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effects of different vaccine combinations against mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens 1,2,3.live f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) vaccines are presently being used to help control field-strain mg outbreaks. however, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. live strains of mg of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, but afford lower levels of protection. this has led to research investigating their use in combination with a subsequent overlay vaccination of fmg given later in the production cycle. in the present stud ...201525701207
ex vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of valnemulin against mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 in mycoplasma gallisepticum and escherichia coli co-infected chickens.pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (pk/pd) indices against mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) s6 were investigated in an ex vivo pk/pd model following oral administration of valnemulin to chickens co-infected with m. gallisepticum and escherichia coli. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) for valnemulin against mg s6 in artificial medium and chicken serum were determined. in vitro time-killing curves were established according to a series of multiples of the mic value in an artificial medium ...201525744809
co-infection with multiple respiratory pathogens contributes to increased mortality rates in algerian poultry flocks.respiratory infections are a common cause for increased mortality rates in poultry worldwide. to improve intervention strategies, circulating pathogens have to be identified and further characterized. because of the lack of diagnostic tools, it was not known what pathogens contribute to the high mortality rates in association with respiratory disease in algeria. our objective was to determine if primary pathogens including mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms), avian influenza ...201526478165
proteomic analysis of tylosin-resistant mycoplasma gallisepticum reveals enzymatic activities associated with resistance.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant pathogenic bacterium that infects poultry, causing chronic respiratory disease and sinusitis in chickens and turkeys, respectively. m. gallisepticum infection poses a substantial economic threat to the poultry industry, and this threat is made worse by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. the mechanisms of resistance are often difficult to determine; for example, little is known about antibiotic resistance of m. gallisepticum at the proteome le ...201526584633
the efficacy of chitosan-adjuvanted, mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin in chickens.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is one of the major pathogens that cause respiratory signs in the poultry industry. to control mg infection, vaccination is the useful procedure. in this study, mg vaccine was developed by using the local thai mg isolate (ahrl 20/52). chitosan, a polysaccharide adjuvant derived from crustaceans, has been successfully used in various vaccines. the objectives of this study were to prepare mg bacterins by using chitosan, serving as an adjuvant, to determine protection ...201627902896
enhanced conformational flexibility of the histone-like (hu) protein from mycoplasma gallisepticum.the histone-like (hu) protein is one of the major nucleoid-associated proteins involved in dna supercoiling and compaction into bacterial nucleoid as well as in all dna-dependent transactions. this small positively charged dimeric protein binds dna in a non-sequence specific manner promoting dna super-structures. the majority of hu proteins are highly conserved among bacteria; however, hu protein from mycoplasma gallisepticum (humgal) has multiple amino acid substitutions in the most conserved r ...201627884082
mycoplasma gallisepticum (hs strain) surface lipoprotein pmga interacts with host apolipoprotein a-i during infection in chicken.the adhesin protein from mycoplasma gallisepticum (hs strain), namely pmga1.2, is required for m. gallisepticum (mg) infection in chicken. however, the host factor(s) that interact with pmga1.2 is not known. in this study, we prepared the membrane fraction of trachea epithelial cells from chicken embryos. using an improved virus overlay protein blot assay (vopba) and glutathione s-transferase (gst) pull-down assay, we found that pmga1.2 specifically bound to a ∼30 kda host protein. this host pro ...201626549235
mycoplasma gallisepticum modifies the pathogenesis of influenza a virus in the avian tracheal epithelium.multiple respiratory infections have a significant impact on health and economy. pathogenesis of co-infecting viruses and bacteria and their interaction with mucosal surfaces are poorly characterized. in this study we established a co-infection model based on pre-incubation of tracheal organ cultures (toc) with mycoplasma (m.) gallisepticum and a subsequent infection with avian influenza virus (aiv). mycoplasma gallisepticum modified the pathogenesis of aiv as demonstrated in toc of two differen ...201627079856
