fermentative mycoplasma hominis pg-21, mycoplasma hominis 1620 and mycoplasma bovigenitalium pg-11 were examined for 39 cytoplasmic enzyme activities associated with the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle, transamination, anaplerotic reactions and other enzyme a ...19883141576
a pathologic study of wild turkeys in connecticut.during the 1984 to 1986 spring hunting seasons in connecticut, viscera from 300 hunter-killed wild turkeys and blood samples from live-trapped wild turkeys were examined in order to establish a health profile on the state's wild turkey population. seven species of endoparasites were recovered from 224 (75%) of 300 birds: metroliasthes lucida, ascaridia dissimilis, heterakis gallinarum, syngamus trachea, capillaria species, trichomonas gallinarum, and eimeria species. the most prevalent parasites ...19883168472
rapid identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum using a simple method of nucleic acid hybridization. 19883247004
[detection and identification of mycoplasma infections by dna hybridization].infection of cell cultures by mycoplasmas can be detected by hybridization of the dna of suspected cell cultures with recombinant plasmids containing fragments of the mycoplasma dna. the test is very sensitive and allows detection of as little as 1 ng of mycoplasmal dna, roughly equivalent to the dna amount of 10(6) mycoplasmas. this approach turns out to be effective for detection and identification of mycoplasmas in clinical material, plant and insect tissues. a set of dna probes for detection ...19873318046
serological monitoring of eastern wild turkeys for antibodies to mycoplasma spp. and avian influenza viruses.from 1981 through 1986, plasma or serum samples were obtained from 322 wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from georgia (n = 111), kentucky (n = 21), louisiana (n = 22), north carolina (n = 118), tennessee (n = 19), missouri (n = 24) and iowa (n = 7). these samples were tested for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and in most instances, m. synoviae (ms), m. meleagridis (mm), and avian influenza (ai) virus. all 322 turkeys were seronegative for mg by the rapid plate agglutination (rpa) t ...19883373642
protection and immunity in commercial chicken layers administered mycoplasma gallisepticum liposomal bacterins.six liposomal mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterins, differing in charge and size, and two oil-emulsion vaccines (sonicated and non-sonicated) were given to white leghorns in two doses, at 13 weeks and again 1 month later. at 21 weeks of age, all chickens were challenged with a viable 20-hour culture of mg cells (17,800 colony-forming units) intratracheally and with nonviable mg organisms (0.09 mg protein) injected subcutaneously in the wattle center. the three chicken groups that had the lowe ...19873442524
infectious sinusitis associated with mycoplasma gallisepticum in game-birds. 19863753348
decrease in catalase activity of cultured cells by mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.the effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection on the host cell catalase activity was histochemically examined in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts (cef) and kidney cells. the activity in normal cells was detected as fine, brown granules in the cytoplasm, which appeared ultrastructurally to correspond to anucleoid microbodies. by infecting cultured cells with a cef-passaged strain of m. gallisepticum, the catalase-positive granules clearly decreased in amount, whereas the uv light-killed myc ...19873604054
experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.the effects of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo). three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to mg by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after i ...19883411710
mycoplasma gallisepticum strain variations detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.various strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. minor but distinct and reproducible differences in protein banding patterns were detected between strains, which included the vaccine f strain from various sources, an atypical (variant) strain, and the standard (a5969, s6) strains.19873619825
a quantitative study of single and mixed infection of the chicken trachea by mycoplasma gallisepticum.the interaction between mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and the tracheal mucosa of the young chicken was studied. the use of a selective plating method permitted differentiation between a pathogenic tylosin-resistant strain (227) and a less pathogenic tylosin-sensitive vaccine strain (f). both mg strains adhered to the tracheal mucosa and colonized equally well. in mixed infection, the presence or absence of the second strain did not change the efficiency of colonization by either strain. when chi ...19873579778
immunity induced with an aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin in chickens.the protective effect of an inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin was evaluated in chickens subsequently challenged intratracheally (it) with the homologous strain. antibody responses in sera and tracheal washings (tws) from these chickens were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. a group of chickens was vaccinated intramuscularly (im) with two doses of the bacterin containing aluminum hydroxide gel (im + im). another group was vaccinated im with the same bacterin fol ...19873579785
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