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proteome of the bacterium mycoplasma gallisepticum.using modern proteomic assays, we have identified the products of gene expression and posttranslational modifications of proteins of the bacterium mycoplasma gallisepticum s6. combinations of different technologies of protein separation by electrophoresis and mass-spectrometric analysis gave us a total of 446 proteins, i.e. 61% of the annotated proteins of this microorganism. the pro-q diamond and pro-q emerald dye technology was used for fluorescent detection of ten phosphoproteins and two glyc ...200919267672
cytoskeletal asymmetrical dumbbell structure of a gliding mycoplasma, mycoplasma gallisepticum, revealed by negative-staining electron microscopy.several mycoplasma species feature a membrane protrusion at a cell pole, and unknown mechanisms provide gliding motility in the direction of the pole defined by the protrusion. mycoplasma gallisepticum, an avian pathogen, is known to form a membrane protrusion composed of bleb and infrableb and to glide. here, we analyzed the gliding motility of m. gallisepticum cells in detail. they glided in the direction of the bleb at an average speed of 0.4 microm/s and remained attached around the bleb to ...200919286806
mycoplasma synoviae invades non-phagocytic chicken cells in vitro.mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma gallisepticum are major poultry pathogens, but their strains differ significantly in invasiveness and pathogenicity. recent studies have demonstrated that m. gallisepticum invades chicken erythrocytes (cer) and chicken embryonic fibroblasts. the aim of this study was to determine whether m. synoviae also invades chicken cells. using the gentamicin invasion assay, relative invasion frequency (rif) of four m. synoviae strains was determined for cer, chicken embry ...200919321273
diversifying and stabilizing selection of sialidase and n-acetylneuraminate catabolism in mycoplasma synoviae.sialidase activity varies widely among strains and tends to correlate with strain virulence in the avian pathogen mycoplasma synoviae. to characterize the forms of selection acting on enzymes required for sialic acid scavenging and catabolism, the ratios of nonsynonymous (k(a)) to synonymous (k(s)) mutation frequency were calculated for codons in the sialidase gene of 16 strains of m. synoviae and for its nearly identical homolog in four strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum. the k(a)/k(s) (omega) ...200919329630
effects of time-specific f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on prelay ts-11-strain m. gallisepticum vaccination on blood characteristics of commercial laying hens.two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11mg) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time-specific f-strain m. gallisepticum (fmg) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. the following 4 treatments were utilized: 1) sham vaccination at 10 wk of age, 2) vaccination of ts-11mg at 10 wk, 3) ts-11mg at 10 wk overlaid by fmg inoculation at 22 wk, and 4) ts-11mg at 10 wk overlaid by fmg at 45 wk. ...200919359676
effects of time-specific f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on prelay ts-11-strain m. gallisepticum vaccination on digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11mg) vaccination alone or in conjunction with f-strain m. gallisepticum (fmg) inoculation overlays at 2 different age periods during lay on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens. in each trial, the following 4 treatments were utilized: sham vaccination at 10 wk of age, ts-11mg vaccination at 10 wk of age, ts-11mg at 10 wk of age overlaid by fmg in ...200919359686
development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the simultaneous detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae under industry conditions.in this research we developed a real-time sybr green assay to detect both mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) in a single reaction. a total of 30,000 samples from broiler breeder flocks were screened using traditional serology (plate agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr; traditional and real-time). it was determined that the real-time sybr green pcr assay developed in this research was more rapid ...200919432006
the development of diagnostic real-time taqman pcrs for the four pathogenic avian mycoplasmas.four avian mycoplasmas are commonly recognized as poultry pathogens: mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms), mycoplasma meleagridis (mm), and mycoplasma iowae (mi). the avian mycoplasmas are associated with respiratory disease, synovitis and arthritis, poor performance, skeletal deformities, and embryo mortality. three main approaches are used for the diagnosis of avian mycoplasmosis: isolation and identification, detection of antibodies, and molecular detection of the organism' ...200919432011
molecular variability of dr-1 and dr-2 within the pvpa gene in mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates.a total of 15 mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolates from chinese poultry farms and three reference strains (s6, bg44t, and f36) were characterized by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis for two identical and directly repeated sequences, dr-1 and dr-2, within the putative cytadhesin pvpa gene. the molecular variation patterns of the pvpa genes among the 15 mg isolates were identical to the reference strains s6 and bg44t, that is, a 60 bp deletion in dr-1 and dr-2 and repetitio ...200919432015
[prevalence of mycoplasmas in commercial layer flocks during laying period].within this study's range, laying hens from different housing systems were investigated on prevalence of mycoplasma sp. for the duration of one laying period, with an emphasis on the two clinically relevant species m. synoviae and m. gallisepticum. tracheal swabs were analysed for mycoplasms by genus- and species-specific amplification after dna extraction. of 919 collected tracheal swabs, 84% were positive for the genus-specific test, while 75% turned out positive for m. synoviae. mycoplasms we ...200919517932
influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the performance of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.the effects of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary poultry fat (pf) on the performance of commercial layers between 20 and 58 wk of age were investigated. sham and fmg inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk and dietary treatments (basal control diets and basal control diets with 1.5% supplemental pf) were initiated at 20 wk of age. mortality at wk 47 and 53 was greatest in birds inoculated with fmg at 22 wk. feed c ...200919531705
production of house finch (carpodacus mexicanus) iga specific anti-sera and its application in immunohistochemistry and in elisa for detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum-specific iga.the iga antibody response plays a vital role in mucosal immunity because it functions to neutralize pathogens at the mucosal surface and thus impedes attachment to underlying tissues. although the importance of iga in the mucosal immunity of galliform birds has been established, studies examining iga-based immunity in passerine birds are lacking, perhaps due in part to the absence of reagents that can detect passerine iga. a 469 base pair region of the house finch (carpodacus mexicanus) iga heav ...200919581004
influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the yolk characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.effects of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary poultry fat (pf) on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers at 24, 34, 44, 50, and 58 wk of age were investigated. sham and fmg inoculations were administered at 12 and 22 wk of age and dietary treatments (basal control and basal control with 1.5% supplemental pf) were initiated at 20 wk of age. yolk lipid concentration was reduced on wk 24 in birds that had been inoculated at 12 or 22 wk of ag ...200919687273
phytopathogenicity of avian mycoplasma mycoplasma gallisepticum s6: morphologic and ultracytostructural changes in plants infected with the vegetative forms and the viable but nonculturable forms of the bacterium.the data obtained in this study proved that mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 known as avian pathogen had a phytopathogenic potential. the vegetative forms and the viable but nonculturable (vbnc) forms of this mycoplasma could infect the plants via an assemblage of rootlets, invade different tissues, persist there and cause destructive events characteristic to phytomycoplasmoses. in comparison with the vegetative forms, the vbnc forms induced more prominent destructive changes. this phenomenon might b ...201019716689
[adaptation of mycoplasmas to stressful factors: nucleotide sequences nonregistered in vegetative forms of m. galisepticum s6 cells are revealed in nonculturable forms of the mycoplasma].adaptation of m. gallisepticum s6 to unfavorable environmental conditions is connected with transformation of the vegetative forms of the mycoplasma cells to the viable but non-culturable (vbnc) forms. the vegetative forms and the vbnc forms differ in the spectrum of the pcr-products that was forming due to amplification of the nucleotide sequence of the pvpa-gene coding the able cytoadhesion protein. as to vegetative forms of the mycoplasma the only amplicon, containing one open reading frame ( ...200919807027
effect of dosage and vaccination route on transmission of a live attenuated mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine: a broiler model.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is an economically significant pathogen of poultry species. among the table egg sector of the poultry industry, live attenuated strains of mg are commonly used to limit production losses associated with mg-induced disease. these vaccines, however, may be problematic to broiler- and turkey-related industries because of associated virulence; therefore, an understanding of the transmissibility of the live mg vaccines is of particular importance. in the present study, a ...200919848082
differentiation of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using pcr and high-resolution melting curve analysis.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is an economically important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and turkeys. differentiation of mg strains is critical, especially in countries where poultry flocks are vaccinated with live vaccines. in this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed based on a region preceding the trinucleotide repeat of a member of the vlha gene family, and amplicons of 145-352 bp were generated from cultures of 10 different mg strains ...201020035007
influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.effects of f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary poultry fat (pf) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers at 58 wk of age were investigated. sham and fmg inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk of age, and dietary treatments (basal control diets and basal control diets with pf) were initiated at 20 wk of age. supplemental pf increased bw and decreased isthmal length relative to tot ...201020075276
characteristics of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus from california.an outbreak of infectious bursal disease (ibd) in two california layer flocks resulted in the isolation of two infectious bursal disease viruses designated ra and rb. increased mortality plus gross and histopathology in the layer flocks suggested ra and rb could be very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvibdv). preliminary studies indicated that high mortality resulted when bursa homogenates from the layer farms were used to inoculate specific-pathogen-free (spf) chicks. in addition, ra ...200920095162
comparative genomic analyses of attenuated strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry. while the complete genomic sequence of the virulent, low-passage m. gallisepticum strain r (r(low)) has been reported, genomic determinants responsible for differences in virulence and host range remain to be completely identified. here, we utilize genome sequencing and microarray-based comparative genomic data to identify these genomic determinants of virulence and to elucidate genomic variabili ...201020123709
spatial variation in an avian host community: implications for disease dynamics.because many pathogens can infect multiple host species within a community, disease dynamics in a focal host species can be affected by the composition of the host community. we examine the extent to which spatial variation in species' abundances in an avian host community may contribute to geographically varying prevalence of a recently emerged wildlife pathogen. mycoplasma gallisepticum is a pathogen novel to songbirds that has caused substantial mortality in house finches (carpodacus mexicanu ...201020130959
real-time pcr culture and serology for the diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum in chicken breeder flocks.this study aimed to compare a real-time pcr (rpcr) test with improved detection limit to serology and culture for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection in chicken breeder flocks. six hundred and forty-six blood and tracheal swab samples belonging to 31 grandparent chicken breeder flocks were tested by rpcr. the detection limit of rpcr was 0.9 pg microl(-1), with pure mg s6 strain dna and 100 colony forming units (cfus) ml(-1), where both pure culture and tracheal swabs were ar ...201020149561
sickness behaviour acting as an evolutionary trap? male house finches preferentially feed near diseased conspecifics.host behaviour towards infectious conspecifics is a crucial yet overlooked component of pathogen dynamics. selection is expected to favour individuals who can recognize and avoid infected conspecifics in order to reduce their own risk of infection. however, evidence is scarce and limited to species employing chemical cues. here, we experimentally examine whether healthy captive house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) preferentially forage near a same-sex, healthy conspecific versus one infected wit ...201020164082
animal behaviour: an ill wind for finches. 201020164914