data on translatome analysis of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a bacterium of class mollicutes which encompasses wall-less bacteria with significantly reduced genomes. due to their overall reduction and simplicity mycoplasmas serve as a model of minimal cell and are used for systems biology studies. here we present raw data on translatome (ribosome-bound mrna) analysis of mycoplasma gallisepticum under logarithm growth and heat stress. the data supports the publication of "ribosomal profiling of mycoplasma gallisepticum" (g. y. f ...201627699194
phase transition of the bacterium upon invasion of a host cell as a mechanism of adaptation: a mycoplasma gallisepticum model.what strategies do bacteria employ for adaptation to their hosts and are these strategies different for varied hosts? to date, many studies on the interaction of the bacterium and its host have been published. however, global changes in the bacterial cell in the process of invasion and persistence, remain poorly understood. in this study, we demonstrated phase transition of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum upon invasion of the various types of eukaryotic cells (human, chicken, and mou ...201627775027
egg quality in laying hens exposed to mycoplasma gallisepticum f-strain attenuated vaccine.mycoplasma gallisepticum causes coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, reduction in feed intake, lower and uneven growth, decline in egg production and quality, and increase in mortality. among the attenuated vaccination strains, mgf can reduce clinical signs and lesions in layer hens, stimulate immune responses of cellular and humoral basis, act as an instrument of competitive exclusion in relation to field strains, and reduce the use of antimicrobials. this study aimed to investigate the effect ...201627738118
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles of tiamulin in an experimental intratracheal infection model of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic mycoplasma species. tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against m. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. however, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (pk/pd) profiles of tiamulin against m. gallisepticum are not well understood. therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo pk/pd profiles of tiamulin using ...201627656647
changes in corticosterone concentrations and behavior during mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in house finches (haemorhous mexicanus).glucocorticoid stress hormones are important for energy mobilization as well as regulation of the immune system, and thus these hormones are particularly likely to both influence and respond to pathogen infection in vertebrates. in this study, we examined how the glucocorticoid stress response in house finches (haemorhous mexicanus) interacts with experimental infection of the naturally-occurring bacterial pathogen, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). we also investigated whether infection-induced co ...201627288634
house finch (haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, and mycoplasma spp. isolated from north american wild birds, 1994-2015.sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of house finch (haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. herein we report making m. gallisepticum isola ...201627285414
the pk/pd interactions of doxycycline against mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the most important pathogens that cause chronic respiratory disease in chicken. this study investigated the antibacterial activity of doxycycline against m. gallisepticum strain s6. in static time-killing studies with constant antibiotic concentrations [0-64 minimum inhibitory concentration (mic)], m. gallisepticum colonies were quantified and kill rates were calculated to estimate the drug effect. the half-life of doxycycline in chicken was 6.51 ± 0.63 h. an i ...201627199972
binding site of mraz transcription factor in mollicutes.mollicutes (mycoplasmas) feature a significant loss of known regulators of gene expression. here, we identified the recognition site of the mraz-family regulator of mycoplasma gallisepticum, which is conserved in many species of different clades within class mollicutes. the mraz binding site is aaagtg[t/g], in the promoter of mraz gene it forms a series of direct repeats with a structure (aaagtg[t/g]n3)k, where k = 3 most frequently. mraz binds to a single repeat as an octamer complex. mraz can ...201626945841
influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. this situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. the aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally mycoplasma gallisepti ...201626875641
prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in belgium.mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogenic avian mycoplasma species and causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry. in addition, the prevalence of mycoplasma synoviae is of increasing concern in several eu member states. we investigated the prevalence of m. gallisepticum in commercial poultry (5220 layers, 1224 broilers and 1020 meat turkeys), 56 racing pigeons and 890 wild birds (order anseriformes, galliformes, pelecaniformes, accipitriformes, gruiformes, charadriiformes, col ...201626814376
