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effect of metal ions in the culture medium on the stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase activity of mycobacterium phlei.a particulate fraction prepared from mycobacterium phlei grown in a metal-deficient medium exhibited a greatly reduced activity of stearoyl-coa desaturase compared to that from normally grown cells. metal deficiency, however, had no effect on the fad-dependent nadph-cytochrome c reductase activity, which has been suggested to participate in the desaturation process. when the cells were grown in the deficient medium supplemented with both fe2+ and mg2+, the desaturase activity was restored to the ...19752587
purification and properties of l-asparaginase from mycobacterium phlei.1. l-asparaginase from m. phlei was purified about 170-fold with an 11% yield. the purification procedure consisted of: fractionation with ammonium sulphate; adsorption of contaminating proteins on calcium phosphate gel; chromatography on sephadex g-150 and deae-cellulose. the specific activity of the final preparation was 32.6 i.u./mg protein. 2. molecular weight of the enzyme as determined by sephadex g-100 filtration amounted to 126 000. optimum ph was 8.8-9.2. the enzyme did not hydrolyse l- ...19767091
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide -- independent formate dehydrogenase in mycobacterium phlei.formate dehydrogenase activity (ec 1.2.1.2) has been demonstrated in cell-free preparations of mycobacterium phlei by following the reduction of 2,6 dichlorophenolindophenol. thiazolyl blue tetrazolium, or equine cytochrome c. the reduction of equine cytochrome c was inhibited by 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-n-oxide. neither nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide nor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate were reduced by this formate dehydrogenase. the enzyme was constitutive and associated with ...197713920
binding of nucleotides to purified coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei.binding studies of various nucleotides to the purified coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei have been carried out using gel filtration, equilibrium dialysis, and ultrafiltration methods. the purified latent atpase binds 3 mol of adp per mol of the enzyme with an apparent dissociation constant of 68 mum. binding of nucleotides occurred in the decreasing order: adp, epsilon-atp, epsilon-adp, udp, adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (amp-p(nh)p), idp, and adenosine 5'-(alpha,beta-methyl ...197714131
purification and properties of a triacylglycerol lipase from mycobacterium phlei.in order to study the metabolism of triacylglycerol in mycobacteria, an intracellular particulate triacylglycerol lipase (ec 3.1.1.3) was purified 800-fold from stationary phase cells of mycobacterium phlei. extraction of whole cell suspensions with 5% triton x-100, followed by ion-exchange chromatography of the extract on two successive deae-cellulose columns produced a preparation which was nearly homogeneous by the criterion of analytical isoelectric focusing in acrylamide gels (one band, pi. ...197718200
purification and properties of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from mycobacterium phlei atcc354.beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (ec 1.1.1.30) was purified 145-fold from mycobacterium phlei atcc354 by ammonium sulphate fractionation and deae-cellulose chromatography. the ph optima for oxidation and reduction reactions were 8.4 and 6.8 respectively. the purified enzyme was specific for nad, nadh, acetoacetate and d(-)-beta-hydroxybutyrate. km values for dl-beta-hydroxybutyrate and nad were 7.4 mm and 0.66 mm respectively. the enzyme was inactivated by mercurial thiol inhibitors and by hea ...197824083
polyol dehydrogenases in mycobacteria (author's transl).contrary to the the tubercle bacilli (h37ra, bcg), mycobacterium phlei, grown on sauton medium, formed the nad+ dependent dehydrogenases that catalyse the oxidation of ribitol, sorbitol and mannitol. these enzymes were separated by chromatography on deae-cellulose and sephadex g-200. in the present work we have principally studied the ribitol dehydrogenase. all the experiments for induction of the ribitol dehydrogenase in h37ra or bcg were negative; whereas after the adaptation of m. phlei to ri ...197829546
alteration of mycobacterium phlei membrane structure by freezing and thawing: reversal by heating. 197549172
the specificity of the fluorescent antibody test using the sera of rabbits inoculated with strains of myocobacteria.sera from experimentally infected rabbits were used to test the specificity of the fluorescent antibody test. it was possible using mono-specific sera to differentiate antigenically mycobacterium phlei, m fortuitum, m smegmatis, m avium, m intracellulare, m bovis (bcg) and m johnei. the cross-reactivity within the m avium and m intracellulare group was such that one antigen from these groups would detect infection within that group and exclude m johnei infection. the m phlei growth factor indepe ...197656767
immunodiffusion studies of ribosomes in classification of mycobacteria and related taxa.ribosomal preparations consisting of crude ribosomes (cr), 30s subunits (30s) and 16s core particles (16s) from four strains of the species mycobacterium bovis (bcg), mycobacterium fortuitum, mycobacterium phlei and mycobacterium smegmatis were analyzed by immunodiffusion technique for taxonomical purposes. the ribosomal preparations tested contained several interspecies cross-reacting precipitinogens. the number of precipitinogens demonstrated at the homologous reactions was generally larger th ...1979109401
immunodiffusion studies of various structural preparations from mycobacterial cells.various structures and other preparations from mycobacterial cells were analyzed by immunodiffusion. the preparations were obtained from four strains referred to the species mycobacterium bovis (bcg), mycobacterium fortuitum, mycobacterium phlei and mycobacterium smegmatis. they represented cell walls (cw), culture filtrates (cf), artificially disintegrated cell material (xp), protoplasms (pp), crude ribosomes (cr), ribosomal 50s subunits (50s), ribosomal 30s subunits (30s), ribosomal 16s core p ...1979109402
