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tryptophan regulates thaxtomin a and indole-3-acetic acid production in streptomyces scabiei and modifies its interactions with radish seedlings.the virulence of streptomyces scabiei, the causal agent of common scab, depends mainly on the production of the toxin thaxtomin a. s. scabiei also produces indole-3-acetic acid (iaa), but the role of this hormone in the interaction between pathogenic streptomycetes and plants has not yet been elucidated. tryptophan is a biosynthetic precursor of both iaa and thaxtomin a. in this study, the effect of tryptophan on thaxtomin a and iaa production as well as its effect on the transcription of the co ...201121521002
genome shuffling enhances biocontrol abilities of streptomyces strains against two potato pathogens.aims:ôçé to employ the genome shuffling technique for improving the phenotype of a biocontrol control agent of the genus streptomyces. methods and results:ôçé two rounds of genome shuffling (gs) were carried out with streptomyces melanosporofaciens ef-76, a geldanamycin producer. six fusants that showed optimized in vitro antagonistic activity against streptomyces scabies or phytophthora infestans, two important pathogens of potato crops, were selected. all selected fusants retained the capacity ...201121672101
the plant pathogen streptomyces scabies 87-22 has a functional pyochelin biosynthetic pathway that is regulated by tetr- and afsr-family proteins.siderophores are high-affinity iron-chelating compounds produced by bacteria for iron uptake that can act as important virulence determinants for both plant and animal pathogens. genome sequencing of the plant pathogen, streptomyces scabies 87-22, revealed the presence of a putative pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster (pbgc). liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (lc-ms) analyses of culture supernatants of s. scabies mutants in which expression of the cluster is upregulated and which lack a ke ...201121757492
potato suberin induces differentiation and secondary metabolism in the genus streptomyces.bacteria of the genus streptomyces are soil microorganisms with a saprophytic life cycle. previous studies have revealed that the phytopathogenic agent s. scabiei undergoes metabolic and morphological modifications in the presence of suberin, a complex plant polymer. this paper investigates morphological changes induced by the presence of potato suberin in five species of the genus streptomyces, with emphasis on s. scabiei. streptomyces scabiei, s. acidiscabies, s. avermitilis, s. coelicolor and ...201122129602
stacking of antimicrobial genes in potato transgenic plants confers increased resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens.solanum tuberosum plants were transformed with three genetic constructions expressing the nicotiana tabacum ap24 osmotine, phyllomedusa sauvagii dermaseptin and gallus gallus lysozyme, and with a double-transgene construction expressing the ap24 and lysozyme sequences. re-transformation of dermaseptin-transformed plants with the ap24/lysozyme construction allowed selection of plants simultaneously expressing the three transgenes. potato lines expressing individual transgenes or double- and tripl ...201122115953
complete genome sequence of biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens lbum223.pseudomonas fluorescens lbum223 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (pgpr) with biocontrol activity against various plant pathogens. it produces the antimicrobial metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is involved in the biocontrol of streptomyces scabies, the causal agent of common scab of potato. here, we report the complete genome sequence of p. fluorescens lbum223.201525953163
regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by the pas-luxr family regulator cfar in the common scab pathogen streptomyces scabies.potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. the most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin a that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. recently, it was demonstrated that s. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-l-isoleucine (c ...201525826255
genome content and phylogenomics reveal both ancestral and lateral evolutionary pathways in plant-pathogenic streptomyces species.streptomyces spp. are highly differentiated actinomycetes with large, linear chromosomes that encode an arsenal of biologically active molecules and catabolic enzymes. members of this genus are well equipped for life in nutrient-limited environments and are common soil saprophytes. out of the hundreds of species in the genus streptomyces, a small group has evolved the ability to infect plants. the recent availability of streptomyces genome sequences, including four genomes of pathogenic species, ...201626826232