roles of toll-like receptors 2 and 6 in the inflammatory response to mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in df-1 cells and in chicken embryos.while mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is a major pathogen that causes chronic respiratory diseases in chicken, the molecular mechanism of mg infection is not clear. in this study, we investigated the roles of toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) and 6 (tlr6) in mg infection. we found that tlr2 type 2 (tlr2-2) and tlr6 had differential expressions in chicken embryo fibroblasts (df-1 cells), where tlr6 was highly expressed, but tlr2-2 was barely expressed. upon mg infection, tlr6 expression was upregulated, ...201626797426
snps across time and space: population genomic signatures of founder events and epizootics in the house finch (haemorhous mexicanus).identifying genomic signatures of natural selection can be challenging against a background of demographic changes such as bottlenecks and population expansions. here, we disentangle the effects of demography from selection in the house finch (haemorhous mexicanus) using samples collected before and after a pathogen-induced selection event. using ddradseq, we genotyped over 18,000 snps across the genome in native pre-epizootic western us birds, introduced birds from hawaii and the eastern united ...201628725414
health evaluation of african penguins (<i>spheniscus demersus</i>) in southern africa.the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of namibia and south africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 african penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabili ...201627796116
reconstruction of transcription control networks in mollicutes by high-throughput identification of promoters.bacteria of the class mollicutes have significantly reduced genomes and gene expression control systems. they are also efficient pathogens that can colonize a broad range of hosts including plants and animals. despite their simplicity, mollicutes demonstrate complex transcriptional responses to various conditions, which contradicts their reduction in gene expression regulation mechanisms. we analyzed the conservation and distribution of transcription regulators across the 50 mollicutes species. ...201627999573
effect of differing +2 amino acids on export of a heterologous phoa lipoprotein in mycoplasma gallisepticum.the significance of the amino acid adjacent to the amino terminal cysteine of lipoproteins, the +2 amino acid, has been well documented in e. coli and there have also been limited studies on gram-positive bacteria. in this study we investigated whether there was any preference for specific residues and any targeting role attributable to different residues following the cysteine at the amino terminus in lipoproteins of mycoplasma gallisepticum. there were found to be distinct preferences in this ...201627329526
mutations of domain v in 23s ribosomal rna of macrolide-resistant mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates in egypt.avian mycoplasmas impose a significant economic burden to the poultry industry. in recent years, macrolide-resistant mycoplasma gallisepticum have occasionally been encountered in egypt.201627580325
molecular versus conventional culture for detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens in poultry.acute respiratory tract infections are leading causes of morbidity in poultry farms allover the world. six pathogens; escherichia coli, mycoplasma gallisepticum, staphylococcus aureus, pasteurella multocida, mannheimia haemolytica and pseudomonas aeruginosa were involved in respiratory infections in poultry. herein, conventional identification procedures and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were applied for detection of the most common respiratory bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens of poul ...201626950451
in vitro antimicrobial activities of animal-used quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides against mycobacteria, mycoplasma and fungi.the quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides (qdnos) were known as potent antibacterial agents. for the purpose of evaluating the bioactivity of existing animal-used qdnos drugs against representative pathogenic microorganism, the representative drugs of quinoxalines including cyadox, mequindox, quinocetone and their metabolites were submitted to the in vitro evaluation for antituberculosis, antimycoplasma, antifungal and antiviral activities.201627600955
tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazinglead poisoning in bullockspersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfabortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowtickborne fever in lambsinfectious sinusitis due to mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants these are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for may 2016 from sac consulting: veterinary services (sac c vs).201627550334
data on genome analysis of mycoplasmagallisepticum during intracellular infection.the genus mycoplasma relates to gram-positive bacteria that lack a cell wall and are capable to cause chronic disease in humans and animals. among the agents of infection and disease in domestic poultry and wild birds, mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important mycoplasma species, causing considerable losses in the poultry industry. in the present paper, we provide data on adaptation of m. gallisepticum to the eukaryotic host cells on the genomic level. the major changes were predominantly l ...201728070539