effects of vaccination with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.this study was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum at 22 or 45 wk of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain m. gallisepticum at 10 wk of age. the treatment groups included unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens receiving 6/85-strain m. gallisepticum only (group 2), and hens receiving 6/85-strain m. gallisepticum followed by f-strain m. gallisepticum at either 22 (group 3) or 45 (group 4) wk of age. there was ...201020181866
evaluation of mycoplasma inactivation during production of biologics: egg-based viral vaccines as a model.although mycoplasmas are generally considered to be harmless commensals, some mycoplasma species are able to cause infections in pediatric, geriatric, or immunocompromised patients. thus, accidental contamination of biologics with mycoplasmas represents a potential risk for the health of individuals who receive cell-derived biological and pharmaceutical products. to assess the efficiency of inactivation of mycoplasmas by the agents used in the manufacture of egg-derived influenza vaccines, we ca ...201020228111
protective immune response of mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in poultry.through a controlled vaccination study with artificial challenge, the present study was designed to evaluate the protective value of formalin, saponin or binary ethyleneimine inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum adjuvanted bacterins, in comparison with the efficacy of the live mycoplasma gallisepticum "f" strain vaccine. protective values of tested vaccines were compared by measuring antibody titers in sera of chicken at different intervals post vaccination by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ...200720306661
influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.the effects of 2 levels of supplemental dietary poultry fat (pf) and the combination of pf, phytase (phy), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (d(3)) on the performance of commercial layers inoculated with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) were investigated in 2 trials. sham and fmg inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk and dietary treatments [basal control diet (bcd), bcd with 0.75% supplemental pf, bcd with 1.50% supplemental pf, and bcd with 1.50% suppleme ...201020371842
systematic search for putative new domain families in mycoplasma gallisepticum genome.abstract:201020384986
development of a duplex real-time taqman pcr assay with an internal control for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in clinical samples from commercial and backyard poultry.in this study, we report the development and validation of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay with an internal control using taqman-labelled probes for the detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae (duplex mgms pcr). the mgms pcr was highly specific with a sensitivity of 7 and 1 colony-forming units/ml for m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae, respectively, using dilution of pure culture that corresponds to 34 and 29 dna copies per reaction. validation of th ...201020390544
a safety assessment of a fowlpox-vectored mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine in chickens.a recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine expressing key protective mycoplasma gallisepticum antigens could facilitate in the prevention both of fowlpox virus and m. gallisepticum infections. vectormune fp-mg vaccine, a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing both m. gallisepticum 40k and mgc genes, was assessed for its safety in 8-wk-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens. the vaccine virus was serially passaged 5 times by wing-web inoculation. based on the postinoculation clinical observatio ...201020460677
mycoplasma gallisepticum: an emerging challenge to the poultry industry in egypt.in this study, the authors examined the technical performance of culture methodology using specific media: mycoplasma isolation media of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (pplo) broth and pplo agar. digitonin sensitivity, growth inhibition, the serum plate agglutination test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a commercially available simplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test were used to detect mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in samples collected from the ...200920462158
mutations in 23s rrna gene associated with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin in mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major etiological agent of chronic respiratory disease (crd) in chickens and sinusitis in turkeys. the pleuromutilin antibiotics tiamulin and valnemulin are currently used in the treatment of m. gallisepticum infection. we studied the in vitro development of pleuromutilin resistance in m. gallisepticum and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. pleuromutilin-resistant mutants were selected by serial passages of m. gallisepticum strains pg31 ...201020487023
identification of lipoprotein msla as a neoteric virulence factor of mycoplasma gallisepticum.many lipoproteins are expressed on the surfaces of mycoplasmas, and some have been implicated as playing roles in pathogenesis. family 2 lipoproteins of mycoplasma pneumoniae have a conserved "mycoplasma lipoprotein x" central domain and a "mycoplasma lipoprotein 10" c-terminal domain and are differentially expressed in response to environmental conditions. homologues of family 2 lipoproteins are mycoplasma specific and include the lipoprotein of mycoplasma gallisepticum, encoded by the mga0674 ...201020515935
common garden experiment reveals pathogen isolate but no host genetic diversity effect on the dynamics of an emerging wildlife disease.host genetic diversity can mediate pathogen resistance within and among populations. here we test whether the lower prevalence of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in native north american house finch populations results from greater resistance to the causative agent, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), than introduced, recently-bottlenecked populations that lack genetic diversity. in a common garden experiment, we challenged wild-caught western (native) and eastern (introduced) north american finches with ...201020561136
genetic diversity of mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates using partial sequencing of the pvpa gene fragment in russia.the genetic diversity of the pvpa gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) samples originating from commercial chickens was investigated. in the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of 26 field samples of mg detected in commercial chickens and turkeys from 18 regions of russia and compared them to the reference strains of mg available in genbank. genetic variability was evaluated by partial nucleotide sequencing of the pvpa gene, which encodes a putative cytadhesin protein. compariso ...201020608536
an adhesion molecule-based colloidal gold immunochromatography assay strip for rapidly and specifically detecting chicken antibodies against mycoplasma gallisepticum.the fragment of the vlha1.2 gene was cloned from a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) dna library by serial pcrs after the same-sense mutagenesis of three tga codons encoding tryptophan (trp). following transforming the generated plasmid of pkg-vlha1.2, the recombinant vlha1.2-gst fusion protein of 92kda was induced and recognized by anti-mg sera. after gst-affinity chromatographic purification, the vlha-based colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (gica) strips were generated. the gica strips spe ...201120630551