chemical composition and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract and essential oil of iranian teucrium polium against some of phytobacteria.the antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanolic extract of teucrium polium was determined against pseudomonas aeruginosa, pantoea agglomerans, brenneria nigrifluens, rhizobium radiobacter, rhizobium vitis, streptomyces scabies, ralstonia solanacearum, xanthomonas campestris and pectobacterium cartovorum by disc diffusion method. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by using the serial dilution method. chemical composition of essential ...201525583240
18β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives possessing a trihydroxylated a ring are potent gram-positive antibacterial agents.the oleanane-type triterpene 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (1) was modified chemically through the introduction of a trihydroxylated a ring and an ester moiety at c-20 to enhance its antibacterial activity. compounds 22, 23, 25, 28, 29, 31, and 32 showed more potent inhibitory activity against streptomyces scabies than the positive control, streptomycin. additionally, the inhibitory activity of the most potent compound, 29, against bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant st ...201626928299
detection of potential suberinase-encoding genes in streptomyces scabiei strains and other actinobacteria.streptomyces scabiei causes common scab, an economically important disease of potato tubers. some authors have previously suggested that s. scabiei penetration into host plant tissue is facilitated by secretion of esterase enzymes degrading suberin, a lipidic biopolymer of the potato periderm. in the present study, s. scabiei ef-35 showed high esterase activity in suberin-containing media. this strain also exhibited esterase activity in the presence of other biopolymers, such as lignin, cutin, o ...201323647341
genetics and genomics of the genus amycolatopsis.actinobacteria are gram-positive filamentous bacteria which contains some of the most deadly human pathogens (mycobacterium tuberculosis, m. leprae, corynebacterium diphtheriae, nocardia farcinica), plant pathogens (streptomyces scabies, leifsonia xyli) along with organisms that produces antibiotic (streptomycetes, amycolatopsis, salinospora). interestingly, these bacteria are equipped with an extraordinary capability of producing antibiotics and other metabolites which have medicinal properties ...201627407288
the novel grcep12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated pti.the potato cyst nematode globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. in addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, (1) nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity. (2)(-) (4) recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (grubcep12) from g. rostochiensis is processe ...201323803745
the esx/type vii secretion system modulates development, but not virulence, of the plant pathogen streptomyces scabies.streptomyces scabies is a model organism for the investigation of plant-microbe interactions in gram-positive bacteria. here, we investigate the type vii protein secretion system (t7ss) in s. scabies; the t7ss is required for the virulence of other gram-positive bacteria, including mycobacterium tuberculosis and staphylococcus aureus. the hallmarks of a functional t7ss are an eccc protein that forms an essential component of the secretion apparatus and two small, sequence-related substrate prote ...201323009676
biocontrol of potato common scab is associated with high pseudomonas fluorescens lbum223 populations and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biosynthetic transcript accumulation in the potato geocaulosphere.pseudomonads are often used as biocontrol agents because they display a broad range of mechanisms to control diseases. common scab of potato, caused by streptomyces scabies, was previously reported to be controlled by pseudomonas fluorescens lbum223 through phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (pca) production. in this study, we aimed at characterizing the population dynamics of lbum223 and the expression of phzc, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of pca, in the rhizosphere and geocaulosphere of po ...201627088392
production of the streptomyces scabies coronafacoyl phytotoxins involves a novel biosynthetic pathway with an f420 -dependent oxidoreductase and a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase.coronafacoyl phytotoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced by various phytopathogenic bacteria, including several pathovars of the gram-negative bacterium pseudomonas syringae as well as the gram-positive potato scab pathogen streptomyces scabies. the phytotoxins are composed of the polyketide coronafacic acid (cfa) linked via an amide bond to amino acids or amino acid derivatives, and their biosynthesis involves the cfa and cfa-like gene clusters that are found in p. syringae and s. s ...201626991928
