modelling of control options for an outbreak of mycoplasma gallisepticum in egg production: a decision support tool.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is a bacterium that causes respiratory disease in chickens, leading to reduced egg production. a dynamic simulation model was developed that can be used to assess the costs and benefits of control using antimicrobials or vaccination in caged or free range systems. the intended users are veterinarians and egg producers. a user interface is provided for input of flock specific parameters. the economic consequence of an mg outbreak is expressed as a reduction in expect ...201324206630
dna repair in mycoplasma gallisepticum.dna repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of dna repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. the bacteria of the mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. a small number of genes make mollicutes a good model for a "minimal cell" concept.201324148612
ketocarotenoid circulation, but not retinal carotenoid accumulation, is linked to eye disease status in a wild songbird.pathogenic or parasitic infections pose numerous physiological challenges to organisms. carotenoid pigments have often been used as biomarkers of disease state and impact because they integrate multiple aspects of an individual's condition and nutritional and health state. some diseases are known to influence carotenoid uptake from food (e.g. coccidiosis) and carotenoid use (e.g. as antioxidants/immunostimulants in the body, or for sexually attractive coloration), but there is relatively little ...201324080319
semi-automated curation of metabolic models via flux balance analysis: a case study with mycoplasma gallisepticum.primarily used for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, genome-scale metabolic modeling shows tremendous potential as a tool for fundamental research and curation of metabolism. through a novel integration of flux balance analysis and genetic algorithms, a strategy to curate metabolic networks and facilitate identification of metabolic pathways that may not be directly inferable solely from genome annotation was developed. specifically, metabolites involved in unknown reactions can be de ...201324039564
factors influencing the cell adhesion and invasion capacity of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the cell invasiveness of mycoplasma gallisepticum, the causative agent of respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, may be a substantial factor in the well-known chronicity of these diseases and in the systemic spread of infection. to date, not much is known about the host factors and mechanisms involved in promotion or obstruction of m. gallisepticum adherence and/or cell the current study, the influence of extracellular matrix (ecm) proteins such as fibro ...201324011130
deposition of pathogenic mycoplasma gallisepticum onto bird feeders: host pathology is more important than temperature-driven increases in food intake.although ambient temperature has diverse effects on disease dynamics, few studies have examined how temperature alters pathogen transmission by changing host physiology or behaviour. here, we test whether reducing ambient temperature alters host foraging, pathology and the potential for fomite transmission of the bacterial pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), which causes seasonal outbreaks of severe conjunctivitis in house finches (haemorhous mexicanus). we housed finches at temperatures wit ...201323966599
the development and application of a mycoplasma gallisepticum sequence database.molecular analysis was conducted on 36 mycoplasma gallisepticum dna extracts from tracheal swab samples of commercial poultry in seven south african provinces between 2009 and 2012. twelve unique m. gallisepticum genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer region (igsr), m. gallisepticum cytadhesin 2 (mgc2), mga_0319 and gapa genetic regions. the dna sequences of these genotypes were distinct from those of m. gallisepticum is ...201323889487
multiple host transfers, but only one successful lineage in a continent-spanning emergent pathogen.emergence of a new disease in a novel host is thought to be a rare outcome following frequent pathogen transfers between host species. however, few opportunities exist to examine whether disease emergence stems from a single successful pathogen transfer, and whether this successful lineage represents only one of several pathogen transfers between hosts. we examined the successful host transfer and subsequent evolution of the bacterial pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum, an emergent pathogen of ho ...201323843387
prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?the rapid spread of the bacterial disease, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), throughout the introduced range of house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern north america, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. we conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from arizona (within the western range) and f ...201323807632
immunity, resistance and tolerance in bird-parasite interactions.interacting pathogens and hosts have evolved reciprocal adaptations whose function is to allow host exploitation (from the pathogen stand point) or minimize the cost of infection (from the host stand point). once infected, two strategies are offered to the host: parasite clearing (resistance) and withstanding the infection while paying a low fitness cost (tolerance). in both cases, the immune system plays a central role. interestingly, whatever the defence strategy adopted by the host, this is l ...201323800152