mycoplasma sturni from a california house finch with conjunctivitis did not cause disease in experimentally infected house finches.mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis emerged in 1994 as a disease of free-ranging house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in north america and has also been isolated from other songbirds with conjunctivitis. a key feature for the successful study of natural and experimental disease has been the apparent, very-high correlation between characteristic eye lesions and m. gallisepticum. mycoplasma sturni was originally isolated from an adult european starling (sturnus vulgaris) with bilateral conjunc ...201020688712
adaptation of mycoplasmas to adverse environments: phytopathogenicity and peculiarities of protein expression of vegetative and nonculturable forms of mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 cells. 200920848917
influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.the effects of supplemental dietary poultry fat (pf), phytase (phy), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (d3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) were investigated in 2 trials. sham and fmg inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (onset of lay) wk and 4 dietary treatments [basal control diet (bcd); bcd with 0.75% supplemental pf; bcd with 1.50% supplemental pf; bcd with 1.50% supplemental pf, 0.013% phy, and 0.025% d3 ...201020852097
a chronicle of serologic response in commercial layer chickens to vaccination with commercial f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.vaccination of multi-age layer operations, wherein one million plus commercial layer chickens are housed, has been spurious until the development of a self-propelled, constant-speed spray vaccinator. still, even with its use, live mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vaccinations have been questionable in terms of seroconversion. using the vaccinator as a research tool over the past 5 yr, factors have been elucidated which impact seroconversion to one live mg vaccine in particular, the f strain of mg ( ...201020945798
mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae express a cysteine protease cysp, which can cleave chicken igg into fab and fc.major poultry pathogens m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae share a gene encoding a putative cysteine protease cysp similar to papain cysteine protease (c1a subfamily). comparison of the cysp gene sequences of 18 m. synoviae and 10 m. gallisepticum strains sequenced in this study showed polymorphisms, including deletions. seven m. synoviae strains, including the type strain wvu 1853, had a 39 bp deletion in the 3' end of the cysp gene. in the same cysp region, all m. gallisepticum strains sh ...201020966088
construction of mini-tn4001 transposon vector for mycoplasma gallisepticum.the detailed genetic analysis of mycoplasmas has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate tools for genetic manipulation. in this study, the transposon vector, mini-tn4001tetm, was constructed containing the tnp gene, encoding a transposase gene in staphylococcus aureus, two copies of the is256 inverted repeat sequence (inner and outer) and the tetm gene, from the enterococcus faecalis tn916 transposon, conferring resistance to tetracycline. this vector was electro-transformed into mycoplas ...201021046326
bi-antigenic immunoassay models based on the recombinant pvpa proteins for mycoplasma gallisepticum diagnosis in chickens.the present study aimed to produce the relatively conserved central fragment of the mycoplasma gallisepticum pvpa cytadhesin as recombinant antigen and to determine its species-specific diagnostic potential in comparison with the full-length recombinant rpvpa336 protein. for this purpose, a recombinant protein (rpvpa134) consisting of 134 amino acids with apparent molecular mass of 27 kd was produced and highly purified. the rpvpa134 protein was composed of the amino acid residues at positions 1 ...201021088174
proteomic characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum nanoforming.the goal of this work was to create a model for the long persistence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in depleted medium and under low growth temperature followed by proteomic study of the model. nanoforms and revertants for m. gallisepticum were obtained. proteomic maps were produced for different stages of the formation of nanoforms and revertants. it is shown that proteins responsible for essential cellular processes of glycolysis, translation elongation, and dnak chaperone involved in the stabili ...201021166642
effects of single and combined mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens.a previous study from our laboratory on f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum-inoculated layers showed a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (po(2)), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation. the aim of this study was to determine whether a killed (bacterin) and live ts-11-strain m. gallisepticum (ts-11-mg) vaccine treatment combination could further enhance the arterial po(2) levels in layer chickens. the experiment was conduct ...201121248332
comparison of blood values and health status of floreana mockingbirds (mimus trifasciatus) on the islands of champion and gardner-by-floreana, galápagos islands.the floreana mockingbird (mimus trifasciatus) is one of the rarest bird species in the world, with an estimated 550 individuals remaining on two rocky islets off the coast of floreana, galápagos, ecuador, from which the main population was extirpated more than 100 yr ago. because they have been listed in critical danger of extinction, a plan to reintroduce this species to floreana has been initiated. determining the health status of the source mockingbird populations is a top priority within the ...201121270000
gapa+ mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11 has improved vaccine characteristics.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is an important poultry pathogen that causes respiratory disease and loss of production worldwide, and is currently controlled with live attenuated vaccines. these vaccines have limitations as they vary in their pathogenicity, the protection afforded and their transmissibility, but have been shown to effectively reduce losses associated with challenge in the field. a live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of m. gallisepticum in several countri ...201121310786
eye surface area and dosage rates for spray vaccination.spray application of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) vaccines is a labor- and time-saving means of mass vaccination of layer chickens. recent assessment of spray characteristics of nozzles commonly used to apply mg vaccine in layer chicken operations has shown that the amount of respirable droplets (< 5 microm) is negligible. topical application of vaccine onto the eye surface has been suggested as a route of vaccination, but no estimates of vaccine load delivered via spray application were found ...201021313856
