adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum to human erythrocytes.pathogenic mycoplasmas adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the respiratory and genital tracts of infected animals. an experimental system suitable for the quantitative study of mycoplasma adherence has been developed by us. the system consists of human erythrocytes (rbc) and the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum, in which membrane lipids were labeled. the amount of mycoplasma cells attached to the rbc, which was determined according to radioactivity measurements, decreased on i ...197829007
adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum to glass.attachment of washed mycoplasma gallisepticum cells to glass was quantified with organisms in which membrane lipids were labelled with 3h. siliconization of the test tubes decreased attachment, while centrifugation increased it. attachment increased with temperature, decreased with increasing ph and ionic strength of the attachment mixture, but was unaffected by ca2+, mg2+ and edta. this suggests that ionic bonds, but not salt bridges, participate in the attachment process. glycophorin, the majo ...197937284
immunoprecipitation of triton x-100-solubilized mycoplasma mycoides proteins.mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (pg1 and strain y) proteins were solubilized in triton x-100, and the antigenic proteins were precipitated from this complex mixture by addition of antiserum and then separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. of the 300 proteins solubilized, about 10 were precipitated. proteins of pg1, a slow-growing, small colony (sc) strain, were precipitated by antiserum to pg1 and by antiserum to strain y, a fast-growing, large colony (lc) strain. similarly, strain ...197993614
studies on the control of mycoplasma gallisepticum in hatching eggs.lincomycin-spectinomycin, while effective in eliminating mycoplasma gallisepticum from hatching eggs when administered via the yolk sac, had a marked deleterious effect on hatch-ability when given by this route. on the other hand when lincomycin-spectinomycin was injected into the air cell there was a reduction in the level of experimental infection with an acceptable effect on hatchability.1975124623
[possible synergic action of some drug combinations against mycoplasma gallisepticum].yamamoto and adler's method (1956), making use of the modified medium of edward, was employed to determine the minimal concentrations of gentamicin (gmc), erytrhomycin (erm), oleandomycin (omc) spectinomycin (spm), tetracycline (tc), tylosin (tls), and chloramphenicol (ca), all of them showing bactericidal effects on mycoplasma gallisepticum-s6, applied alone or in combination. in vitro studies showed that relatively most effective were tls, gmc, and spm, when used alone. combining the antibioti ...1975128891
[the "vaccination reaction" syndrome of broilers after vaccination against newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis (author's transl)].in a part of the broiler flocks vaccinated against newcastle disease (n.c.d) and infectious bronchitis (i.b.), disease symptoms of lingering nature have been observed, generally in the second half of the rearing period. in a practical investigation with weekly examinations of chickens, supplemented by a serological examination of twenty-four animals per flock at the age of six weeks, it was hoped to establish the factors responsible for this "vaccination reaction". in the district under notice t ...1976179162
sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescent antibody technique for detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.the specificity of a fluorescent conjugate to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was examined using chick trachea organ culture or tissue sections infected with other avian viruses (adenovirus, infectious bronchitis, poxvirus, reovirus, newcastle disease virus, marek's disease virus, avian encephalomyelitis and infectious bursal agent) or mycoplasma gallisepticum. confirmation of virus replication in these preparations was obtained by either 1) demonstration of virus titre increase or 2) demonst ...1978206327
cholesterol distribution and movement in the mycoplasma gallisepticum cell membrane.the time course and extent of transfer of [14c]-cholesterol from resting mycoplasma gallisepticum cells or membrane preparations to high-density lipoproteins were studied. more than 90% of the total cholesterol in isolated, unsealed membrane preparations was exchanged in a single kinetic process. in intact cells, however, cholesterol exists in two different environments. cholesterol in one environment, representing approximately 50% of the total unesterified cholesterol, is readily exchanged wit ...1978210781
control of mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial laying chickens using artificial exposure to connecticut f strain mycoplasma gallisepticum. 1979298929
[studies on the specificity of the hemagglutination inhibition test using mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in experimentally inoculated chickens]. 1977340190
culturing anomalies associated with mycoplasma recovered from the tissues of chicks and turkey poults experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum or mycoplasma gallinarum.tissues of mycoplasma infected chicks and turkey poults were cultured and subcultured on mycoplasma agar. usually, colonies which grew on the agar initially inoculated could be subcultured, but sometimes they could not. at other times, colonies were not seen on the agar initially inoculated but appeared on the subcultured plate.1978353927
simplified preparation of mycoplasmas, an acholeplasma, and a spiroplasma for scanning electron microscopy.a simple, effective procedure was developed for scanning electron microscopic examination of mycoplasmas and similar organisms. cultivation of several mycoplasmal species, an acholeplasma, and a spiroplasma in broth media in leighton tubes with cover slips resulted in attachment of the organisms to the cover slips. the attached cells were easily processed for either scanning electron microscopy or light microscopy. by eliminating the need for centrifugation, which was used in previously describe ...1979370106
prevalence of certain antibodies to selected disease-causing agents in wild turkeys in texas in 1976 and 1977, rio grande turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from seven counties and eastern turkeys (m. g. silvestris) from one county were tested for antibodies to selected poultry pathogens. standardized serological tests disclosed reactors to salmonella pullorum (2.4%), s. typhimurium (2.3%), and mycoplasma gallisepticum (4.8%). there were no reactors to newcastle disease virus or chlamydia psittaci. prevalence of m. gallisepticum antibody in wild turkeys was significantly ...1979384989