chronic mycoplasma conjunctivitis in house finches: host antibody response and m. gallisepticum vlha expression.previous studies have shown that house finch field isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vary in virulence and ability to induce an antibody response. after experimental inoculation, mg causes persistent, severe disease in a subset of individuals. in this study, we further characterized mg infection using five field isolates, with an emphasis on chronically diseased birds. after experimental inoculation of house finches, mg load was measured by quantitative pcr and anti-mg antibody responses ...201323764469
parallel patterns of increased virulence in a recently emerged wildlife pathogen.the evolution of higher virulence during disease emergence has been predicted by theoretical models, but empirical studies of short-term virulence evolution following pathogen emergence remain rare. here we examine patterns of short-term virulence evolution using archived isolates of the bacterium mycoplasma gallisepticum collected during sequential emergence events in two geographically distinct populations of the host, the north american house finch (haemorhous [formerly carpodacus] mexicanus) ...201323723736
a soe-pcr method of introducing multiple mutations into mycoplasma gallisepticum neuraminidase.a modified splicing with overlap extension pcr (soe-pcr) was generated to introduce 21 tga to tgg at mycoplasma gallisepticum mga_0329 gene. the recombinant protein was successfully expressed and retained neuraminidase activities, indicating that soe-pcr is a rapid and highly efficient method of introducing multiple mutations into large m. gallisepticum genes.201323707236
the effect of the air sampling method on the recovery of mycoplasma gallisepticum from experimentally produced aerosols.a reliable air sampling method is a prerequisite to calculate the inhaled aerosol dose by animals exposed to the aerosol as precise as possible.[comp]: set abstract according to the journal style.[/comp]201323705990
influences of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.the influences of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with fmg (fmg-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with fmg (fmg-free group). body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. egg weight ...201323687149
malf is essential for persistence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in vivo.there is limited understanding of the molecular basis of virulence in the important avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum. to define genes that may be involved in colonization of chickens, a collection of mutants of the virulent ap3as strain of m. gallisepticum were generated by signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis. the collection included mutants with single insertions in the genes encoding the adhesin gapa and the cytadherence-related protein crma, and western blotting confirmed that thes ...201323657682
house finch populations differ in early inflammatory signaling and pathogen tolerance at the peak of mycoplasma gallisepticum individuals and populations often vary in their responses to infection, with direct consequences for pathogen spread and evolution. while considerable work has focused on the mechanisms underlying differences in resistance-the ability to kill pathogens-we know little about the mechanisms underlying tolerance-the ability to minimize fitness losses per unit pathogen. here, we examine patterns and mechanisms of tolerance between two populations of house finches (haemorhous [formerly carpodacus ...201323594550
experimental induction and oral transmission of avian aa amyloidosis in vaccinated white hens.avian aa amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds afflicted with bacterial infections or chronic inflammatory disorders. experimental aa amyloidosis in birds can be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as injection with casein or vaccination with oil-emulsified bacterins. however, the transmission of amyloidosis among avian species has not been studied well to date. in the present study, we confirm the potential induction of avian aa amyloidosis by inoculation of salmonella ...201323548152
cis-regulatory sequence variation and association with mycoplasma load in natural populations of the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus).characterization of the genetic basis of fitness traits in natural populations is important for understanding how organisms adapt to the changing environment and to novel events, such as epizootics. however, candidate fitness-influencing loci, such as regulatory regions, are usually unavailable in nonmodel species. here, we analyze sequence data from targeted resequencing of the cis-regulatory regions of three candidate genes for disease resistance (cd74, hsp90α, and lcp1) in populations of the ...201323532859