analysis of the 16s to 23s rrna intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma synoviae field strains.mycoplasma synoviae has been associated with economic loss in the chicken and turkey industries. the molecular characterization of m. synoviae at strain level allows the analysis of relationships between strains that may be valuable in epidemiological investigations. in the present study, the intergenic spacer region (isr) between the 16s and 23s rrna genes was examined to see whether useful information about strains could be derived. m. synoviae has two copies of this region, which may not be e ...201121331951
development and immunogenicity of recombinant gapa(+) mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-s1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. a live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of mg in several countries. the efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. to improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a d ...201121354248
change in antimicrobial susceptibility of mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.this study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolates from the same geographical area. minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of mg isolates from chickens. group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ôëñ 0.031/ôëñ 64, ôëñ 0.031/2, ôëñ 0.0 ...201121382675
seroprevalence of salmonella and mycoplasma infection in backyard chickens in the state of entre rios in argentina.the present work was conducted to study the seroprevalence of salmonella, mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), and mycoplasma synoviae (ms) infection in backyard chickens located in entre ríos, argentina, over 3 periods of time. a total of 2,441 sera samples were collected from backyard chickens belonging to 256 family farms in 16 counties in the state of entre ríos from january to may 2003 (first period), december 2004 to april 2005 (second period), and october 2006 to may 2007 (third period). the pr ...201121406358
dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum.effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (pf) and the combination of pf, phytase (phy), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(oh)d] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with f-strain mycoplasma gallisepticum (fmg) were investigated in 2 trials. sham and fmg inoculations were administered at 12 wk (before lay) or 22 wk (onset of lay), dietary treatments [basal control diet (bcd); bcd with 0.75% supplemental pf (lpfd); bcd ...201121406365
[comparative proteomic characteristic of mycoplasmas (mollycutes)].saturating proteome identification and the study of post-translational protein modifications of acholeplasma laidlawii using combination of single- and two-dimension gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry analysis have been carried out. results were compared to the earlier identified proteome of mycoplasma gallisepticum. it was found that m. gallisepticum and a. laidlawii express 61 and 58% of the annotated orfs respectively. all subunits of dna-polymerase iii were identified during o ...201121460883
biological characterization of russian mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.an earlier study on commercial chickens and turkeys with a history of respiratory disease established mycoplasma gallisepticum infection rates on 164 poultry farms of the russian federation. forty-seven (29%) of these poultry farms were m. gallisepticum-positive by polymerase chain reaction but isolation of the mycoplasma was successful only on 10 farms. five field isolates from different farms were selected for pathogenicity studies in specific pathogen-free chicks. clinical signs, seroconversi ...201121500042
biosecurity on a multiple-age egg production complex: a 15-year experience.a multiple-age egg production farm was conceived, designed, constructed, and managed with the goal of blocking the introduction of preventable poultry diseases and infestations. fifteen years after conception and 13 years after housing the first hens, the 4 million-hen farm remains free of mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis, and ornithonyssus sylviarum. annual savings in vaccine use exceed the estimated annual costs of the biosecurity program. the cumulative design, construct ...201121500651
extracellular vesicles derived from acholeplasma laidlawii pg8.extracellular vesicle production is believed to be a ubiquitous process in bacteria, but the data on such a process in mollicutes are absent. we report the isolation of ultramicroforms - extracellular vesicles from supernatants of acholeplasma laidlawii pg8 (ubiquitous mycoplasma; the main contaminant of cell culture). considering sizes, morphology, and ultrastructural organization, the ultramicroforms of a. laidlawii pg8 are similar to membrane vesicles of gram-positive and gram-negative bacter ...201121623458
the mycoplasma gallisepticum α-enolase is cell surface-exposed and mediates adherence by binding to chicken plasminogen.the α-enolase protein is reported to be an adhesin in several pathogenic bacterial species, but its role in mycoplasma gallisepticum is unknown. in this study, the m. gallisepticum α-enolase gene was adapted to heterologous expression in escherichia coli by performing overlapping polymerase chain reaction with site-directed mutagenesis to introduce a960g and a1158g mutations in the nucleotide sequence. the full-length mutated gene was cloned into a pgem-t easy vector and subcloned into the ex ...201121664449
mycoplasma gallisepticum experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows and pigeons.the most effective approaches to control the spread of mycoplasma gallisepticum include strict biosecurity measures, continuous surveillance and eradication of infected flocks. the rapid expansion of the poultry industry worldwide in restricted geographical areas and severe economic losses due to m. gallisepticum outbreaks make it crucial to identify and better control the vectors responsible for the transmission of the disease. in the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of sparrows an ...201121812712
characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry.abstract: the macrolide class of antibiotics, including tylosin and tilmicosin, is widely used in the veterinary field for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. in vitro susceptibility testing of 50 strains of m. gallisepticum isolated in israel during the period 1997-2010 revealed that acquired resistance to tylosin as well as to tilmicosin was present in 50% of them. moreover, 72% (13/18) of the strains isolated from clinical samples since 2006 showed acquired resistance to enrofloxacin, ...201121810258
the spread of pathogens through trade in poultry hatching eggs: overview and recent developments.the international trade in poultry hatching eggs could potentially facilitate the global dissemination of poultry disease. provided the guidelines of the world organisation for animal health (oie) on breeding flock hygiene are followed, of those avian diseases currently listed by the ole, only highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai), newcastle disease (nd), and avian mycoplasmosis (caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum or m. synoviae) should be considered likely to be spread though trade in this c ...201121809762