immunoperoxidase technique for identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.the direct immunoperoxidase technique was applied to the identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by staining colonies on the agar plate. the results of this technique applied to 50 isolates of m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae correlated with those of the agar gel precipitation test to the same isolates. the immunoperoxidase technique was proved to be a specific and reliable method for the identification of m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae.1979395443
identification of avian mycoplasma isolates by the agar-gel precipitin test.recent isolates of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae were readily typed by the agar-gel precipitin test with antigens prepared by freezing and thawing, sonic vibration, or sodium dodecyl sulfate. specific antisera prepared in rabbits or in foot-pad-inoculated chickens were adequate for culture typing. relatively few sera from chickens and turkeys in naturally infected flocks reacted positively. the precipitin reaction was highly specific, however.1977410403
electron microscopical study of antibody binding to mycoplasma gallisepticum: indirect immunoferritin labelling.the ultrastructural aspects of the interaction of mycoplasma gallisepticum with specific rabbit antibody have been studied. in particular, fixation conditions which allow the simultaneous preservation of cellular fine structure and membrane antigenicity have been established and applied in a procedure of indirect immunological labelling of the antibody-coated organisms with ferritin conjugated sheep anti-rabbit igg. the advantages of working with agar embedded organisms in a multistep labelling ...1979433599
isolation and identification of avian mycoplasmas in singapore.two hundred and forty batches of chickens with chronic respiratory syndrome were tested for mycoplasmas. one hundred and five batches (43.8%) were found to have mycoplasmosis. a total of 110 isolates of mycoplasma was cultured, of which nine isolates were identified as mycoplasma gallisepticum, 48 avian sero-group d, 45 m. gallinarum, one m. iners and seven unclassified. 2. identification of the mycoplasmas isolated was carried out by biochemical and serological tests (disc growth inhibition and ...1979455110
membrane lipids of mycoplasma gallisepticum: a disaturated phosphatidylcholine and a phosphatidylglycerol with an unusual positional distribution of fatty acids. 1979465448
effects of feeding tylosin to layers exposed to mycoplasma gallisepitcum.two experiments are reported in which the effect of tylosin upon the development of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection in replacement layers was monitored by serological and cultural methods. concentrations of tylosin tested included 0, 22, 38.5, and 55 ppm. egg production and feed consumption data were collected for one year. tylosin slowed the rate of spread of mg infection as measured by serological and cultural methods. the effect of tylosin on the spread of mg infection was dose relate ...1979471896
haemadsorption inhibition test for the identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae.colonies of the avian mycoplasma strains mycoplasma gallisepticum s6 and mycoplasma synoviae wvu 1853 and two mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory were shown to be haemadsorption positive for chicken erythrocytes. three mycoplasma synoviae isolates from this laboratory proved to be haemadsorption and haemagglutination negative. the haemadsorption of the mycoplasma colonies mentioned above was inhibited with specific antisera of either high or low titre. no cross-inhibition was obser ...1979473153
an ultrastructural study on the interaction of mycoplasma gallisepticum with the chicken tracheal chickens wee intratracheally inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum. the tracheas collected 6 and 14 days after chickens were inoculated were subjected to titration of mycoplasma and examination by light and electron microscopy. the mycoplasma organisms grew well; 10(7) to 10(8) color-changing units in a milligram of tissue were determined. tracheal lesions occurred in close association with the presence of mycoplasmas and were characterized by degeneration of the epithelial cell ...1979507485
adaptation of chickens to their handler, and experimental results.chickens were adapted to their handler before the experiment. adapted birds produced more antibody, had more blood protein, gained more weight, and were more resistant to mycoplasma gallisepticum than unadapted birds. the antibody response to sheep red blood cells was not reduced for fasting for 48 hours in adapted birds but was in unadapted birds. differences in antibody titers, blood protein, and weight gains between controls and birds fed 80 ppm of deoxycorticosterone could be demonstrated on ...1979526204
ultrastructural features of mycoplasma gallisepticum in tracheal explants under transmission and stereoscan electron microscopy.ultrastructural features of mycoplasma gallisepticum in tracheal explants were examined using the transmission and stereoscan electron microscope. the organisms were characteristically cocco-bacilliform except when in close contact with the host cells when they assumed an elongated and irregular form characteristically terminating in a bleb which was often embedded in the cell surface. in such organisms there were peripherally aligned fibrillar structures oriented towards the bleb which may have ...1978565944
[studies of nucleic acid metabolism in cultured chick embryo cells infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum].m. gallisepticum infection of cultured chick embryo cells led to a sharp reduction the rate of 3h-thymidine and 3h-uridine incorporation into dna and rna cells, and almost completely suppressed the transposition of uridine label from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, this pointing to the inhibition of escape of rna synthesized de novo into the infected cells cytoplasm. as suggested, weak labeling of the cytoplasm after prolonged (about several hours) incubation of cultured cells with labeled urine ...1978566996
[mycoplasma synoviae control. i. studies on the thermal sensitivity of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas (mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepicum and mycoplasma meleagridis)].a number of experiments were carried out to study the thermal sensitivity of mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma gallisepticum as well as that of young embryos in vitro and in ovo. a full mycoplasmacidal effect was attained after heating in bouillon cultures for six hours at 45 degrees c (including cultures of mycoplasma meleagridis), for two and a half hours at 50 degrees c, for ninety minutes at 52 degrees c and for thirty minutes at 55 degrees c. yoder's method of heating to control these myco ...1978568833