role of the gapa and crma cytadhesins of mycoplasma gallisepticum in promoting virulence and host colonization.mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important avian pathogen that commonly induces chronic respiratory disease in chicken. to better understand the mycoplasma factors involved in host colonization, chickens were infected via aerosol with two hemadsorption-negative (ha(-)) mutants, mhad3 and rcl2, that were derived from a low passage of the pathogenic strain r (rlow) and are both deficient in the two major cytadhesins gapa and crma. after 9 days of infection, chickens were monitored for air sac lesion ...201323460514
can american goldfinches function as reservoirs for mycoplasma gallisepticum?we performed experiments to test if american goldfinches (spinus tristis) could be a competent reservoir for mycoplasma gallisepticum and play a role in the epidemic spread of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis among house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in north america. we infected one of two individuals housed together in a cage and determined if transmission occurred to the second bird. probability of transmission between an american goldfinch and a house finch (in either direction) was similar to th ...201323307371
isolation and molecular characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in chickens in sudan.the current study described the isolation and molecular detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae from tracheal swabs of diseased birds showing signs of respiratory distress in selected commercial (layer and broiler) farms and from yolk and an open air of pens of vaccinated breeder flocks in sudan. a number of 45 mycoplasma isolates were recovered from chickens in khartoum, gezira, and equatoria states in sudan. of these, eight mg and three ms isolates were identified us ...201326464902
mycoplasma gallisepticum transmission: comparison of commercial f-strain vaccine versus layer complex-derived field strains in a tunnel ventilated house.two simultaneous trials were conducted using a commercially available, live, f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) vaccine (trial 1) or 2 inocula of layer complex-derived mg strains (lcd-mg; trial 2). in each of the 2 trials, 4 commercial turkeys were housed in each of 2 adjoining pens immediately adjacent to air inlets. the turkeys (8/trial) were inoculated in the right eye with either a 1× dose of fmg (trial 1) or with 0.02 ml of 1 of 2 actively growing lcd-mg inocula (4 turkeys/inoculum; tr ...201223155015
experimental evidence for distinct costs of pathogenesis and immunity against a natural pathogen in a wild bird.protective immunity is expected to evolve when the costs of mounting an immune response are less than those of harbouring pathogens. estimating the costs of immunity vs. pathogenesis in natural systems is challenging, however, because they are typically closely linked. here we attempt to disentangle the relative cost of each using experimental infections in a natural host-parasite system in which hosts (house finches, carpodacus mexicanus) differ in resistance to a bacterium (mycoplasma gallisep ...201222924889
retrospective study of mycoplasma gallisepticum meningoencephalitis in six turkey flocks in western france.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in six turkey flocks, from 1998 to 2005, in the western part of france. affected birds were 8-11 weeks old and all displayed neurological signs, especially torticollis, with more than half having concomitant respiratory signs. microscopical examination of brain samples from birds in all six flocks revealed similar lesions of acute to subacute multifocal parenchymal necrosis, perivascular cuffing, leptomeningitis and vasculitis. bird ...201322878056
a comparative study of live attenuated f strain-derived mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines.commercially available attenuated strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) are commonly used within the layer industry to control mg-induced mycoplasmosis. among these are two live mg vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic mg "chick f" strain. in the present study, the commercially available f strain derivatives were compared for their ability to elicit seroconversion, persist in vivo, and protect against virulent mg-induced airsacculitis. in addition, a noncommercial laboratory-derived ...201222856200
influence of swab material on the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by real-time pcr.recent reports have shown an increased recovery of cells from flocked nylon swabs which may improve the specimen quality and the real sensitivity of diagnostic tests in a clinical setting. in this study, the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. synoviae (ms), using dry swabs of different materials (nylon flocked, cotton, and polyester), was investigated using real-time taqman pcr protocols. different types of samples, including dilutions of pure broth cultures of mg and ms as well a ...201222856187
the efficacy of three commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in laying hens.the efficacy of three commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) immunizing agents-a bacterin, a recombinant fowlpox-mg vaccine, and a live f-strain vaccine-was compared in specific-pathogen-free hens in egg production. three groups of 25 chickens were vaccinated with one of the vaccines at 10 wk of age and 25 birds were not vaccinated. at 25 wk of age (and approximately 50% egg production), 20 birds from each of the three vaccinated groups and 15 nonvaccinated controls were challenged with virule ...201222856181