preparation of reference strains for validation and comparison of mycoplasma testing methods.aims: to optimize growth conditions for preparation of stocks of mycoplasma reference strains to obtain highly viable and disperse samples with low ratios of genomic copy (gc) number to that of colony forming units (cfu). these stocks are required for assessment of relative limits of detection (lod) of alternative nucleic acid testing (nat)-based methods in comparison to the conventional microbiological methods. methods and results: a kinetics study was used to assess the changes in ratios bet ...201121794032
molecular characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from jordan.two groups of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolates (n = 24) from jordan were analyzed by molecular methods and compared with other middle eastern isolates, related international isolates, and reference strains. the first group (n = 19) was isolated from july 2004 to january 2005 (isolation period a), and the newer group (n = 5) from june 2007 to april 2008 (isolation period b). the groups of isolates are from chicken flocks from northern jordan, but are not from the same farms. none of the flo ...201121793435
local immunity of the respiratory mucosal system in chickens and turkeys.this review article presents fundamental mechanisms of the local mucosal immunity in selected regions of the respiratory tract in healthy birds and in some pathological conditions. the respiratory system, whose mucosa come into direct contact with microorganisms contaminating inhaled air, has some associated structures, such as harderian gland (hg), conjunctive-associated lymphoid tissue (calt) and paranasal glands (pg), whose participation in local mechanisms of the mucosal immunity has been co ...201121721419
pathologic lesions caused by coinfection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and h3n8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens.chickens were infected under experimental conditions with mycoplasma gallisepticum and low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) strain a/mallard/hungary/19616/07 (h3n8). two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with m. gallisepticum strain 1226. seven days later, one of these groups and one mycoplasma-free group was challenged with lpai h3n8 virus; one group without challenge remained as negative control. eight days later, the birds were euthanized and examined for gross pathologic and histol ...201121825309
neuraminidase of mycoplasma synoviae desialylates heavy chain of the chicken immunoglobulin g and glycoproteins of chicken tracheal mucus.major poultry pathogens, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae share several genes, including nanh that encodes their sialidases (neuraminidases). previous studies have shown considerable differences in neuraminidase enzymatic activity (neac) in m. synoviae strains and neac absence in individual cultures of two strains, ulb 925 and ulb 9122. the present study shows that the cultures lacking neac did not express nanh neuraminidase detectable by specific antibodies. in cultures of m. sy ...201121711189
towards a genome based taxonomy of mycoplasmas.mycoplasmas are gram-positive wall-less bacteria with a wide environmental and host distribution, causing disease in man and in (wild and farmed) animals. the aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of a genomic taxonomic approach in mycoplasma systematics. multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa), average amino acid identity (aai), and karlin genomic signature allowed a clear identification of species. for instance, mycoplasma pneumoniae and mycoplasma genitalium had only 71% mlsa similarity ...201121840423
experimental infection of domestic canaries (serinus canaria domestica) with mycoplasma gallisepticum: a new model system for a wildlife disease.the ethical and logistical challenges inherent in experimental infections of wild-caught animals present a key limitation to the study of wildlife diseases. here we characterize a potentially useful domestic model for a wildlife disease that has been of particular interest in recent decades; that is, infection of north american house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) with mycoplasma gallisepticum, more commonly known as a worldwide poultry pathogen. seven domestic canaries (serinus canaria domestic ...201121711192
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the grey partridge perdix perdix: outbreak description, histopathology, biochemistry and antioxidant parameters.the grey partridge is an important game bird in europe that has declined considerably over the last decades. the production and release of farm-bred birds can be threatened by infectious agents. the objective of this study was to describe the outbreak, pathology, and blood and tissue biochemical responses in a flock of grey partridges naturally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.201121740554
preliminary clinical pharmacological investigations of tylosin and tiamulin in chickens.summary the minimal inhibitory concentrations (m1c) of tiamulin and tylosin for mycoplasma. gram-positive, and gram-negative micro-organisms isolated from chickens were determinated by the agar dilution method. median m1c values for tiamulin against mycoplasma gallisepticum (0.05 µg/ml) and mycoplasma synoviae (0.10 µg/ml) were 2 to 4 times lower than the corresponding values for tylosin. tiamulin was also slightly more effective in vitro in inhibiting escherichia coli, pasteurella multocida, ...198022039981
mycoplasma gallisepticum produces a histone-like protein that recognizes base mismatches in dna.mycoplasmas are the smallest known microorganisms, with drastically reduced genome sizes. one of the essential biochemical pathways lost in mycoplasmas is methylation-mediated dna repair (mmr), which is responsible for correction of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions in both bacteria and higher organisms. we found that the histone-like protein encoded by the hima/hup_2 gene of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mghu) recognizes typical mmr substrates, in contrast to homologues from other speci ...201121877760
Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of three Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus).Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has become a common cause of conjunctivitis in free-living house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) since its emergence in the early 1990s. To date, temporal and spatial genotypic variation in MG has been documented, but phenotypic variation in pathogenicity and immunogenicity has not been examined. House finches were inoculated with MG isolates Virginia (VA)1994, California (CA)2006, or North Carolina (NC)2006, which were cultured from free-living house finches with co ...201121885217
Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time.Spray application is a commonly used, time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray-vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and the vaccine suspension droplet trajectory. In this study, a total of 48 Hy-Line W-36 males were placed individually in isolation units following eye-drop application of gradient levels (1 x, 10(-1) x, 10(-2) x, 10(-3) ...201122017053
detection and differentiation of avian mycoplasmas by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy based on silver nanorod array.mycoplasma gallisepticum is a bacterial pathogen of poultry that is estimated to cause annual losses exceeding $780 million. the national poultry improvement plan guidelines recommend regular surveillance and intervention strategies to contain m. gallisepticum infections and ensure mycoplasma-free avian stocks, but several factors make its detection and diagnosis a major challenge. current techniques are laborious, require special expertise, and are typically plagued by false results. in this st ...201122210215
mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants and the efficacy of tylvalosin to treat the disease.infectious sinusitis, a common condition seen in adult pheasants, is primarily caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum. the aims of the present study were to investigate the pathogenicity of m. gallisepticum in 14-day-old pheasants and evaluate the macrolide antibiotic tylvalosin (tvn) as a treatment for infectious sinusitis. the minimum inhibitory concentration of tvn for five isolates of m. gallisepticum taken from pheasants confirmed their susceptibility to tvn (range: 0.002 to 0.008 µg/ml). one o ...201122107092
Effects of sialidase knockout and complementation on virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.Reannotation of the pathogenic Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R(low) genome identified the hypothetical gene MGA_0329 as a homolog of the sialidase gene MS53_0199 of Mycoplasma synoviae strain MS53. Potent sialidase activity was subsequently quantitated in several M. gallisepticum strains. Because sialidase activity levels correlate significantly with differing M. synoviae strain virulence, we hypothesized this enzyme may also influence the virulence of M. gallisepticum. MGA_0329 was disrupted ...201122197303
haemadsorption inhibition test for the identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.summary colonies of the avian mycoplasma strains mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 and mycoplasma synoviae wvu 1853 and two mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory were shown to be haemadsorption positive for chicken erythrocytes. three mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory proved to be haemadsorption and haemagglutination negative. the haemadsorption of the mycoplasma colonies mentioned above was inhibited with specific antisera of either high or low titre. no cross-inhibition ...197922039774
Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species.Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain ...201121860605
egg production in relation to the results of a long term serological survey of 73 flocks of fowl.summary seventy-three flocks of fowl were tested at regular intervals for the presence of precipitins to fowl adenovirus (av) and infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), haem-agglutinating inhibiting antibodies to bc14 virus, and of agglutinins to mycoplasma gallisepticum (m.g.) and mycoplasma synoviae (m.s.). in all the eight flocks affected with egg drop syndrome (eds '76), egg production problems were associated with increasing numbers of bci4 virus reactors and av reactors. in flocks showing p ...198022039854
in vitro antimicrobial activities of animal-used quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides against mycobacteria, mycoplasma and fungi.the quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides (qdnos) were known as potent antibacterial agents. for the purpose of evaluating the bioactivity of existing animal-used qdnos drugs against representative pathogenic microorganism, the representative drugs of quinoxalines including cyadox, mequindox, quinocetone and their metabolites were submitted to the in vitro evaluation for antituberculosis, antimycoplasma, antifungal and antiviral activities.201627600955
cardiolipin synthetase is involved in antagonistic interaction (reverse camp phenomenon) of mycoplasma species with staphylococcus aureus beta-hemolysis.mycoplasma hyorhinis has been implicated in a variety of swine diseases. however, little is known about the hemolytic capabilities of mycoplasma species in general or m. hyorhinis in particular. in this study, we show that m. hyorhinis possesses beta-hemolytic activity which may be involved in the invasion process. m. hyorhinis also possesses antagonistic cooperativity (reverse camp phenomenon) with staphylococcus aureus beta-hemolysis, resulting in the protection of erythrocytes from the beta-h ...201424599982
mycoplasma iowae: relationships among oxygen, virulence, and protection from oxidative stress.the poultry-associated bacterium mycoplasma iowae colonizes multiple sites in embryos, with disease or death resulting. although m. iowae accumulates in the intestinal tract, it does not cause disease at that site, but rather only in tissues that are exposed to atmospheric o2. the activity of m. iowae catalase, encoded by kate, is capable of rapid removal of damaging h2o2 from solution, and kate confers a substantial reduction in the amount of h2o2 produced by mycoplasma gallisepticum kate trans ...201525880161
first identification of proteins involved in motility of mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum, the most pathogenic mycoplasma in poultry, is able to glide over solid surfaces. although this gliding motility was first observed in 1968, no specific protein has yet been shown to be involved in gliding. we examined m. gallisepticum strains and clonal variants for motility and found that the cytadherence proteins gapa and crma were required for gliding. loss of gapa or crma resulted in the loss of motility and hemadsorption and led to drastic changes in the characteri ...201425323771
seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in obligate and facultative scavenging avian species in california.throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. to assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger ...201526606755
identification and functional characterization of toll-like receptor 2-1 in geese.toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2), an important pattern recognition receptor, activates proinflammatory pathways in response to various pathogens. it has been reported in humans and chicken, but not in geese, an important waterfowl species in china. since some vaccines stimulate robust immune responsesl in chicken but not in geeeses we speculated that their immune systems are different.201525967535
reconstruction of transcription control networks in mollicutes by high-throughput identification of promoters.bacteria of the class mollicutes have significantly reduced genomes and gene expression control systems. they are also efficient pathogens that can colonize a broad range of hosts including plants and animals. despite their simplicity, mollicutes demonstrate complex transcriptional responses to various conditions, which contradicts their reduction in gene expression regulation mechanisms. we analyzed the conservation and distribution of transcription regulators across the 50 mollicutes species. ...201627999573