profiling of mycoplasma gallisepticum ribosomes.the development of high-throughput technologies is increasingly resulting in identification of numerous cases of low correlation between mrna and the protein level in cells. these controversial observations were made on various bacteria, such as e. coli, desulfovibrio vulgaris, and lactococcus lactis. thus, it is important to develop technologies, including high-throughput techniques, aimed at studying gene expression regulation at the level of translation. in the current study, we performed pro ...201726798497
rapid and sensitive detection of mycoplasma synoviae by an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction-based assay on a field-deployable device.mycoplasma synoviae (ms), causing respiratory diseases, arthritis, and eggshell apex abnormalities in avian species, is an important pathogen in the poultry industry. implementation of a biosecurity plan is important in ms infection management. working on a field-deployable pockit™ device, an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iipcr) assay has a potential for timely ms detection on the farm. the ms iipcr assay had limit of detection 95% of about 9 genome equivalents by testing seria ...201727389062
attenuated phenotype of a recent house finch-associated mycoplasma gallisepticum isolate for domestic poultry.mycoplasma gallisepticum, known primarily as a respiratory pathogen of domestic poultry, has emerged since 1994 as a significant pathogen of the house finch (haemorhous mexicanus) causing severe conjunctivitis and mortality. house finch-associated m. gallisepticum (hfmg) spread rapidly and increased in virulence for the finch host in the eastern united states. in the current study, we assessed virulence in domestic poultry with two temporally distant, yet geographically consistent, hfmg isolates ...201728396323
synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thioether pleuromutilin derivatives.to develop new pleuromutilin derivatives as veterinary antibiotic medicines, we designed and synthesized a series of new thioether pleuromutilin derivatives possessing acylthiazolyl moiety based on previously designed derivatives. the antibacterial properties of the prepared pleuromutilin derivatives were assessed in vitro by the broth dilution method against five kinds of bacteria and the mycoplasma mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). all of the tested compounds displayed moderate to good antibacter ...201728768998
transcriptional profiling of the chicken tracheal response to virulent mycoplasma gallisepticum strain rlow.mycoplasma gallisepticum, the primary etiologic agent of chronic respiratory disease (crd) in poultry, leads to prolonged recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells in the respiratory mucosa. this is consistent with the current model of immune dysregulation that ostensibly allows the organism to evade clearance mechanisms and establish chronic infection. to date, studies using qrt-pcr and microarrays have shown a significant transient up-regulation of cytokines and chemokines from tracheal ...201728739827
pharmacokinetic depletion phase of doxycycline in healthy and mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected chicken broilers after coadministration of enrofloxacin traces.the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of enrofloxacin (enr) traces on doxycycline (dc) pharmacokinetic depletion phase parameters in plasma and lungs of healthy and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg)-infected chicken broilers. the multiple-dose oral administration of dc to chickens which were permanently exposed on enr traces significantly increased concentration of dc in plasma and lung. it also prolonged the dc elimination time in both healthy and infected animals after final ...201728675463
gga-mir-99a targets smarca5 to regulate mycoplasma gallisepticum (hs strain) infection by depressing cell proliferation in chicken.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), one of the primary etiological agents of poultry chronic respiratory disease, has caused significant economic losses worldwide, and increasing evidence has recently indicated that mirnas are involved in its microbial pathogenesis. gga-mir-99a, a member of the mir-99 family, plays an essential role in a variety of diseases. through mirna solexa sequencing, we previously found that gga-mir-99a is significantly down-regulated in the lungs of mg-infected chicken embryo ...201728652181
short communication - study on quality and efficacy of commercial tylosin and doxycycline products against local isolates of mycoplasma in broilers.the present study was conducted to investigate the quality and efficacy of commercially available preparations of tylosin and doxycycline available in the local market at peshawar for poultry. in vitro and in vivo, tests were conducted to check the quality of these antimicrobial drugs. in vitro quality control test was performed by high performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) and micro dilution method. in vivo, efficacy of the test drugs was checked in broilers infected with mycoplasma gallise ...201728649082
the pk-pd relationship and resistance development of danofloxacin against mycoplasma gallisepticum in an in vivo infection model.mycoplasma gallisepticum is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease (crd), a prevalent disease of poultry, which is responsible for significant economic losses in farms. although several antimicrobial agents are currently recommended for the treatment and prevention of m. gallisepticum infections, investigations of m. gallisepticum have been hampered by their fastidious growth requirements and slow growth rate. as such, little work has been conducted concerning the pk/pd relationship ...201728611739