identification of biofilm formation by mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens and of infectious sinusitis in turkeys, chickens, game birds, pigeons, and passerine birds of all ages. this study investigated the biofilm-producing ability of m. gallisepticum strains in an attempt to explain its intriguing persistence in commercial flocks. eleven strains of m. gallisepticum were investigated for their biofilm formation, which varied considerably. strains nobilis mg 6/85, s(6) (p(5) and ...201222840542
conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis in cliff swallows (petrochelidon pyrrhonota) found in association with mycoplasma sturni infection and cryptosporidiosis.fledgling cliff swallows were cared for at a rehabilitation facility when clinical signs of ocular disease, characterized by conjunctivitis, epiphora, and hyperaemia of palpebrae and nictitans, were recognized. treatment consisted of topical and oral antibiotic therapy and one topical steroid administration. however, one cliff swallow died and three were killed due to poor therapeutic response. conjunctival swabs were obtained ante-mortem from the three cliff swallows and were submitted for myco ...201222834555
within-host dynamics of mycoplasma infections: conjunctivitis in wild passerine birds.the host-pathogen interaction drives infectious disease dynamics at the individual, population and community levels. here i present and analyze a model of the vertebrate immune response to mycoplasma infections, and use it to identify which pathogen and host immune characteristics drive patterns of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infections in the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus) and other passerine birds. i also address which host and pathogen characteristics most affect host infectiousness and ...201222726809
discrepancy between minimal inhibitory concentration to enrofloxacin and mutations present in the quinolone-resistance determining regions of mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains.molecular characterization of the quinolone-resistance determining regions (qrdrs) of dna gyrase and topoisomerase iv in 93 mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains isolated in different geographic regions revealed discrepancies between minimal inhibitory concentration values and presence of amino acid substitutions within the qrdrs of gyra and parc in 9/93 (10%) strains. this may delimitate applicability of a gene-based assay to detect fluoroquinolone resistance in this avian pathogen.201222655973
extensive variation in surface lipoprotein gene content and genomic changes associated with virulence during evolution of a novel north american house finch epizootic strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum, a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry, has since 1994 been recognized as an emergent pathogen of the american house finch (carpodacus mexicanus). epizootic spread and pathognomonic characteristics of house finch-associated mycoplasma gallisepticum (hfmg) have been studied as a model of an emergent to endemic pathogen in a novel host. here we present comparative analysis of eight hfmg genomes, including one from an index isolate and seve ...201222628486
evaluation of mycoplasma gallisepticum k-strain as a live vaccine in chickens.we evaluated the pathogenicity of three live mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vaccine candidates by infection via aerosol of 3-wk-old chickens with log phase broth cultures (trial 1). two of the candidates (k3020 and k4649a) colonized only 10% and 20% of the chickens, respectively, unlike k2101 (k-strain), which was reisolated from all of the vaccinated chickens tested. k-strain inoculation did not result in significant air sac or tracheal lesions in chickens at 10 and 39 days postinfection (p < or ...201222545527
understanding the origin of seasonal epidemics of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis.1. many host-pathogen systems show regular seasonal oscillations. 2. seasonal variation in mycoplasmal conjunctivitis prevalence in house finches is an example of such oscillations. 3. an annual pulse of mycoplasma gallisepticum-naïve juveniles increasing the number of susceptibles, seasonal changes in flocking behaviour increasing transmission rate and a gradual loss of resistance to reinfection with time are sufficient to model the observed seasonal variation in disease prevalence. nevertheles ...201222524311
innate immunity and the evolution of resistance to an emerging infectious disease in a wild bird.innate immunity is expected to play a primary role in conferring resistance to novel infectious diseases, but few studies have attempted to examine its role in the evolution of resistance to emerging pathogens in wild vertebrate populations. here, we used experimental infections and cdna microarrays to examine whether changes in the innate and/or acquired immune responses likely accompanied the emergence of resistance in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in the eastern united states subject t ...201222512302
seroprevalence of newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in eastern shewa zone, ethiopia.this study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of newcastle disease (nd), pasteurella multocida (pm) infection, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection, and infectious bursal disease (ibd) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. in total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of eastern shewa zone, et ...201222399725