characterization of the coronatine-like phytotoxins produced by the common scab pathogen streptomyces scabies.streptomyces scabies is an important causative agent of common scab disease of potato tubers and other root crops. the primary virulence factor produced by this pathogen is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin a, which is essential for disease development. in addition, the genome of s. scabies harbors a virulence-associated biosynthetic gene cluster called the coronafacic acid (cfa)-like gene cluster, which was previously predicted to produce metabolites that resemble the pseudomon ...201525423263
phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic streptomyces species.streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. in addition, a small number of streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (cs). research into the mechanisms of streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to th ...201424131731
draft genome sequences of streptomyces scabiei s58, streptomyces turgidiscabies t45, and streptomyces acidiscabies a10, the pathogens of potato common scab, isolated in japan.the draft genome sequences of the three pathogens of potato common scab, streptomyces scabiei s58, streptomyces turgidiscabies t45, and streptomyces acidiscabies a10, isolated in japan, are presented here. the genome size of each strain is >10 mb, and the three pathogenic strains share genes located in a pathogenicity island previously described in other pathogenic streptomyces species.201626941144
identification of genetic and environmental factors stimulating excision from streptomyces scabiei chromosome of the toxicogenic region responsible for pathogenicity.the genes conferring pathogenicity in streptomyces turgidiscabies, a pathogen causing common scab of potato, are grouped together on a pathogenicity island (pai), which has been found to be mobile and appears to transfer and disseminate like an integrative and conjugative element (ice). however, in streptomyces scabiei, another common scab-inducing species, the pathogenicity genes are clustered in two regions: the toxicogenic region (tr) and the colonization region. the s. scabiei 87.22 genome w ...201626177341
the cellobiose sensor cebr is the gatekeeper of streptomyces scabies pathogenicity.a relatively small number of species in the large genus streptomyces are pathogenic; the best characterized of these is streptomyces scabies. the pathogenicity of s. scabies strains is dependent on the production of the nitrated diketopiperazine thaxtomin a, which is a potent plant cellulose synthesis inhibitor. much is known about the genetic loci associated with plant virulence; however, the molecular mechanisms by which s. scabies triggers expression of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes, beyond th ...201525714708
characterization of the integration and modular excision of the integrative conjugative element paist in streptomyces turgidiscabies car8.paist is a large genomic island located in the chromosome of the plant pathogen streptomyces turgidiscabies car8. the island carries clustered virulence genes, transfers to other streptomyces species, and integrates by site-specific recombination at the 8 bp palindrome ttcatgaa. the palindrome is located at the 3' end of the bacitracin resistance gene (baca). we demonstrate that paist is able to excise in modules by recombination of one internal and two flanking palindromic direct repeats. the g ...201424927117
a species-specific method for detecting pathogenic streptomyces species from soil and potato tubers in argentina.potato common scab is caused by several soil-inhabiting pathogenic streptomyces species. in the present study, a species-specific pcr method was used to detect streptomyces species in potato tuber lesions and soils. total genomic dna from soil samples from six locations and tuber samples from four potato cultivars (spunta, shepody, innovator and russet burbank) were assessed. streptomyces scabies, streptomyces acidiscabies, and streptomyces turgidiscabies were detected in soybean, tobacco and po ...201424401784
structure and biosynthesis of scabichelin, a novel tris-hydroxamate siderophore produced by the plant pathogen streptomyces scabies 87.22.scabichelin and turgichelin, novel tris-hydroxamate siderophores, were isolated from streptomyces antibioticus nbrc 13838/streptomyces scabies jcm 7914 and streptomyces turgidiscabies jcm 10429, respectively. the planar structures of scabichelin and turgichelin were elucidated by mass spectrometry, and 1- and 2-d nmr spectroscopic analyses of their gallium(iii) complexes. the relative and absolute stereochemistry of the metabolites was determined by the modified marfey's method in conjunction wi ...201323752895