metabolomic analysis of three mollicute species.we present a systematic study of three bacterial species that belong to the class mollicutes, the smallest and simplest bacteria, spiroplasma melliferum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, and acholeplasma laidlawii. to understand the difference in the basic principles of metabolism regulation and adaptation to environmental conditions in the three species, we analyzed the metabolome of these bacteria. metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the proteogenomic annotation data provided by our lab. the ...201424595068
preparation of reference stocks suitable for evaluation of alternative nat-based mycoplasma detection methods.the aim of this study was to optimize conditions for preparation and cryopreservation of mycoplasma reference materials suitable to evaluate alternative nucleic acid testing (nat)-based assays and to compare their limits of detection (lods) with those of conventional culture-based methods.201424112653
tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazinglead poisoning in bullockspersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfabortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowtickborne fever in lambsinfectious sinusitis due to mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants these are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for may 2016 from sac consulting: veterinary services (sac c vs).201627550334
demonstration of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in pheasants (phasianus colchicus) with pneumonia and airsacculitis.outbreaks of respiratory disease were investigated in reared pheasants (phasianus colchicus) aged approximately 18 to 32 weeks, released into the semi-wild on four shooting estates in southern england. the clinical signs in the affected birds included swelling of the face and eyes, loss of condition, gasping respirations and coughing. the gross pathology findings included sinusitis, airsacculitis, pleural oedema and lung lesions. the histopathological findings in the affected lungs were characte ...201323581445
detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793b, avian metapneumovirus, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in ethiopia.a survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the ethiopian institute of agricultural research (eiar), located in debre zeit, ethiopia. oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. a combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. for the first time in ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis viru ...201727924415
co-infection with multiple respiratory pathogens contributes to increased mortality rates in algerian poultry flocks.respiratory infections are a common cause for increased mortality rates in poultry worldwide. to improve intervention strategies, circulating pathogens have to be identified and further characterized. because of the lack of diagnostic tools, it was not known what pathogens contribute to the high mortality rates in association with respiratory disease in algeria. our objective was to determine if primary pathogens including mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms), avian influenza ...201526478165
longitudinal monitoring for respiratory pathogens in broiler chickens reveals co-infection of chlamydia psittaci and ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.chlamydia psittaci is prevalent in broiler chicken production. however, the role of c. psittaci in the respiratory disease complex needs to be clarified. our aim was to identify the time point when a c. psittaci infection appeared on a broiler farm and to examine the presence of other respiratory pathogens at that time. we focused on the 'major' respiratory pathogens occurring in belgian broilers, namely infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), avian metapneumovirus (ampv), ornithobacterium rhinotrach ...201525724936
high seroprevalence of respiratory pathogens in hobby poultry.seroprevalence studies on respiratory pathogens have been done extensively in commercial laying hens, broilers, and, to a lesser extent, backyard poultry. in europe, seroprevalence studies in backyard and fancy breed poultry flocks are scarce and limited to a few pathogens, such as mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg); others, such as ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ort), are missing. a commercial elisa for detection of antibodies against six selected pathogens was performed on 460 serum samples from ...201425619008
health evaluation of african penguins (<i>spheniscus demersus</i>) in southern africa.the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of namibia and south africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 african penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabili ...201627796116
rapid and sensitive detection of mycoplasma synoviae by an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction-based assay on a field-deployable device.mycoplasma synoviae (ms), causing respiratory diseases, arthritis, and eggshell apex abnormalities in avian species, is an important pathogen in the poultry industry. implementation of a biosecurity plan is important in ms infection management. working on a field-deployable pockit™ device, an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iipcr) assay has a potential for timely ms detection on the farm. the ms iipcr assay had limit of detection 95% of about 9 genome equivalents by testing seria ...201727389062
simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel gexp analyzer-based multiplex pcr assay.a new, rapid, and high-throughput genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyzer-based multiplex pcr method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. the respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes h5, h7, and h9, infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), newcastle disease virus (ndv), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms) and haemophilus paragallinarum ...201425025815
the effect of an alternate start codon on heterologous expression of a phoa fusion protein in mycoplasma gallisepticum.while the genomes of many mycoplasma species have been sequenced, there are no collated data on translational start codon usage, and the effects of alternate start codons on gene expression have not been studied. analysis of the annotated genomes found that atg was the most prevalent translational start codon among mycoplasma spp. however in mycoplasma gallisepticum a gtg start codon is commonly used in the vlha multigene family, which encodes a highly abundant, phase variable lipoprotein adhesi ...201526010086
decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.the objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. a total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. these chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. maternal antibody titers were measured by elisa for avian encephalomyelitis (aev), avian in ...201323960115
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