tlr2 mediates autophagy through erk signaling pathway in mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected raw264.7 cells.toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) plays a crucial role in early innate immune response of host to various microorganisms. mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is one of the major pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory diseases in chickens, but the molecular mechanism of mg infection still remained unclear. in this study, we examined the typical hallmarks of autophagy and multiple signaling pathways by western blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. the results indicated that infecti ...201728478286
identification of differentially expressed mirnas through high-throughput sequencing in the chicken lung in response to mycoplasma gallisepticum hs.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infects chickens, causes chronic respiratory diseases (crd) and severely damages the poultry industry. it has been suggested that micro-ribonucleic acids (mirnas) are involved in microbial pathogenesis. here, we identified mirnas that are associated with mg infection in chicken lungs at 3 and 10days post-infection by deep sequencing. thirty-six down-regulated and 9 up-regulated mirnas belonging to 31 mirna families were detected at 3days post-infection, whereas 50 d ...201728433919
efficacy of tiamulin alone or in combination with chlortetracycline against experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.mycoplasma gallisepticum (m. gallisepticum) remains one of the most important diseases in poultry production. controlling the impact of the disease is done by eradication of positive breeder flocks or by vaccination and medication. a widely used molecule in medication programs is tiamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic. since recent data on the in vivo efficacy of this molecule are scarce, 2 challenge studies were conducted using a recently isolated m. gallisepticum strain belonging to the wildtype ...201728431183
development and validation of a house finch interleukin-1β (hfil-1β) elisa system.a unique clade of the bacterium mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in north american house finches since the 1990s. currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. interleukin-1β (il-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during mycoplasma infection. the overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct eli ...201728854912
host responses to pathogen priming in a natural songbird host.hosts in free-living populations can experience substantial variation in the frequency and dose of pathogen exposure, which can alter disease progression and protection from future exposures. in the house finch-mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) system, the pathogen is primarily transmitted via bird feeders, and some birds may be exposed to frequent low doses of mg while foraging. here we experimentally determined how low dose, repeated exposures of house finches to mg influence host responses and pr ...201728766063
binding site of restriction-modification system controller protein in mollicutes.bacteria of the class mollicutes underwent extreme reduction of genomes and gene expression control systems. only a few regulators are known to date. in this work, we describe a novel group of transcriptional regulators that are distributed within different mollicutes and control the expression of restriction-modification systems (rm-systems).201728143392
chicken gga-mir-19a targets zmynd11 and plays an important role in host defense against mycoplasma gallisepticum (hs strain) infection.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), one of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas, can cause chronic respiratory disease (crd) in chickens. it has been suggested that micro-ribonucleic acids (mirnas) are involved in microbial pathogenesis. however, little is known about the roles of mirnas in mg infection. previously, we found by deep sequencing that gga-mir-19a was significantly up-regulated in the lungs of mg-infected chicken embryos. in this work, we confirmed that gga-mir-19a was up-regulated in both mg ...201727683641
immune responses to vaccination and infection with mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.infection with mycoplasma gallisepticum induces severe lymphoproliferative lesions in multiple sites along the respiratory tract in chickens and turkeys. these immunopathological responses have been well-characterised in chickens, but have not been studied closely in turkeys. the aim of the studies described here was to examine the immune responses of turkeys after live vaccination and infection with m. gallisepticum. in a strain comparison study, the mean log10 antibody titre of birds exposed t ...201728345962
serological screening suggests extensive presence of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in backyard chickens in southern mozambique.a total of 459 serum samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens originating from 4 villages in mandlakazi district, southern mozambique, were tested for the presence of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay [elisa] kits. anti-mg and anti-ms antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed and the overall seroprevalence was 48.8% [95% ci 39.1-57.8] and 84.5% [95% ci 76.8-90.4], respectively. the risk of being seroposit ...201728243629