lack of repair of ultraviolet light damage in mycoplasma gallisepticum. 1977599562
inhibition of mycoplasma cell division by cytochalasin b.mycoplasma gallisepticum has subcellular organelles which may function as a primitive "mitotic-like" apparatus. to investigate these further, we have studied the effects of cytochalasin b (cb) on m. gallisepticum. we found that cb inhibits cell division; this is the only procaryote thus far reported to be inhibited by cb. cb does not inhibit glucose or macromolecule precursor uptake. it stops cellular dna synthesis, however, although rna and protein synthesis continue (at a reduced rate). cb rem ...1978620423
infectious coryza: preventing complicated coryza with haemophilus gallinarum and mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterins.three types of infectious coryza were produced in unvaccinated chickens by challenge inoculums containing different combinations of haemophilus gallinarum (hg) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). monovalent and combination bacterins of hg and mg were tested to determine their efficacy against chronic complicated infectious coryza. challenge exposure of vaccinates with mg and hg showed protection against the hg component to be immunotype-specific. some protection against complicated coryza resulte ...1978646755
inhibition of avian mycoplasmal hemagglutination by igm type antibody.intravenous exposure of turkeys to mycoplasma synoviae resulted in development of hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) activity in serums within 4 days. treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol and gel-filtration separation of serum immunoglobulins indicated that the activity was due to igm type antibody. similar early hi activity was demonstrated in serums from turkeys exposed intravenously to mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma meleagridis.1978674042
differences in incorporation of nucleic acid bases and nucleosides by various mycoplasma and acholeplasma species.eight species representative of the serological diversity of the mycoplasmatales were tested for their ability to incorporate radiolabeled nucleic acid precursors into acid-insoluble material. cultures in complex growth medium were centrifuged and resuspended in minimal essential medium (eagle). for acholeplasma laidlawii, labeling occurred mainly during the first 4 h of incubation, with substrate saturation at 20 micron. all organisms tested incorporated uracil, adenine, and guanine; none incor ...1978681280
the isolation of lentogenic strains of newcastle disease virus in australia.twelve isolations of newcastle disease virus were made from 77 clinical samples from chickens from conjunctivitis, respiratory disease, proventriculitis and bursal atrophy. nine of the isolations were made from chickens with conjunctivitis. the viruses were identified as newcastle disease virus by inhibition of their haemagglutinins with specific antiserum to newcastle disease virus. the viruses failed to kill chicken embryos after inoculation into the allantoic cavity and they were judged to be ...1978687276
experimental infection of ducklings with mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma anatis.two groups of day-old ducklings were infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum and m anatis respectively by air sac inoculation. clinical disease was not produced but air sacculitis was produced by both infections. m gallisepticum could be recovered readily from respiratory tissue 10 and 30 days after infections but rsa tests were negative. m anatis was not reisolated from these tissues or from the cloaca but a positive rsa test was observed on the serum of a few ducklings.1978705054
effect of acriflavine on ultraviolet inactivation of acholeplasma increased sensitivity to inactivation was observed when ultraviolet light-irradiated acholeplasma laidlawii cells were plated on medium containing either acriflavine or chloramphenicol. chloramphenicol reduced liquid holding recovery (dark repair) to about 10% of that in untreated irradiated cells. in acriflavine treated cells no dark repair could be observed and there was a progressive degradation of cell dna during holding. while the primary effect of acriflavine may be to inhibit excision ...1978718990
isolation of mycoplasma gallisepticum from sinuses of three quails (coturnix coturnix japonica). 1978741620
suppression of immunoresponses to haemophilus gallinarum with nonviable mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.the suppressive effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) on haemophilus gallinarum (hg) immune response was shown. antibody response to hg was highly suppressed when chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with hg-mg combined bacterin. findings were similar in chickens injected intramuscularly with hg and mg bacterin separately at adjacent sites. no immunosuppressive effect was recognized when injections with hg and mg bacterins were in the left and right thigh muscles, respectively, or from int ...1978749885
effect of tiamulin in chickens and turkeys infected experimentally with avian mycoplasma.tiamulin was compared, under a variety of experimental conditions, with 4 water-soluble antibiotic preparations available commercially for the control and treatment of mycoplasmal infections in poultry. in chickens, tiamulin was more effective than the reference antibiotics in preventing and eradicating airsacculitis caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum and preventing airsacculitis and synovitis caused by m. synoviae. in turkeys, tiamulin and tylosin were equally active in preventing airsacculitis ...1978749887
a new allergic (intradermal) test for the diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection--a preliminary note. 1978751978
efficacy of egg yolk medium in cultivation of mycoplasma gallisepticum. 1975781350
evaluation of broiler breeder flocks for nonspecific mycoplasma synoviae reaction.serums from 65 broiler breeder flocks were evaluated for mycoplasma synoviae (ms) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) antibodies by serum plate agglutination (spa), micro hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), and agar gel precipitin (agp) tests. the nonspecific spa reaction in serum from breeder flocks was eliminated by diluting the serum 1:5 in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs), ph 7.2, before testing provided that the ms antigen reacted with 1:10 dilution of the ms antiserums. the nonspecific spa reac ...1976816342
use of the agar-gel precipitin test to evaluate broiler breeder and commercial layer flocks for mycoplasma gallisepticum the absence of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolation, the importance of agar-gel precipitin (agp) tests along with microhemagglutination-inhibition (mhi) and serum plate agglutination (spa) tests for the evaluation of poultry flocks for mg infection was demonstrated. a good correlation between agp, mhi, and spa tests for the early confirmation of mg in a flock was observed, except for the breeder flocks from which wvu 907 was isolated. the serums of such breeder flocks were positive for spa ...1976822817
[identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum with a hemadsorption inhibition test]. 1977842193
attachment of mycoplasma gallisepticum to the tracheal epithelium of electron microscopical study of fowl trachea infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum showed slight to moderate changes at the cellular level. mycoplasmas were demonstrated extra-cellularly and showed triple membranes, intracytoplasmic spaces, fibrillar nuclear areas and blebs. blebs were seen attached to the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells.1977860098
the lytic effect of lysolecithin on acholeplasmas and mycoplasmas.lysolecithin exhibits a lytic activity on acholeplasmas and mycoplasmas. the acholeplasmas studied, viz. acholeplasma laidlawii a and b, were found less susceptible than were the mycoplasmas, viz. mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. pneumoniae. the sensitivity to lysis was found to differ according to species, growth temperature and number of organisms used. variations in age of the population and the concentration of bivalent ions in the test medium had but little influence. the greatest lytic acti ...1977899794
the resistance and carrier status of meat-type hens exposed to mycoplasma synoviae.forty-eight 32-week-old meat-type females, free from mycoplasma synoviae (ms.) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg.) were aerosol exposed with a 24-hour broth culture of ms. 1331 and placed in 3 pens. 16 birds per pen. two males were placed in each of the 3 pens and used as contact birds. all birds were bled at 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 24, 26, and 30 weeks post ms. exposure. after the 24-week bleeding, the females were equally divided into 4 pens. all females in 2 of the pens were given a foot pad injectio ...1976934989
pathogenicity studies in poultry with an undefined serotype of mycoplasma.pathogenicity trials in poultry are reported with an isolate of mycoplasma, designated 'w8', which is serologically unrelated to mycoplasma gallisepticum, m synoviae or m meleagridis. w8 killed fowl and turkey embryos when injected into the yold sacs of embryonating eggs. infection of one-day-old fowls, turkeys and pheasants by the air sac route caused marked growth depression and a high incidence of osteomyelitis of the vertebral column in all species. a large proportion of infected turkeys and ...1976935670
evaluation of avian mycoplasma membranes as antigens.mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae membranes were obtained by lysing mycoplasma cells with carbonate bicarbonate buffer at ph 10. membrane preparations were compared with whole-cell preparations as to efficacy in the plate and tube agglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. membrane antigens were somewhat more sensitive in the plate and tube agglutination tests, whereas the hemagglutination-inhibition test showed no major difference between whole and membrane antigens. the membra ...1976938381
growth, cytopathogenicity and morphology of mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. gallinarum in tracheal explants. 1976939830
in vitro anti-mycoplasmal activity of amphotericin b methyl ester.the polyene macrolide antibiotic amphotericin b (ab) and its chemically modified derivative amphotericin b methyl ester (ame) were tested for in vitro activity against acholeplasma laidlawii, spiroplasma citri and mycoplasma gallisepticum. both polyene macrolide preparations demonstrated anti-mycoplasmal activity. however, ame was mycoplasmacidal toward all three strains of mycoplasma at levels which previous studies have indicated would be permissible for most cell culture systems, whereas the ...1976950321
a comparison of the virulence of three strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum and one strain of mycoplasma gallinarum in chicks, turkey poults, tracheal organ cultures and embryonated fowl eggs.the virulence of three strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum (s6 of low broth passage, s6 of high broth passage and a514) and of one strain of m gallinarum was investigated in specific pathogen free chicks, turkey poults, chick embryo tracheal organ cultures and embryonated fowl eggs. one strain of m gallisepticum, s6, of low passage, caused high mortality in newly hatched chicks, and turkey poults, high embryo mortality, and rapid suppression of ciliary activity in tracheal organ cultures. the ot ...1976951527
further observations on the use of a bivalent bacterin against haemophilus gallinarum.chickens vaccinated with two doses of a bivalent haemophilus gallinarum bacterin were protected against seven strains of the organism. vaccinated and unvaccinated birds with antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum had increased hi titers when challenged with h. gallinarum. birds positive for antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum which were not challenged showed no increase in hi titer.1976962761
mycoplasma gallisepticum antigen. 1976985229
temperature sensitivity studies on selected strains on mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg324), a tylosin resistant strain of low virulence, was compared with four other strains with respect to their survival at temperatures from 46.1 to 48.9 degrees c. mg324 was found to be more resistant than the other strains tested.19761000381
immunization of chickens against mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. 19751092221
a field trial, using killed-mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine to protect against chicken respiratory a field trial with chickens, the efficacy of killed mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine against respiratory mycoplasmosis was determined. broiler chickens were vaccinated by aerosol administration at 3, 14, and 25 days of age, and observations were made of survival rate, body weight gain ratio, macroscopic lesion grade of airsacculitis, isolation of organisms, serologic test results, histopathologic changes, and clinical signs. inhalation of the vaccinal aerosol did not influence livability and ...19751111388
single and mixed infections of avian infectious bronchitis virus and mycoplasma gallisepticum.comparative studies of the clinical signs, pathological changes, multiplication of the pathogens and serological responses were made of groups of chickens infected with either or both avian infectious bronchitis virus and mycoplasma gallisepticum. electron microscopic examination of thin sections of infected tracheas showed that the multiplication of m. gallisepticum was greatly enhanced in the tracheas of chickens which had been previously or simultaneously infected with avian infectious bronch ...19751126565