tracking the subtle mutations driving host sensing by the plant pathogen streptomyces scabies.the acquisition of genetic material conferring the arsenal necessary for host virulence is a prerequisite on the path to becoming a plant pathogen. more subtle mutations are also required for the perception of cues signifying the presence of the target host and optimal conditions for colonization. the decision to activate the pathogenic lifestyle is not "taken lightly" and involves efficient systems monitoring environmental conditions. but how can a pathogen trigger the expression of virulence g ...201728261670
emergence of novel pathogenic streptomyces species by site-specific accretion and cis-mobilization of pathogenicity islands.the main pathogenicity factor of streptomyces species associated with the potato common scab disease is a nitrated diketopiperazine called thaxtomin a (thxa). in streptomyces scabiei (syn. s. scabies), which is thought to be the most ancient pathogenic streptomyces species, the thxa biosynthetic cluster is located within a mobile genomic island called the toxicogenic region (tr). three attachment (att) sites further separate tr into two subregions (tr1 and tr2). tr1 contains the thxa biosyntheti ...201727977935
physical, chemical and proteomic evidence of potato suberin degradation by the plant pathogenic bacterium streptomyces scabiei.potato peels consist of a tissue called phellem, which is formed by suberized cell layers. the degradation of suberin, a lipidic and recalcitrant polymer, is an ecological process attributed to soil fungal populations; however, previous studies have suggested that streptomyces scabiei, the causal agent of potato common scab, possesses the ability to degrade suberin. in the present study, s. scabiei was grown in medium containing suberin-enriched potato phellem as the sole carbon source and its s ...201627853060
enzymatic hydrolysis by transition-metal-dependent nucleophilic aromatic substitution.nitroaromatic compounds are typically toxic and resistant to degradation. bradyrhizobium species strain js329 metabolizes 5-nitroanthranilic acid (5naa), which is a molecule secreted by streptomyces scabies, the plant pathogen responsible for potato scab. the first biodegradation enzyme is 5naa-aminohydrolase (5naa-a), a metalloprotease family member that converts 5naa to 5-nitrosalicylic acid. we characterized 5naa-a biochemically and obtained snapshots of its mechanism. 5naa-a, an octamer that ...201627694799
a whole genome analysis reveals the presence of a plant pr1 sequence in the potato pathogen streptomyces scabies and other streptomyces species.streptomyces scabies is a common soil bacterium that causes scab symptoms in potatoes. strong evidence indicates horizontal gene transfer (hgt) among bacteria has influenced the evolution of this plant pathogen and other streptomyces spp. to extend the study of the hgt to the streptomyces genus, we explored the effects of the inter-domain hgt in the s. scabies genome. we employed a semi-automatic pipeline based on blastp searches and phylogenetic reconstruction. the data show low impact of inter ...201627530704
promiscuous pathogenicity islands and phylogeny of pathogenic streptomyces spp.approximately 10 streptomyces species cause disease on underground plant structures. the most economically important of these is potato scab, and the most studied of these pathogens is streptomyces scabiei (syn. s. scabies). the main pathogenicity determinant of scab-causing streptomyces species is a nitrated diketopiperazine, known as thaxtomin a (thxa). in the pathogenic species streptomyces turgidiscabies, thxa biosynthetic genes reside on a mobile pathogenicity island (pai). however, the mob ...201627502745
the cebe/msik transporter is a doorway to the cello-oligosaccharide-mediated induction of streptomyces scabies pathogenicity.streptomyces scabies is an economically important plant pathogen well-known for damaging root and tuber crops by causing scab lesions. thaxtomin a is the main causative agent responsible for the pathogenicity of s. scabies and cello-oligosaccharides are environmental triggers that induce the production of this phytotoxin. how cello-oligosaccharides are sensed or transported in order to induce the virulent behavior of s. scabies? here we report that the cellobiose and cellotriose binding protein ...201627250236
rice bran amendment suppresses potato common scab by increasing antagonistic bacterial community levels in the rhizosphere.potato common scab (pcs), caused by pathogenic streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil ph and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. traditionally, local farmers in southwest japan have amended soils with rice bran (rb) to suppress pcs. however, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by rb has not been elucidated. the present ...201627050572