apparent effect of chronic plasmodium infections on disease severity caused by experimental infections with mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches.an epidemic caused by a successful host jump of the bacterial pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum from poultry to house finches in the 1990s has by now spread across most of north america. m. gallisepticum causes severe conjunctivitis in house finches. we experimentally show that m. gallisepticum transmission to birds with or without chronic plasmodium infection does not differ. however, once infected with m. gallisepticum house finches chronically infected with plasmodium develop more severe clin ...201728348959
detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793b, avian metapneumovirus, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in ethiopia.a survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the ethiopian institute of agricultural research (eiar), located in debre zeit, ethiopia. oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. a combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. for the first time in ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis viru ...201727924415
the oppd gene and putative peptidase genes may be required for virulence in mycoplasma gallisepticum.relatively few virulence genes have been identified in pathogenic mycoplasmas, so we used signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify mutants of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum with reduced capacity to persist in vivo and compared the virulence of selected mutants in experimentally infected chickens. four mutants had insertions in one of the two incomplete oppabcdf operons and a further three had insertions in distinct hypothetical genes, two containing peptidase motifs and one a member ...201728348054
eye of the finch: characterization of the ocular microbiome of house finches in relation to mycoplasmal conjunctivitis.vertebrate ocular microbiomes are poorly characterized and virtually unexplored in wildlife species. pathogen defense is considered a key function of microbiomes, but determining microbiome stability during disease is critical for understanding the role of resident microbial communities in infectious disease dynamics. here, we characterize the ocular bacterial microbiome of house finches (haemorhous mexicanus), prior to and during experimental infection with an inflammatory ocular disease, mycop ...201727871125
identification of strain-specific sequences that distinguish a mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain from field isolates.despite attempts to control avian mycoplasmosis through management, vaccination, and surveillance, mycoplasma gallisepticum continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and economic losses in poultry production. live attenuated vaccines are commonly used in the poultry industry to control avian mycoplasmosis; unfortunately, some vaccines may revert to virulence and vaccine strains are generally difficult to distinguish from natural field isolates. in order to identify genome differences ...201727847370
identification of genes involved in mycoplasma gallisepticum biofilm formation using mini-tn4001-sgm transposon mutagenesis.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is an important pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. mg has the ability to form biofilms. the molecular mechanisms underlying mg biofilm formation are complex and poorly understood. to better understand the mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, mini-tn4001-sgm, a novel transposon vector containing the gentamicin gene was constructed and electroporated into mg strain rlow. of the 738 mutants obtained ...201728062003
determination of the mutant selection window and evaluation of the killing of mycoplasma gallisepticum by danofloxacin, doxycycline, tilmicosin, tylvalosin and valnemulin.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a common etiological cause of a chronic respiratory disease in chickens; its increasing antimicrobial resistance compromises the use of tetracyclines, macrolides and quinolones in the farm environment. mutant selection window (msw) determination was used to investigate the propensity for future resistance induction by danofloxacin, doxycycline, tilmicosin, tylvalosin and valnemulin. killing of m. gallisepticum strain s6 by these antimicrobials was also studied by incu ...201728052123
transcription profiling data set of different states of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum belongs to class mollicutes and causes chronic respiratory disease in birds. it has a reduced genome, lack of cell wall and many metabolic pathways, and also easy to culture and non-pathogenic to humans. aforementioned made it is a convenient model for studying of systems biology of minimal cell. studying the transcriptomic level of m. gallisepticum is interesting for both understanding of common principles of transcription regulation of minimal cell and response to defi ...201727942460
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