effect of phospholipase a on active transport of amino acids with membrane vesicles of mycobacterium phlei.active transport of proline remained unaffected in phospholipase a-treated electron transport particles from mycobacterium phlei. however, the steady state level of proline was reduced 50 to 60% in phospholipase a-treated depleted electron transport particles that were devoid of membrane-bound coupling factor-latent atpase activity. the decrease in the uptake of proline in the phospholipase a-treated depleted electron transport particles was not due to a change in the apparent k-m for proline, b ...1975123919
energy-transducing membrane-bound coupling factor-atpase from mycobacterium phlei. i. purification, homogeneity, and properties.the membrane-bound coupling factor from mycobacterium phlei was solubilized from membrane vesicles by washing with low ionic strength buffer or 0.25 m sucrose. the solubilized enzyme exhibited coupling factor, latent atpase, and succinate oxidation-stimulating activity. purification by affinity chromatography using sepharose coupled to adp yielded a homogeneous preparation of latent atpase which was purified about 200-fold with an 84% yield in a single step. purified latent atpase exhibited coup ...1975125754
purification and properties of membrane-bound coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei.the membrane bound coupling factor-latent atpase was solubilized from the membrane vesicles of mycobacterium phlei by using 0.25 m sucrose or low ionic strength buffer. purification of the solubilized enzyme by use of sepharose-adp conjugate gel yielded a homogenous preparation of latent atpase which was purified about 216-fold in a single step with an 84% yield. the enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 39 mumoles of atp hydrolyzed per min per mg protein. the purified enzyme exhibits coupling ...1975127086
restoration of oxidative phosphorylation by purified n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive latent adenosinetriphosphatase from mycobacterium phlei.the n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (dccd)-sensitive latent adenosinetriphosphatase (atpase) (ec 3.6.1.3; atp phosphohydrolase) from mycobacterium phlei has been purified to homogeneity and used to resotre oxidative phosphorylation to detergent-extracted membranes. the phosphorylation was inhibited by dccd any by tetraphenylboron and valinomycin. the enzyme was solubilized from the membrane vesicles by treatment with cholate followed by extraction with triton x-100. after partial purification on a ...1976135258
effects of trypsin treatment on the structure and function of solubilized coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei. 1977140685
trypsin-induced changes in the orientation of latent atpase in protoplast ghosts from mycobacterium phlei.latent atpase, located on the inner surface of protoplast ghosts of mycobacterium phlei, was unmasked either by trypsin or an impermeable form of trypsin, ethylene maleic anhydride-trypsin. density gradient experiments showed that the ghost preparations remained intact following trypsin treatment. evidence was obtained that 125i-trypsin failed to penetrate the ghost membranes. thus, attempts were made to determine whether the atpase molecule in the ghost membranes is accessible from the outer su ...1977144135
purification and characteristics of hydrophobic membrane protein(s) required for dccd sensitivity of atpase in mycobacterium phlei.the energy-transducing n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive (dccd-sensitive) atpase complex consists of two parts, a soluble catalytic protein (f1), and an intrinsic membrane protein (f0). the bacterial coupling factor complex, bcf0-bcf1, has recently been purified from mycobacterium phlei, and used to reconstitute oxidative phosphorylation in detergent-extracted membranes. the bcf0 moiety has been purified by being recovered from the purified bcf0-bcf1 complex by affinity chromatography. bcf ...1978153436
affinity labeling of coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei with 2',3'-dialdehyde derivatives of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and adenosine 5'-diphosphate. 1979154517
properties of energy-transducing systems in different types of membrane preparations from mycobacterium phlei--preparation, resolution, and reconstitution. 1979156832
tryptic proteolysis of coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei. theoretical modeling of structure-function relationships.trypsin treatment of solubilized coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei alters its subunit structure and functional properties. this coupling factor exhibits atpase activity following trypsin treatment. concurrently, both the ability of the enzyme to rebind to membranes depleted of coupling factor and its capacity for coupled phosphorylation are lost. the native alpha (64 000 dalton) subunit undergoes limited proteolytic digestion, and the delta (14 000 dalton) subunit is partial ...1979157157
limited proteolysis of coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei. effects of different enzymes and modifying agents.the activation of the coupling factor-latent atpase enzyme by tryptic proteolysis may resemble the activation of many proenzymes by limited proteolysis. the beta (53 000 dalton) subunit of solubilized coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei was selectively lost in some trypsin-treated samples. since a concomitant loss of atpase activity was not observed, the beta subunit may not be essential for atpase catalytic activity. treatment of solubilized coupling factor with chymotrypsin ...1979157159