ultrafast evolution and loss of crisprs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, mycoplasma gallisepticum.measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (carpodacus mexicanus), a common north american songbird. for the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in house finch isolates of mg, ...201222346765
characterization of a ts-1-like mycoplasma galisepticum isolate from commercial broiler chickens.several commercial broiler flocks in northeastern georgia that were the progeny of the same parent flock (flock 40) were diagnosed as mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) positive by serology, culture, and pcr. flock 40 had been vaccinated with ts-11 live mg vaccine. several isolates were obtained from the mg-positive broiler flocks, and these isolates were indistinguishable from the ts-11 vaccine strain by the molecular strain differentiation methods used. a pathogenicity study was performed to compar ...201122312975
contrasting epidemic histories reveal pathogen-mediated balancing selection on class ii mhc diversity in a wild songbird.the extent to which pathogens maintain the extraordinary polymorphism at vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes via balancing selection has intrigued evolutionary biologists for over half a century, but direct tests remain challenging. here we examine whether a well-characterized epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis resulted in balancing selection on class ii mhc in a wild songbird host, the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus). first, we confirmed the potential for pathogen-med ...201222291920
experiences with multispecies polymerase chain reaction and specific oligonucleotide probes for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.amplified fragments of the rdna coding for 16s rrna of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) were blotted on nylon membranes, followed by dot-blot detection with two species-specific digoxigenin-(dig)-labeled oligonucleotide probes. the sensitivity and specifity of the tests were determined in titration studies with purified homologous and heterologous dna. with the detection protocol used, the msyv8/31 probe showed 100% specifity for ms, while both mg and the related specie ...199926905489
attenuated phenotype of a recent house finch-associated mycoplasma gallisepticum isolate for domestic poultry.mycoplasma gallisepticum, known primarily as a respiratory pathogen of domestic poultry, has emerged since 1994 as a significant pathogen of the house finch (haemorhous mexicanus) causing severe conjunctivitis and mortality. house finch-associated m. gallisepticum (hfmg) spread rapidly and increased in virulence for the finch host in the eastern united states. in the current study, we assessed virulence in domestic poultry with two temporally distant, yet geographically consistent, hfmg isolates ...201728396323
development and validation of a house finch interleukin-1β (hfil-1β) elisa system.a unique clade of the bacterium mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in north american house finches since the 1990s. currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. interleukin-1β (il-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during mycoplasma infection. the overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct eli ...201728854912
host responses to pathogen priming in a natural songbird host.hosts in free-living populations can experience substantial variation in the frequency and dose of pathogen exposure, which can alter disease progression and protection from future exposures. in the house finch-mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) system, the pathogen is primarily transmitted via bird feeders, and some birds may be exposed to frequent low doses of mg while foraging. here we experimentally determined how low dose, repeated exposures of house finches to mg influence host responses and pr ...201728766063
snps across time and space: population genomic signatures of founder events and epizootics in the house finch (haemorhous mexicanus).identifying genomic signatures of natural selection can be challenging against a background of demographic changes such as bottlenecks and population expansions. here, we disentangle the effects of demography from selection in the house finch (haemorhous mexicanus) using samples collected before and after a pathogen-induced selection event. using ddradseq, we genotyped over 18,000 snps across the genome in native pre-epizootic western us birds, introduced birds from hawaii and the eastern united ...201628725414
synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thioether pleuromutilin develop new pleuromutilin derivatives as veterinary antibiotic medicines, we designed and synthesized a series of new thioether pleuromutilin derivatives possessing acylthiazolyl moiety based on previously designed derivatives. the antibacterial properties of the prepared pleuromutilin derivatives were assessed in vitro by the broth dilution method against five kinds of bacteria and the mycoplasma mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). all of the tested compounds displayed moderate to good antibacter ...201728768998