in vivo efficacy of 81.723 hfu, a new pleuromutilin derivative against experimentally induced airsacculitis in chicks and turkey poults.the efficacy of the pleuromutilin derivative 81.723 hfu was tested in chicks and turkey poults by experimentally infecting them with mycoplasma gallisepticum. the data were treated to obtain the mean effective doses, and these were compared to those obtained with tylosin tartrate. the compounds were administered either by ingluvial catheter or via the drinking water. therapy was started on the day of inoculation or 7 days thereafter, respectively. the experiments showed that the compound 81.723 ...19751147586
hemagglutination-inhibition versus serum plate agglutination in detecting mycoplasma gallisepticum in broiler flocks.sera from 43,040 broilers in 36 flocks were tested for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum by serum plate agglutination (spa) and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests. the importance of testing spa-negative samples for hi antibodies was demonstrated.19751156260
comparative study of mycoplasma pulmonis and mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in turkey sinus.infraorbital sinuses of young turkeys were injected with virulent strains of mycoplasma pulmonis and mycoplasma gallisepticum to compare the diseases caused by the 2 agents. mycoplasma pulmonis did not cause visible swelling from large quantities of mucous exudate in the sinuses, such as occurs with m gallisepticum, and it could not be recovered by bacteriologic culture technique after 3 weeks. however, slight exudate did accompany the m pulmonis infection. similarities between the disease caus ...19751163884
interference of mycoplasma gallisepticum with multiplication of newcastle disease virus in chickens. 19751164323
antimicrobial activities of 81.723 hfu, a new pleuromutilin derivative.the new pleuromutilin derivative 81.723 hfu is extremely active against gram-positive organisms such as streptococci, staphylococci, and against mycoplasmas. a number of shigella, klebsiella, and escherichia coli strains were also found to be quite susceptible to this new agent, whereas other gram-negative organisms like pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus species, and alcaligenes faecalis proved to be naturally resistant to 81.723 hfu. the new compound acts bacteriostatically. bactericidal effects ...19751170807
nanaomycins, new antibiotics produced by a strain of streptomyces. iii. a new component, nanaomycin c, and biological activities of nanaomycin derivatives.a new component, nanaomycin c, has been isolated from culture medium of streptomyces rosa var. notoensis, which had been found to produce nanaomycins a and b. nanaomycin c is an amide of nanaomycin a. biological activities of nanaomycin c and several derivatives of nanaomycin a are also shown. acetylnanaomycin a exhibits as strong activities against gram-positive bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma gallisepticum as nanaomycin a.19751206004
dissociation of mycoplasma gallisepticum membranes with lithium diiodosalicylate and isolation of glycoprotein.m. gallisepticum membranes were treated with 0.3m lithium diiodosalicylate (lis) and, on average, 43% of the original membrane proteins were extracted. the extract contained particles with a sedimentation coefficient of 13s and some aggregated proteins. this lis extract was immunogenic, stimulating the production of haemagglutination-inhibiting, growth-inhibiting and precipitating antibodies in rabbits. it was devoid of haemagglutinating (ha) activity for chicken erythrocytes but did inhibit the ...19751211714
efficacy trials in turkey poults with tylosin tartrate against mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma meleagridis.tylosin tartrate, administered in the drinking water at a concentration of 0.55 g/litre for the first three days after hatching, was highly effective in controlling the adverse consequences of a mycoplasma gallisepticum infection, established by air sac injection at one day of age, in turkey poults. tylosin was ineffective in controlling m meleagridis infections established in embryo or at one day of age when administered in the drinking water of poults. both mycoplasma isolates used were inhibi ...19751215688
a comparison of commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum antigens in the rapid serum agglutination test.twenty-three chickens, aged 9 weeks, were housed in contact with a similar group of chickens which were infected with m. gallisepticum. the onset and development of the serum agglutinin responses which were detected by 3 commercial antigens using rapid serum agglutination tests up to 20 weeks of age, differed greatly both between the infected and in-contact groups and, within the latter group, between the antigens. few reactions, which were weak and transient, were detected in 2 similar groups o ...19751222006
clinical, cultural, and serologic observations of avian mycoplasmosis in two chicken breeder flocks.two chicken breeding flocks from different breeding lines were studied serologically and culturally for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) throughout their growing and laying period. infection was proven by successful isolation of mg from both breeders and progeny originating from these two flocks. observations of these flocks which were serologically and culturally negative for mycoplasma synoviae (ms) further disclosed that: 1) negative plate tests of large numbers of day-old progeny may sometimes ...19761259662
role of arginine deiminase in growth of mycoplasma hominis.arginine has been considered as the major energy source of nonglycolytic arginine-utilizing mycoplasmata. when three strains of mycoplasma arginini, and one strain each of mycoplasma arthritidis, mycoplasma fermentans, mycoplasma gallinarum, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma hominis were grown in the medium with high arginine concentration (34 mm) compared with low arginine (4 mm), both the protein content of the organisms and the specific activity of arginine deiminase increased. m. ferme ...19761262306
demonstration of the genetic stability of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain following in vivo passage.a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain designated 6/85 (mgi) exhibiting reduced virulence for both chickens and turkeys was sequentially passaged 10 times in each species. dna extracted from organisms before passage and those isolated after the third, sixth, and 10th passages was studied by restriction endonuclease dna analysis using bamhi, bglii, ecori, hindiii, and psti endonucleases. the virulent-type strain designated s6 was used as a comparison. comparison of dna fragment patterns of mgi and s6 ...19921329707