active transport of calcium in membrane vesicles from mycobacterium phlei.active transport of calcium ions has been demonstrated in inside-out membrane vesicles from mycobacterium phlei mediated by respiratory linked substrates as well as by atp hydrolysis. the uptake of calcium exhibited an apparent km of 80 microm and v of 16.6 nmol calcium uptake x min-1 x mg protein-1. a fortyfold concentration gradient for calcium ions was calculated for both the atp-induced and the respiration-induced transport of calcium. removal of coupling-factor-latent atpase resulted in the ...1979159818
multiple forms of cytochrome b in mycobacterium phlei: kinetics of reduction.the kinetics of reduction of the b-type cytochromes in the electron transport particles (etp) from mycobacterium phlei were studied with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (nadh) or succinate as electron donors. there appeared to be three active cytochromes b in the etp,bs563 and bs559, which were reducible by either substrate, and bn563, which was reducible by nadh but not by succinate. in the presence of adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a substantial increase in b563 reduction was obser ...1975166977
uptake of radioactive dopa by mycobacterium leprae in vitro.our previous studies demonstrated that mycobacterium leprae contains a characteristic o-diphenoloxidase which converts a variety of phenolic compounds to quinones in vitro. this enzyme was not present in any other mycobacteria tested. the results reported here deal with the uptake and binding of radioactive dopa by m. leprae. the leprosy bacilli incubated with tritium-labelled dopa, readily took up the substrate. the binding of dopa by the bacilli was markedly inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate ...1975171542
on the antigenicity of phosphatidylinositolmannosides of mycobacterium phlei atcc 354. 1975176114
stimulation of proline transport by cupric ion in membrane vesicles from mycobacterium phlei. 1976178313
alterations in lipid constituents during growth of mycobacterium smegmatis cdc 46 and mycobacterium phlei atcc 354.phospholipids of mycobacterium phlei atcc 354 and mycobacterium smegmatis cdc 46 consist of cardiolipin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, tri-acylated dimannophosphoinositide, tetra-acylated dimannophosphoinositide and tetra-acylated pentamannosphosphoinositide. a comparative study of lipid patterns of m. phlei atcc 354 and of m. smegmatis cdc 46 in relation to age of culture revealed higher total lipid level and increased activity of malate-vitamin k reductase, a phospholipid requiring enzyme, during ...1976196159
adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in mycobacterium phlei and mycobacterium tuberculosis h37ra.adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (camp) is present in slow growing as well as fast growing mycobacteria. apparently there does not seem to be any direct relationship between either intra- or extracellular camp content with the growth rate of bacilli. as compared to that of e. coli grown on a similar energy source, camp content is much higher in mycobacteria. camp content inside the cells remains unaltered throughout the growth period and this may be due to lack of complete utilization of the major ...1976196160
specificity of isoniazid on growth inhibition and competition for an oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide regulatory site on the electron transport pathway in mycobacterium phlei.the mechanism of action of isoniazid (inh) on saprophytic and atypical mycobacteria is thought to be different from that on mycobacterium tuberculosis because higher concentrations are required to be effective in these species. in this investigation, m. phlei was inhibited by inh at a concentration of 25 mug/ml. benzoic acid hydrazide (bzh) and nicotinic acid hydrazide (nah) were inhibitory at levels of 300 and 500 mug/ml, respectively. inhibition by these compounds was not inoculum dependent. a ...1977197885
induction of a morphological mutant in mycobacterium phlei by gamma-radiation and ethyl methanesulfonate. 1978207206
purification, physicochemical properties, and localization of cytochrome c in energy-transducing membranes from mycobacterium phlei. 1979220917
an adenosine diphosphoglucose glucohydrolase of mycobacterium phlei. 1979226469
effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide on the membrane-associated reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase of mycobacterium phlei.nad+ had a biphasic effect on the nadh oxidase activity in electron transport particles from mycobacterium phlei. the oxidase was inhibited competitively by nad+ at concentrations above 0.05 mm. nad+ in concentrations from 0.02 to 0.05 mm resulted in maximum stimulation of both nadh oxidation and oxygen uptake with concentrations of substrate both above and below the apparent k-m. oxygen uptake and cyanide sensitivity indicated that the nad+ stimulatory effect was linked to the terminal respirat ...1975234463
variations in the pathways of malate oxidation and phosphorylation in different species of mycobacteria.mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv, the slow-growing human pathogenic strain of tubercle bacilli and mycobacterium smegmatis and mycobacterium phlei, the fast-growing saprophytes, have shown variations regarding the type of dehydrogenase that initiates malate oxidation in the respiratory chain. m. tuberculosis h37rv is characterized by having a malate oxidase system (designated malnad pathway) in which malate oxidation is mediated by the nad+-dependent malate dehydrogenase (ec 1.1.1.37) but not by ...1975234747
analysis of bacterial biotin-proteins.the biotin-protein populations in several bacterial strains were analyzed by solubilization of [3h]biotin-labeled cells with sodium dodecylsulfate followed by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels containing the detergent. a variety of patterns of biotin-labeled polypeptide chains was seen, ranging from a single biotin-protein in escherichia coli, corresponding to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein component of acetyl-coa carboxylase, to multiple species in enterobacter aerogenes, pseudomonas ...1975235315