scabin, a novel dna-acting adp-ribosyltransferase from streptomyces scabies.a bioinformatics strategy was used to identify scabin, a novel dna-targeting enzyme from the plant pathogen 87.22 strain of streptomyces scabies scabin shares nearly 40% sequence identity with the pierisin family of mono-adp-ribosyltransferase toxins. scabin was purified to homogeneity as a 22-kda single-domain enzyme and was shown to possess high nad(+)-glycohydrolase (km (nad) = 68 ± 3 μm; kcat = 94 ± 2 min(-1)) activity with an rsqxe motif; it was also shown to target deoxyguanosine and showe ...201627002155
toughing it out--disease-resistant potato mutants have enhanced tuber skin defenses.common scab, a globally important potato disease, is caused by infection of tubers with pathogenic streptomyces spp. previously, disease-resistant potato somaclones were obtained through cell selections against the pathogen's toxin, known to be essential for disease. further testing revealed that these clones had broad-spectrum resistance to diverse tuber-invading pathogens, and that resistance was restricted to tuber tissues. the mechanism of enhanced disease resistance was not known. tuber per ...201626780437
taxonomic evaluation of putative streptomyces scabiei strains held in the ars culture collection (nrrl) using multi-locus sequence analysis.multi-locus sequence analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for identification of streptomyces species and was previously applied to phylogenetically differentiate the type strains of species pathogenic on potatoes (solanum tuberosum l.). the ars culture collection (nrrl) contains 43 strains identified as streptomyces scabiei deposited at various times since the 1950s and these were subjected to multi-locus sequence analysis utilising partial sequences of the house-keeping genes atpd ...201626739474
hybprobes-based real-time pcr assay for specific identification of streptomyces scabies and streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens.the aim of this study was to develop and validate a hybprobes-based real-time pcr assay targeting the trpb gene for specific identification of streptomyces scabies and streptomyces europaeiscabiei. four primer pairs and a fluorescent probe were designed and evaluated for specificity in identifying s. scabies and streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens. the specificity of the hybprobes-based real-time pcr assay was evaluated using 46 bacterial strains, 23 streptomyces strai ...201626551004
suberin regulates the production of cellulolytic enzymes in streptomyces scabiei, the causal agent of potato common scab.suberin, a major constituent of the potato periderm, is known to promote the production of thaxtomins, the key virulence factors of the common scab-causing agent streptomyces scabiei. in the present study, we speculated that suberin affected the production of glycosyl hydrolases, such as cellulases, by s. scabiei, and demonstrated that suberin promoted glycosyl hydrolase activity when added to cellulose-, xylan-, or lichenin-containing media. furthermore, secretome analyses revealed that the add ...201526330095
comparative secretome analysis of streptomyces scabiei during growth in the presence or absence of potato suberin.suberin is a recalcitrant plant biopolymer composed of a polyphenolic and a polyaliphatic domain. although suberin contributes to a significant portion of soil organic matter, the biological process of suberin degradation is poorly characterized. it has been suggested that streptomyces scabiei, a plant pathogenic bacterium, can produce suberin-degrading enzymes. in this study, a comparative analysis of the s. scabiei secretome from culture media supplemented or not with potato suberin was carrie ...201425028574
thaxtomin a production and virulence are controlled by several bld gene global regulators in streptomyces scabies.streptomyces scabies is the main causative agent of common scab disease, which leads to significant annual losses to potato growers worldwide. the main virulence factor produced by s. scabies is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin a, which functions as a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. thaxtomin a production is controlled by the cluster-situated regulator txtr, which activates expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes in response to cello-oligosaccharides. here, we demonstrate ...201424678834
long-term induction of defense gene expression in potato by pseudomonas sp. lbum223 and streptomyces scabies.streptomyces scabies is a causal agent of common scab of potato, which generates necrotic tuber lesions. we have previously demonstrated that inoculation of potato plants with phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (pca)- producing pseudomonas sp. lbum223 could significantly reduce common scab symptoms. in the present study, we investigated whether lbum223 or an isogenic phzc- mutant not producing pca could elicit an induced systemic resistance response in potato. the expression of eight defense-related ge ...201424601985