transcriptional profiling of the chicken tracheal response to virulent mycoplasma gallisepticum strain rlow.mycoplasma gallisepticum, the primary etiologic agent of chronic respiratory disease (crd) in poultry, leads to prolonged recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells in the respiratory mucosa. this is consistent with the current model of immune dysregulation that ostensibly allows the organism to evade clearance mechanisms and establish chronic infection. to date, studies using qrt-pcr and microarrays have shown a significant transient up-regulation of cytokines and chemokines from tracheal ...201728739827
pharmacokinetic depletion phase of doxycycline in healthy and mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected chicken broilers after coadministration of enrofloxacin traces.the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of enrofloxacin (enr) traces on doxycycline (dc) pharmacokinetic depletion phase parameters in plasma and lungs of healthy and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg)-infected chicken broilers. the multiple-dose oral administration of dc to chickens which were permanently exposed on enr traces significantly increased concentration of dc in plasma and lung. it also prolonged the dc elimination time in both healthy and infected animals after final ...201728675463
gga-mir-99a targets smarca5 to regulate mycoplasma gallisepticum (hs strain) infection by depressing cell proliferation in chicken.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), one of the primary etiological agents of poultry chronic respiratory disease, has caused significant economic losses worldwide, and increasing evidence has recently indicated that mirnas are involved in its microbial pathogenesis. gga-mir-99a, a member of the mir-99 family, plays an essential role in a variety of diseases. through mirna solexa sequencing, we previously found that gga-mir-99a is significantly down-regulated in the lungs of mg-infected chicken embryo ...201728652181
short communication - study on quality and efficacy of commercial tylosin and doxycycline products against local isolates of mycoplasma in broilers.the present study was conducted to investigate the quality and efficacy of commercially available preparations of tylosin and doxycycline available in the local market at peshawar for poultry. in vitro and in vivo, tests were conducted to check the quality of these antimicrobial drugs. in vitro quality control test was performed by high performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) and micro dilution method. in vivo, efficacy of the test drugs was checked in broilers infected with mycoplasma gallise ...201728649082
the pk-pd relationship and resistance development of danofloxacin against mycoplasma gallisepticum in an in vivo infection model.mycoplasma gallisepticum is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease (crd), a prevalent disease of poultry, which is responsible for significant economic losses in farms. although several antimicrobial agents are currently recommended for the treatment and prevention of m. gallisepticum infections, investigations of m. gallisepticum have been hampered by their fastidious growth requirements and slow growth rate. as such, little work has been conducted concerning the pk/pd relationship ...201728611739
tlr2 mediates autophagy through erk signaling pathway in mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected raw264.7 cells.toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) plays a crucial role in early innate immune response of host to various microorganisms. mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is one of the major pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory diseases in chickens, but the molecular mechanism of mg infection still remained unclear. in this study, we examined the typical hallmarks of autophagy and multiple signaling pathways by western blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. the results indicated that infecti ...201728478286
identification of differentially expressed mirnas through high-throughput sequencing in the chicken lung in response to mycoplasma gallisepticum hs.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infects chickens, causes chronic respiratory diseases (crd) and severely damages the poultry industry. it has been suggested that micro-ribonucleic acids (mirnas) are involved in microbial pathogenesis. here, we identified mirnas that are associated with mg infection in chicken lungs at 3 and 10days post-infection by deep sequencing. thirty-six down-regulated and 9 up-regulated mirnas belonging to 31 mirna families were detected at 3days post-infection, whereas 50 d ...201728433919
efficacy of tiamulin alone or in combination with chlortetracycline against experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.mycoplasma gallisepticum (m. gallisepticum) remains one of the most important diseases in poultry production. controlling the impact of the disease is done by eradication of positive breeder flocks or by vaccination and medication. a widely used molecule in medication programs is tiamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic. since recent data on the in vivo efficacy of this molecule are scarce, 2 challenge studies were conducted using a recently isolated m. gallisepticum strain belonging to the wildtype ...201728431183
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