effect of phospholipase a on the structure and functions of membrane vesicles from mycobacterium phlei.the phospholipid composition of the electron transport particles and coupling factor-depleted electron transport particles of mycobacterium phlei are the same, but they differ in contents. the accessibility of partially purified phospholipase a to these membrane phospholipids was found to be different. treatment of membranes of mycobacterium phlei with phospholipase a impairs the rate of oxidation as well as phosphorylation. the inhibition of phosphorylation can be reversed by washing the membra ...1975236299
l-asparaginase activity of mycobacterium phlei under various growth conditions.seven mycobacterium strains were grown statically on salts-glycerol-asparagine (sauton) or on salts-glucose-glutamate (sym) media. at desired time of incubation, the bacteria were washed with water, disintegrated with powdered corundum and in resulting cell-free extracts l-asparaginase activity was determined by the conway method. the majority of experiments were performed on m. phlei which exhibited considerable rise in l-asparaginase activity with increasing age of the culture. this change did ...1975242189
different binding sites for entry and exit of amino acids in whole cells of mycobacterium phlei.on the basis of mutual inhibition of uptake with different amino acids in whole cells of mycobacterium phlei, it was demonstrated that the binding site of proline was different from those of all other amino acids studied. other groups of amino acids share a common binding site: lysine, histidine, and arginine; valine, leucine, and isoleucine; tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine; glutamic acid and aspartic acid. the exit and entry processes were studied for proline, glutamine, and glutamic ac ...1977263821
quantitation of seven elements in mycobacterium phlei and mycobacterium bovis by neutron activation analysis.quantitative determination of the elements potassium, sodium, manganese, magnesium, iron, cobalt and zinc was performed in mycobacteria by neutron activation analysis. mycobacterium phlei atcc 19 249 at different phase of growth (4, 8, 13, 23 and 37 days old cultures), and 14 days old mycobacterium bovis bcg cultures and uninoculated semi-synthetic sauton culture media were examined. the elements studied could be divided into three groups; sodium, potassium and magnesium could be regarded as maj ...1977341656
[nucleotide makeup of the dna of fast-growing mycobacteria and related microorganisms].the melting points of dna were used to determine the nucleotide composition of dna from the following microorganisms with a high growth rate: mycobacterium phlei, m. smegmatis, m. fortuitum, nocardia asteroides, the organism of the "rhodochrous"--n. opaca group, and organisms related to strain "mycobacterium" rhodochrous atcc 13808. m. fortuitum had a higher mol% g+c (67.5--69.5) than m. phlei (66.9--67.5) and m. smegnatis (64.4--68.1); the strains of m. smegmatis were characterized by the most ...1978351339
the variable response of bacteria to excess ferric iron in host tissues.the enhancement by exogenous ferric iron, both systemic and local, of the infectivity of 120 strains of bacteria, representing 17 genera, was measured in the skin of guinea-pigs. systemic iron enhanced only 23% of 115 strains, and local iron 49% of 71 strains. systemic iron, by an apparently anti-inflammatory action, depressed the size of lesions produced by 27 of the non-enhanced strains from nine of the genera tested. for most strains, the degree of enhancement was small, ranging from 2- to 8- ...1979372534
resolution and reconstitution of active transport of calcium by a protein(s) from mycobacterium phlei.membrane protein(s) responsible for the active transport of calcium in membrane vesicles from mycobacterium phlei have been solubilized from membranes by sodium cholate treatment and partially purified using a hydrophobic resin. reconstitution of calcium transport was demonstrated by reconstitution of detergent extracted membranes with the partially purified protein. the uptake of calcium in the reconstituted system was sensitive to proton-conducting uncouplers. liposomes prepared with partially ...1979378992
[dehydrogenases reducing nad+ in the presence of d (-) 3- phosphoglycerate in mycobacteria (bcg, h37ra, m. phlei)].referring to the elution volume on a sephadex g-150 column only one specific peak is obtained, the same for the bcg, h37ra and mycobacterium phlei strains grown on sauton synthetic medium. some properties of these partially purified dehydrogenases are studied (conservation and dialysis in media of different salt concentrations, equilibrium constant, km, heat stability). all enzyme preparations from tubercle bacilli (bcg, h37ra) are readily inactivated by heat and are very unstable in solutions o ...1979385063
mycobacterial antigens relating to experimental pulmonary cavity formation.lipid-protein mixtures were obtained from 2 strains of mycobacteria, and their cavity-forming activities were examined in rabbit lungs. the mixtures were separated into lipid and protein fractions by gel filtration on sephadex lh-20 column. neither lipid nor protein fraction alone had cavity-forming activity; however, restoration of the cavity-forming activity was observed by recombining the fractions. the activity was also reconstructed by combining the protein fraction with cell walls of bacil ...1977403839
[enzymatic differences in mycobacteria. ribitol dehydrogenase].contrary to the tubercle bacilli (h37ra, bcg), mycobacterium phlei has a ribitol-nad dehydrogenase (that also oxidizes, although to a lesser extent, erythritol and glycerol). this difference is observed with the bacteria grown on sauton's medium, as well as after their adaptation to ribitol. the extracts of all these mycobacteria reduce, nadp in the presence of glycerol, ribitol or erythritol, though very slowly.1977408036
isolation, purification, and reconstitution of a proline carrier protein from mycobacterium phlei.membrane vesicles from mycobacterium phlei contain carrier proteins for proline, glutamine, and glutamic acid. the transport of proline is na+ dependent and required substrate oxidation. a proline carrier protein was solubilized from the membrane vesicles by treatment with cholate and triton x-100. electron microscopic observation of the detergent-treated membrane vesicles showed that they are closed structures. the detergent-extracted proteins were purified by means of sucrose density gradient ...1979444450