efficacy of danofloxacin in the therapy of experimental mycoplasmosis in chicks.specific pathogen free day-old chicks were inoculated with a virulent strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum. birds received either danofloxacin (50 ppm), tylosin (500 ppm) or no medication in the drinking water from 24 hours after infection for three days. the effects of medication on mortality, weight gain, serology, lesions and reisolation of m gallisepticum 21 days following infection were studied. treatment with danofloxacin and tylosin significantly decreased mortality and increased weight gai ...19921332154
successful treatment of mycoplasmosis in layer chickens with single dose therapy.the efficacy of treatment with single dose administration of 5 drugs at different dosages to layer hens naturally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum was studied. the drugs were tiamulin, which was administered orally, tylosin (parenterally and orally), spiramycin (orally), long-acting oxytetracycline (parenterally) and tylosindihydrostreptomycin (parenterally). cure was assessed by the absence of nasal discharge. the cure rate was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in treated hens than ...19921379426
characterization of a major hemagglutinin protein from mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum cell membranes were used to immunize mice to produce monoclonal antibodies to cell surface proteins. three monoclonal antibodies were chosen for further characterization. all three reacted in immunoblots with an m. gallisepticum protein band of m(r) approximately 67,000 (designated pmga). by using immunoelectron microscopy, pmga was shown to be located on the cell surface. when m. gallisepticum whole cells were treated with up to 250 micrograms of trypsin per ml for 30 m ...19921379991
evaluation of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain exhibiting reduced virulence for prevention and control of poultry mycoplasmosis.two experiments were conducted to evaluate the virulence and vaccination efficacy of a mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) isolate designated mg intervet 6/85. virulence of the strain was determined by evaluation of airsacculitis scores following aerosol exposure to the isolate before and after 10 sequential passes in either commercial broiler chickens or commercial turkeys. two-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by aerosol exposure. the birds were challenged with the r' strain o ...19921385698
nucleotide sequence, organization and characterization of the atp genes and the encoded subunits of mycoplasma gallisepticum atpase.the nucleotide sequence of a 7.8 kbp dna fragment from the genome of mycoplasma gallisepticum has been determined. the fragment contains a cluster of nine tightly linked genes coding for the subunits of the m. gallisepticum atpase. the gene order is i (i-subunit), b (a-subunit), e (c-subunit), f (b-subunit), h (delta-subunit), a (alpha-subunit), g (gamma-subunit), d (beta-subunit) and c (epsilon-subunit). two open reading frames were identified in the flanking regions; one (orfu), preceding the ...19921386735
localization of an immunodominant 64 kda lipoprotein (lp 64) in the membrane of mycoplasma gallisepticum and its role in cytadherence.a 64 kda lipoprotein (lp 64) haemagglutinin (pi 4.9-5.0) was isolated from the membrane of mycoplasma gallisepticum. triton x-114 phase partitioning has demonstrated that the hydrophobic nature of this haemagglutinin is due to a lipid portion of the molecule. autoradiography of [3h]-palmitate-labelled m. gallisepticum revealed the presence of several additional lipoproteins. immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated the localization of lp 64 to the base of the terminal structure. densitometric scan ...19921406251
the effect of including anti-ig sera in the haemagglutination inhibition test for mycoplasma gallisepticum.addition of anti-immunoglobulin m (anti-igm), g (anti-igg) and a (anti-iga) sera to the haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test (anti-ig hi test) for mycoplasma gallisepticum resulted in 2- to 8-fold increases in the hi titres. on investigating the anti-ig hi reaction using igm and igg antibodies separated by affinity chromatography, it was confirmed that, in the enhanced hi titres, specificity existed between the chicken ig classes having antibody activity and the antisera used in the test. four ...19921413478
effects of ascorbic acid on stress and disease in chickens.white leghorn chickens were given feed containing 100 mg of ascorbic acid (aa)/kg. one day later, treated chickens and a similar group of unmedicated control chickens were chilled for 1 hour at 6 c, exposed to an unusual sound, fasted, or subjected to rough handling. heterophil:lymphocyte (h:l) ratios were determined one day later. the aa-treated birds had significantly lower h:l ratios than untreated controls. chickens that received a diet containing aa had lower h:l ratios than controls (0.86 ...19921417599
adaptation of the sensititre broth microdilution technique to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mycoplasma gallisepticum.a technique is described for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mycoplasma gallisepticum, using the sensititre broth microdilution system. fourteen m. gallisepticum field isolates and one reference isolate (r-strain) were tested in duplicate against seven antimicrobials. isolates were susceptible to oxytetracycline, furaltadone, and lincomycin/spectinomycin, but not to amoxycillin and apramycin. susceptibility to erythromycin and tylosin varied. these data are in agreement with thos ...19921417601
breeder turkey hens seropositive and culture-negative for mycoplasma synoviae.four flocks of clinically normal turkey breeder hens were shown to have suspect and positive mycoplasma synoviae (ms) hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and, in some cases, serum plate agglutination serology in the absence of ms isolation. in all cases, hi serology for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. meleagridis was negative. acholeplasma laidlawii was isolated from some hens in each of these ms-seropositive culture-negative flocks. immunoblotting was used ...19921417615
[tubular structures in mycoplasma gallisepticum and the localization of a tubulin-like protein].in all the strains of m. gallisepticum investigated, a protein with apparent molecular weight 40 kda was revealed by immunoblotting with polyclonal anti-calf brain tubulin antibodies and monoclonal anti-chicken alpha-tubulin antibodies. in other 8 investigated mycoplasma species no positive reactions with the same antibodies were found. the m. gallisepticum cells were examined under electron microscope on fine serial sections and on some sections going at different angles to the long cell axis. ...19921440927