structural insights into the mechanism for recognizing substrate of the cytochrome p450 enzyme txte.thaxtomins, a family of phytotoxins produced by streptomyces spp., can cause dramatic plant cell hypertrophy and seedling stunting. thaxtomin a is the dominant form from streptomyces scabies and has demonstrated herbicidal action. txte, a cytochrome p450 enzyme from streptomyces scabies 87.22, catalyzes direct nitration of the indolyl moiety of l-tryptophan to l-4-nitrotryptophan using nitric oxide, dioxygen and nadph. the crystal structure of txte was determined at 2.1 å resolution and describe ...201324282603
field efficacy of nonpathogenic streptomyces species against potato common scab.the primary objective of these experiments was to reduce pathogenicity and virulence of endemic soil pathogenic streptomyces strains that cause potato common scab (cs) using nonpathogenic streptomyces strains to suppress cs in a field situation.201424034169
phenazine production by pseudomonas sp. lbum223 contributes to the biological control of potato common scab.common scab of potato is mainly caused by streptomyces scabies. currently, no method can efficiently control this economically important disease. we have previously determined that pseudomonas sp. lbum223 exhibits antagonistic properties toward s. scabies under in vitro conditions. inhibition was mainly attributed to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (pca) production because an isogenic mutant of lbum223 (phzc-), not producing pca, was incapable of significantly reducing s. scabies growth. in order to ...201323883153
crystal structure of phospholipase a1 from streptomyces albidoflavus na297.the metal-independent lipase from streptomyces albidoflavus na297 (sapla1) is a phospholipase a1 as it preferentially hydrolyzes the sn-1 acyl ester in glycerophospholipids, yielding a fatty acid and 2-acyl-lysophospholipid. the molecular mechanism underlying the substrate binding by sapla1 is currently unknown. in this study, the crystal structure of sapla1 was determined at 1.75å resolutions by molecular replacement. a structural similarity search indicated the highest structural similarity to ...201323416196
solphenazines a-f, glycosylated phenazines from streptomyces sp. strain dl-93.during a survey of actinobacteria known to suppress the growth of streptomyces scabies (the causative agent of potato scab disease) in vivo, six new rhamnosylated alkaloids, the solphenazines a-f (1-6), were isolated from a biological control strain of streptomyces (dl-93). the known rhamnosyl analogue of paraben (9) was also isolated along with a new rhamnosylated derivative of n-methyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (10). none of the compounds exhibited any antibacterial or antifungal activity against a ...201323317013
pathogen variation and urea influence selection and success of streptomyces mixtures in biological control.success in biological control of plant diseases remains inconsistent in the field. a collection of well-characterized streptomyces antagonists (n = 19 isolates) was tested for their capacities to inhibit pathogenic streptomyces scabies (n = 15 isolates). there was significant variation among antagonists in ability to inhibit pathogen isolates and among pathogens in their susceptibility to inhibition. only one antagonist could inhibit all pathogens, and antagonist-pathogen interactions were highl ...201323035630
thaxtomin a-deficient endophytic streptomyces sp. enhances plant disease resistance to pathogenic streptomyces scabies.each plant species in nature harbors endophytes, a community of microbes living within host plants without causing any disease symptom. however, the exploitation of endophyte-based phytoprotectants is hampered by the paucity of mechanistic understandings of endophyte-plant interaction. we here reported two endophytic streptomyces isolates ifb-a02 and ifb-a03 recovered from a stress-tolerant dicotyledonous plant artemisia annua l. after the determination of their non-pathogenicity at the genomic ...201222922880
characterization of streptomyces plasmid-phage pfp4 and its evolutionary implications.autonomous-replicating plasmid pfp4 of streptomyces sp. fr1 isolated from a heavy metal-contaminated land was cloned and sequenced. surprisingly, the 40,949-bp pfp4 contains a cluster of 20 genes, resembling these chromosome-integrated prophages of streptomyces sp. spb78 and streptomyces scabiei 87.22. plasmid pfp4 could transfer by conjugation and a replication locus, iteron/repa/repb, was identified. the filtered fr1 culture could infect both fr1 and fr1 cured of pfp4 to form plaques, and also ...201222677103
a study of cross antagonisms among some actinomycetes active against streptomyces scabies and helminthosporium sativum. 195424542890
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