menaquinone (vitamin k2) biosynthesis: conversion of o-succinylbenzoic acid to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid by mycobacterium phlei enzymes.the coenzyme a (coa) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent conversion of o-succinylbenzoic acid (4-[2'-carboxyphenyl]-4-oxobutyric acid) to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acids is an important step in menaquinone (vitamin k2) biosynthesis. cell-free extracts catalyzing this conversion, obtained from mycobacterium phlei, were separated into three protein fractions by treatment with protamine sulfate. the second fraction (fraction b) and the supernatant (fraction s) alone did not catalyze dihydroxyna ...1979500558
asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in membranes from mycobacterium phlei. 1979507841
comparative studies of the strains pa and pn of mycobacterium phlei leading to their reclassification: examination of lipids and dna, biochemical tests and phage typing.study of lipid and dna, biochemical tests and phage typing performed on the strain pa previously labelled mycobacterium phlei, lead to the conclusion that this strain belongs to the species m. smegmatis. parallel studies performed on strain pn, isolated from a culture of strain pa, as well as dna homology percentage of the two strains, do not support the assumption that strain pn could have resulted from a mutation of strain pa strain pn produces mycolic acids similar to those found in rhodococc ...1979539691
induction of a morphological mutant in mycobacterium phlei by gamma-radiation and ethyl methanesulfonate. 1978625303
effect of tween 80 on lipids of mycobacterium phlei atcc 354.addition of tween 80 to the growth medium brings about qualitative and quantitative changes in the lipids of mycobacterium phlei atcc 354. the results suggest that tween 80 itself may be a variant in the system.1978631247
cupric ion-mediated active transport of amino acids in membrane vesicles of mycobacterium phlei. 1978632259
the variations of sensitivity to gamma radiation in different strains of mycobacterium phlei. 1978649420
the replication map of the chromosome of mycobacterium phlei.it was the aim of the present work to construct the replication map of the chromosome of mycobacterium phlei. the method of mutagenesis of the replication point by n-methyl-n-nitroso-n'-nitroguanidine in synchronously dividing populations and the method of analysis of gene frequency were applied. the order of replication of 19 genes on the chromosome was determined by means of induction of back mutations and forward mutations in auxotrophic mutants pa leu and pa met and in double auxotrophic mut ...1978689571
[petroleum-oxidizing microflora of the arctic seas of the ussr].active petroleum-oxidizing bacteria of the ussr arctic seas are represented by mycobacterium mucosum (non-colored), mycobacterium phlei and mycobacterium brevicale (red-orange) which inhabit the yenisei bay, the kara sea and the laptev sea. vertical distribution of the petroleum-oxidizing mycobacteria is characterized by substitution of non-coloured forms for coloured ones with depth: "white" strains are found mainly in the surface layer while red and yellow-orange strains are detected in deep w ...1978703651
evidence for the incorporation of molecular oxygen, a pathway in biosynthesis of n-glycolylmuramic acid in mycobacterium phlei.the hypothesis that the biosynthesis of the glycolyl group of muramic acid in the peptidoglycan of mycobacterium phlei is catalyzed by a n-acetyl hydroxylase is strongly supported by the experiments reported in this paper. 18o is incorporated into the n-substituent of muramic acid isolated from the peptidoglycan of m. phlei grown under pure oxygen enriched with the 18o isotope.1978718994
separation of c50--60 and c70--80 mycolic acid molecular species and their changes by growth temperatures in mycobacterium phlei. 1978720589
synthesis and quantitative structure--activity relationships of some antibacterial 3-formylrifamycin sv n-(4-substituted phenyl)piperazinoacethydrazones.a series of 14 3-formylrifamycin sv n-(4-substituted phenyl)piperazinoacethydrazones has been synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. the compounds were found active against bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus, mycobacterium phlei, and mycobacterium tuberculosis but not as active as rifampin. the compounds also exhibited significant activity against clostridium perfringens and in this bacterial system some were more active than rifampin. the qsar showed that the activity ...1978722738
a model proteoliposomal system for proline transport using a purified proline carrier protein from mycobacterium phlei. 1978736936
concentration and purification of mycobacteriophages with polyethylene glycol 6000.experiments were performed to concentrate and purify mycobacteriophages with polyethylene glycol 6000; 6, 9, and 8 per cent polyethylene glycol 6,000 proved to be optimal concentrations for precipitating phages of mycobacterium phlei, mycobacterium smegmatis strain butyricum, and mycobacterium smegmatis strain rabinowitz, respectively. preparative polyethylene glycol reverse gradients were constructed for further concentration and purification of the precipitated phages. with the method describe ...1976779553
[phosphotransacetylases from bcg and mycobacterium phlei]. 1976788798
[microflora of active ooze participating in the decomposition of sulfanilic acid].microflora of domestic water can be a source of active ooze adapted to sulphanilic acid. adaptation of the microflora to sulphanilic acid at a concentration of 170-200 mg/l takes 6 to 8 days. the microflora of active ooze, immediately after adaptation, consists mainly of pseudomonas species, ps. denitrificans, ps. fluorescens, ps. striata, ps. putida, etc., and also of achromobacter stutzeri, achromobacter flavum, mycobacterium phlei, mycobacterium mucosum, bacillus mesentericus, bac. cereus, sa ...1975808686