[molecular biological differences between strains of mycoplasma gallisepticum].differences in virulence of two mycoplasma gallisepticum strains, s6 and a5969, are confirmed in experiments with chickens. macromolecular discrepancies detected between these two strains are concerning the genomic size, electrophoretic spectra of dna and proteins. cross immunoblotting data with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies reveal major immunogens of protein nature in both the strains. homologous proteins with different electrophoretic mobility are detected in other four m. gallisepticum ...19921455557
mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination-challenge: an egg-production model.specific-pathogen-free layer hens in maximum lay were exposed by aerosol to a broth culture of mycoplasma gallisepticum r' strain. egg-production loss of greater than 50% was evident 7-14 days following challenge of unvaccinated chickens, with a gradual recovery during the next several days. various vaccine preparations were tested to determine the effect in the model. all vaccinated chickens exhibited significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower egg-production loss than the unvaccinated controls. the mo ...19921485879
antigenic variation of mycoplasma gallisepticum, as detected by use of monoclonal antibodies.a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mab) developed against mycoplasma gallisepticum strain pg31 was used to probe the antigenic profiles of 5 recognized strains (pg31, r, s6, f, a5969) and 6 field isolates of m gallisepticum. monoclonal antibody g9 predominantly recognized antigens at apparent molecular mass positions of 90 to 98 kda. the mab reacted with all strains and isolates, but the molecular mass position of the antigens varied among some mycoplasmas. monoclonal antibody g12 reacted with al ...19921497181
sequential intracoelomic and intrabursal immunization of chickens with inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin and iota carrageenan adjuvant.chickens immunized by sequential intracoelomic (analogous to intraperitoneal route in mammals) and intrabursal (i.c./i.b.) routes with inactivated mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin mixed with 0.2% iota carrageenan (icgn) as an adjuvant were resistant to airsacculitis induced by a subsequent aerosol challenge with virulent r strain mg. in contrast, immunization by the i.c./i.b. routes with inactivated bacterin without the adjuvant or with 0.2% icgn did not confer significant protection. chic ...19921523875
simultaneous treatment of chickens with salinomycin and tiamulin in feed.laboratory and field experiments involving more than 100,000 birds were performed to assess the effect of simultaneous in-feed medication of chickens with salinomycin and tiamulin at various concentrations. in an artificial infection study with mycoplasma gallisepticum, low levels of tiamulin (10-40 ppm) did not induce signs of ionophore intoxication with salinomycin at 60 ppm in the feed, whereas levels of 50 ppm caused early signs with a mild growth depression. a level of 20 ppm gave a maximum ...19921533113
combination of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques for serotyping mixtures of mycoplasma species.we describe a method for the simultaneous identification of up to three mycoplasma species by the use of contrast-labeled fluorescent antibodies against two species and peroxidase-labeled antibody against a third species. the procedure enabled the rapid identification of colonies of three artificially mixed avian mycoplasma species on agar blocks and also mixtures of species in cultures from naturally infected chickens. furthermore, it was possible to quantitate the components of a mixture of my ...19921537910
serological and microbial survey of mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from six western states.from 1986 to 1989, sera from wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo), including three subspecies (m. gallopavo intermedia, m. gallopavo merriami and m. gallopavo mexicana) trapped in six western states were tested for antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) (n = 724), m. synoviae (ms) (n = 461) and m. meleagridis (mm) (n = 354) using the rapid plate agglutination (rpa) assay. subsamples of these sera were also evaluated using the hemagglutination inhibition (hi) assay for antibody to mg (n = 664) a ...19921548787
isolation of mycoplasma gallopavonis from free-ranging wild turkeys in coastal north carolina seropositive and culture-negative for mycoplasma gallisepticum.serum samples and choanal cleft swabs were collected from livetrapped and hunter killed wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from martin and bertie counties, north carolina (usa). sera were tested for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma meleagridis by hemagglutination inhibition (hi). sera from 33% (five of 15) of livetrapped turkeys were positive for antibodies to m. gallisepticum by hi, and all were negative for antibodies to m. synoviae and m. meleagridis. ...19921548788
comparison of immunity induced with a mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin between high- and low-responder lines of chickens.chickens of the high-responder line gsp and low-responder line bm-c, which had been known to have different antibody responses to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) antigen, were immunized by intramuscular injection and by subsequent intratracheal instillation of mg bacterin. they were then challenged with the pathogenic strain sas of mg. the preventive effects of local antibodies detectable in the trachea, saliva, and lacrima were compared between the two lines of chickens. the local antibody respon ...19921567299
humoral immune response of turkeys to strain s6 and a variant mycoplasma gallisepticum studied by immunoblotting.two putative variant mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains (m876 and m35), originally isolated from commercial turkeys, were compared with eight well-characterized mg strains by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). sds-page protein profiles indicated that the variant strains were correctly classified as mg based on homologous patterns in species-specific regions of the electrophoretic profiles. however, differences in protein profiles also indicated that variant ...19921567313
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of specific igg antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum in sera and tracheobronchial washes.a sensitive indirect elisa is reported for the detection and quantitation of specific igg to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in sera and tracheobronchial washes (tbw) of mg-infected chickens. the sensitivity of the assay was ensured by the use of mouse monoclonal antibody to chicken igg bound to a prospective anti-mg containing sample that was complexed with mg antigen immobilized on a solid phase. the level of specific igg antibody in a test sample was detected by using peroxidase-conjugated goat ...19921569215
mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in south carolina (usa) during 1985 to 1990. sera were tested for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic mycoplasma spp., including m. gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. meleagridis, and m. iowae. however, m. gallopa ...19921602583
mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 genome contains three regions hybridizing with 16 s rrna and two regions hybridizing with 23 s and 5 s rrna.southern hybridization and cloning experiments revealed existence of 3 regions hybridizing with 16 s rrna and 2 regions hybridizing with 23 s and 5 s rrna in mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 genome thus forming 4 separate contiguous regions. one set of a putative rrna genes is organized classically for eubacteria order 16 s-23 s-5 s. the other two 16 s rrna and the other one 23 s-5 s rrna hybridizing regions are separated from each other and from the complete rrna operon for a distance of more ...19911718781
identification of mycoplasma gallisepticum by use of monoclonal antibody in a rapid slide agglutination test.monoclonal antibody (mab) against mycoplasma gallisepticum strain pg31 was produced in balb/c mice. the mab (designated m9) was of igg3 isotype and reacted with an epitope in m gallisepticum antigens with molecular weights of 35, 90, 95, and 98 kilodaltons (kda). the m9 reacted with m gallisepticum antigens in the dot-blot elisa and in western blot assays. it agglutinated m gallisepticum strains pg31, f, r, s6, a5969, and 9 field isolates from various sources. a coagglutination assay, using stap ...19911722654
detection of antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in egg yolk versus serum samples.serum (n = 1,636) and egg yolk (n = 802) samples collected from hens on four commercial egg farms in florida were tested for the presence of specific antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum in a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. no significant differences were noted between serum and egg yolk samples with respect to distribution of positive, suspect, and negative test results or for the mean sample/positive control ratio values of positive, suspect, and negative test resul ...19911757571
comparison of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains and identification of immunogenic integral membrane proteins with triton x-114 by immunoblotting.pooled chicken antisera from 33 and 77 days post mycoplasma gallisepticum strain r contact-exposure reacted with cell proteins of 19 m. gallisepticum strains. these pooled antisera reacted with more proteins and with greater intensity to reference strains (r, pg31, s6, and a5969) and nine field strains than they did with six other field strains including three (703, 503, and 730) that have been described as serological variants. following extraction with triton x-114 the majority of immunogenic ...19911771754
mycoplasma gallisepticum as a model to assess efficacy of inhalant therapy in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).one hundred budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) were infected in the nares (0.02 ml/naris), eye (0.02 ml/eye), and throat (0.2 ml) with mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) r strain (3.175 x 10(7) colony-forming units/ml). fifty birds were treated with sterile broth and served as the controls; 25 of those were exposed to an inhalant, and the others were not treated. infected birds were divided into four groups; 1) no treatment, 2) penicillin in drinking water, 3) inhalant, 4) both penicillin and inha ...19911786013
experimental infection of turkeys with mycoplasma gallisepticum of low virulence, transmissibility, and immunogenicity.three-week-old turkeys were inoculated intranasally with approximately 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of putative variant mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) strains m876, m35, or the virulent s6 reference strain. uninoculated turkeys in each group served as contact sentinels. the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were used to determine serologic responses. mg was isolated from 100% and 92% of s6- and m876-inoculated turkeys, respectively, on day 7 p ...19911786021
meningoencephalitis in commercial meat turkeys associated with mycoplasma gallisepticum.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infection was diagnosed in three different flocks of 12-to-16-week-old commercial meat turkeys displaying torticollis and/or opisthotonos. mg was isolated from the brain, air sacs, trachea, and sinus of one bird with neurological signs. histological examination of brains in all three cases revealed moderate-to-severe encephalitis with lymphoplasmacytic cuffing of vessels, fibrinoid vasculitis, focal parenchymal necrosis, and meningitis. birds with neurological signs ...19911786029
[mutual location of the rrna operon and tuf gene in the mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 genome].the genomic library of mycoplasma gallisepticum was constructed and two clones, selected by hybridization on e. coli 16s rrna, were analyzed. the restriction map of the clones indicate that both clones belong to the same region of the m. gallisepticum genome. the results of southern hybridization with either e. coli 16s rrna, or e. coli 23s rrna, or oligonucleotide synthesized as a part of m. gallisepticum 5s rrna, led to the conclusion that the unspliced rrna operon was cloned. the order of gen ...19911813806
health survey of backyard poultry and other avian species located within one mile of commercial california meat-turkey flocks.a survey was conducted to characterize domestic and exotic bird populations, estimate seroprevalence to selected disease agents, and describe health management practices on 62 premises containing "backyard" flocks located within one mile of 22 commercial california meat-turkey flocks participating in national animal health monitoring system (nahms). chickens were present on 56 backyard premises and turkeys on seven. antibodies were identified against mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. mel ...19911854324
development of a simplified method for subclass isotyping and screening monoclonal antibodies.a simplified dot-blot procedure for screening and subclass isotyping of monoclonal antibodies is described in which only 0.5-50 ng of antigen and 1 microliter of antibody are needed to perform the test. the results on the nitrocellulose membrane can be stored indefinitely for future reference. this method is less expensive, uses smaller quantities of antigen and antibody, and is faster than presently used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques or other dot-blot methods. monoclonal antibodi ...19911910771
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