ultraviolet susceptibility of bcg and virulent tubercle bacilli.to test the effectiveness of irradiating the upper air of a room with ultraviolet light at reducing the concentration of airborne tubercle bacilli, the susceptibility to the germicidal effects of ultraviolet light, z, was determined for various mycobacteria. virulent tubercle bacilli and bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) were equally susceptible to ultraviolet radiation, whereas mycobacterium phlei had 10 times their resistance (z, approximately one-tenth that for m. tuberculosis). the effectiveness ...1976817628
mutagenic action of nitrofurans on euglena gracilis and mycobacterium phlei.there is a pronounced difference between the action of antibiotics and nitrofurans on euglena gracilis. those antibiotics that induce hereditary loss of chloroplasts do so only when they affect dividing cells. on the other hand, nitrofurans induce a mass mutation in both dividing and nondividing cells (under conditions of continuous illumination of cultures). it was found that a breakdown product, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde, is liberated from furadantin and furoxone. this intermediate is responsible ...1976817666
metabolic fate of cholesteryl methyl ether in mycobacterium phlei.mycobacterium phlei transformed cholesteryl methyl ether into three metabolites: 3beta-methoxy-dinor-5,17(20)-choladien-22-oic methyl ester (i), 3beta-methoxy-5-androsten-17-one (ii), and 3beta-methoxy-dinor-5-cholen-22-ol (iii). after isolation with thin-layer chromatography, their structures were elucidated by mass, ir and nmr spectroscopy. compound ii was the major product. compounds i and iii were products of various side reactions. in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline that inhibits degrada ...1975818881
differentiation of catalases in mycobacterium phlei on the basis of susceptibility to isoniazid: association with peroxidase and acquired resistance to isoniazid.mycobacterium phlei contains two catalase activities and a single peroxidase activity. the latter is associated with one of the catalases. the single catalase-peroxidase enzyme accounted for 75% of the total catalase activity and was lost upon acquisition of resistance to the antitubercular drug isoniazid (inh). heat-treated (68 degrees c) wild-type cells showed similar decreases in catalase activity as well as complete loss of peroxidase activity. catalase activity in the inh-resistant strain o ...1977921249
studies on the purification and characterization of malate dehydrogenase from mycobacterium phlei.malate dehydrogenase (l-malate:nad+ oxidoreductase, ec 1.1.1.37) was purified from mycobacterium phlei using (nh4)2so4 precipitation followed by chromatography on sephadex g-200, deae-cellulose on deae sephadex a-50. the purified preparation homogeneous on column chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis had a molecular weight of 86 860. the native enzyme was composed of four subunits of equal molecular weight (21 550) and was thermostable ...1977922015
a study on the receptor for a mycobacteriophage : phage phlei.from mycobacterium phlei, glycolipid fractions have been isolated which inactivate phage phlei. on the basis of the characteristics of the inactivation (specificity, kinetics, requirement for ca++) typical of the phage-host cell system, it was concluded that these fractions contain the receptor sites for phage phlei ; this conclusion was supported by electron microscopic studies. all the active fractions contain four kinds of components : fatty acids, glycerol, sugars (d-lyxose, 6-0-methyl-d-glu ...1976953052
possibilities of the conjugation process in mycobacteria.results obtained when studying conjugation in mycobacteria by means of different methods are summarized. the method of conjugation on surface of a solid complete medium was tested with different auxotrophic mutants of different strains of mycobacterium smegmatis. it was not possible to obtain positive results even by means of the above method. this was probably due to unsuitability of the chosen strains of mycobacterium smegmatis. preparation of the donor strain by transfer of the f factor from ...19751104423
fatty acid synthases from mycobacterium phlei. 19751121296
methylated polysaccharide activators of fatty acid synthase from mycobacterium phlei. 19751121297
active transport of glutamine and glutamic acid in membrane vesicles from mycobacterium phlei. 19751125026
lactate oxygenase of mycobacterium phlei. 19751128272
different thermostability of l-lactate oxidase from mycobacterium phlei and mycobacterium sp. 279. 19751129380
immunotherapy of cancer: tumor suppression and regression by cell walls of mycobacterium phlei attached to oil droplets.components of mycobacterial cell wall(s) (cw) attached to oil droplets were evaluated for their ability 1) to inhibit the growth of line-10 tumor transplants in the skin of syngeneic guinea pigs when inoculated together with 10(6) tumor cells (suppression experiments) and 2) to regress established 7-day-old intradermal tumors and eradicate microscopic lymph node metastases upon injection into the tumors (regression experiments). cw and cell-wall skeleton (cws) preparations from mycobacterium phl ...19751159851
ultrastructure of l-phase variants isolated from a culture of mycobacterium phlei.relatively stable l-phase colonies were isolated from old cultures of a selected clone of mycobacterium phlei. the colonies grew at 52 degrees c and were composed of rod-shaped, oval or spherical cells. large amoeba-like cells were occasionally present. these were usually limited by a double-layered membrane and devoid of normal cell-wall components such as bacteriophage receptors. the large amoeba-like bodies sometimes showed both outer and inner double-layered membranes, especially in pseudopo ...19751177288
regulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle dehydrogenases in mycobacterium phlei. 19751221033
transfection of "mycobacterium phlei". 19751230056
mapping of the chromosome of mycobacterium phlei by means of mutagenesis of the replication point.the aim of the present work was to construct a replication map of the chromosome of mycobacterium phlei. the method of mutagenesis of the replication point by means of nitrosoguanidine was applied to synchronously multiplying populations. back mutations and forward mutations were induced in auxotrophic mutants pa met and pa leu as well as in double auxotrophic mutants with methionine as the reference marker and the following order of replication of eleven genes on the chromosome was thus establi ...19761248781
[study of the biosynthesis of phleic acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesised by mycobacterium phlei (author's transl)].because of their structures, phleic acids (general formula: ch3-(ch2)m-(ch=ch-ch2-ch2)n-co2h; main component: m = 14, n = 5) cannot be synthesized by the same kinds of enzymatic systems as other natural polyunsaturated fatty acids. by using specifically labelled 14c compounds, we have tested the ability of different molecules to be incorporated in the phleate skeletons by mycobacterium phlei. the localisation of radioactive carbon atoms has been studied by chemical degradation of labelled phleat ...19761261559
[separation of structural studies of the molecular species of monomycolates and dimycolates of alpha-d-trehalose present in mycobacterium phlei (author's transl)].mixtures of dimycolates of alpha-d-trehalose (cord factor) and monomycolates have been isolated from mycobacterium phlei and separated as trimethylsilyl derivatives according to the polarity of the fatty acid residues. the free glycolipids can be recovered by mild hydrolysis. silylation and disilylation reactions did not induce any isomerisation. the structure of these trehalose esters has been determined by using a series of reactions elaborated on synthetic acyl-sugar models. free hydroxyl gro ...19761261561
different mechanisms of energy coupling for transport of various amino acids in cells of mycobacterium phlei.whole cells of mycobacterium phlei were shown to actively accumulate proline, leucine, lysine, tryptophan, histidine, glutamine, and glutamic acid to different steady state levels. the transport of proline, in contrast to that of other amino acids, was found to be insensitive to various respiratory inhibitors, e.g. cyanide, arsenate, azide, and sulfhydryl reagents. however, oxygen was an obligatory requirement for the uptake of proline, as well as for the other amino acids. the results indicate ...19761262332
correlation between calmodulin-like protein, phospholipids, and growth in glucose-grown mycobacterium phlei.in mycobacterium phlei tmc 1548 supplementation of growth medium containing 2% v/v glycerol with glucose (up to 5% w/v) resulted in an increase in growth (yield of cells), in amount of total phospholipids, and in each of the individual phospholipids (cardiolipin, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and its mannosides, and phosphatidylglycerol). however, when the medium was supplemented with a higher concentration (7.5% w/v) of glucose, both growth and phospholipid levels decreased to ...19921319278
enhanced production of antibody with specific antigen.on inoculation of nonspecific stimulator of immunity (nsi), prepared from mycobacterium phlei (m. phlei), simultaneously along with sheep pox virus (spv) in sheep, the recipient has exhibited appreciable level of spv specific antibody as early as on 10th day which reached at peak level on 20th day and remained unaltered on 30th day of postimmunisation as evinced by serum neutralisation test (snt), enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (elisa) indirect, fluorescent antibody technique (fat) indirect, ...19921325943
use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for subspecies identification of mycobacteria in the mycobacterium avium complex and for isolation of dna probes.mycobacterial strains from the mycobacterium avium complex were compared with each other and with mycobacterium phlei isolates by restriction endonuclease digestion of chromosomal dna with sspi and analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. characteristic profiles were observed for known typed strains, and five groups were identified. primary bovine isolates identified as mycobacterium paratuberculosis by classical methods were shown to fall into both the m. paratuberculosis- and m. avium-lik ...19921352787
diagnostic accuracy of a mycobacterium phlei-absorbed serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis in dairy cows.the purpose of this study was to describe the responses of sera from five groups of cattle to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for paratuberculosis by using serum absorbed with mycobacterium phlei at a single working dilution. the infection status of the cattle was determined by fecal culture. cattle with different levels of exposure (high versus low prevalence and test negative) and disease manifestation (clinically suspect infection versus subclinical infection) were examined, as f ...19921551978
mechanism of gram variability in select bacteria.gram stains were performed on strains of actinomyces bovis, actinomyces viscosus, arthrobacter globiformis, bacillus brevis, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, clostridium tetani, clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, corynebacterium parvum, mycobacterium phlei, and propionibacterium acnes, using a modified gram regimen that allowed the staining process to be observed by electron microscopy (j. a. davies, g. k. anderson, t. j. beveridge, and h. c. clark, j. bacteriol. 156:837-845, 1983). furthermore, since ...19901689718
immunization against anthrax with bacillus anthracis protective antigen combined with adjuvants.the protective efficacy of immunization against anthrax with bacillus anthracis protective antigen (pa) combined with different adjuvants was tested in hartley guinea pigs and cba/j and a/j mice. adjuvant components derived from microbial products that were tested included threonyl-muramyl dipeptide (threonyl-mdp); monophosphoryl lipid a (mpl); trehalose dimycolate (tdm); and the delipidated, deproteinized, cell wall skeleton (cws) from either mycobacterium phlei or the bcg strain of mycobacteri ...19921730501
interferon gamma fails to activate human monocyte-derived macrophages to kill or inhibit the replication of a non-pathogenic mycobacterial species.the ability of interferon gamma (gamma) to activate human macrophages to kill mycobacteria was investigated using a mycobacterial species that does not cause disease in man. although interferon activated human macrophage activity against other intracellular parasites, toxoplasma gondii and listeria monocytogenes, it failed to activate human monocyte-derived macrophages to kill not only mycobacterium tuberculosis but also the non-pathogenic species, mycobacterium phlei.19911813779
nonsporulating bacterial species contain dna sequences homologous to the bacillus spore-specific c-protein gene.genes for small, acid-soluble spore proteins (sasps) are ubiquitous among the spore-forming bacteria and are expressed only during sporulation. although they perform the function of amino acid storage in spores, the members of the sasp-c multigene family probably serve additional functions, so that similar sequences might be present in non-spore-formers. using the sasp-c gene (ssp-c) as a hybridization probe, restriction digests of whole genomic dna from seven nonsporulating bacterial species we ...19911848527
tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates lethal activity of killed gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in d-galactosamine-treated mice.treatment with d-galactosamine increases sensitivity of lipopolysaccharide (lps)-responder mice to the lethal effects of lps, while nonresponder mice remain resistant (m.a. freudenberg, d. keppler, and c. galanos, infect. immun. 51:891-895, 1986). in the present study it is shown that, in contrast to lps, killed gram-negative bacteria (salmonella abortus equi and s. typhimurium) were highly toxic for d-galactosamine-treated lps-responder (c57bl/10 scsn and c3h/hen) and -nonresponder (c57bl/10 sc ...19912037372
the sensitivity and specificity of a modified elisa for the diagnosis of johne's disease from a field trial in cattle.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cattle was evaluated in three herds known to have johne's disease. prior to testing, the plasma was absorbed with dried mycobacterium phlei in order to remove cross-reacting antibody specificities. the sensitivity and specificity of the elisa were calculated after repeatedly testing 327 cattle in the infected herds. of these, 53 animals had one or more positive faecal cultures o ...19902281604
selective enzyme staining procedures for characterization of mycobacterial immunoprecipitates.selective staining procedures for four different enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase and glucose phosphate isomerase) in combination with two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis were successfully applied to the analysis of antigen preparations from mycobacteria. thus, a precipitate corresponding to malate dehydrogenase could e.g. be demonstrated in multi-linear precipitation patterns of mycobacterium avium, mycobacterium bovis bcg, mycobacterium ...19862417958
step-wise isolation of rna and dna from mycobacteria.mycobacterium phlei and m. smegmatis were lysed at -15 degrees c in the presence of guanidinium salts and poly(a)+-rna. nonpolyadenylated rna (mainly rrna) and dna were isolated in successive steps from the same lysate. dna isolated by this procedure was sufficient to yield distinct bands on treatment with restriction endonucleases as shown by hybridization to 125i-labeled rrna. the successive isolation of poly(a)+-rna, nonpolyadenylated rna, and high molecular weight dna from the same lysate by ...19862427627
[analysis of genes for ribosomal rna in mycobacterium phlei]. 19882452272
induction of cell mediated immune response by nonspecific stimulator of immunity against antigenically unrelated oncogenic virus (marek's disease virus).an enzyme treated preparation of mycobacterium phlei (nsi), induced strong cell mediated immune response (cmir) against specific as well as against nonspecific oncogenic marek's disease (mdv) in birds, as evinced by lymphocyte migration inhibition, (lmit) lymphocyte transformation test (lt) and lymphokine (lymphocyte migration inhibition factor) lyif assay. maximum cmir could be observed towards third week post inoculation. all the three tests exhibited a positive correlation. such phenomenon of ...19892479599
comparison of dot immunobinding assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunodiffusion for serodiagnosis of paratuberculosis.a rapid, simple and inexpensive dot immunobinding assay (dia) was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle. the assay was performed on nitrocellulose strips which were dotted with purified protoplasmic antigen of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. after incubation with test serum samples, the bound antibodies were detected using an enzyme-amplified immunostaining procedure. the efficacy of dia as a screening test for paratuberculosis was compared to that of an enzyme-linked imm ...19892512004
in vitro antibacterial effect of the essential oil of thymus longiflorus boiss.the essential oil of thymus longiflorus boiss was tested for its in vitro antibacterial activity. the results showed antibacterial effects against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, especially against pseudomonas fluorescens and mycobacterium phlei.19892514339
physical and chemical characterization of glutamine synthetase purified from mycobacterium phlei.glutamine synthetase (l-glutamate: ammonia ligase [adp forming]) [ec 6.3.1.2] has been purified from a gram-positive, acid-fast bacterium, mycobacterium phlei, by simple procedures with 57% recovery. the enzyme resembled that from mycobacterium smegmatis in the subunit size (56,000), molecular weight (670,000), amino acid composition, the amino acid sequence of the nh2-terminal, and the secondary structure. the enzyme activity was regulated by adenylylation of each subunit in the dodecameric mol ...19892569461
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